Page 1

Contents Introduction


Part 1: Premise of the study




1.1 Contextualizing the Idea …………………………………………………………………….. 1.1.1 Narrative and Narrative structure (General Overview) 1.1.2 Narrative and Architecture (Approaches till now) 1.2 Aspects of Narrative Structure in Architecture …………………………………… 1.2.1 Idea of Inside and Outside 1.2.2 Idea of Individual and Social 1.2.3 Order of Making


(Introduction to the concepts)

Part 2: The study


……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

(Interpretation and experimentation)

2.1 The Experiment (Deriving a Method) …………................................................ 2.2 The Method …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.3 The Case Studies ………………………………………………………………………………. 2.3.1 Criteria of Selection 2.3.2 The Drawings …………………………………………………………………………… 2.3.3 The Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………..


19 37 38 39 43

……………………………………………………………………………………………................ 69

(Observations and derivations)

Narrative as a means of Suspending Contradictions …………………………………… 71

Illustration Credits Bibliography References

Acknowledgement I am indebt to my guide, without whom, I cannot imagine this work reaching to the level where it is now. I thank him for all his time and guidance; he has been more than a guide: a Guru and an Inspiration. I would like to thank my father and Rekha aunty for editing the work. I thank the school for providing the environment and facilities and library staff for their support. At last but not the list, I thank my family for their love and support throughout the journey, my friends for being so much fun all the time.

Introduction Architecture is a complex phenomenon. It can be understood in many different ways. It can be understood by simple abstractions like plans and sections or it can be seen as a set of relationship between larger concepts of form – space – context or it can be studied through concepts of geometry, rhythm, symmetry, order and so on. Some philosophers like Martin Heidegger, Norberg Schulz, Vincent Scully defined architecture as concretization of fundamental existential situations of man and his surroundings where on the other hand, architects like Le Corbusier, Mies Van-der-rohe demonstrated a more rational way of looking at architecture. This study tries to understand architecture as ‘narration’ and assumes that as narration, architecture conveys values of nature and society through crafting. In order to understand any complex phenomena, one has to understand the structure underlying it. And to understand the structure, one has to study the component parts, relationship between those parts and the purpose that it serves. Similarly, in order to understand architecture as narration, one has to study the narrative structure of architecture. The study deals with two major questions: Does architecture have a narrative structure? If yes then, what is the characteristic of this narrative structure? It first tries to discuss the aspects of narrative structure and theorise them. The further investigation happens by taking concrete examples of dwellings across the globe to understand the underlying relations of humans to nature, to other human beings and to material phenomena and techniques. And concludes that the narrative structure consists of parts, that are tangible elements and intangible formations in architecture, relationship between these parts, that is the relationship mentioned above and the meaning these relationships convey.


The first part tries to locate this study in the larger context of studies in the field of architecture and narration. The study assumes architecture and narrative as one, instead of two individual fields that support each other. It then discusses the idea of ‘inside and outside’ as abstract phenomena behind human-nature relationship, ‘individual and social’ as abstract idea behind human to human relationship and the material phenomena and techniques which concretise these phenomena; that is the ‘order of making’. The second part takes a lot of houses as examples, on which the above theory is tested. It then comes up with a methodology to study narrative structure of architecture and applies this method on two examples in more depth. At last the study concludes that narrative structure can be studied as the relationship between tangible elements such as room, ground, sky; and intangible formations such as solidity, fragility, light, dark, rough, smooth so on and so forth. Togetherness of both tangible elements and intangible formations gives architecture a particular character and formulates a narrative; the narrative that talks about their value. Every culture or an individual views the relationships to nature and society differently and values them accordingly. And the togetherness of all these relationships is what narrative structure is all about.


Part 1: Premise of the study (Introduction to the concepts)



1.1 Contextualizing the Idea As the title suggests, the study focuses on the structure of narration manifested through architecture. This chapter tries to put the study into the larger context of studies on narrative and architecture. It also tries to explain the terms ‘narrative’ and ‘narrative structure’ in detail to avoid any misconceptions.

1.1.1 Narrative and Narrative Structure Narration is an act of carefully choosing particular or important events through time and relating them in a specific order. And the result of this process is a story about something also called a Narrative. The narrative comes into existence when it is being represented through expressive articulated form such as language, painting or architecture. It takes place in time and context which are variable. However, the idea in the narrative remains constant. For example, the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata both are stories of good and evil in different times, plotted in different contexts. But the idea of good versus evil and good always winning, remains the same in both the epics. Narrative structure is not the same as the narrative itself. In Ramayana, one can start by telling the story of Ravan kidnapping Sita and how it happened and then introduce Rama, how he was born and who he was. One can narrate the same story in many different ways but the set of relationships between all the characters; such as relationship between the father and the son, the son and his brother, the son and his wife and so on, always remains the same. Similarly, architectural experience as narration can vary depending on who is experiencing and when, but the set of relationships in architecture remains the same and that is called structure of narration, Narrative structure consists of the component parts, the relationship between those parts and the meaning or purpose that these relationships serve.


But why tell stories? Why narrate? Stories are a medium through which values of different kinds are conveyed very easily, values that are difficult to understand and internalise in their pure form. Just as in other artistic expressions, in architecture too, narrative may convey the value of human to nature and inter-human relationships. It also conveys the value of crafting or the appropriate order of making when two or more things come together. Stories of Panchtantra, communicates the value of relationship between human beings and how these relationships work. The Story of Ramayana communicates the value of an ideal life and an ideal way of doing things and Mahabharata teaches the value of ‘doing’ or action. In Indian contexts, stories are also the means of continuing or transferring knowledge to the next generation allowing for improvisation required for a different time and generation. In the field of narratology, many scholars have tried to understand the structure underlying narration or the story. Vladimir Propp was a folklorist who studied the morphology of folktales. He examined about a hundred Russian fairytales and came up with an underlying structure of characters, functions they perform and the way the stories are combined.¹ A.K. Ramanujan in his essay “Three hundred Ramayanas” says that there is no structure that underlies the narrative, everything is contextual.² Proff. Paniker studied Indian narratology and found that there are seven aspects that remain constant in any Indian narration.³

1 Propp, Vladimir.Morphology of Folktale. Austin: Americal folklore society and indiana university, 1968. 2 Ramanujan, A. K. The Collected Essays of A. K. Ramanujan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999. 3Paniker, Dr K. Ayyappa. Indian Narratology. Sterling, 2003.

