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diploma project Developing Educational Tools For Sanitation Awareness In Urban Informal Settlements Sponsor : Self

student : Mudra shirvaikar programme : Post-Graduate Diploma Programme

guide : RUPESH VYAS

2012 COMMUNICATION design faculty (GRAPHIC DESIGN)

National Institute of Design Ahmedabad


The Evaluation Jury recommends MUDRA SHIRVAIKAR for the Diploma of the National Institute of Design

IN COMMUNICATION DESIGN (GRAPHIC DESIGN)

herewith, for the project titled "DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL TOOLS FOR SANITATION AWARENESS IN URBAN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS" on fulfilling the further requirements by

Chairman Members :

*Subsequent remarks regarding fulfilling the requirements :

Registrar(Academics)

*


A sense of national or social sanitation is not a virtue among us. We may take a kind of bath, but we don’t mind dirtying the well or the tank or the river by whose side or in which we perform ablutions. I regard this defect as a great vice which is responsible for the disgraceful state of our villages and the sacred banks of the sacred rivers and for the diseases that spring from insanitation.

(Gandhi, 1947)


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Developing Education Tools For Sanitation Awareness In Urban Informal Settlements Enabling Community Led Sanitation through Graphic Design Intervention in an Informal Settlement in Pune City

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Contents Introduction

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Synopsis .................................................................. 11 Acknowledgements .................................................................. 12 BACKGROUND .................................................................. 14 Design Methodology .................................................................. 16

Stage 1 — ­ CONVERGENCE

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BASIC STUDY

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PROBLEM DEFINITION

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INITIAL PROJECT BRIEF .................................................................. 42

Stage 2 — Divergence

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secondary data

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primary data

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STAKEHOLDER STUDY

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stage 3 — consolidation

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DATA MAPPING ......................................................... 90 COMMUNICATION CRITERIA

......................................................... 100

DESIGN SOLUTION ......................................................... 108

Stage 4 — ­ IMPLEMENTATION

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PILOT PLANNING ......................................................... 116 PILOT IMPLEMENTATION

......................................................... 130

SCOPE FOR REFINEMENT

......................................................... 152

conclusion

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INTRODUCTION

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The project was envisaged as a personal attempt for evolving methodology for developing systems of design intervention in the social sector. It takes Hygiene & Sanitation as the core concern, and looks at its local dynamics in the urban poor landscape on the backdrop of the metropolitan city of Pune, and lays down a systematic approach for design intervention at various levels. The scope of the project is extremely localized, which makes the bottom line of a non-scalable, repeatable design methodology. The project goes through four stages, namely Definition, Divergence, Convergence and Consolidation. In the Definition phase, the issue of Sanitation is examined on a broad level, placed in different perspectives and the scope for design intervention is narrowed down on informal settlements of the urban poor (slum). In the next phase of Divergence, the defined scope sets the boundary for divergent study, and the issue is investigated in detail in context of slums of Pune. The study reveals new directions and insights, and the scope is further narrowed down spatially. Divergence phase defined the design objectives, which were addressing human behavior and public health. During convergence, the route of the project comes to a node where a target

audience is defined and the communication objectives are set. This phase is very intensive in terms of engagement with target audience and delves into alternative approaches for design intervention. In the final phase of consolidation, the impact of the design intervention is evaluated through simple methods and the final concept is refined. Based on the outcome of the process, a system for design intervention is consolidated. Being interested in applying Design thinking in social communication, the project has been a thorough learning experience for me. Being involved in every step of the process, the project has revealed my personal capacity as a social communicator.

INTRODUCTION

Keywords: Hygiene & Sanitation Urban Poor Social Communication Design Methodology

synopsis

Synopsis

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acknowledgements

INTRODUCTION

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Acknowledgements The undertaking of this project has been a process of social, cultural and individual interactions and learnings. As a person deeply interested and engaged with role of design in addressing social concerns, my heartfelt thanks go to one and all who have crossed my path, walked along, shed light and showed the right directions at the right time. I foremost thank all the Wadarwadi children, especially Dhanno (Dhanashree), Muskaan, Bala, Aniket, Ruturaj, Champion (Dhanraj), Sanket, Abhishek, Rohit, Suhasini, Suraj, Mehboob, Priyanka, Kareena (Chetana), Sagar, Dipesh, Prashant, Anand, Praful, Ganesh, and all of the rest, who made this project a thoroughly enjoyable experience. They have been a wonderful support through the course of time, and have added the character to my work. All the residents of Wadarwadi are hereby thanked for their co-operation. I thank NID for laying the foundation of my budding design philosophy. I thank my Project Guide Mr. Rupesh Vyas for encouraging me to take up the subject of Sanitation in the urban scenario, and trusting my ability to take it through as a self-sponsored project. Looking back, it would not have been better any other way. I am grateful to his key directions and timely inputs

for a rich learning and meaningful work output. He has helped me put the project in a beautiful perspective and made me push my boundaries. I thank Ameya Jagtap for staunchly standing by me throughout the process, playing various roles ranging from that of an associate to one of a guide, facilitating the various needs of the project from time to time. I truly owe to him the depth that the project has managed to reach. The project would have been only half as good without his participation. I thank Ankita Bag and Annapurna Wadhwa who volunteered from time to time for the project. They have added the spirit that any social communication effort needs. I thank Ruchi More, Rugved More, Darpan Navale and Heema Shirvaikar for their forthcoming assistance. A special thanks is due to Ms. Shweta More and Mr. Abhishek Deshmane for their sincere and helpful inputs. The subject being of a vast nature, I have borrowed most of the research from existing research from organizations and individuals working in this field. It would not be possible to mention all of their names, but I would sincerely like to thank them all.

I thank Mr. Sharad Mahajan and MASHAL for providing me with a clear idea about the informal settlements of Pune. I thank Dr. Meera Bapat for sharing her distinct outlook on the subject. I thank Mr. Swapnil Jagtap and the Mukadam of Wadarwadi area for patiently catering to my queries and need for data. I am grateful to Dr. Lahoti for letting me go through the hospital data and giving me vital information. I thank Ms. Usha Irkal because of whom I could relate to the role of elected representatives. I thank all my classmates as each and every one of them has contributed to the building of my design sensibility. I would like to especially thank Rohit Keluskar for expertly helping me in putting my understanding in place and shape up the project to its current state. I also thank Mira Malhotra and Boopathy Srinivasan for providing me with much needed encouragement and timely guidance. Finally I would like to thank all the NID faculty who have placed the building blocks to my learning, especially Prof. M. P. Ranjan, Mr. Immanuel Suresh, Mr. Tarun Deep Girdher, Mr. Anil Sinha, Ms. Shilpa Das, Ms. Tridha Gajjar, and many others who have honed my design skills in big and small ways.


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and application towards raising the quality of life by and through education to create design professionals of excellence to help meet India’s diverse design needs. About the Diploma Project: As part of the curriculum, all final year students are required to undertake a diploma project of 4-6 months duration which is a full scale design project in the industry, expected to generate a professional design assignment with application and implementation capabilities.

About the Project Guide: Prof. Rupesh Vyas, during his 15 years of work in Communication Design, has contributed significantly to different information design projects for various government agencies such as the National Informatics Center, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Home Affairs, and Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation. He is a board member of the International Institute of Information Design. He has presented papers at various national and international conferences. Rupesh is interested in strategic design innovations, issues of social relevance, and exploring new ways of designing information, interactions, and interfaces in governance and public domains.

INTRODUCTION

The National Institute of Design (NID) is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. The institute functions as an autonomous body under the department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. It is recognised by the Dept. of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR) under Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, as a scientific and industrial design research organisation. The mandate for NID is to offer world-class design education and to promote design awareness

national institute of design

National Institute of Design

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background

INTRODUCTION

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Background The larger urban landscape of India is replete with instances of social paradoxes. An international airport contoured by a slum, hawkers lined up outside star resorts, iron stilts for sky-scrapers transported on bullock carts, the rich spending more on fast food than the poor can salvage for first aid — and most wondrously, walking out of sterile airconditioned homes and offices into the stench filled, garbage-lined streets. Urban India’s colours and contrasts have inspired many, from poets to politicians, to cash in on. India’s urban poor have recently become the center of attention, tinted with glamorous dreams by the phenomenal multiple Oscarfeted Hollywood film ‘Slumdog Millionnaire’; while on the other hand, enamoured in their charming poverty by well meaning Non governmental Organizations seeking to undertake development activities thereof. Sanitation in developing and underdeveloped nations has come under the spotlight through the efforts of organizations such as UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) through their program WASH (Water, Sanitation & Hygiene), WSCCC (Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council), Gates Foundation, World Bank and few others. These efforts have been mainly dealing with basic infrastructure

development for curbing open defecation practices in rural areas, by generating ‘Community Led Sanitation’ demand and fueling subsequent efforts of the community to build toilets and change behaviour, with the collaboration of governmental and non governmental agencies. Government of India has recently launched, with the initiative of Rural Development Minister Mr. Jairam Ramesh, a nationwide campaign ‘Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan’ with the aim to make India ‘open defecation free’, in collaboration with Gates Foundation and WASH (UNICEF). As Sanitation had ‘arrived’ in India, I was inspired to take up this issue as the topic for my Diploma Project.

Article_Jairam Ramesh


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INTRODUCTION

background


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Design Methodology

design methodology

STAGE 1

CONVERGENCE IDENTIFY SOCIAL ISSUE

COLLECT PRELIMINARY DATA

IDENTIFY CRITICAL PROBLEMS

DEFINE SCOPE OF WORK

DIVERGENCE

STAGE 2

INTRODUCTION

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COLLECT SECONDARY DATA

VISUALLY RESEARCH TARGET

MEET SUBJECT EXPERTS

COLLECT PRIMARY DATA

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“The design of the research method and the design of the design method are tasks of a higher order than the design of the communications.” Jorge Frascara, User Centred Graphic Design

* STAGE 3

CONsolidation DATA MAPPING

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

EVOLVING STRATEGY FOR DESIGN INTERVENTION

STAGE 4

IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENT PILOT IN MICRO-ENVIRONMENT

IDENTIFY CRITICAL CHALLENGES

REFINE DESIGN SOLUTION

IMPLEMENT DESIGN SOLUTION

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Stage 1 — ­ CONVERGENCE

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IDENTIFY CRITICAL PROBLEMS

DEFINE SCOPE OF WORK

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STAGE 1

COLLECT PRELIMINARY DATA

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convergence

IDENTIFY SOCIAL ISSUE

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Basic Study

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/ Sanitation

Sanitation is a vast concept and the term is used in multiple contexts. The term is generally attached with ‘cleanliness’ and ‘hygiene’, usually in relation to human biological waste. Sanitation figures as a chief concern in cities’ municipal works, construction of buildings and townships, planning of large-scale events, disaster relief, urbanization, etc. Seldom used absolutely, ‘Sanitation’ is a relative term with respect to the ‘level of sanitation’ being sought in given circumstances. In its basic understanding, Sanitation or sanitising signifies the process of achieving a higher level of hygiene or cleanliness. “Sanitation” as a whole is a “big idea” which covers inter alia: • safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal/ re-use/recycling of human faeces and urine; • management/re-use/recycling of solid wastes; • drainage and disposal/re-use/recycling of household wastewater; • drainage of storm water ; • treatment and disposal/re-use/recycling of sewage effluents; • collection and management of industrial waste products; and • management of hazardous wastes (including hospital wastes, and chemical/ radioactive and other dangerous substances).

Definitions: Adequate Disposal of Human Feaces and Urine

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Safe Drinking Water

Dictionary: conditions relating to public health, esp. the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal. Government: Sanitation is defined as safe management of human excreta, including its safe confinement treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practices.

MDG

germs

UN: UN has recognised Sanitation as a Human Right and has named it as one of the Millennium Development Goals to be achieved across all the countries. Science: make clean and hygienic; Thesaurus: sterilize, disinfect, clean, cleanse, purify, fumigate, decontaminate.


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Water Supply System

Sewage Treatment Plant

Water Body

As human civilization has advanced, it has led to higher density of population within its settlements. This has resulted in increasing physical proximity of human beings to their area of defecation. This led to technology, systems and administration coming into play for managing the high quantities of human excreta being produced on a daily basis, for its safe disposal.

STAGE 1

Toilet Pan/Commode and Flush

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convergence

Defecation and urination are the by-products of life processes of every living being. In nature, this biological waste is degraded by natural process of decomposition. In most terrestrial animals, the natural practice is to excrete on the soil, in which it is decomposed and in turn enriches the soil making it more fertile.

Modern day conventional Sanitation facility and infrastructure.

Sewerage System

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/ factors affecting sanitation

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Economic Factors Access to sanitation, sadly and perplexingly, stands out as a vivid indicator of socio-economic status. The conventional technology of sanitation addresses systematic buildings within a physically limited area such as a city. Accessing the benefits of a city administration, comes at a cost, as land, along with administrative facilities, holds high value. It is therefore difficult for those who cannot afford an urban lifestyle, to avail the benefits of modern technology of sanitation. It is observed that while the urban privileged class enjoys the convenience of toilets within their dwelling place, rural and urban poor households lacked the same. Furhermore, while a sizeable proportion of the rural and urban poor have option of shared or public toilets, a large number practices open defecation.

Geographical Factors Geography considerably affects the dynamics of sanitation. Areas belonging to mountain slopes and rocky terrains, have lesser ability to develop a large-scale sanitation network. Hence personal sanitation becomes costly. In plain areas, where agriculture is practiced, the fields are largely used for defecating, with the belief that it boosts the soil fertility. Similarly, very cold areas the pace of bio-degradation is lesser leading to higher stakes of sanitation. In desert areas, absence of moisture leads to lower risk of diseases due to lack of sanitation.