1.1.2 Narrative and Architecture Narrative and Architecture are two fields that are deeply related to each other. Many scholars and students have tried to look at both of these together to understand their relationship. These approaches can largely be divided into three categories. First, where architecture supports narration; second, where narration supports architecture; and third, where architecture and narrative is single entity.


Most narratives of places, travel stories or for that matter any fiction or nonfiction, fall under the first category where architecture is a backdrop for events to happen. Particularly the narrative books on history describe the architecture of cities or palaces and houses in great detail to explain the characteristics of that time. The second is where narration is part of architecture. This involves description of a building narrated by someone and architectural experience narrated by different people. The cultural and social meaning of architecture also falls under this category. The approach that not many people have taken is architecture as narrative, where Architecture narrates about itself and at the end itself becomes narrative. Thus, architecture and narrative do not remain separate and become single entity, the narrative that narrates itself. This is the approach on which this study is based. What is meant by that is, architecture also communicates, like language and art, it is also an expressive articulated form that conveys values. In fact it is the oldest form of art that symbolizes preferred relationships through the act making. And to understand these relationships, one has to study the narrative structure of architecture.


1.2 Aspects of Narrative Structure in Architecture Architecture is a story of human being on Earth. It is a story of a person’s existence in this world. As a narrative, architecture may convey the value of her relationship to other things such as nature, other human beings and the act of making. All these three are the basic relationships that a human is subjected to and hence, makes up the structure underlying the narration. 1.2.1 Idea of Inside and Outside The binary of Inside and Outside has its existence since the first living being on earth. Vegetation, Insects, animals and birds all have a bodily ‘inside’ and what is beyond the body is ‘outside’ but they are not aware of it. The human is the only being who is conscious of this difference and reacts to it. Through the feeling of hunger and the growing child in the womb, this bodily inside became evident and the sense of outside became more powerful. This relation between inside and outside is also a way of signifying human relationship to nature. Definition of inside and outside has kept changing through time as well as in scale. Starting from the level of body, it expands itself to the level of the world today. The questions one needs to ask are: What is an inside? How to recognise it? What is it like to be inside? To understand the Inside, one has to first understand what the Outside is. Outside have two meanings: one which is more physical and another which is psychological. Outside is something where the body is subjected to natural forces such as sun, wind, rain and so on; and outside is also something that is unknown to one’s body and mind. For an example, the garden inside the wall of my house is an outside at the same time, the house of an unknown person is also an outside to me. But here in this study, the physical meaning of outside is important. Outside is there everywhere. It has no limits, no boundaries. It is vast, full of light in the day and full of darkness in the night. It is unknown and mysterious, and can be wild and dangerous.


‘Inside’ is different from outside, though it is always a part of the ‘outside’. It is something one finds or makes. It is something that is opposite to the outside in its primitive sense. It is limited and defined, secure and protected, known and habitable, generally dark and tactile. Light and shadow are the two essential elements which generate a sense of being inside, whereas physical elements such as wall, roof or togetherness of both, makeup the inside. For instance, let’s imagine a desert which is vast and seems unlimited. One can see the horizon on all four sides; it’s full of sun and wind. Now, imagine single tree here which in the full sun is casting a shadow. This shadow changes with time and therefore the space being shadowed changes in location and size too. Would you call this shadowed space an ‘inside’? It cannot be bound nor is it stable but because of the shadow, the space is defined. It is cooler and somewhat more comfortable than the space beyond it. Let’s take another example, that of a forest: a deep and dark forest, full of tall and dense trees where one cannot see any uncovered ground nor one can see the sky. It is an ‘outside’ but also a potentially dangerous inside, where one cannot see beyond a few feet. One doesn’t know what is hiding behind the trees; the diversity of smell and sounds of birds turns the whole environment into chaotic complexity. One feels lost. It is vast but not visually penetrable, it limits but itself is unlimited. Though the physical qualities indicate it to be an ‘inside’ but the sense is of being outside. Here the sense of being inside would come from feeling secure and protected from potential dangers. In the desert however it comes from feeling comfortable. Unless one builds or defines an enclosure, the ‘inside’ and the ‘outside’ are difficult to explain in an explicit manner.


Let us talk about two most basic enclosures: the Cave and the Pavilion. Both represent the two opposite extremes of ‘inside’. These two are the purest forms of inside-outside relationships and all the other forms are a mixture of these two in different proportions. These two insides are very different from each other and relate differently to the outside. The cave is a completely closed form with a single opening to the outside. It is physically separated and isolated from the outside. It is dark and deep which gives a sense of containment. The Cave through its thick massive surface, defines ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ as separate entities, completely opposite to each other. It is like a protected womb where the child is safe in a controlled environment. The narrowness and low height of the entrance of the cave strengthens the feeling of being inside. On the other hand the Pavilion is something that has only a roof and is open on all four sides. It is a part of the outside and does not allow for hiding but instead allows for viewing and becomes a place of vantage. It sometimes blends with the ground and sometimes stands out with a plinth. If we talk about the primitive pavilion of Stonehenge, it marks out a circular periphery by using stone blocks, high enough to evoke a sense of being held within. It does not have any sides; it symbolizes the World as a space that surrounds the body. It shares the same ground that the space beyond has but only by the act of bounding a part of the ground, it marks a limit of inside space. To make an ‘inside’ is also to make boundaries and marking territory. Most animals and birds have their own territory that is marked by smell. Human beings use physical elements such as plinth, wall and paving to mark their territory. Sometimes they also use natural elements such as rivers, the sea or mountains to do the same. Territoriality creates a sense of belonging to the place that is known to you. And this in turn makes the sense of being ‘inside’ more intense.

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The relationship between inside and outside has changed throughout time and so has the meaning of it. Today the difference between them has become least evident. The ‘inside’ has become more like an ‘outside’ with the use of transparent covering materials. Before the outside with nature was something to fear and now, it has become something to enjoy. Before, it was something to participate in whereas now, it is something to be looked at. The manner in which an opening is made in a wall and the way that wall sits on the ground talks about the relationship of the human being to the outside world. A small opening high on a wall, suggests that the world outside is dangerous. In order to feel safe, no one should be able to look inside the enclosure and no one should be able to look outside; that is the way to be safe. The same opening beneath eye level suggests that the world outside is wild and dangerous but one has to see what is out there to overcome it. On the other hand the full height opening or a transparent wall says that it is beautiful out there, perhaps not comfortable but pleasant to the eyes, welcoming it to be part of the inside. These relationships can be divided largely into three groups. One, where nature dominates, second, where there is human domination and third, where no one dominates but there is harmony. For example, Indian temples which are carved as if they are made out of wood is where Man dominates the very nature of stone, the pyramid where the stone dominates and Islamic architecture where neither dominates but both come together as equals and create beautiful harmony. This study will analyse these relationships in detail in the coming chapters.

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1.2.2 Idea of Individual and Social It is accepted everywhere that the human is a social being. From the womb, she first builds a relationship to her mother and through the act of birth, she further relates to her family. While growing, she becomes related to more and more people in different ways. These social relationships strengthen the roots of one’s existence. By knowing the people around and the space around, one develops a sense of belonging and hence the sense of being ‘inside’. To be social is to have shared thoughts and shared identity. Being social gives recognition to an individual, connects an individual to something higher in meaning, gives security and power. For example, to say that I am a Hindu and not simply Chamanbhai or Maganbhai, gives one’s existence a higher meaning. The social is bound to follow the rules of the society. For instance, in Indian society, life of an individual is divided into four stages. Hindus call it the ‘Ashramas’: ‘Brahmcharyashram’ (student life), ‘Gruhasthashrama’ (Household), ‘Vanprasthashrama’ (post household stage) and ‘Sannyasashram’ (old age). Here Brahmcharya is where a child is not bound by rules and is free to explore the world. Snayasa is where a person having passed through social life is now set free to go within and find his own true self. Gruhasthashrama is where a person is fully involved in social life and learns to live in society whereas Vanprasthasrama is where a person passes the knowledge and wisdom of his experiences in life to the next generation. Indian philosophy balances both the social and the individual aspect in a well structured manner.

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To be an individual is to have one’s own thoughts and identity. To be an individual means to have freedom of choosing what to do and what not to do. The individual is not bound by the rules of society or rather is free to choose which rules to follow and which to ignore. To give a child a name is the first act towards creating her individuality, then comes her education and then the practical work in the field. The individual and the social does not exist separately, they exist together. No person is only social being or only an individual. She is an individual who lives in society. The first name of a child also has the family name along with it. The thoughts that one claims to be her own, are essentially thoughts of people who influenced her. But she is herself because she is all these people together in some proportion that is unique to her. In different societies, the importance of the social and the individual is different. In African tribes, a single person means little and the group is more important. If one looks at the great epics of India: Ramayana and Mahabharata, they are both stories of social interaction. The family, the people around the individual has been given as much importance as the individual like Rama or Arjuna. They are bound to serve society but stand out also as ideal individuals. Each character has own individuality. On the other hand, in the modern or the post renaissance society, the individual is celebrated and the social is to make the life of an individual more fruitful. If we relate the social and the individual to spaces, the ‘outside’ stands for the social and the ‘inside’ stands for the individual. But it is not as simple as that since the room or ‘inside’ is a space for the individual as well as for the family. And outside where people are unknown, the sense of individuality among them is much stronger than between known people. It is this contradiction of relationships between the two ideas that is the heart of a narrative.

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1.2.3 Order of Making Way of making or order of making is an integral part of the narrative structure of architecture. The way something is made, says a lot about what it stands for. For example in a painting, the way the strokes are made, and the kind of colour used, convey the mood of that particular painting, irrespective of the object that has been depicted. Or in a roman sculpture, the way details of the body as well as the cloth she is wearing is carved, makes you wonder whether it is really made out of stone or marble. Similarly in architecture, the manner in which a building is being made, the way all the elements come together or the way material is being used, suggests a lot about the larger narrative. For instance, the tomb, made to be the same on all four sides, not responding to the immediate context, sits firmly on the ground as a powerful object ruling over the most precious aspect of life that is Time. It reaches out to the sky announcing its existence and suggests the timelessness of its form. It seems to convey that death is just another beginning, beginning of the timeless world. On the other hand, the dwellings of African tribes stand for the uncertainty of life and deaths, letting their houses made of mud and straw dissolve into the earth again. Or the way massive rock of Kailash Temple at Ellora is cut and made to sit on the comparatively thin columns of the same stone and not the other way round, is as much astonishing to the sight as the beautifully carved stone jali of SidiSaiyyed at Ahmedabad. It shows the ability of its creator to master the material fully. Similarly if you look at the surface of the concrete walls at ATMA House, the concrete is used as a texture to create the drama of light and shadow and to give the space another dimension. In this building, what is most striking, is the uniqueness of the staircase connecting the second floor to the mezzanine. Here the concrete is casted using diagonal shuttering of wood, going against the granular un-patterned character of raw concrete. The vertical plane gets another dimension through the shadow casting at a diagonal to the vertical. - 14 -

All of these are made visible through the contrast created or the sense of unity brought about. It could be the contrast between different materials or a contrasting way of using the material as in Ellora. In the case of the tomb there is complete sense of unity of the same material and in the use of it but the contrast is created between the tomb and the surrounding context trough scale, precision and completeness of its form. Or in the case of IIM Ahmedabad, where the complete sense of unity of the brick with the massiveness of the structure, speaks of the gravity that is embedded within. On the other hand in ATMA House, a contrast is created through the play of light and shadow. Interestingly, in every example, what seems to have a sense of unity in one context appears to have contrasts in another, it is also true other way around. There are some examples that show gradual transformation of matter, whereas some that juxtaposes absolute opposites. In any Hindu Temple, the form gradually emerges out of the ground and the mass keeps decreasing as it rises up and ends in a point. The carving on the surface makes it look less heavy and more delicate. Also the space inside the temple changes gradually in scale, the dark and enclosed ‘Garbhgriha’ gradually transforms into a bright and more open ‘sabhamandapa’. On the other hand, the Haveli at Ahmedabad is a fine combination of wood and stone but in a different manner. Unlike the temples of Kerala where the wooden roof supported with carved wooden brackets, sits on the tapering stone columns which then rest upon the heavy stone plinth, the Haveli has a screen of ‘Zarukha’, beautifully carved out of wood. This screen is stuck to the massive wall made out of yellow sand stone blocks, the massiveness and plainness of the stone wall and the delicacy and texture of the wood are put together as absolute opposites.