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Locally available building materials vary from region to region, and determine the design and structure of the toilet. Human resource is also a critical factor, in the absence of which, logistics of sanitation cannot be achieved.

Socio-cultural Practices Practices developing in certain cultures, define their sanitation methods. A common example of this is the use of a toilet ‘seat’, in contrast to the more instinctive style of defecating in a squatting position on a flat surface. The method of disposal also depends from culture to culture. While some rely on elaborate methods of collection, transfer and treatment, others apply crude ways of disposal. Some toilets in rural Asia have a closed clean and ventilated structure, wherein the person squats over a diagonal trench which leads the excreta outside into a backyard which is an enclosure of pigs. The pigs consume the human excreta fresh. In India, which is dominated by Hindu culture, there is a system of soical hierarchy called as caste system. For a large part of the history, ‘human scavenging’ i.e. manual handling and transfer of excreta would be practiced, which forced people belonging to certain lower castes to collect excreta with their hands, and carry it across the town in flat baskets on their heads, to be disposed in the remote outskirts of the village.

STAGE 1

convergence

Availability of Resources Water forms a critical aspect of sanitation. It is necessary for personal hygiene as well as for maintaining clean surroundings. Availability of water thus directly impacts the level of sanitation in a given area. Similarly, soil is also an important component, that determines the efficiency of non-conventional sanitation technology.


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/ aspects of sanitation

Safe Disposal of Feaces & Urine In the current day, it is becoming increasingly challenging to manage the growing amount of daily human excreta. The human excreta is replete with various germs, bacteria, etc. If left untreated, it can become a source of various infections and diseases which may spread through soil, water or air. The large quantity of fecal matter collected from lacs of citizens, must be disposed in a safe way, to safeguard public health, as also to prevent negtave impacts on the environment and ecosystem. This requires an elaborate system that allows controlled degradation of the excreta.

Separation from Human Contact Human faeces being critical to be disposed of properly, it is also necessary to seperate the person from the excreta, as soon as possible after excretion. This physical separation needs some kind of force or mechanism that the human being can use to transfer the excreta into the system of its safe disposal.


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Personal Hygiene Immediately after defecation, just as it is necessary to separate the feaces from human contact, it is also necessary for the person to clean him/herself from traces of feaces left behind on the body, which is vital to their health. Washing the anal opening and then washing hands and feet with soap is a very critical activity as part of sanitation and hygiene.

STAGE 1

convergence

Hygienic Maintenance of Toilet Human factors may lead to traces of feaces as well as microscopic germs being left behind in the toilet. If not taken care of, this matter gradually builds up and breeds more harmful germs. It is therefore vital to thoroughly clean and disinfect the toilet from time to time.


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/ methods of sanitation

convergence

STAGE 1

Basic Study

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Open Defecation

Ventilated improved pit latrine

practice of defecation in fields, forests, bushes, bodies of water or other open spaces. Pit latrine a dry toilet system which collects human excrement in a large container and ranges from a simple slit trench to more elaborate systems with ventilation.

a pit toilet with a black pipe (vent pipe) fitted to the pit, and a screen (flyscreen) at the top outlet of the pipe. Pit latrine with slab Pit latrines with a cleanable cover slab


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compost pit a dry toilet that uses a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition. septic tank

piped sewer system

a small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes

a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal.

STAGE 1

toilet which is flushed by water manually poured into the bowl from a bucket or a jug

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convergence

pour-flush toilet

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/ Key Concepts

1. Sanitation Ladder Since its development in the 2008 report, this ladder allows to show what is considered improved and unimproved sanitation in a more refined way than the only pass/fail former presentation without changing the MDG definitions. This ladder currently allows a disaggregated analysis of trends in a three rung ladder for drinking-water and a four-rung ladder for sanitation as shown to the right. For sanitation, this gives an understanding of the proportion of population globally with no sanitation facilities at all, of those reliant on technologies defined as “unimproved,” of those sharing sanitation facilities of otherwise acceptable technology, and those using “improved” sanitation facilities.

[SANITATION Open Defecation When human faeces are disposed of in fields, forests, bushes, open water bodies, beaches or other open spaces or disposed of with solid waste

Unimproved Sanitation Facilities Unimproved Sanitation facilities do not ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. Unimproved facillities include pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines and bucket latrines


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Shared Sanitation Facilities Sanitation facilities of an otherwise acceptable type, but shared between two or more households. Only facilities that are not shared or not public are considered improved.

Improved Sanitation Facilities Sanitation facilities that are likely to ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. They include the following facilities: • Flush / Pour-Flush to: - piped sewer system - septic tank - pit latrine • Ventilated Improved Pit • Pit Latrine with Slab • Composting Toilet

STAGE 1

LADDER]

convergence

These refinements allow countries and the international community to form a clearer understanding of the situation of access to sanitation. As definitional differences are often the prime cause for discrepancies in the estimates between country figures, the ladder tries to show where this discrepancy precisely is coming from. This new way of analysing access has become an essential tool for data reconciliation at national level, between the different stakeholders and especially sector agencies and national statistics offices.

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/ Key Concepts

2. CLTS: Community Led Total Sanitation Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative methodology for mobilising communities to completely eliminate open defecation (OD). Communities are facilitated to conduct their own appraisal and analysis of open defecation (OD) and take their own action to become ODF (open defecation free).

innovation, mutual support and appropriate local solutions, thus leading to greater ownership and sustainability.

At the heart of CLTS lies the recognition that merely providing toilets does not guarantee their use, nor result in improved sanitation and hygiene. Earlier approaches to sanitation prescribed high initial standards and offered subsidies as an incentive. But this often led to uneven adoption, problems with long-term sustainability and only partial use. It also created a culture of dependence on subsidies. Open defecation and the cycle of fecal–oral contamination continued to spread disease.

In addition to creating a culture of good sanitation, CLTS can also be an effective point for other livelihoods activities. It mobilises community members towards collective action and empowers them to take further action in the future. CLTS outcomes illustrate what communities can achieve by undertaking further initiatives for their own development.

In contrast, CLTS focuses on the behavioural change needed to ensure real and sustainable improvements – investing in community mobilisation instead of hardware, and shifting the focus from toilet construction for individual households to the creation of open defecationfree villages. By raising awareness that as long as even a minority continues to defecate in the open everyone is at risk of disease, CLTS triggers the community’s desire for collective change, propels people into action and encourages

It uses community-led methods such as participatory mapping and analysing pathways between faeces and mouth as a means of galvanizing communities into action.

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A community sensitization session under way in a village in Uganda, under CLTS. Image Credit: www.ugandavillageproject.org

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/ Global Scenario

An extensive and substantial body of work has been achieved and is underway in terms of the social science, technology and development leadership in the field of sanitation. United Nations is pioneering efforts for Sanitation throughout the world, especially the African and South-east Asian continents. Most of the body of research and work carried out for sanitation is currently with respect to the rural and underdeveloped areas. The World Health Organization states that: “Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.” Water and sanitation have been the focus of international development at least since the 1970s. Despite regular global action, the situation is still wanting. According to the 2010 Joint Monitoring Progress Report of the WHO on Water and Sanitation, 89% of global population uses improved drinking water sources, an increase in 10% point in 18 years. However, 884 million people still lack access to drinking water. While

Open Defecation

According to a UNICEF survey, 50% of the world’s population practicing open defecation, lives in India.

50%

the water MDG may be realised, sanitation remains seriously off track with 2.6billion people lacking access to improved sanitation. According to a UNICEF survey, 50% of the world’s population practicing open defecation lives in India while China and Indonesia come a distant second by accounting for just 5% of the world numbers. Pakistan is down to third with 4.5%, tied with Ethiopia. Disparities exist between the rich and poor and are much greater in sanitation than water.

The Millennium Development Goal Number Seven, outlined by the United Nations, includes reducing the proportion of those without improved water and sanitation by one-half worldwide by 2015.


developing education tools for sanitation awareness in urban informal settlements

There are vast unmet needs in sanitation, and the question remains as to why water is considered a human right, but sanitation is seen as a commodity.

Unconventional methods of sanitation: Dry sanitation is an attractive option for many parts of the world because of the water scarcity costs described above and the complex infrastructure needs and costs associated with waterborne sewerage and wastewater treatment. Ecological toilets are toilets that do not use water for function, contain human excreta to prevent environmental contamination and disease transmission, promote the inactivation of microbial pathogens in excreta through high pH, desiccation, heat, and time, and recycle nutrients from human excreta (urine and feces) for agriculture to promote better crop production, home gardens and ultimately, improved nutrition. Most ecological toilets store excreta in an alternating, two-chamber system and separate the urine from the feces, thus allowing fecal waste to decompose to biosolids and collecting urine separately for use as fertilizer. Urine separation reduces odor and promotes more rapid desiccation of the feces. Desiccation can also be facilitated by adding absorptive material to the storage chamber or using a solar structure to dry and decompose the feces more quickly. One research project found a greatly increased yield of corn associated with increasing amounts of urine fertilizer, as urine has a chemical composition virtually identical to agricultural needs

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STAGE 1

Not surprisingly, 40 percent of the world’s schoolage children have worm infections, predisposing them to cognitive and developmental problems. It is further estimated that 5,000 children die every day from diseases because of lack of safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene.

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convergence

One in four persons in the developing world do not use clean toilets. 1.1 billion individuals, approximately 17 percent of the world’s population, are without improved water and more do not have access to safe drinking water, and 2.6 billion, approximately 41 percent, are without improved sanitation. Even worse, many of the world’s school children attend a school without water or toilets.

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/ Indian Scenario

The numbers are astounding as the prosperity of liberalized India does not seem to translate into better sanitation. It is estimated that one in every ten deaths in India is linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Diarrhoea is the single largest killer and accounts for one in every twenty deaths. Around 450,000 deaths were linked to diarrhoea alone in 2006, of which 88% were deaths of children below five. Studies by UNICEF have also shown that diseases resulting from poor sanitation affects children in their cognitive development. In rural areas, the scale of the problem is particularly daunting, as 74% of the rural population still defecates in the open. In these environments, cash income is very low and the idea of building a facility for defecation in or near the house may not seem natural. And where facilities exist, they are often inadequate. The sanitation landscape in India is still littered with 13 million unsanitary bucket latrines, which require scavengers to conduct house-to-house excreta collection. Over 700,000 Indians still make their living this way. In several parts of rural India, due to absence of sanitation facilities, women are compelled to answer the nature’s call only in the dark — i.e. the odd hours either before sunrise or late after nightfall — as public physical exposure by a woman is unacceptable in society. This has put women in a vulnerable position, and has given

rise to instances of voyeurism, sexual harassment and sexual assaults against women. Of India’s 700,000 rural primary and upper primary schools, only one in six have toilets, deterring children - especially girls - from going to school, adversely affecting their education. The situation in urban areas is not as critical in terms of scale, but the sanitation problems in crowded environments are typically more serious and immediate. In these areas, the main challenge is to ensure safe environmental sanitation. Even in areas where households have toilets, the contents of bucket-latrines and pits, even of sewers, are often emptied without regard for environmental and health considerations. Sewerage systems, if they are even available, commonly suffer from poor maintenance, which leads to overflows of raw sewage. Today, with more than 20 Indian cities with populations of more than 1 million people, including Indian megacities, such as Kolkata, Mumbai, and New Delhi, antiquated sewerage systems simply cannot handle the increased load. In New Delhi alone, existing sewers originally built to service a population of only 3 million cannot manage the wastewater produced daily by the city’s present inhabitants, now close to a massive 14 million. There is a massice strain on the sanitation infrastructure across Indian cities.

Railway tracks in India are liberally and habitually used for sqautting by folks from villages and slums residing along railway lines. Also, while travelling in trains, passengers tend to use the toilet while the train is stationery, that is, at railway platforms. This is a grave aesthetic problem experienced in the rail trasnport system. Sulabh Internatinal is an NGO that has built innumerable public toilets in cities and villages across India. Thanks to their extensive coverage, in partnership with local governments, the name ‘Sulabh’ became synonymous with a public toilet in India. The Sulabh Sanitation Movement has enabled a great change on the sanitation lanscape in India.


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Above Left: Message on a public wall urging families not to marry their daughter into a household without a toilet (Image Credit: Swapna Majumdar).

The venerable V S Naipaul observed in 1968 that “Indians defecate everywhere... They never look for cover”. A survey by World bank has shown that there are more people with access to mobile phones in India than that to toilets. This is a clear indicator of the fact that poverty is not the only cause for lack of toilets in rural areas — it is lack of will — thus reinforcing the need for a mass-scale government exercise for sanitation awareness. Sanitation has recently acquired the status of an issue of national priority. A recent awareness campaign by the Indian government however has been making waves, that discourages families from marrying their daughters away into homes that do not have a sanitation facility. Beginning in the state of Rajasthan, with the mesage ‘no toilet, no bride’ from the then Rural Development Minister Mr. Jairam Ramesh, the campaign has successfully spread across several states of northern India. It received maximum publicity

mainly after the news of a young bride who fleed and flatly refused to stay at her in-laws’ house for their lack of a toilet facility at home. The news gained humungous popularity through electronic media and subsequently print media. Mr. Jairam Ramesh successfully revived the sanitation movement across India. His statement “build toilets first and temples later” attracted a flak from the right wing forces in India. He recently anounced a massive awareness campaign on sanitation by the Central Governement, in collaboration with UNICEF and The Gates Foundation.

STAGE 1

convergence

Above: Mr. Jairam Ramesh and Mr. Bill Gates marking the flagging off of a nationwide sanitation campaign.


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Problem Definition

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/ Key Issues

Health Issues Open defecation and dearth of hygiene, is the leading cause of diarrhea. Children suffering from diarrhea frequently, leads to the deterioration of not only their quality of life, but also their mental and physical development. Children and infant deaths due to diarrhea is a major cause of concern. Lack of awareness regarding personal hygiene after use of toilet, adds to the spread of contagious diseases. Lack of adequate sanitation facilities force women to go without water for long periods, leading to risks of diseases of the urinary tract.