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Part 2: The study (Interpretation and experimentation)

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2.1 The Experiment This part of the thesis tries to derive a method to analyse architecture in terms of narrative structure. As written in the first chapter, architecture as a narration conveys how a particular society or culture views the relations between humans and nature, humans with other humans and the relation of humans to material phenomena and techniques. The dwelling being the first institution set up by mankind, it is assumed that amongst all the other institutions, it shows these relationships in the clearest manner. Dwellings are more simply manifested and modest. Moreover, they have similar characteristics and have been designed for a group of human beings called family. Other public institutions built for religion, education, entertainment or larger economic purposes may strive for larger meanings and relationships, but they would perhaps be of high complexity and more elaborate. Keeping in mind that the study is an initial attempt in such a direction, these complex institutions are left for higher level of research and are avoided at this level. The study also assumes that houses built by non-architects also stand for larger relationships as much as the ones designed consciously by architects. Therefore, both form a part of the study. The experiment below talks about how – by picking certain things from the formal plan or section – through diagrams these relationships can be brought out. It is through studying the relationships between the Inside and the Outside that one can study Human to Nature and Human to Human relationships. As discussed before, inside is something that is enclosed and outside is something that is open to all the forces of nature: Sun, Wind, Ground and Sky. But it is not that simple. The outside is also a place where interactions between people take place, and sometimes, the inside is also open and subjected to natural forces.

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In the case of Havelis of Rajasthan, the courtyard is an inside that signifies a kind of outside, whereas in the case of African compound, the big open space encircled with dwellings, is an outside that feels like an inside. The courtyard of Sanskar Kendra display relationship between Inside and Outside in altogether differently. The building lifts itself on columns and the ground becomes porous, the courtyard sits in the middle of the building, open but still bounded. Is it an inside or an outside?

Fig. 1 Patwon ki Haveli, Jaisalmer From:Jain, Kulbhushan B and Minakshi Jain. Architecture of the Indian desert. Ahmedabad: AADI Centre, 2000, pg.100

The more an Inside is defined, more the definite relation between human and nature becomes. In the Haveli, the moment one climbs the steps and enters the house, one is completely inside. Here, what is inside and what is outside is made very clear. Whereas, if one talks about the African Homestead, the inside is still an outside and the distinction is not as clear as in the Haveli. In the Sanskar Kendra, the distinction becomes clear only when one leaves the ground and reaches to an elevated level. Otherwise, the inside seems connected to the outside. As written above, relationship between inside and outside can also be looked at as reflection on inter human relationships. They show how a particular family or group of individuals locate themselves into this society and the kind of relationship they hold with the outside world. For an example, house of a Brahmin in Kerala holds a very specific kind of relationship with houses of other castes of the same village. Brahmins are considered the highest caste amongst all and their houses reflect that. The social space is designed in such a manner that the rank of the other caste stays visible. The private core of the house is separated visually and is least connected physically, which suggests that people of lower class are not allowed to enter the house beyond a certain limit, they are considered impure and are supposed to remember that. On the other hand, Farnsworth House with its transparency denies the rules or needs of society of having private enclosed space.

Fig. 2 African Homestead From:Bourdier, Jean Paul and Trinht Minh-ha. African spaces : designs for living in upper volta. New York: Africana Pubg. Co., 1985,pg.143.

Fig. 3 Courtyard of Sanskar Kendra, Ahmedabad From:

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These ideas of Inside and Outside also express what is the place of human in the World and what is the place of nature.

Fig. 4 Villa Rotonda, Vicenza From: Smienk, Gerrit and Niemeijer, Johannes. Palladio, the villa and the landscape. Basel: Birkhauser, 2011, pg.125.

Fig. 3 Column of Villa Savoye and Islamic Mosque

The order of making that is the way a building is physically made, also suggests the relation a person has with the Universe. Largely, it is an individual’s interpretation of the Universe but sometimes the same is accepted by a larger group. For an example, the way Villa Rotunda is made, the cube form responding to the cardinal directions and the dome making the vertical direction visible, says something about the nature or the structure of the Universe. Also at the level of an element, it says something similar, the column in an Islamic Mosque that has a foot and a head, sense of what is up and down, sense of gravity. The formal changes in the column, interprets the truth of the Universe in a way. On the other hand, the column at Villa Savoye reveals something else. The circular column shows no differentiation between up and down; and no directionality other than the vertical. Thus, it emphasises abstract geometrical relationships rather than earth-bound gravity. The following examples will discuss all these relationships trough diagrams in detail.

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The Search

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Human and Nature It can be said that relationship between the inside and the outside World can be understood through the study of formal and special relationships between them. Let us first consider, the outside World as the natural surroundings and conditions. The way formal qualities of architecture has been laid out, tells about its relationship to the nature. In African Homestead, its non-symmetrical and almost irregular arrangement of the form suggests its inclination to the circumstances of life and death; it is submissive to the unpredictable nature of the deserted land. By organizing individual huts in a circular pattern at most proximity, all facing inside and showing their back to the outside world (Fig. 6), it builds a thick wall of protection from the outside forces and tries to create a protective inside space for their cattle and grains(Fig. 7). On the other hand, if we look at the Villa Rotonda, it sits on a hill in a natural place, as an absolute symmetrical object (Fig. 8), not responding to the immediate surroundings, keeping its distance and showing power, representing someone who can dominate nature. (Fig. 9). Falling Water on the other hand neither try to dominate nature nor allow itself to be submissive to nature. Though it has right angles and displays intellectual precision, its form has a very responsive nature. It allows nature to knock right at the door but does not permit to come inside easily (Fig. 10). The core part of the house can be seen as a wall that adjusts itself to the contour. The whole is made of planes that go in and out into the surroundings as required (Fig. 11). Villa Shodhan does show object like qualities (Fig. 12), but it does not sit passive in its surroundings. All four facades of the cube are subjected to the different conditions of nature and modify the cube accordingly (Fig. 13). Farnsworth House is a beautiful object of transparency and precision. Though its rectilinear form stretches itself out to its surroundings in one direction, the coming together of both the platforms suggest the most important direction, that is, the direction facing the river (Fig. 14). - 24 -