Social Issues Sanitation in Indian society is innately linked with caste. The chores of sweeping, cleaning and discarding faeces are considered inferior and relegated to ‘lower castes’, hence the perception of sanitation as an alien concern — duty of the ‘other’ people. Caste being a matter of social importance, the jobs related to sanitation, in every sector, in every socio economic class, are invariably taken up by persons of ‘lower caste’. Sanitation may thus be said to reinforcement of the caste system in India. The horrific practice of manual scavenging is still on in several parts of the country. Addressing Hygiene & Sanitation related hypocrisy in the country is a long term process and may take generations to affect behavior.


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Gender Issues Lack of adequate Public Toilets restricts women’s mobility, thus affecting efficiency of half the workforce of the country. Women’s safety is compromised due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Research indicates that many rapes in slums and rural India happen in areas where women have to walk a long way to reach the toilet. In the absence of toilet facility, women are vulnerable to sexual crimes whilst searching for somewhere to go for defecation or urination, under cover of darkness. Over half of the public schools in the country have no toilets, leading to thousands of girls to drop out.

STAGE 1

convergence

K

Economic Issues As per World Bank statistics India’s nominal GDP stands at 1.3 Trillion dollars and we are currently ranked 11th in the world on basis of nominal GDP. If we could cut down expenses incurred due to illnesses and lack of productivity due to illnesses, our economy would get the impetus it needs to flourish even more. This in turn would enable governmental agencies to improve sanitation standards and medical infrastructure which would in turn help improve living standards of people.

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Problem Definition

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/ Key Problem Areas

Urban Public Toilets There is a gross inadequacy of public toilets in the urban areas, especially near bus stops, market places, etc. In the existing Public Toilets, the supply versus demand ratio being skewed, the infrastructure undergoes damage or is rendered unfit for use.

Rural Sanitation Rural areas with very small clusters of houses cannot afford built toilets, and continue the age old practice of open defecation. This a major cause of diseases and decreasing quality of life.


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Sanitation in Rural Public Schools Absence of toilets in schools deters children from regularly attending school. While boys are much less vulnerable, girls’ education is severely affected, as unlike boys, they are unable to urinate in the open, as also because adolescent menstruating girls find it difficult to attend school while maintaining menstrual hygiene.

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Urban Slum Sanitation Crowded human habitats of village-like affordable housing coupled with higher standard of living, gives rise to heavy concentration of people and poses a challenge to the effective functioning of sanitation facilities.


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Problem Definition The definition of “slum” varies from country to country. In India, each state has its own definition of slum. The National Definition of ‘Slum areas’ was set by the Slum Areas Improvement and Clearance act of 1956. It defines them as places where buildings: — are in any respect unfit for human habitation — are by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light, sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to safety, health and morals. Due to the flourishing economy, migration from rural to urban areas takes place with individuals in search of jobs, often along with the families they support. The boost in low-income work-force in turn bolsters the economic growth further. Rising economy leads to rising land value, and therefore rising cost of housing. The slums are not the problem, but the solution found by the urban poor to satisfy their housing needs. They are also called informal settlements, as they do not conform to the criteria of urban construction. Slums begin as illegal settlements, however over time, many of them are ‘recognized’ by Local Governments. Slums are an important constituent of the urban economic system, and hence need attention.

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/ Slum Sanitation

Developing City increased economic activity leads to more investments leading in tur to more opportunities Slums

High Rises

solution found by the migrants and urban poor, to satisfy their housing needs in the city

rising population escalates real estate values leading to new construction

K

Booming Economy a city is a thriving honeycomb of a variety of economic activities, in need of human resource Rural Migration

Urban Migration

rural families come under strain for subsistence due to lack of opportunities for income, which are available in cities

professionals and students from cities have specific requirements, provided by other cities where they often settle down


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PUNE

Pressure on sanitation was recognised early in the year 1999, by the then Municipal Commissioner of Pune, Mr. Ratnakar Gaikwad. Under his leadership, NGOs, Architects and Engineers came together, and public toilets were constructed on a large scale across the city.

2.34%

32.84%

Hence I set out to examine the scenario, as the state of infrastructure in Pune, is relatively satisfactory.

slum dwellers make up for 32.84% of Pune’s urban population, whereas they occupy only 2.34% of the land PUNE CITY

Area Occupied by Urban Poor

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Population of Urban Poor

Total Urban Poor

STAGE 1

Pune is a fast growing metropolis, helped by the fact that it is close and well connected to Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra and a commercial hub. Pune is an IT hub as well as an Educational hub attracting high level of industrial investment, with high inward migration from Maharashtra and all over India

Almost 32.84% of Pune’s population (i.e. 10,23,005) out of 31,15,431 live in its identified 477 slum pockets. It covers only 2.34% of geographical area of the city. The low per capita space inhibits proper hygiene and sanitation.

Due to this initiative, state of sanitation in Pune city is better than that in most of the other growing Indian cities.

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Maharashtra is counted among the most developed states in India and Pune is one of the growing metropolitan cities. Pune, an Information Technology hub of India, as well as an educational haven dubbed as ‘Oxford of the East’, inevitably faces high inward migration both for IT jobs as well as education.

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Initial Project Brief

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STAGE 1

convergence


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/ Notes

Even in the urban areas where one presumes majority of populace to be educated, there’s a dire need to create awareness convergence

STAGE 1

about the significance of sanitation and hygiene along with the ways of improving it, especially amongst the slum dwellers and working class. The average Indian has become habituated to living with the digusting stench in and around public toilets, urine marks along the street walls, faeces along the streets, and the like. It is even more amazing that this state of affairs stands in direct contrast with the stress laid, in the ‘Indian culture’, on purity and sanctity in environmental and personal cleanliness. However all across India, the same issues may be encountered with relation to sanitation. I do not want to look at this as a class issue.. This is a problem with us Indians. Go to an upmarket mall, the airport, or the best educational institute hostel… There is something with us and publicly shared spaces that makes us lose our sense of nobility / morality and indulge in the very behavior we are conditioned to avoid inside our own homes.


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/ Questions

Why doesn’t everybody have toilets?

Is there a lack of motivation or will on part of slum dwellers for installing toilets?

What are reasons for people to not use toilets?

Involving political / local action groups. What is an ideal model?

STAGE 1

Where does PMC fall short? Is it a space issue? Is it an economic issue?

definition convergence

What are the challenges faced while installing toilets?


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COLLECT SECONDARY DATA

COLLECT PRIMARY DATA

STAGE 2

MEET SUBJECT EXPERTS

divergence

VISUALLY RESEARCH TARGET


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/ Pune city — Historical Overview of Settlements

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shimpi ali (a lane where all the tailors would live and work) would have the rich and poor shimpis living together in the same street. ‘Bhori ali’ would have similar economic profiles reflected in a typical street.

Pune city is not an exception to the phenomena of growth of a traditional city into a prosporous Metropolis City ruled by many dynasties in past centuries. From small village called Kasba Pune on bank of Mutha River in 16th century it has grown manifold into Pune Metropolitan Region with modern infrastructure and thriving economy. After Maratha period, it became a power center of Indian politics during Peshwe rule in 17th century. During British rule of 150 years, it expanded by adding military cantonment and Deccan

Gymkhana area. During Development Plans of 1966 and 1987 it expanded further and with addition of newly added villages its present area is 243.00 Sq. Km. At a time when the early Marathas settled in a fortified village, even upto the unproclaimed capital city of the Peshwas, the basis of settlement has been related to caste and profession. The several ‘alis’ and ‘peths’ had their names that revealed their social status as well as their professions included members of the community from all economic strata. Therefore

However this was never exclusive and we often find some Brahmins living in an area dominated by the lower castes. 18 peths or wards were settled at the initiative of specific people who had the responsibility and the drive to see that these neighbourhoods developed in response to the needs of the time and evolved as living working environments of an important city in the eighteenth and nineteenth century India. ‘Kasba Peth’ whose origins are not sure but some sources mention a small village of musicians and fishermen about 800 years ago. It was as if a special responsibility of housing of the lower echelons of the society was with the particular caste based community. However the basis of allowing members of a community to a special place was dictated by social customs, rituals, food habits, economic class etc. By that token no central authority was responsible for the improvement, rehabilitation or renewal of slums. About 55 different caste based professions settled in the 18 peths of Pune as it was the virtual capital of the Maratha confederacy. Each community had their own code of conduct for regulating social behavior in the Peths.


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Slum population in the city started growing in 1972 due to draught in rural Maharashtra. Job opportunity in the city, educational infrastructure, climate and availability of water attracted many to the city. Those who could not satisfy their housing needs in formal housing market become slum dwellers. The city publishes Development Plan (DP) periodically. It is expected that after DP, the city administration drafts Town Planning Schemes (TPS) and develops the city properly. TPS is forgotten practice in Pune. Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) administration relies on TDR to get land for road and public amenities. In adjoining state of Gujarat, hundreds of TPS are planned and implemented simultaneously where 10% land is reserved for poor. In Pune whatever reservations for economically Weaker Sections (EWS) or housing for dishoused were shown in 1987 DP, half have been dereserved or developed by private parties under accommodation facilities of DCR/PMC. This has allowed few tenements with PMC for PMC for urban poor. City needs to create huge stock of 5 lakhs affordable housing i.e. affordable to urban poor.

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STAGE 2

A old portrait of the Phule couple, Savitribai Phule and Jyotiba Phule.

In 1827-1890 the Phule couple, popularly known as Mahatma Jyotirao Phule and Savitribai Phule, brought about change through human development and social reform. In 1876 Jyotirao was nominated as a member of the Poona Municipality. In 1868, Jyotirao decided to give access to the untouchables to small bathing tank near his house. In his controversial book ‘Slavery’ published in June 1873, Jyotirao included a manifesto which declared that he was willing to dine with all regardless of their caste, creed or country of origin. Their house at 408 Ganj Peth is converted to a State level monument, but the earlier situation shows an extremely humble dwelling amidst the older settlement in the southeast corner of 18th Century Pune.

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The sanitary conditions and health indicators of those times were appalling by today’s standards. High infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, constant wars, raids by looters or even the rulers, and the general sense of insecurity seems to have prevailed in the settlements. The constant outbreaks and epidemics was a constant botheration. There was no Rent Control (the most inhibiting statute of the present date), where the affordability of the tenant was the basis of on which rent was decided. This compares unfairly with the present day situation in which the core city represents a veritable treasure of reasonably priced housing that requires little or no spending on transport by the occupants.

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/ Pune city — Slum Sanitation Program, 1999-2001

Pune city, the educational and cultural capital of the State of Maharashtra has a population of over 38 lakhs, of whom about 40% live in slums. In 1999, Municipal Commissioner Mr. Ratnakar Gaikwad, was appointed and he began a massive programme of building toilets in slums through community participation by giving contracts to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) . A decision was taken to construct 220 toilet blocks with about 3500 toilet seats through NGOs. This was to be the first phase of the programme. On completion of the second phase, more than 400 blocks or more than 10,000 toilet seats would be constructed at a cost of more than Rs.40 crores and benefiting more than 5 lakh slum dwellers if we assume that 50 persons can use a toilet seat on a given day. NGOs were invited to make bids for building toilets. The rationale was that NGOs were not profit-oriented and hence could do the job with less money. A guarantee was also to be given that the NGO and the community would maintain the toilet block for 30 years by collecting contributions from the community. 8 NGOs were selected to carry out the first phase of the programme. The criterion of the Government of Maharashtra that only those slum dwellers are protected who can establish their presence as of 1/1/95 was applied. Those settlements were selected where the majority of residents fulfilled the criterion.

First priority was given to those settlements with a minimum population of 500 but had no toilet facilities; second priority was for areas which had facilities but they were so dilapidated that they would need demolition and reconstruction and finally, the last priority was for those slums where there were toilets but in less than the prescribed ratio of 1 seat for 50 persons. Over two phases of the programme, the alliance has constructed 114 toilet blocks with more than 2000 toilet seats.

The economics of toilet maintenance and future arrangements In the government–sponsored, engineering approach of sanitation, no fees are to be charged and sanitary staff paid by the Corporation has to maintain the toilets. The fact that the toilets are free does not amount to much when the toilets are hardly usable. Again, in the ‘pay and use’ system, a family of five members has to spend Rs.150 a month at the rate of Re.1 per use per person. This is an unaffordable amount. The system of monthly passes for about Rs.20 per family scores over both the models. When some asset or amenity is given ‘free’, it devalues it in the eyes of the community. On the other hand, when the charge is as high as Re.1 per use per person, the poor are priced out of the market

and will return to open defecation. It should also be underlined that when there is community control and maintenance, the sanitary staff of the Corporation is no longer required. There will be huge savings for the Corporation as it need not recruit in future. Therefore, ‘Community Toilets’ were built in slums under the guidance of NGOs, local government support, leadership of local women and men, and participation of the local inhabitants.

Innovative Toilet Design There have been several innovative features in toilet design. For one thing, a caretaker’s room has been provided where a family can live. Given the high cost of accommodation in a city, this room is an incentive for the family that will take care of maintenance. A free room means that the wages paid can be less and therefore, the burden on the community is reduced. In some cases, where space permitted, a community hall has been built that can be used for social and ceremonial purposes in the slum. Some fee could be charged which will become part of the maintenance fund. Having a community center on top of a toilet block also brings pressure upon the caretaker to keep the whole complex clean.


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Accomodation for the caretaker

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Space for Community activities


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/ Pune city — Sanitation

The construction of community toilets is a domain of many other departments of the municipal corporation other than that of Conservancy (which falls under Department of Solid Waste Management). It is only after completion of the block’s construction, that it finally passes into the hands of Conservancy Department for maintenance and operations.

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1

2

3

4

Finance Department

Construction Department

Engineering Department

Allocates budget

Undertakes digging, laying bricks and finishing

Steps in to lay piping for main sewer connection

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Water & Drainage Department Steps in to lay piping for water supply and drainage to sewer pipe

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Electrical Department Steps in to lay electrical wiring for illumination and pumping of water

Solid Waste Management Department Undertakes continued maintenance, cleaning and monitoring

The responsibility of sanitation rests with a number of stakeholders related to the administration.

Municipal Corporation

Municipal Official

Sanitary Inspector

Sanitary Worker

Elected Representative

Planning and administration

Directing and monitoring departmental duties

On ground monitoring of sanitation and waste management

Cleaning the toilet block daily, or as assigned by the Sanitary Inspector

Direct engagement with local folk and tabling demands and recommendations


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/ Pune city —Slums

Pune City has experienced a steady growth of population and reached 2.5 million in 2001 (Census of Maharashtra, 2001). There has been a concurrent increase in slum settlements.

The slums in Pune have been formed over a long period of time, some settlements dating as long back as 100 years. The reasons for their formation vary from slum to slum, some being formed by migrant labourers, some by migrant traders and craftsmen, some as a result of rehabilitation for flood and earthquake victims, while some are caste based clusters formed by occupation.

Image Credit: Pune Slum Atlas, MASHAL

STAGE 2

divergence

In 2001 there were 503 slums pockets in Pune City, 40 percent of the total population of Pune City was living in slums. While 340 of the slum pockets were ‘declared’ or recognised slums, 132 were ‘undeclared’ or unrecognised slums (PMC, 2000).


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/ Subject Experts

Ar. Sharad Mahajan Architect Planner by profession, Ar. Sharad Mahajan works as executive director of MASHAL (Maharashtra Social Housing and Action League). Under his leadership, MASHAL has conducted detailed mapping and socio-economic survey of all slum pockets for PMC in the year 2006. MASHAL aims at providing legal pucca and free houses to all slum dwellers. MASHAL conducted detailed mapping and socioeconomic survey for PMC in year 2006. It was the then municipal commissioner’s idea to map and survey all slum pockets on government land, with the aim of providing legal, pucca and free houses using the SRA formula. It was Shri Ratnakar Gaikwad, former Municipal Commissioner who undertook major community toilet project in the city, and slum dwellers got community toilets. Ms. Rajni Tribhuvan, Ex. Mayor of the city, who was a resident of a slum, made PMC extend individual water connections to most of the houses.

Mr. Mahajan started by pointing out that market economy will not solve the housing problem. The slum dwellers live in a congested and in not so hygienic conditions but it is an example of sustainable living. The social network and community spirit is more an extension of their rural village background. They celebrate life, learn new survival skills and use public transport and commute on foot. This is typical slum habitat that has settled atmosphere and a dream for pucca houses. Mr. Mahajan believes that both Public Sanitation as well as Individual Sanitation must be sought through an integrated slum sanitation program involving the local city-councillors to positively affect people’s behaviour and practices with respect to both Hygiene and Sanitation.

Community Spirit The slum dwellers exhibit a phenomenal community spirit that mustmust be tapped into

Sustainable Living The slum dwellers put less pressure on resources in the city due to their living standards

Elected Representative The elected representative must be involved in an integrated sanitation program to affect people’s behaviour


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Dr. Bapat considers the spatial and design aspects of toilets, as well as their social and health impacts. She stresses the importance of strategic location of toilets within the slum, and their architecture to minimise the problems of low light and ventilation, and which would prevent water logging inside or on the approach to the toilet. She remarks about the excellent work in the Tiruchirapalli and Tirupur regions

of Tamil Nadu where Diarrhoea was one of the chief concerns to be addressed, along with open defecation. It was tackled on a massive scale through the induction of community toilets. She attributes their success to the ‘Community Mobilization’ done in the areas, by which they achieved communication in conjunction with sanitation, with community participation. She went on to describe the massive toilet construction drive in Pune successfully undertaken through the years 1999 - 2001 by the initiative of the then Municipal Commissioner Mr. Ratnakar Gaikwad. She reminisces the sweeping success of the drive in constructing toilet blocks across the various slums of Pune. She adds however, that the effort though commendable at every level, demonstrates the lacuna of communication with the communities. She reiterates need for communication to sensitize communities regarding their roles and responsibilities with respect to community toilets. She believes that people must be made aware about the hazards of bad practices around sanitation that adversely impact their health and quality of life. She also shed light on the gravity of the need for Menstrual Hygiene among women in slum communities. She concluded by stating the need for neighbourhood groups for better monitoring of sanitation.

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Strategic Location

Architecture

Communication

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Location of toilet blocks must ensure maximum coverage

Design of toilet must ensure optimum natural light and ventilation

Community Sensitization necessary through communication

Menstrual Hygiene and disposal must be communicated to women

STAGE 2

Dr. Meera Bapat is a noted researcher who has studied a number of facets of urban poverty and has worked as a consultant to various international organizations. She says that over the years in city after city there has been increasing polarization in living conditions of the better off and the worst off. She states that despite policy documents for welfare of city residents, especially the poor, one sees the reality of exclusion of a large section of society from means of decent human existence.

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Dr. Meera Bapat

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/ Selecting Physical Area of Work

After comparing the characteristics of various slum pockets, I narrowed down on three of the oldest slums in the heart of Pune, to choose from as my area of work.

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1. Kaamgar Vasti The Kaamgar Vasti was originally formed along the banks of River Mutha, by artisans. It later expanded when the Pune Junction Railway Station was formed at the same point. This is the most crowded slum with very small hutments and low quality of living. The river is heavily abused by the inhabitants of this slum, by defecation along the banks, liberal dumbing of solid wastes, bathing, washing and so on. 2. Wadarwadi The Wadarwadi was formed in the early 1900’s when the ‘Wadaris’, a scheduled tribe from the current Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh region, settled in a small camp, to build the stone buildings of Fergusson College, under the British Government. Wadarwadi is the most notorious slum of Pune, with a high level of crime. It is the oldest slum of Pune, with a relatively decent average living standard, and exhibiting a vast social diversity. 3. Parvati Vasahat The Parvati Vasahat originated on the foothills of the Parvati Hill in Pune, widely known for the temple atop. The formation of Parvati Industrial Estate close to the settlement, it gradually grew into a bustling slum, and has now climbed its way up the slope of the hill. Expanding unchecked, the Parvati slum is adversely affecting the eco-system and heritage value of the hill, chiefly causing aforestation, soil erosion and loss of bio-diversity.


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/ Selecting Physical Area of Work

Wadarwadi, is spread over 1 sq. km. of area located in the heart of Pune. It is surrounded by hills and looks more or less like a valley. The Wadars who were till 1934 a Denotified Tribe, were traditionally earth-diggers and stone hewers and moved from place to place in search of livelihood.

Having been commissioned to construct the now heritage structures such as Fergusson College, College of Engineering, Pune and University of Pune, the Wadari tribe gradually settled at the foothill of the Hanuman Tekdi, in the shadow of the Chatushringi hill, behind the Fergusson College Campus.

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I chose Wadarwadi slum as my area of work, as it is the oldest slum in Pune city. During the Slum Sanitation Program, the entire slum was covered with the construction of massive number of Community Toilets. The optimum level of shared sanitation facilities being present, this made for an ideal subject.


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1. PPP Toilet Block The above images show a Community Toilet operated by Public Private Partnership method. In this method, the toilet block is multi-storeyed with a room on the top that serves as the accomodation for the Sanitary Worker. This model was supposed to aid financially, the sanitary worker and his family, and at the same time ensure his proximity to his work area. However in the current situation, the building is dilapidated and the toilets are highly unclean. Adjoining residents complain of persistent foul smell emeneting from there.

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The images here show a PMC operated Toilet Block. These are generally single storeyed, and cleaning is done by specifically appointed sanitary workers one time a day. It generally has lesser number of toilet seats per block in comparison with the PPP model block. These blocks have better management of water and electricity as it is attended to directly by PMC. In spite of these basic differences, both the kinds of block show equally poor levels of hygiene.

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2. Public Toilet Block


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3. Water Availability People are generally seen going to the toilet with a bucket filled with water. This amply suggests the uncertainty of water supply prevalent in the toilets. Water tanks, overhead as well as underground and at level, tend to be unclean, which is what people complain about. Lack of maintenence has rendered the tanks unusable. It is therefore necessary to address the question of unavailability of water at such a critical place, in spite of systems of water supply and drainage in place.

The water tanks placed inside the block are open at all times, and prone to contamination with dirt or biological matter. There is also a danger of breeding mosquitoes. I wondered why such tanks were built in and ad-hoc fashion. It transpired that the taps and other fittings inside the toilet were broken away and stolen. This also explained why people carried water all the way from home, for toilets which did not have a water tank.


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The inside of the blocks are strewn with tobacco spit marks and unflushed faeces. This sight was common in every Toilet inspected. In one instance, I discovered that water supply was available. In another instance there was an open water tank inside the block. The faeces were unflushed despite availablility of water. This points to the fact that human behaviour is a major deterrant to the efficient sanitation in informal settlements.

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4. Cleanliness


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5. Menstrual Waste

6. Littering

The women’s toilets pose a sorry sight with proliferation of used sanitary napkins disposed in one of the cubicles or in one corner. There are various logistical reasons accompanying this behaviour including absence of dustbins inside the community blocks, and the menstruation stigma affecting majority of women that prevents them from openly disposing of menstrual waste.

Packets of tobacco products Gutkha and Supari are a regular sight inside toilets. These occur more in the men’s toilet than the women’s. It is an added pollution of the toilet along with the spit marks over the walls. I realized that these packets easily get washed into the drainage pipe, thus worsening the situation of toilets.


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8. Wastage of Water

There is no facility for washing hands immediately after toilet use, which defeats any attempt to convey messages about the importance of handwashing after coming from the toilet. It was interesting to see, that the little girl dipped the same bucket which she used for washing herself, into the water tank, with unwashed hands, and poured out water to clean her feet. This behaviour was very peculiarly interesting, and seemed to be tied with the ‘Indian roots’ of cleaning feet after coming from an unclean place.

Most of the houses have large drums for storing water for times when it is unavailable. Yet when it is running, water is wasted indiscriminately.

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7. Personal Hygiene


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9. Clogging of Drains All the women demonstrated the peculiar behaviour of disposing of left over foods while washing utensils into open holes alongside the drainage chamber covers. All kinds of packaging waste is found stuffed in the drain openings provided for drainage of water.

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It was a peculiar trend that the community toilet, and garbage containers and public urinals were placed in a continuous line. This formed a kind of a ‘belt’ of unsanitary conditions. Stray dogs would thrive on the garbage containers, as well as hens and goats reared by the slum folk. This put the toilet in the spectrum of ‘dirt’ rather than ‘hygiene’.

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10. Unhygienic Belt


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9. Open Defecation Children grown up enough to use the toilet without assistance also need time to wean off the habit of open defecation. Open defecation in slums is usually practised near garbage containers and therfore pose serious health risks. It is also commonly found on footpaths, most probably when the child is on the way to defecate at the garbage dump and is not able to control faeces, or at times, on any stretch of footpath that lies near or opposite to the garbage dump.

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The slum dwellings being too small to accomodate even the family, the family’s belongings are often stored along the walls of their houses. This practice inevitably creates hiding places for mosquitoes, and aids their proliferation. It is also a have for fungi which can cause respiratory and other ailments.

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10. Storage & Congestion


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Municipal Sanitary Inspector Mr. Swapnil Jagtap: The sanitary inspector of the ward under which the Wadarwadi slum fell, laments that it is most difficult to deal with the people of Wadarwadi. On being questioned why the condition of toilets was dismal and the garbage containers overflowing with garbage spreading on the streets, he cited a number of reaons. The basic problem he cited for the state of the toilets was the non co-operation of the community people with the sanitary workers and Mukadams (Junior Supervisors). The only solution he said was changing people’s attitude with relation to the community toilet. He mentioned the activities of vandalism of toilet fittings as well as dumping of liquor bottles and packaging waste inside toilets. When I mentioned observing the indiscrete use of drainage lines, he went on to add that the square chambers (Square Chambers come under Health & Sanitation while the circular chamber fall under Engineering Department) were frequently blocked with solid wastes and had to be removed by their workers. He informed me that their department also was responsible to check on people building hutments over the square chambers. There were cases where not only drains opened and regurgitated water inside these people’s hutments, but also drainage pipes being illegally used as pipelines

for drinking water. In spite of doing this work, he said, workers were regularly humiliated and mistreated. Mr. Jagtap also brought to my light the double speak done by elected representatives, who, on the one hand, held the sanitary inspectors answerable to the Municipal Corporation for the mismanagement of work, and on the other, intervened their work to pacify the peoples’ demands, with a view to secure their support. He added emphatically that as long as solid waste was not handled efficiently, it would be difficult to address other issues of sanitation and drainage. He mentioned the case of animals outside chicken and mutton shops that dragged and spread garbage around. Many times, families sent their children to drop off bags of garbage to the containers, who were not tall enough to throw it inside the container. The ‘Ghunta Trucks’(bell siren garbage collection mobile) which help in quick collection of segregated garbage from other parts of the city, were unable to enter the narrow lanes of the slum. The Mukadam who was assisting him at that time chipped in with an idea that PMC could deploy ‘Motor bikes with a trolley container attached behind to collect garbage from the unreachable pockets of the slum.

Number of Houses: 3436 Approximate population: 13,744 Number of Toilet Blocks: PMC operated: 6 No. of Seats: 96 PPP operated: 12 No. of Seats: 209 Population to Seat Ratio: 45 persons per seat.