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Also the way a house sits on the ground or ends up vertically towards the sky, says a lot about the relationship it tries to make with nature. In Farnsworth House, the whole transparent viewing platform stands on slender legs, careful enough not to touch the ground and float in the air. This perhaps expresses the sense that Human beings are intelligent and able enough to deal with unpredictive nature (Fig. 15). Falling Water also floats in the air above the sloping ground and running stream of water. Perhaps this expresses something similar (Fig. 16). One always looks down from the terrace which gives one a sense of power and the house becomes a vantage point (Fig. 17). It perhaps says that, to enjoy nature one does not have to live in it; one can enjoy its beauty even while sitting in comfortable environment. Villa Rotonda also says something similar but in a very different manner. It does not touch the ground directly too but sits on a high plinth, on a high platform and on the top of a hill (Fig. 18). It says that human being are the highest amongst all the living things in this world including nature because they know how to use it for their own benefit. On the very opposite, the African Homestead comes out of the ground like a small sand dune (Fig. 19), the hut merges with the ground again when the occupant of any house dies. It lives in and with nature. Here, the relationship is more of a participant rather than an observer or modifier. In Kerala, the ground is made to be an important part of the house itself. It goes up and down hosting different activities and making different spaces inside the house (Fig. 20). It perhaps expresses the sense that nature and human are part of each other, they both are equally important. The Japanese House, like the Farnsworth House, sits carefully on the ground on thin legs, allowing the ground to flow free from below. This way the house does not set itself on the higher ground from nature. Moreover, the fragile and open quality of its built form makes it part of the nature (Fig. 21). It says that nature is sometimes unpredictable but most of the time it is beautiful and meditative. One cannot completely live in the nature but can try to live in harmony with nature. Villa Shodhan shows an interesting take, it sits on the ground, letting the bare ground touch its walls on all four sides. It accepts co-existence with nature while maintains its individuality and identity as an object (Fig. 22).

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It is rather interesting to see how a house ends vertically to meet the sky. Sometimes it does not respond to the sky, sometimes it invites the sky inside and sometimes it duplicates the idea of the sky. In Farnsworth House, the house does not respond to the sky at all, its horizontal flat planes do not allow any interaction with sky (Fig. 23). The House in Kerala invites sky right in the inside of the house by making a courtyard. It also tries to hold sky there by going deep into the ground (Fig. 24). At the same time, the house rises towards the sky and ends at a point into the sky(Fig. 25). In the case of Villa Rotonda, it makes a replica of the sky by making a dome. It also rises from the earth and meets the sky at a point, showing the importance of the vertical axis (Fig. 26). Villa Shodhan again in a very different way receives the sky by making a container-like mezzanine under the puncture in the roof that brought the sky in. Interestingly this space is not accessible, from the space below the sky appears and disappears as one move into the space(Fig. 27). Again in the case of African Homestead, the sky is caught through the courtyard spaces. It creates a secure outside within(Fig. 28). Alvar Aalto’s Experimental House, on the other hand, tries to merge all the elements of nature into one space, that is, the courtyard made by high walls on two sides and the house on the other two(Fig. 29). The fire place at the centre, the nature around, the sky above and the wind that flow freely from the openings in the walls, makes it a space that is outside as well as inside(Fig. 30). Also, the way the roof extends its wings high towards the sky, starting from the very core of the house, shows its efforts to reach out and collect the nature within, but the wall at the same time restricts its effort(Fig. 31).

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Interrelation and physical or visual connection between the inside and outside spaces also communicates larger relationships between human and nature. For instance, the full height glass facades of Farnsworth House make the inside look like an outside but feel like an inside. It is like inhabiting a viewing platform (Fig. 32). The house has another platform, lower than itself, directing the path towards the river, steps that gradually come down to the ground (Fig. 33). The physical transition between outside and the inside is not sudden, it is gradual. Whereas in the case of Villa Shodhan, such a gradual transition is not there, or is rather not as elaborate as in the Farnsworth House. It has a small cubical volume coming out from the bigger cube which acts as an in-between space. But also this volume gives a feeling of being inside (Fig. 34). In the case of Villa Rotonda, the act of entering an inside space is like a celebration, and the dome is the gesture of the achievement. To reach the inner core of the house, one has to pass through a set of spaces that keeps becoming more and more like an inside space (Fig. 35). Though, the House offers different vistas on all four sides yet the relationship is like the one of an observer or viewer (Fig. 36). Falling Water also offers the same, human as a viewer and nature as an object of enjoyment. Its huge open terraces jutting out from the house into the nature, provides different vistas on different sides (Fig. 37). It shows its power by retreating from the social life whereas Villa Rotonda does the same by becoming visible from far. In Villa Shodhan, the act of viewing is not of passively sitting and enjoying. It makes you move actively and enjoy. The house never opens up greatly on the sides but always opens up in the corners; it does not allow you to feel the nature (Fig 38).On the other hand, in the Japanese house, the movable partitions allow a full view of the nature but unlike Farnsworth house that only allows for viewing, it also allows to feel the nature. The varandah space that ends up in tiny steps going down to the ground is a gesture of care for nature (Fig. 39).

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Human and society To understand the inter-human relationship one has to derive interrelation of inside spaces and their connection to the outside world or the society. For instance, in the Keralian Gutthu House, a passage clearly divides the whole house into two parts, the private core and the social space (Fig. 1). Both these parts are different in nature: the private core is more centred towards the small courtyard whereas the two parts of the social space faces each other (Fig. 2). The private core is more of a closed space where only the family members are allowed and therefore is of an intimate scale. Whereas the social space is more open and larger in scale to accommodate meetings for social purposes (Fig. 3). This distinction has also made clear by the shifting axis of the house. It also has an intermediate space between the private and the social core as a barrier which speaks for their rules for the caste system and its seriousness (Fig. 4). In the African Compound, the womb like organization only has one entrance. This entrance leads to an intermediate space – the space of the holy spirits and the space of the oldest man of the compound – which then opens out to the outside world (Fig. 5). All the individual house hold have levels of security (Fig. 6), it shows their relationship to other human beings. As a compound they are highly dependent on social forms but as a family, they are group of individuals who have their own space within the family and also share the social space (Fig. 7). Both examples say that, nature is something that makes human life possible but human life is dependent on the social form. On the other hand, Falling Water, Farnsworth House and Villa Rotonda; all celebrate the individuality and relation to the nature whereas the social has been given least importance. Villa Shodhan, however, shows a balance between the social and the individual. The house can be looked at as a bunch of individual cubes coming together as a family and representing the social (Fig. 8). However, it has a very different approach for a stranger entering the house for the first time, giving a sense mysterious place. It is only known to the people who inhabit it. - 32 -

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The Order of Making The way architecture is made or the way parts come together speaks of the larger meaning it conveys. The way different elements come together or the way material is used, or details expressed by using the concepts of contrast and unity, gradual transformation or sudden change, talk about the larger narrative. In Villa Shodhan, the way parts (which are the individual cubes of volume) come together in a tight proximity and make a perfect outer form, probably says that, the world is made up of individuals that are closely related to each other as family to make the world perfect place to live (Fig. 1). This play with geometry along with regularity and irregularity too explore the relations between: intellectual perfection and physical imperfection, the cosmological and the earthly. The same may be said of the way matter is shaped. The way the horizontal and the vertical members comes together in Farnsworth House, supporting each other by touching and not allowing other to dominate, says that none is less important than the other. It says that each individual has different nature and they should be allowed to be what they are, even when they are in relationship with others (Fig. 2). Crisp, sharply outlined, smooth and shining materials along with details that respect the integrity of each part, display a mode of making that values intellectual and analytical clarity. In the case of Falling Water, the roughness of the stone masonry walls sets a high contrast with the planar, heavy looking huge slab and the linear quality of the openings through which the delicacy the nature is visible (Fig. 3). These different textures – of which some are tactile and some are visual – give a whole different view of the world around us. Whereas, in Villa Shodhan the material is all the same but the play is then created by light and shadow to make the space appear different all the time (Fig. 4). In the Japanese House, the contrast is between the house and the nature around. The modular and mathematical order of the house that comes from the arrangement of the mats, the thin sliding walls, and lifted wooden floor makes considerable contrast to the nature which is of a different order, ever changing and versatile. (Fig. 5) - 34 -

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As discussed earlier, the narrative structure consists of three things: the parts, the relationship between parts and the meaning or values that these relationships convey. The question remains is what are these parts? The answer depends on the scale at which one chooses to study the work of architecture. At one level, the built up and the open could be the parts and at another level all the elements of the house could be the parts. From the above studies one can say that, the parts here would be: the room, the base, the roof which relates to the Nature, the ground and to the sky. These are the basic parts of a built form and the relationship between them forms the narrative that is architecture itself. One can argue why the wall, column, plinth or built and open are not considered parts here. In architecture, the base, the room and the roof are basic parts and can be further defined physically and qualitatively. For example, whether the room is made up with walls or columns or both is considered as physical characteristics. Whereas whether it is enclosed and dark, or open and lit is considered as qualitative characteristics. In the same way, whether the base is made up as plinth or as platform or is going into the ground is the physical characteristics; and whether the base is rough or smooth, light or heavy is the qualitative characteristics. And same is true for the roof. Given the limitations of time, further detailed study has not been attempted here.

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2.2 The Method From the above experiment one can say that, to study narrative structure, one has to analyse: the parts, the relationship between parts and the purpose or the meaning that it conveys. So, the method that is followed to analyse two case studies is as under: 1 Architectural analysis of the Relationship between Nature and Humans These relationships can be studied by analysing building’s formal and spatial relations to the outside. These formal and special relations include:  Formal Relations - To the Surroundings - To the Ground - To the Sky  Spatial Relations - Physical Connections - Visual Connections 2 Architectural analysis of the Relationship among People These relationships can be studied by analysing the spatial relations between inside spaces and their connections to the outside.  Spatial Relations - Interrelation between Inside Spaces - Physical connection between Inside and Outside spaces 3 Architectural Analysis of Order of Making Order of making can be studied by analysing the coming together of different elements and the way of using different materials in architecture. 4 Identifying the Parts and defining them through - Physical Characteristics - Qualitative Characteristics

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2.3 The Case Studies This part of the study will take two houses and will analyse them in detail using the method described above. 2.3.1 Criteria of Selection From the studies of different houses done above in 2.1, it can be said that there are two kinds of dwelling that exists: one which celebrates the Individual and the other which celebrates the Social. Therefore, the studies selected for detailed analysis are based on this conclusion. Kamala house at one side seems to support the individuality of a family and the Patwonki Haveli on the other hand seems to support the social. In order to fully accomplish the purpose of the thesis, it is important to understand the case study sites through personal visits. Haveli at Jaisalmer shows a better local character than Havelis of Gujarat and therefore is chosen.

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2.3.2 The Drawings

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2.3.3 The Analysis

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Kamala House, Ahmedabad The house was designed by Dr.Balkrishnan Doshi for his isolated family. It is situated in a residential area. The house has been home for the family since many years.

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The house achieves a perfect geometry of square and announces its objectness in the surroundings. Through this it marks its importance as a body in nature.

The inner core of the house stays as pure as the ultimate truth. Whereas the exterior of the house, like skin, modifies itself as per the surrounding conditions and earthly needs. The exterior represents the Worldly connections of the house. It represents the layer of Worldly connections.

Though the house seems intact from the outside, it opens up from the corners. The extension on the other hand remains introvert. The extension makes the central space inhabitable and the main house inhabits the carved corners. The main house speaks for the Worldly connections and the extension speaks for the deeper spiritual connection to the self.

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The in-and-out of the form interlocks the sky: sometimes by holding and sometimes by stretching towards it. The form creates a complete contrast with its absolute geometrical square plan.