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Clockwise from top: Children sent to dump waste at the garbage container which most of the times would be thrown outside the container; Household kitchen waste is conveniently dumped in the drainage system by women; open drains are a mixture of water and biodegrable waste and sometimes also used for defecation by children


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Medical Practitioner

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Dr. Lahoti, Homi Bhabha Hospital: There are a number of health clinics in Wadarwadi, most of which are situated on the periphery, and towards the more commercial areas. There is one public hospital, namely Dr. Homi Bhabha Hospital, situated at an accessible point on the periphery of the slum. In this slum many households use private health service providers because they are perceived to be providing better and more convenient services than government service providers. Dr. Lahoti provided me with some crisp overview of the health conditions of the slum dwellers. Levels of malnutrition among children are quite high in spite of them living in an uban area and with access to food as well as the power to purchase. This is common among children as well as women due to limited food intake — among women due to their incessant working hours; among children, because their mothers being away at work are unable to look after their nourishment. A notable occurrence of stunting is observed among both. Children tend to suffer from low immunity and frequent petty illnesses. Occurrence of Anaemia among women was considerably high with roughly 40 to 50% women moderately anaemic. Very less incidence of

severe anaemia was observed. Occurrence of mild anaemia was observed among men, roughly 10% could be said to be mildly anaemic. Vector borne diseases: Malaria and Dengue sudden rise in mid monsoon, and during cold waves in winters. Breeding grounds form due to the inaccessible areas that do not get cleaned regularly around the slum houses, especially the roofs. As most of the houses in slums are very small and are located close to other buildings, they often lack proper ventilation. The door is the only window. Tuberculosis a major worry due to compact unventilated living spaces. There seems to be high rate of asymptomatic, latent TB infections. The people noticeably are constantly expelling cough through sputum, clearing their throats. The risks are higher if the house-hold uses solid fuel for cooking, since smoke from solid cooking fuels
poses a serious health hazard. Fortunately, most households in this slum use clean-burning gas
(especially LPG). Alcohol consumption rate among men was alarmingly high. Nearly 70-75% men indulge in regular alcohol consumption. About 25-30% may qualify as Alcoholics. Chewing of Tobacco among men and Misri among women is very common

— one among two men as well as women may be roughly said to be addicted to tobacco use. Cases of casualties especially with respect to domestic violence against women, physical and sexual violence was found to be extremely rare. Sanitation related diarrhoea, was not observed exclusively. However Gastroenteritis, fever and cold and intestinal infections were found from time to time among people of all ages.


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Clockwise from top: The Homi Bhabha Public Hospital Front; Many inaccessible areas on the irregular roof tops of the hutments, where water would accumulate during rains, and breed mosquitoes; Narrow alleways and unventilated houses created a conducive environment for tuberculosis.


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Sanitary Workers 1. PMC employed for Public Toilet — Shri. Rajendra Shinde, Smt. Yewale: At 8 A.M. in the morning, the sanitary workers arrived at work, the man for the men’s toilet, aand the woman for cleaning the women’s toilet. The man Rajendra Shinde was the son-in-law of the elderly woman employee. While the man was drunk, the woman was under the effect of some substance, evident through her tendency of repeating the same words over and over. They did not get cleaning ash and equipment. The lady said she had gone to the ward office and she saw sacks of cleaning powder stacked in a corner. But she did not get some even on requesting the official. She wondered angrily what they did with it all, or whether they took it home. She was an old lady working for this same toilet for the past 20 odd years. She lamented that she will soon be crossing 60 and would stop getting pay from the PMC, and pleaded me, thinking I am surveying on behalf of the PMC, to request for a bonus from the PMC, on her behalf, who had dedicatedly served to this particular toilet block for so long. The man, who appeared maniacal, said that the PMC did not pay them. As I waited for them to finish their work, I was told by by-standers that the duo would spend most of the morning going door to door in pursuit

of food. Others complained that they came very infrequently and did not clean peoperly. As the sanitary worker overheard this, a war of words ensued, as the man was sure that I was reporting this to the PMC. His further talk was indiscernible, but I was explained, that the sanitary woeker was informing me about the practices of the slum dwellers using the toilet. I was told that not only did drunkards dump bottles, but sometimes the glass bottles were found shattered inside the toilets. Plumbings and light bulbs were broken at times, due to which he had to get a bucket of water from elsewhere for cleaning. Further, he also narrated that he had to clean shit off the walls, and posed a question in turn to me, as to how the shit was smeared on the walls. He brought to my attention the misuse of the toilet, and asked me as to how was he expected to clean up after grown-up people. 2. Privately appointed for PPP Toilet — Shri. Gangacharan Patrudia: Since 5 years Gangacharan Patrudia has been waking up early before 5 am, to clean the toilet, before the community people would start arriving. He lives with his family on top in the accomodation provided by the PPP model toilet blocks. He said he had to get his own material, bleaching powder, acid, phenyl and cleaned both men’s and women’s toilet. He had to remove

‘Diapers’(Used sanitary pads) from women’s washroom. He complained that this practice of dumping menstrual waste caused proliferation of mosquitoes which get attracted to the blood. He needed to regularly spray ‘pesticide’ to keep mosquitoes away. This too, he said, he would arrange on his own, in order to protect his family from the mosquitoes. He said he had to pick up Liquor Bottles and Gutkha Packets from the toilets, to prevent them from choking the pipes. Sometimes, he himself had to remove the choke-up from the drainage. He also complained that the taps are stolen away by burglars. Regarding water availability, he said that the tank filled up between 5 to 7 A.M., but the water situation was uncertain as the overhead tank was unclean and frequently choked. “Can you request for new pipeline for water” he requested, again thinking I was related to PMC. Regarding his payment structure said that he was provided a room in which he lodged along with his family. His compensation was supposed to be done by contribution from the community. However people flatly refuse to pay him. (When I asked some of the people later why, they said that he does not do his work.) He buys supplies


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they get, without having to shell out a single penny. I think it is this factor that turns the community away from paying him, knowing that they have to pay for their own house, and now also for toilet cleaning. They consider the toilet cleaner’s accommodation as a compensation for the work.

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Gangacharan Patrudia’s abode atop a community toilet is a picture of abandonment and neglect; The area under the toilet is strewn with garbage and lined with unused bicycles.

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from his own pocket (He works part time with the house-keeping for a nearby educational institute.) I wondered how one would stay over a place that stinks so horribly, and worse has mosquitoes and many other insects. But little surprise that they would, considering the one basic and most difficult to achieve need — a house — is what

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Elected Representative:

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Smt. Girija Irkal: The post of the concerned elected representative is called as the ‘City Concillor’ or more commonly as the ‘Corporator’. The lady has been a twice elected corporator from Wadarwadi. She started out with the point about drainage, and said that overflowing drains and regurgitating toilets has been a persisting issue in their area. Every couple of times a year, the situation would reach a point where there would be drainage water covering the entire area of Wadarwadi. She stated the reason for this as the bad condition and lack of maintenance of the drainage system. She went on to add that inspite of repeated requests the officials failed to act quickly in these situations, and that it was ultimately the pressure and the fear of brute force that put the officials into action. She informed that during her term in office, she successfully undertook closing of the open gutters, as also, reduced the number of garbage containers in the slum. On my questioning whether the misuse of the drainage system for dumping of solid wastes was a reason for the condition, she accepted it and went on to blame the bad habit of the women for the condition of the drainage system.

On being asked what could be done to change these habits, she proceeded to talk about the lives of the community women in general. She stated that the women had to shoulder dual responsibilities of earning the daily bread and running the home. A woman’s day began at 5 in the morning and she toiled ceaselessly until she could finally retire to bed at 11 or 12 in the night. This cycle was unending. Smt. Irkal enumerated the chores performed by a woman from morning to night, and lamented the lack of acknowledgement to them for being the bearers of the household.

Smt. Irkal stated her belief that communication is necessary at school level for early sensitization. She sounded the hope that a child, when conditioned well at school, would initiate the change in its family.

She added to this the fact that she distributed sarees and gifts to women every year on the occasion of the Navratri festival, as this is considered as the festival celebrating the power of womanhood. On being asked about the condition of the community toilets, she cited vandalism as the main problem. She also linked it to alcoholism and stressed the need for deaddiction awareness in the community. When asked whether putting a curb on country liquor production within the slum would be effective, she strongly pointed out that it is not a permanent solution, as malpractices resumed within no time.

Overleaf: The slum hutments are built on both sides with sewer pipes laid in the alleyways, as a precaution for people’s safety. However this design is being misused by people who us the drainage openings for conveniently dumping solid wastes from their houses, or while walking; Laying of sewer pipes under way in one part of the slum.


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Primary Data

Qualitative Study: interaction was undertaken with the slum dwellers to understand them as a community and a sub-culture.

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Right and bottom: The slum dwellers enthusiastically coming ahead to take the survey; The slum dwellers responses were noted by the volunteer on the survey form

Quantitative Study: Alongside the interaction, a survey was undertaken with a sample size of 28. The area was broken up into four parts and relative number of respondents were taken from each. STAGE 2

I refrained from putting the question regarding their satisfaction with the public toilet, as this response would vary depending on how recently the toilet had been cleaned. Additionally the standards of quality expected from a public toilet was subjective, and would be misleading. The survey retrieved data regarding ‘families’ rather than persons individually.

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Information sought through the survey: Age group, number of family members and age-groups, nature of housing (whether rented or owned), specific health complaints of family members or respondent, which doctor they consult, nature of sanitation facility available (private or public), number of years since the facility was built, distance from sanitation facility to point of residence, availability of water for sanitation, frequency of cleaning sanitation facility, practice of solid waste management (where do they throw their kitchen wastes?), frequency of drainage clogging, other specific complaints.


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Wadarwadi has the reputation of being a locality of the very poor, inhabited almost entirely by construction workers, casual laborers, the conservancy staff of the Municipal Corporation, mechanics, cleaners, hotel boys, rag-pickers, ‘dabba-batliwalas’ etc., poor and almost illiterate, given to alcohol, gambling and the like. Wadarwadi has gained notoriety on account of the presence of illicit distillers, of prostitutes, betters on numbers (matka), gamblers and criminals.

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Socio-cultural Aspects

Above & left: The women would have their afternoons free, and would come together to do their household chores like picking foodgrains, stitching torn clothes, etc. over neighbourhood gossip. Some groups of women gathered in the afternoons after their daily chores of cooking and cleaning, to manufacture cottage industry products. Several things from rolling papads, making pickles to stitching doormats from rags would be done; On Sundays and other holidays, entire families would bask outside the house and spend time together. These were the best occasions to do qualitative study, as people would be relaxed and willing to speak, as also the backdrop of sanitation was not obligatory.

Some of the slum dwellers who are attempting to climb the status ladder by taking white-collar occupations — even if only as clerks — have admitted that at the time of putting their children to sshool, they avoid mentioning the name of Wadarwadi as the place of residence and, instead give the address of an acquaintance living in a decent neighborhood nearby. Women tag along day after day hoping that some day they will be seeing the view from the glass windows of one of the apartment blocks or highrises. Most of their homes are cleaned everyday. They sweep and swop and wash the dirt and dust, out the door. In this space outside the house, they wash their clothes and utensils. They hang dry their clothes on a rope stretched across the outer wall of their houses.


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Wadarwadi has a considerable diversity of culture, with families of Konkani, Kolhapuri, Marwari, Bengali and Gujarati origins. There is not much religious diversity with only a small cluster of Muslim families present. The Wadars are a notified tribe and thus ascribe themselves as a ‘lower’ caste. The caste system is very complex and rigid among the Wadaris themselves. They have a hierarchy of sub-castes

such as ‘Dagad’ Wadaris (working with stone), ‘Mati’ Wadaris (working with earth), ‘Dambar’ Wadaris (working in road construction), etc. In some of the ‘lowest’ sections among Wadaris’ community, very few have mustered the will to climb up the economic ladder. Even on the urban backdrop, they continue to remain stubbornly backward, uneducated and trying to gain money through inappropriate and illegal means. They are coccooned in a misplaced identity borrowed from their forefathers; using their hereditary strength to intimidate, beat people, fight and vandalise property. The Wadaris otherwise seem very poor, until a festival or a marriage ceremony springs up. From lighting, decorations and sound system to DJ’s, the Wadaris do not leave a single opportunity under-celebrated. Vulgar dancing by men and boys is famous during these festivities and the road becomes a virtual nightclub. Festival celebration is deeply interwoven with politics, and rival groups compete for loudness and extravaganza with impassioned fervour. This behaviour only underlines their deep seated belief that ‘political power is everything’. From the smallest child who can speak to the most irreverent looking teen, from housewives to daily

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wage labourers, the loyalty of each and every one was very strongly set, sometimes through ancestral connections. The local political leaders thus had a great deal of power and significance with respect to the city’s political scenario. Almost all the children were enrolled in school. Very few were known to have either dropped out due to bad performance, expelled due to bad conduct or at times unable to continue owing to financial constraints at home.

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There is general discontentment among people, with everything. They pick up fights at the drop of the hat and habitually use profane language. Drunken brawls, fights, quarrels are commonplace in Wadarwadi. It is not unusual to encounter murders occasionally; but the rate has come down in the recent past.

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The atmosphere inside the house and even in the alleys is suffocating with little or no ventilation. Though earlier I had made an assumption that these people were ‘used to’ the smell and the dirty conditions, after interaction I realized that they were not. They ‘put up’ with it, ‘ignored it’, which perhaps led to their constant irritability. They are not really at ease with their conditions, but on the other hand, they lack the know-how and the motivation related to ways in which this situation can be curtailed.