The main house lifts itself a little from the ground giving an individual family a little higher ground then the social. By not extending itself beyond the ground level it shows the requirement for earthly connections.

The extension responds to the sky by building a pavilion that symbolises the aspirational world and to the ground by going deep to make a cellar that symbolises the unconscious. Here the vertical axis becomes more important than the horizontal.

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The form of house has sharp sense of what is inside or manmade and what is outside or natural. Countering that, the thin planes come out from inside above the ground which connects the two.

Different spaces of the house connect visually to different objects of the nature. And that is how the house liberates itself from the rigid orthogonal order of its organization.

The cube is being punctured, somewhere deep and somewhere shallow, to allow the inside to expand itself towards the outside.

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The house does not end with what is built. It has a social court located at the back and a service court at the front; all of these together make the house. The social court can only be accessed from within the house. It is a social space that respects the privacy of the moments of the family spent with their friends

. The main house grows outwards from the centre giving space for each individual to live as a family and the extension is where the centre itself becomes a small house for an individual alone.

The house does not open directly on the street, it stays at a distance. Also, it does not reveal itself to the stranger at the door. It is only when one enters into house knows what is further inside.

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Geometrical alignment of the two houses says that the Gruhastha life and the Spiritual life together form a complete life with former having focus on outside and the later having focus inside.

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The way plan is being laid out, the linking corridor that holds the corners together, says that the cardinal direction is something that remains constant and everything around keeps changing.

The difference in the brick work in the main house distinguishes the structural and non-structural elements. In the extension, this distinction is shown by the difference in material itself.

The material is being expressed in a pure way on the exterior. It makes the concrete roof look heavy and the brick wall look light; and the other way around in the extension.

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The roof is not just a slab. It seems to be capping the walls protectively. The way roof is made allows for the light to come in such a way that makes it look light in weight and floating.

The way a small opening is made in the wall allows a focused view of the outside. It shows human’s relation to nature as a cautious observer.

The way plinth is made, not very high but coming out as if extending arms to hold the house, places the human kind above the other living beings. It also puts the family relationship above other social relationships.

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The basic structure of the house suggests a complete transparency and continuity between inside and outside. It is when the infill comes in, the relationship starts changing.

The house is made up in three layers: the structural layer, the layer of infill walls; and nature of openings in the infill wall. It allows the house to open up in some direction and restrict itself in another.

On the other hand, in the extension the infill is the same as the structural. The way the wall binds the whole space together shows its nature of being centred and enclosed.

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Patwonki Haveli, Jaisalmer The Haveli was built by a rich Jain family as a home for their extended family. It now serves as museum of their lifestyle during the kingdom era. It is situated in a residential area outside the fort wall of Jaisalmer.

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The strong rectilinear form speaks for man’s ability to stand firmly in front of the harshness of the nature.

The house has thick walls which separates the inside world from outside very strongly. These walls create several central spaces where the density of the house loosens but the true centre of the house is marked by the open to sky courtyard.

Though the house seems to be enclosed and concentrated within at the core; it is open on two opposite sides that shows transparency and continuity. This openness is then being screened by other elements like Zarukhas.

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The strong rectilinear enclosed form opens up from within towards the sky. It holds and interlocks the sky with the inside spaces through the play of mass and void.

The house sits on a high plinth, as tall as four stories. It announces its existence and power by strongly standing up against the ground. On the other hand, the deepness created through the long form, speaks for the fear of the outside world which contrasts with its pronounced effort of showing power.

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The house holds spaces that are completely opposite in nature. One that is more enclosed, dark and cave like and the other that is more open and full of light as a pavilion. The change of the nature happens while the house grows vertically. It shows the power of height and the fear turns into the power.

The house has sharp sense of inside and outside. It has only one entrance and the same is the way out. Once you are at the door, you are already inside; the only transition happens while climbing the steps.

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All the individual spaces open up into the courtyard space which becomes important gathering space for the whole family. They are aligned on the same axis that runs from the centre of the house. It says that the social life as family is more important than a life of an individual.

The house is divided into two parts. The front part acts as an area for socializing with other families and the deeper part acts as a private core for the family. They are separated through a buffer area which controls the direct interaction between the two. The social core remains in perfect symmetry where as in the private core adjusts itself to the needs.

The house extends itself out on the street with the help of the Zarukha. It acts as a safe barrier between the core of the house and the outside; and also allows for social interactions.

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Linearity of the house creates a front and a back. It depicts the life as a journey that has a goal to reach.

The Zarukha opening on the streets and the court are important element of the house. The in and out of the form and carefully detailed carving make them look like a screen that sticks to otherwise heavy and plain looking house.

There exists two contrasting way of using the same material. First one shows the real nature of stone. And another where the stone is carved as if it is wood.

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The simple structure of wall and column becomes complex by added layers. The gap between the columns is filled by the Zarukha that comes out; and the Zarukha is further detailed by adding wooden doors.

The surface made up of Zarukha leans outward upon the street as it goes up. It shows inter-human relationships. It positions the owner as viewer who has all the power and the person walking on the street is powerless.

The outward leaning of the Zarukhas allows only a certain amount of sun light to enter into the inside space. The room at the ground level receives less amount of sun light and is cooler. While room at the top level receives more amount of sun light and is hotter.

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The Comparison Both the houses – one designed by an architect and the other built by local craftsman – show different approach to the idea of relationship between Human and Nature, Individual and Social; and the Order of Making through their formal and spatial relationships to the outside world and the way the both are made. The Kamala house with its perfect square geometry marks a point in the surroundings. The square form being symmetrical and complete in itself makes the house as single entity. It says that the world is rational (Fig.1). Whereas the rectilinear form of the Haveli, represents a line and forward movement in a particular direction. It sees the life as a journey that has a goal at the end of it. (Fig. 33) The Haveli has a very strong boundary that separates it from the outside and gives a strong sense of introversion. The Haveli inhabits the thick wall which physically separates the inside and the outside world (Fig. 24) whereas the Kamala house inhabits the corners. The Kamala house allows itself to open out into the surroundings. It grows from in towards out, the extension though inhabits the central space (Fig. 3). The Kamala house shows two layers. The pure in its nature, not changing and forever symmetrical core represents the ultimate truth. And the skin that changes according to the circumstances represents the earthly connections (Fig. 2). Whereas, in the Haveli what remains unchanging is the central courtyard, all the things around keeps changing but the completeness of the rectilinear form remain intact. (Fig. 23)