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Economic Aspects

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Wadar Community, a few exceptions apart, the entire Wadar community is engaged in building construction activity in various capacities ranging from that of a mere labourer to Mukadam (labour-cum-piece work contractor), Gawandi (mason), sub-contractors to big contractors. The current generation that is working, having received education up to school level, most of them have vocational jobs. Their jobs are related to their traditional characteristics of heavy duty rigorous work. Their forefathers were into stone quarrying, breaking, carrying and building. These are into building works of other nature now. Contractors for construction jobs such as brick laying, tiling, painting, welding, fabricating, plumbing, electrical fitting, small demolitions, etc. They are majorly into work requiring strength and stamina. Apart from that their occupations include driving, transporting goods, loading and offloading work etc. Some of them are involved in illegal manufacturing of ‘Country Liquor’ and tobacco derivatives such as such as Misri, Chewable Gutkha, Supari, Beedi, etc. Some of the men still use the Wadarwadi as a base, moving out whenever necessary to a neighbouring city along with their contractor and returning upon the completion of work, while the children, wife and parents stay back.

A study of the occupational strictre in Pune Municipal Corporation area shows that, in recent times, a large number of working population has got concentrated in manufacturing industry (30.70%) rather than in household industry (1.80%) and a similar ratio (30.49%) has been absorbed in “other services” such as of hotel boys, automobile drivers, bus conductors, cleaners, policemen, watchmen, peons, clerks, domestic servants and the like. Only a small percentage of the population is engaged in transport and communication (10.21%) and a slightly higher percentage in trade and commerce (17.69%). A very small proportion of the population is engaged in building construction work (5.15%). The families generally owned Satellite TV connections and television sets, Mobile phones, Motor bikes, Fridge and most of the basic home appliances. Most of the homes used gas cylinders for cooking. In some of the poorer families, daily wage labourers the women and children would collect twigs, branches and paper waste to burn for their cooking. Expenditure was mostly done on festivals. Families also incurred heavy expenses to the tune of Rs. 2000 to Rs. 3000 a month on medical expenses due to constant illnesses.

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Top & Left: The slum dwellers availed most of the basic requirements of quality urban living.


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Under the Slum Rehabilitation Act, parts of Wadarwadi were reconstructed into ‘chawltype’ buildings from time to time. But this was ineffective in elimination of hutments. The slum dwellers used their brute influence to prevent razing of the illegal structures. Many of them continue to live in the hutments and earn a living from the rent earned by letting out the government built structures. Throughout the area of study, three types of settlements were found. The first type was the house of the original Wadari descendents, and hence owners of the property. They had built houses with electrical and water connections. These were pucca houses with mostly two, and rarely three storeys. Second type was the hutment type house, with one or two rooms, of average 120 sq. ft. total. The third was the temporary sheds built with corrugated tin sheets. These were single room hutments built on empty land by the land owners, and rented out to migrant families, mostly into construction labour, casual labour, housekeeping, domestic help, and so on. Every house of the ‘second’ type, had two water connections. One was for a tap just outside the house that could be use generally for washing utensils etc. and the other was for inside the house in the ‘Mori’ or the make-shift bathing

place that also doubled as a place for washing clothes and utensils. For the ‘third’ type of housing, a common ‘Mori’ was set up for every two to three households. The sharing of the ‘Mori’ was agreed with the landlords. It was built in a similar fashion to the houses, with corrugated tin sheets and other materials.

Top: General placement of a Mori in the ‘Second Type’ of hutment. Left: General placement of a Mori in the ‘Third Type’ of hutment.


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Right: Water taps available outside each house, used for washing utensils

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Top, from left to right: An ancestral property built in stone, now used almost like a slum by the current generations; a hutment of ‘second type’ with pucca walls, ceiling and flooring; a hutment of the ‘third type’ built with corrugated tine sheets


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developing education tools for sanitation awareness in urban informal settlements

Primary Data

Children are a typical phenomenon around any slum, in any city. The houses being to small to provide space for their creative energy, children spill on the streets. Otherwise, they are driven out by their families to unleash their pranks on the roads, rather than in their homes. divergence

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Children

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They are always seen picking up things from the scrap and turning them into something to play with. Boys above 8-9 years of age set out in groups with fistfuls of marbles and play on the street corners. Younger children draw hopskotch grids on roads, to play, or just engage in general aimless pursuits.

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‘Mandal’ is a typical Pune trend, originating from the temple committes which were formed exclusively to undertake the celebration of ‘Ganesh’ Festival annually, by planning the set and decoration, forming the budget and collecting contribution from the community for the same. Now every nook and corner has a board announcing the Mandal name and area. Wadarwadi was no exception to this rule. Children belonged to various Mandals, and normally played within the group. Sometimes the groups had clashes. When asked if I could contribute for their Mandals’ Gokulashtami celebrations, I chipped in by offering to make a ‘banner’ for one of the Mandals. Soon, word spread, and all the Mandals got a banner made for themselves.

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Top: The slum boys trying to intimidate the volunteer, accusing him of trying to survey the area for Slum Rehabilitation.


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/ Notes

Sanitation conditions are worsened due to improper disposal of domestic garbage, After meeting the sanitary workers, i wondered how different is the role of toilet cleaning persons from manual scavengers, if they have to deal with the same ‘shit’ only in an eclipsed environment; the only difference being that they are not required to

divergence

STAGE 2

pick it up, but flush it down. Does it give them more dignity? While the bottomline of rural sanitation is household toilets, the same rule if aplied in urban slums would create havoc for the sewerage system. The process of communicating a clear message through a key influencer in the community is critical for bringing the desired behavioural change. Put sanitation in a perspective of entertainament and celebration, and since festive celebrations were associated with politics and local leaders, the best way was to involve leaders in the campaign The solution needs to be loud. Hard. Uncivilized. Needs to have glamour appeal. Must be top-down… Print media may not be the solution.. The community is not at all into art or culture.. Its the lowest of the low life.. Caught in an ironic clash of past and future… poverty and prosperity… they are uncivilized, loud, trigger-happy, mischief mongering, crude, quarrelsome, violent, profane lot… print has nothing to offer…


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/ Questions

Looking at the hygiene standard worse inside the toilet than on open grounds, are toilets then a boon or a bane?

STAGE 2

Has sanitation been routinely neglected because it affects women more than men?

divergence

Sanitation for the Urban Poor: whose choice — their’s or our’s?


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Stage 3 — ­ CONsolidation

8 weeks

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DATA MAPPING

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

EVOLVING STRATEGY FOR DESIGN INTERVENTION STAGE 3

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I used the basic model of communication as a guide for mapping available data. Based on this I would identify the Messages, Media and Audience to address the issues around sanitation.

Source

Message

Medium

Receiver


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/ Sources of Data

Data Mapping was achieved by compiling data gathered from the various sources, at various points of time and carefully examination of each shred of information available.

Interaction with Subject Experts

Interaction with Stakeholders

Books, Films and Online Resources

Qualitative Study of

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Spatial Study

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Quantitative Study of Target

Data


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Data Mapping

“The people refuse to pay for getting their own shit cleaned! The Municipal Authority are no good for providing cleaning material either. If none is concerned, why should I care? Better to have a house without rent”

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/ Scenario Building: Qualitative study

“Thank goodness I managed to build a personal toilet”

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“No water in there anyway, why walk all the way to the loo, when I can enjoy the fresh air while doing my business”

“This entire area stinks anyway, let me relieve myself here, why add to the stink inside?”

“There goes the Gutkha Packet.. ”

“Ah, a hit of this Tobacco will make the perfect start for the day. Wonder how I would do my morning business without it!”

“Why bother walking all the way to the Garbage bin just to throw the left-overs, when I can easily stuff it down the drain”

“We will not pay for cleaning the Municipality Toilet. Go ask those people to pay you. You don’t do your job anyway!”

“Never mind the stench or mosquitoes. I have got a house to live in without rent”

“Thooo...ah! That was a clean business”

“Ha, there goes the garbage! God knows when the Municipal Workers are going to clean up this mess” “I can only carry this one small bucket of water; it can either suffice to wash myself or flush properly. I washed myself”

“Forget drinking water, it will make me want to pee. No, not that the stinky toilet, never!”


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Data Mapping

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Continuous 7.14%

Household Toilet Users

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12 14

Intermittent Public Toilet Users

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Percentage of families having personal toilets built in their homes

Water availability in various public toilets in Wadarwadi

2 out of 28 respondents claimed to have a personal toilet for their household

Based on single person reviews by 28 people regarding water availability at various toilet blocks

30 mt

16

Blocked

approx. average Normal

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Average distance of Public Toilet from the point of residence

Status of Drainage system

Based on single person reviews description by 28 people about the distance of their house from the public toilet they used

Based on single person reviews by 28 people regarding the current status of drainage


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ALCOHOL

Based on single person reviews by 28 people regarding addiction among their family members and themselves. Numbers indicate total persons with addictions.

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SMOKING 1 6

NONE Addiction

DENGUE ABDOMINAL PAIN COMMON COLD UNKNOWN FEVER DIARRHOEA Diseases

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Only slum dwellers from second type of housing were interviewed, as they were permanently settled and hence reviews would be fairly consistent with the actual situation. As the sample size was very small, the age demographic could not be established. However, it was generally found that almost every other household had school going children. This was an indicator that children formed a sizeable proportion of the demographic.

5 2 7 14 19 18

Based on single person reviews by 28 people regarding diseases among their family members and themselves. Numbers indicate total persons who had experienced the diseases in the near past.

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MALARIA

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TUBERCULOSIS

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TOBACCO PRODUCTS

SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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Data Mapping

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/ Stakeholder Map

1. General Citizens

6. Sanitary Workers

2. Sanitary Inspectors

deal with the dual pressure of non co-operation from the community (paying money) as well as the PMC (nonavailability of equipment) + reel under class stigma and social marginalization

face frequent abuse from community dwellers for problems of their own making + face misinformed opposition to development work from community + face chellenges of vandalism of property from miscreants

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suffer from communicable diseases like Malaria, Dengue and Gastro-intestinal infections as well as Viral Influenza etc. arising from unhygienic conditions around slums.

7. Slum Dwellers survive in sub-normal conditions as legally ‘illegal’ citizens + compromise on space for maintaining adequate personal hygiene + women and children suffer general lack of health + cleanliness of shared spaces ignored

5. Elected Representatives

3. Medical Practitioners

conjure piece-meal solutions for infrastructure and development, thus aggravating the problems further + double speak to pacify ‘vote-bank’ on one hand and PMC officials on other

public hospitals limited to role of providing diagnosis and treatment + unable to expand potential to Health Communication + local doctors largely incompetent + recurring diseases linked to wrong hygiene practices

4. NGOs awareness building communication done in knee-jerk fashion + communication model not sustainable + collaboration with PMC often diluted with broad range of issues


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Data Mapping

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/ Problem Statement

From the data mapping it is clear that amidst sufficient infrastructure, availability of resources and under reasonable management of the Local Government, the state of sanitation in Wadarwadi is dismal. The parameters of Sanitation are vastly different from those measured by the sanitation ladder.

1

It can be therefore said that the problem is lack of sensitivity to hygiene and ignorance regarding the health risks of bad sanitation.

It can therefore be said that the problem is the lack of a feeling of ownership among the community folk towards their toilets.

The callous approach of slum dwellers to disposal of waste, adds an urban dimension to the sanitation problem in the slum. The slum dwellers have the facility of the sewerage system, for disposal of grey water. But the facility is misused by dumping of solid wastes theough the drain openings. This puts consistent pressure on the sewerage system, resulting in its frequent failure. Also, the accumulation of bio-degradable particles in the pipes creates a breeding ground for harmful bacteria. It can therefore be said that the problem is the lack of awareness regarding the risks of inappropriate disposal of household wastes.

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All of the problems observed with respect to slum sanitation in Wadarwadi are related to human behaviour, especially with respect to the target group i.e. the slum dwellers.

The key characteristic of a slum is the high density of human habitations and low space. As sanitation facilities are ‘shared’, people do not feel responsible for the toilets, and hence completely disregard their condition. The toilet blocks being built and maintained by PMC, are considered government or public property and there is a general lack of desire to change the existing state of toilets.

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The toilets are left unflushed, toilet walls are spat on, Gutkha packets and liquor bottles are dumped in toilets, menstrual waste is dumped in women’s toilets, plumbing and light equipment is stolen or vandalised, the exterior of the toilet is used as a general garbage dump. Open defecation by children is a common feature.

2


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Data Mapping

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/ Spatial Data

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With the help of the Sanitray Inspectors, the toilet blocks and garbage containers throughout the area were identified and marked on the map through the help of Google Maps.


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With the help of locals, children and street vendors, all the open spaces, qualified medical practitioners’ clinics, School etc throughout the area were identified and marked on the map through the help of Google Maps.

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Communication Criteria

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/ Target Profile: Women

Most of them are care-takers of their houses

Tend to flush properly

Most of them have no addiction, with exception of misari

Packaging waste not a problem in toilets

No arrangement of collection or disposal of menstrual waste + women face the social stigma of menstruation, unable to throw used pads freely in the community bins + unaware of health risks

Throw menstrual waste inside toilet

Have to spend more time in toilet for urination and maintaining menstrual hygiene

May try to avoid these activities by drinking less water and compromising menstrual hygiene

Mothers usually earn the most for the family by taking up multiple domestic jobs

Have no time to assist children to the toilet and teach them to defecate on or by the footpaths or at the garbage container


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Communication Objectives

Motivations

• To inhibit dumping of menstrual waste in the toilet

• Community Interaction

• To enable safe and proper disposal of menstrual waste

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• Crafts and creative work • Opportunity to voice their opinion

• To enable right knowledge regarding menstruation • To discourage mothers from promoting open defecation among their children STAGE 3

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Communication Criteria

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Most of them depend on some form of addiction to relieve their faeces

Spitting inside and in the premises of the toilet

Many have alcohol dependence and may indulge in consumption inside the privacy of the toilet

Dumping bottles in the toilet

Attitude that their wives/mothers will clean up after them

Tend to avoid flushing well

Have lesser needs of time & private exposure for urinating

Face lesser risks from unhygienic surroundings


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Communication Objectives

Motivations

• To inhibit spitting inside the toilet premises

• Political power

• To inhibit dumping of tobacco packets and alcohol bottles inside the toilet

• Status

• To ensure clean flushing

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• Celebration

• To inhibit public urination in the vicinity of the toilet

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Communication Criteria

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/ Target Profile: Children

Below 5-6 years of age, a child needs assistance of mother to use toilet

Mother being hard pressed for time makes the child defecate: (1) outside the door on a newspaper sheet / (2) further away from the house at a safe area e.g. Footpath / (3) at the garbage dump

A younger child may not wash itself properly

Is vulnerable to bacterial and parasitic diseases

The child learns from example/ will observe and follow the practices

Leaving the toilet unflushed after use / Public urination / Dumping waste through the drain

The child needs to be taught hygienic habits

Often parents demonstrate inappropriate hygiene behaviour / school communication is weak


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Communication Objectives

Motivations

• To inhibit open defecation and public urination

• Playing games

• To promote washing up after defecation

• Physical activity

• To promote flushing

• Creative pursuits

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• To promote hygiene habits of hand washing and nail trimming

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/ Target Profile: Elderly

Need for private assistance for squatting on the toilet pan

Face risk of accidents as toilets are away from home.

Find the community toilets unhygienic as compared to their early practice of open defecation in villages

Do not prefer using community toilets

Communication Objectives

Motivations

• To open defecation and public urination

• Playing games

• To promote washing up after defecation

• Physical activity

• To promote flushing

• Creative pursuits

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Communication Criteria

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• To promote hygiene habits of hand washing and nail trimming


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Communication Criteria

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Communication Objectives

• To instill confidence in the community regarding the Sanitary Workers

• To foster the perceived value of sanitation as an issue of public importance

• To magnify their importance

• To arouse interest in developmental community work

Motivations

Motivations

• Ease of work

• Community support

• Co-operation

• Self Promotion

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Communication Objectives

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Elected Representatives:

• Appreciation

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Sanitary Inspectors:

• To promote their authority within the community

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Design Solution

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/ System for Design Intervention

Based on the target group and active stakeholder profiles, in tandem with the communication objectives, a detailed integrated communication plan was etched. This plan was to be used hypothetically, and improvised as the implementation began.

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Integrated Communication Plan: Phase 1 (4 weeks): Children between 6 to 12 years being the highest demographic, the first phase addresses them. The children are initially engaged in drawing and painting activities in open spaces. This brings the children together for regular group activities. Subsequently, the groups are sensitized regarding the importance of sanitation. For this, a game is designed that actively engages the children and subtly communicates the desired set of messages to them. The game is popularized by giving it the form of a ‘match’ and undertaking tournaments among the groups in the various open spaces. This way ‘Sanitation’ achieves an enjoyment potential among children and becomes a topic of interest. After this, children are assigned the role of messengers, to take the topic to the community. The Toilet building itself is made the first medium of communication to the community. The children use their artistic skills to draw and paint the intended messages on the exterior toilet walls in their respective areas. The newly painted-upon toilets are used by the community for a week, and feedback is taken from users qualitatively. Phase 2 (8 weeks): In the second phase, men and women are targeted simultaneously for

communication using the toilet blocks’ interiors as the medium for graphic messages. Through the first week, a competition is announced with the aid of the local city-councillor and intended messages are drawn on the interior walls, to be painted by people from the community under supervision of volunteers. The local city-councillor and sanitary inspectors are invited to judge the best painted toilet. As a trophy, a flex banner is printed and displayed in a prominent place in the slum, bearing the photographs and names of the contributing persons for the painted messages. This creates a buzz around sanitation among the community dwellers. Over the next two weeks, ‘Toilet Committees’ would be formed from among the community toilet users for each toilet block, selected by Sanitary Inspectors and local City Councillor, undergoing training program with Resource Persons. In the eighth week, a second round of the competition is announced by the councillor and publicized, wherein the best toilet block would be awarded a maintenence fund for the following 3 months for cleaning, light appliances, faucets, plumbing works, etc. Over the next one month, the Toilet Committees would compete by creatively spreading awareness among the community members regarding sanitation. Along with the children, the toilet committee undertakes street plays and song performances for educating the community in


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city-councillor with a ribbon-cutting ceremony. A process is set in place for the bin to be maintained by the Safai Karmachari who transfers the menstrual waste to a garbage bag daily, which is collected directly from the toilet, by the garbage van personnel. Hereafter, disposal of menstrual waste becomes one of the critical indicators for judging of the quarterly best maintained toilet block. Phase 4 (1 week): A two-day event is held at the conclusion of the final week. The community members come together to watch performances by various awareness groups. Awards are given to the best performers, Toilet Committee members, Sanitary Inspectors, etc. A sanitation pledge is unanimously recited by the community residents in the end.

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Actors: Community members Sanitary Inspectors Local City-councillors Duration: 4 months (16 weeks)

STAGE 3

Phase 3 (3 weeks): In the third phase, communication is targteted towards women with respect to menstrual hygiene and disposal of menstrual waste. In order to give out menstrual hygiene communication, small camps are organized with trained resource persons, for every toilet block by respective toilet committees, over three weeks. As an outcome of the training, the women would be asked to graphically represent their learning, to create an instructive signboard for disposal of menstrual waste. At the end of three weeks, all the message boards are installed on a single day along with a dedicated bin for diposal of menstrual waste, in every Toilet Block’s women’s section, inaugurated by the

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toilet cleanliness and appropriate disposal of solid wastes. These committees would also overlook the maintenence of their respective toilet blocks over the month, which would be judged by the Sanitary Inspectors in-charge. The competition and the reward would repeat every 3 months, while the toilet committees would continue their awareness efforts and compete for the reward fund at the end of every 3 months. A platform is created for monthly interaction between Toilet Committee members, Sanitary Inspectors and the city-councillor. The toilet committee members would be assigned the duty of reporting errant users, vandalists, etc. to the SI’s.

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Design Solution

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/ Spatial Dynamics

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All the spatial data is juxtaposed to understand how space can be utilised for undertaking the campaign. Open spaces would be vital in undertaking group activities. These can also become points for diplay of flex banners. The toilet blocks themselves would be used for graphic messages. Also premises of doctor clinics can be used for display of posters or wall graphics. Walls along garbage containers can also be used for graphic messages. School and Public Hospital can provide spaces for community interaction, presentations, workshops, etc.


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Action zones were marked for effective ground work. These were to be approximate divisions, focused around toilet blocks and garbage containers. Further on , the existing Mandals or groups in these areas would be identified for creating action groups for the specific toilets within their zones.

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/ Notes

Try to provide gender-friendly and child-friendly sanitary complexes through graphic communication Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are useful in the collection and analysis of a range of visual material operating within the same space as the intended message. A qualitative analysis of existing artefacts, through the semiotic principles of conotation and denotation. Methods can help the designer to interrogate the underlying principles within effective visual messages targeting the same audience. Meanwhile quantitative methods for reviewing and analysing a broad range of objects in the same space, and gathering feedback from focus or survey groups, can help to create a bigger picture of the range of

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cultural readings and messages already in place.


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/ Questions

How practical is the integrated design solution?

Is the solution proportionate to all the study and the data collected?

How can I create and sustain interest of all the stakeholders and target audience? STAGE 3

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Stage 4 — ­ IMPLEMENTATION

3 weeks

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IMPLEMENT PILOT IN MICRO-ENVIRONMENT

IDENTIFY CRITICAL CHALLENGES

REFINE DESIGN SOLUTION

IMPLEMENT DESIGN SOLUTION

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Pilot Planning

/ Micro-environment

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The following micro-environment was chosen, owing to the presence of two community toilet blocks — one PMC operated and the other PPP operated, a garbage container as well as a large garden as an open space.

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Clockwise from extreme left: PMC operated Toilet Block; PPP operated Toilet Block, Garbage container; Entrance to the Samarth Ramdas Garden. Overleaf: a screenshot of Google Maps showing the area of work

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/ Engagement with Target Group

Engaging children in activities and boosting their team bonding and competitive spirit

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STAGE 4

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the older boys of the slum. Lingorchya or Lagori was a favourite game, but could not be played due to lack of a circular free open space. Hopskotch was a favourite of the younger children.

Marbles

Phul-Bat (a version of badminton)

Lingorchya (Lagori)

Hopskotch

Cricket

STAGE 4

Both girls and boys enjoyed playing Phul-bat, which was badminton without net, with plastic rackets and shuttle. Cricket would be played on a roadside strip, only by a certain group, along with

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Games commonly played by the children were observed. Most of the boys were into playing marbles in small clusters along roadside corners, on flat surfaces in front of closed shops etc.

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I chose Lagori to design the sanitation game around, because, unlike marbles which only boys played, and hopskotch which mostly girls played, Lagori was something that both boys and girls readily came ahead to play. The game involves running and physical reflexes, and the ball used is a soft ball, therefore being ideal for girls as well as boys. Lagori also known as Lagoori is one of the most popular outdoor games among teenagers in Karantaka state, India. A game originally from Karnataka, Lagori is played usually by two teams – seekers and hitters team. Featured in this video is a group of teenagers from the Mathur, a Sanksrit village, engaged in playing Lagori. One of the popular outdoor games among the teenagers of all over India, this game is known in different names in different parts of India. Such as Lingorchya in Maharashtra, Pitthu in Haryana and northern Rajasthan, also Sitoliya in Rajasthan and Gujarat Yedu Penkulata or Pittu in Andhra Pradesh, Ezhu kallu in Tamil Nadu and Eri panthu in Kerala. On the adjoining page, the game is described along with the rules.


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The seeker team puts forth one of its players, who aims at the lagori with a ball and tries to knock it down. If the player is unable to topple it within three tries, the player is ousted from the team, and the team loses the game.

Once the lagori is knocked down, the players of both teams spread out — in order to win the game, the hitters must try to hit ‘out’ a seeker with the ball, while the seekers must try to rearrange the lagori before any one of their players is hit.

If a seeker is hit out, the player is ousted from the team for the next game. A seeker, if hit while he/ she is touching a player from the hitter team, the hit is considered null.

The contest continues until only one seeker is left. Every time the seekers win, they can win back one of their ousted players.

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There are two teams — Seekers and Hitters. On a toss, one of the teams decides to either seek or hit.

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Flat stones or pieces of stone tiles etc. are gathered and seven of them are placed one on top of the other in decreasing order of their perimeter, so that they form a stable, upward tapering structure.

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The purpose of the game is to sensitize children towards Sanitation. The game needs to retain the thrill and add a controlled dissemination of the message. Like every educational game, this would require to be played under the supervision of a volunteer / moderator.

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Replacing random flat stones with pieces of a light thin material and using the surface as a medium for graphic messages, is what i had decided initially. But after watching a few rounds of the game, I realised that this would not be enough to effect sensitization, as there is very less time involved, and only a couple or more players at a time engaged in arranging the lagori pieces back. There would neither be enough time for cognition, nor sufficient visibility for the entire range of graphic messages to be registered. The game needed to be altered to make the experience more systematic and allow more levels of interaction so that the focus would be on learning. To begin modifying the game, I therefore began by aligning the audience and message. According to the consolidation, the messages to be conveyed to children were thus: 1. Defecate and urinate only inside the toilet; 2. Pour flush the toilet clean after use; 3. Wash hands clean with soap after use of toilet; 4. Keep your nails always properly trimmed; 5. Keep your premises clean;

6. Do not dump solid wastes down the drain; 7. Use dustbins to throw your solid wastes. Keep dry and wet waste separated; After a couple of iterations with the children, using a makeshift Lagori, the concept was refined further. The game, tentatively called ‘Taap-Teep’ (a vernacular version of ‘tip-top’ or ‘prim and proper’).

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Components of the game: 1. Lagori s with Graphics 2. Plus & Minus Cards 3. Flip Chart

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A ring is drawn on the playing ground to mark the boundary of the playing field. Two kids step ahead as captains and a toss is made by the moderator. The winning captain gets the benefit of choice at every stage of the game. The game is to be played in 7 rounds. Each round is based on one of the seven themes related to Sanitation. The disc pertaining to the theme of the corresponding round is placed on the top of the lagori.

The captains select their respective team, starting with the winning captain, selecting one player at a time. The captain assigns a front player for each round, to face off at the beginning of the respective round.


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The winning captain takes the call to either ‘hit’ or ‘seek’. The front players of both the teams stand at a distance of two leaps (marked by the moderator) on either side of the lagori.

If the seeker team successfully topples the Lagori, the hitters quickly pick up the ball, while players of both teams spread around strategically.

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In order to win the round, seekers try to rearrange the Lagori from the toppled discs, without any of their players being touched by the ball, while the hitters aim at players from the seeker team with the ball, in order to hit ‘out’ any one of them before they can successfully rearrange the Lagori. Seekers must expertly dodge the ball by jumping, running, ducking, etc. A hit is nullified if the targeted player from the seeker team is touching a player from hitter team, at the time of being hit. The players must play within the boundary of the playing field. Only the hitter with ball in hand is exempted from this rule. Stepping outside the boundary is considered a foul. Two such fouls by players of a team would result in their default loss.

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Seekers get a maximum of three turns within which the front player corresponding to that round must topple the Lagori with a soft ball. If they fail to do so, the seeker team loses the round by default, and the next round begins.

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The Lagori is arranged on a brick sized platform. The moderator stands with the flipchart with its semi-transparent layer down — denoting inappropriate behaviour with respect to that theme.

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The hitters win if they are able to hit any one seeker with the ball, before the lagori is completely rearranged, and while the seeker is not touching any player from the hitter team.

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The seekers win if they completely rearrange the lagori before any one of their players is successfully hit by a hitter.

At the end of the round, the moderator awards a plus card and a minus card to the winning team and the losing team respectively which are handed to the corresponding front players of the round.


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The front player of the winning team then turns the semi-transparent layer of the flipchart to reveal the ideal behaviour with respect to the corresponding theme.

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At the end of the game, the team with more plus cards than minus cards becomes the winner.

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In the next round, the disc corresponding to the previous round is removed, thus making it one disc lesser in the lagori. The disc corresponding to the next round is placed on the top of the lagori and the game continues until the seventh round, when only one disc is left to be toppled from the platform.

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Production Planning Various options were considered for the material of the Lagoris. One option was reusing tiles, by painting the graphics on them using a stencil. However it was felt that this would not give a formality to the game, which might egg children to take it casually.

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Another option explored was paier mache. However the time and cost of producing it, coupled with the fact that the material might be too light, discarded this option. The search for the material ended in ‘Bohori Ali’ in the heart of the old city of Pune. This area is a wholesale market of toys and spiritual accessories made out of reinforced fiber, wood waste and other industrial waste, and makes for a softer material than MDF, which is easier to cut and shape. In many of the shops, roughly 12 cm. diameter discs were for sale. When asked what they were meant for, I was told that these were supposed to be wheels of toy chariots, etc. These were available quite cheap at Rs. 7 per peice. This was chosen as the body of the Lagori, on which the graphic could either be painted or printed and pasted.

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The rest of the components not being required in very large quantities, it was decided to go with digital printing, as this was the cheapest option. The Plus and Minus cards would be printed on a sheet from which they would be cut out. The Flipchart was planned in a way that the first sheet would be a transparency printed sheet while the underlying sheet would be 4 colour digital print. With all the factors under consideration the costing of the set components would be thus: Lagoris: Rs. 75 Cards: Rs. 70 Flip Chart: Rs. 170 The total cost of production of the set would be: Rs. 315. STAGE 4

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One set could easily be used for one implementation zone, with total 10 such zones to be implemented.


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Graphics for Lagoris — Sketches

Graphics for Lagoris — Refined

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Graphics for Lagoris — Sketches

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Graphics for Flipchart — Sketches (Theme: Waste Disposal)

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Graphics for Flipchart 窶認inal (Theme: Waste Disposal)

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The children enthusiastically assembled their game set on their own under volunteers’ guidance

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The final look of the Lagoris

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Field testing the final game design

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As the opposing teams won or lost, their cards were arranged in a queue, to denote the score.

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Turning of the Flip Chart

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In the next step, children were put in the role of mesengers to the community for sanitation awareness. For this, a non-verbal approach was chosen, as per the integrated design solution, i.e. making the toilet itself, the medium for communication. Based on their hitherto knowledge about sanitation, practised through

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the lagori game, the children were asked to think of what messages they would like to give out to the community. They were asked to brainstorm on an illustration which they themselves would paint on a big wall outside the toilet.

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Based on their ideas and suggestions I worked out a quick sketch for them to understand. As the children could not come up with a common agreement on the design, we decided to go with the flow, and painting according to the majority view. Most of the elements from the Lagoris were included in the basic lay-out.


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After the graphics were lightly penciled on the wall, the children confidently started painting. As the messages were something they were well versed with , they seemed to have complete ownership of the work. The children were throughout enthusiastic, and the passers-by noticed that the children of different age-groups and belonging to different Mandals were co-ordinating with each other to create art, without quarrelling amongst themselves. This was a rare sight for the community folks. This was expressed by one of the women by-standers.

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This remark sounded a brief hope, that similar community spirirt could also be achieved by engaging the older community members in creative activities.


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Scope for Refinement Refinement:

Observation:

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The game successfully created a culture of group activity. The children were more interested in the thrill of winning, while the sanitation values became redundant over time. None the less however, the game became a channel for daily exposure to the messages. The children would wait for the decided time of 6 P.M. everyday and take the set of lagoris and ran to the garden to begin playing. A couple of times it so happened that they started the game out of impatience, without the mediator, but then as soon as the volunteer arrived, they would want to start afresh in the ‘mediated’ style, as it gave them a more competitive high, and prevented the errant and non-serious children from disturbing the game. Slowly, some young teenaged boys from the community, who would witness the game everyday, decided to join in as volunteers. They would take turns alternate days to mediate the game in the evenings. They did this purely out of their fondness of the children, and their perceived significance of the cause. After around two weeks of play practice, the children were found quizzing each other as to which item qualified as dry or wet waste, or they were found teasing someone among them for urinating in public, or found checking each other’s nails. These signs definitely pointed to

the fact that the game design as a solution was working. The indicators though were not clinical, or able to be established on paper, but merely observational and experiential. After the painting of graphic messages on toilet walls, the children got a new confidence, a validation of their qualification as knowledgeable exponents of a cause. Throughout the painting session, as people would stop by, the children would themselves explain the graphics and boast of their sanitation rules.

The jury gave a feedback that the use of board pins to ‘stand’ the lagoris was rather crude. The basic flaw in the plan was that the pin was longer than the thickness of the disc, and would make the head peep out from the top, and prick the hands. Even though while assembling, care was taken not to push the pin too much, through regular use while playing, the pins would get pushed further in. The jury shed light on this disfunctional aspect — since the lagori was meant to be played by children no less, it posed serious harm and this aspect needed revision. I addressed this by a simple solution, i.e. discarding the use of board pins altogether and instead using cork-shaped pieces of the same material sourced through the same market and attaching them to the base with thin bendable nails, which would be hammered flatfrom the top after nailing in the feet. The print would be pasted on top of the flattened nail, thus ruling out any possibility of injury.


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Children jubiliating as their Pilot Project ends. The children celebrated by performing dances and skits and prepared a snack to share amongst themselves. The Mandals competed with each other over dance performances and acrobatics. This was a revelation that their tendency to fight had been channelised into a healthy competition based on talent.

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/ Notes

Leveraging cultural context is absolutely essential to arrive at an appropriate strategy which achieves more than an attitudinal shift. An integrated approach should be considered but needs to be followed cautiously so that the community Does not feel coerced, leading to a situation of fatigue. Approach should not result in cynicism. Each community, region or country needs to work out what is the most sensible and cost effective way of thinking about sanitation in the short and long term and then act accordingly. Flexibility and pragmatism should be the key words – and both professionals and politicians need to try and see past “experience” and ideas which are developed elsewhere – a pragmatic local approach with an eye to wider environmental issues is likely to result in more progress than blind adherence

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/ Questions

Is the community response equating to a continued positive feeling about the toilet block?

Not each and every child and individual is involved in the actual process. How is the campaign affecting them?

Only sanitation related activities are not enough. Their motivations need to be enticed and nourished. What more can I do parallely to keep the community spirit high for the entire length of the campaign?

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Learnings Even in the urban areas where one presumes majority of populace to be educated, there’s a dire need to create awareness about the significance of sanitation and hygiene along with the ways of improving it, especially amongst the slum dwellers and working class. Schools should make it compulsory to hold some kind of weekly sanitation classes that adopt a practical approach rather than being a mere definition.. Municipal bodies need to come up with more effective schemes for sewer disposal and better sanitation programmes. Government has formulated various policies such as National Urban Sanitation Policy etc for this purpose, but there is a need to implement them sternly. Otherwise it may prove to be hazardous, leading to epidemics and diseases like malaria and so on, thereby hindering all constructive programmes. It is the need of the hour to take some strict measures in this regard before it is too late.

While the empowerment of some communities of the urban poor has the potential to improve their capacity to make demands upon the state to provide them with basic needs as adequate sanitation, safe drinking water and affordable housing, the major question remains how this can be achieved for all urban communities in India in an equitable manner.Working with community is largely different from working on mass scale health awareness. Working with communities is for one is certainly does not end with framing messages. Messages are there, and they can be confirmed through research. The favourable target audience may be picked out. But communicating with them solely for ‘making them aware’ is where most of us may lose out on a great potential. Communication with communities should be at its least, purposeless. It is on a purposeless relationship, that effortless communication stands.

The first thing I understood very well was that graphic design is not ‘problem solving’. How much ever I get close to appropriate comunication ‘solution’, I reach a new problem. Graphic design cannot solve the problem but just enhance the beauty of the problems we create as human beings. Secondly, what ‘I’ consider a problem as a designer or client is often not a problem for the intended receivers of communication. I therefore learnt to accept my insignificance as a communicator as well as the insignificance of what I glorified as a problem. The only vital thing for me as a communicator was to understand my personal motivation to communicate; then, to understand the motivation of the intended communication receivers, to listen. Objective and message may form the basis of communication. However that is incomplete in social sector. For a large period, complete lack of objective and an ear for listening to messages rather than giving out yours, is equally important.

CONCLUSION

Rather than addressing ‘issues’ we can invest in addressing ‘communities’ as per their distinct needs and wants, similar to adopted villages. Dedicated ‘individuals’ are necessary rather than dedicated ‘organizations’ for betterment/ advancement of communities.

Objective and message may form the basis of communication. However that is incomplete in social sector. For a large period, complete lack of objective and an ear for listening to messages rather than giving out yours, is equally important.

learnings

The government must understand that creating mere toilet structures will not lead to change; instead the focus should also be on behavioural change. A massive educational campaign to explain the correlation between poor sanitation and its ill-effects on health should be launched. Secondly, ignorance towards bathroom etiquette in public toilets by some could turn off others and divert them to open defecation. School curriculum should touch upon this topic and at least train the future drivers of this country.

Caste mindset is the root cause of the sanitation issues. The idea that it is not my job to clean, is at the base of most of the human behaviour associated with toilets.


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Learnings Jury Feedback and Improvisation: The project was presented to a four-member jury panel including the project guide Mr. Rupesh Vyas, Professor Immannuel Suresh, External jury member Ms. Lakshmi Murhty, chaired by Professor Subir Das, When the project was presented to the the jury, I received a mixed feedback. While the jury was satisfied with the depth of study, observation and insights, the presentation of the same was falling short. Ms. Lakshmi Murthy opined that being a graphic design student much better presentation in terms of layout and drawing skills was expected of me. Foe the same reason, the course of the project and the focus was lost on the jury members.

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INTRODUCTION CONCLUSION

Ms. Lakshmi Murthy laid emphasis on the concept of ‘sanitation ladder’ which was not mentioned in the document earlier. Professor Immannuel Suresh shed some important insights on the caste angle of the sanitary workers, which made me relook at the way I had represented the same in the document. Professor Subir Das pointed out a practical flaw in the production design, which was the pointed end of the pins, peeping out from the top of the discs. This was indeed a shabby juxtaposition, which, I reworked, as mentioned under ‘Scope for Refinement’.

Mr. Rupesh Vyas expressed the view that the documentation should be well designed in terms of the flow and the presentation, in a way that it serves as a point of reference for further projects undertaken in Sanitation. The jury chorused this view and advised me to take a new approach towards the document and redo the same as a follow-up.

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The living environments of the very poorest citizens

will determine the health and morbidity of the richest

households in Pune. We are all part of the same health and hygiene eco-system and the conditions of all

urban dwellers will be no better than the hutment dweller in the most inhumane settlement. Unless

we reach the most humble family in Pune and make

them true citizens, we are depriving ourselves and our CONCLUSION

— Prof. Christopher Benninger

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children of a healthy city.


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/Bibliography

Books Noble, Ian. Bestley, Russell. Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methodologies in Graphic Design. UK: AVA Publishing, 2004 Chaplin, Susan E. Politics of Sanitation in India. Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd., 2011 Kumar, Alok. Squatting with Dignity — Lessons from India. Delhi: Sage Publications, 2010 MASHAL. Pune City Slum Atlas. Pune: Self, 2012 Rao, Ratna N. Social Organization in an Indian Slum: Study of a Caste Slum. New Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1990

E-books IDEO. Human Centered Design.

Films Q2P. Dir. Vohra, Paromita. PUKAR, 2006. Film.

Bhatia, Ritu. “No toilet no bride mandate.” India Today. 28 Oct. 2012 <http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/jairam-ramesh-toilet-bride-remark-rajasthanwomen/1/226570.html> bibliography

INTRODUCTION CONCLUSION

Websites

Ohri, Ekta. “Bringing the Pieces of the Jigsaw Together.” Design Public. 13 Dec. 2012 <http://designpublic.in/blog/bringing-the-pieces-of-the-jigsaw-together-2/> <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_India>


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/Bibliography

<http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/page/clts-approach> < http://www.core77.com/blog/sustainable_design/bill_gates_wont_put_up_with_your_crap_23323.asp > <http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/NUSP.pdf> < http://www.who.int/gpsc/tools/Five_moments/en/ > < http://www.livemint.com/Politics/lZWxNeyLwmnakjG8GrWh9M/Led-by-census-towns-migration-mixes-up-urbanization.html > <http://www.sulabhinternational.org/sm/magnitude_sanitation_problemnational_global.php> < http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0fnl2.2--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0--4----0-0-11-100utfZz-8-00&cl=CL2.6&d=HASHd07f7f77ec65edc9d3b37c.9&gt=1 > < http://www.sparcindia.org/docs/punesanitation.do > < http://www.sswm.info/sites/default/files/reference_attachments/SNEL%202003%20School%20Sanitation%20and%20Hygiene%20Education.pdf, http:// www.sswm.info/sites/default/files/reference_attachments/SNEL%202003%20School%20Sanitation%20and > <http://www.archidev.org/IMG/pdf/Cities_sewers_and_poverty_India_s_politics_of_sanitation.pdf, http://www.archidev.org/IMG/pdf/Cities_sewers_and_ poverty_India_s_politics_of_sanitation.pdf> < http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/NUSP.pdf, http://urbanindia.nic.in/programme/ > CONCLUSION

bibliography

< http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/open-page/article3364927.ece >


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