The Kamala house shows two different relationships to the sky. The main house interlocks with the sky by creating ups and downs of form but shows more earthly connection. The extension however addresses the sky by building an open pavilion. It symbolizes the world of aspiration. (Fig. 4,5,6) The Haveli, on the other hand, establishes this vertical relationship by creating a void. The courtyard invites the sky to the very core of the house and tries to hold it. (Fig. 26)

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Also the ground is treated very differently in both the houses. In Kamala house, the main house raises itself a bit from the ground, places the human being on the higher ground. And on the other hand, the extension goes deep into the ground and builds a cellar to symbolize the unconscious (Fig. 5,6). The Haveli, sits on a high plinth as tall as four stories and shows its power (Fig. 27). The Kamala house shows more open relationship to the outside in comparison to the Haveli. It extends itself out into the nature and builds an intermediate space between inside and outside (Fig. 7) whereas the Haveli stays almost intact; the flight of steps acts as an intermediate space between inside and outside (Fig. 29). The Kamala house connects visually as well as physically to the different objects in nature (Fig. 8, 9, 10) whereas the Haveli starts connecting visually to its surroundings as it grows vertically. (Fig. 28) On the social level, the Haveli seems to relate more to the society than the Kamala house. The Haveli divides itself into two parts; the social core that stands in the front and the private in the back. There is a clear buffer between the two parts which separates them spatially. The social core at the front becomes space to socialize with other people of the city, where everyone is allowed, the private core is where only the close relatives of the family are allowed(Fig. 31). In the Kamala house, the social court is placed at the back and the house receives the strangers first (Fig. 10). In Kamala house, the space for individual and family is not differentiated; each space is a space for an individual as well as for family (Fig. 11) whereas in Haveli, the gathering space for the family sits in the centre, surrounded by cells that open into the central space. It is bigger in scale (Fig. 30). Both the houses attain privacy in different way. The Kamala house steps back from the street. The outsider is unable to see inside until reaches the door because of the side entry (Fig. 12) whereas the Haveli opens straight into the street, but the height of the plinth and scale of the door keeps the inside of the house invisible. The residents of the house can look onto the street through Zarukha (Fig. 32).

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In both the cases, the making is very interesting. In the Kamala house, the elements that is wall, column and roof comes together in a very different way than in the Haveli. In the main house and also in the extension, the column stays separately from the walls, the walls covers the space made by columns in one case and separated by columns in the other (Fig. 13). The roof seems to be capping the main house; holding the wall together from the above. It allows an indirect light to fall first on the ceiling and makes it look light (Fig. 17). The small opening in the wall allows for human’s relationship to the nature as a mere observer (Fig. 18); and the plinth that lifts up a little from the ground, stands for human’s relationship to the society. (Fig. 19) In the Haveli also the elements are the same but the columns are attached to the walls. They form another porous wall surrounding the courts. The front of Zarukha forms a screen and the back strongly encases the house. The heaviness of the stone wall seems contrasting with the lightness of the Zarukha (Fig. 34). The way Zarukhas has been made, projecting towards the street more and more as it goes up, allows the owner to have a powerful position over the people walking on the street. It also allows for interactions to the neighbour (Fig. 37).The carving of the Zarukha with the small opening, in the harsh desert sun, creates a beautiful play of light and shadow. It does not allow direct sun to penetrate into the very inside of the house and keeps it cooler (Fig. 38).

In Kamala house, two different material brick and concrete are used in a very different manner. In general, the concrete stands for lightness and brick stands for heaviness; in the main house the reverse is made visible. The plain texture of the broad concrete band makes it look heavy and the rough linear texture of the brick gives it a sense of lightness. But the true nature of both the material is visible in the extension (Fig. 16). The Haveli shows a complete coherence of the same material but the way of using it is contrasting. The precisely cut stone blocks, aligned perfectly to each other, gives a kind of smoothness to the otherwise rough stone. On the other hand, the highly carved Zarukha, makes the very nature of stone disappear. (Fig. 35) - 65 -

The basic structure of the Kamala House shows complete transparency in both the direction (Fig. 20). The Haveli, on the other hand, shows transparency in the longer direction (Fig. 25). In both the house, layers of enclosure are added in a different way and of different complexity (Fig. 21,22,36). Both the houses seem to have different approaches to nature and society, and this is reflected in the way they are made. The Kamala House seems to be encouraging the individuality of the family. It tries to maintain the balance between human world and nature. It neither tries to dominate nature nor to live in it. The Haveli, on the other hand, seems to be more linked to the rules of the society. It adjusts itself to the nature at the same time it stands out into the nature.

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Kamala House The main house and the extension both has different parts and of different characteristics. In the main house, the base is made of a little raised platform. It is not high enough to be called a plinth. It does not pronounce its existence but is there. The room is made up of brick walls and is divided in four parts with the help of four concrete columns at the centre. From the outside the texture of both the material is visible while from the inside, the roughness and heaviness of the concrete ceiling contrasts the white and weightless wall. The room opens out to its north into the garden and is well interconnected to internal spaces. The roof is not just a slab; it is being highlighted by projection and depth. It sits capping the walls. It is also the source of natural light that enters the house invisibly. Something completely different happens in the extension. There is no base and no roof. The extension has rooms of three different kinds. One that is deep into the ground; it is dark as a cellar and with indirect light sources; and has sense of introvertness. The other is at the ground level; it is made by walls but the real central space is the space that is created by the four columns. The qualitative aspects are similar to the main house. And the third one is on the top, the pavilion made up of four columns and joining beam but no roof. It is more like an abstract space that is completely a part of the outside but still has a sense of inside.

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Patwonki Haveli The Haveli is made up of a base and rooms. It does not have a roof but has a terrace. The base is made up of high plinth made from solid stone. The whole house is made out of the same material that is yellow sand stone. It has three different kinds of rooms. One that is dark and introvert like a cave, covered with thick wall all around. The other is a court that is open to sky and is relatively open to other inside spaces, also surrounded by columns on all four sides. And the third is the room that is like pavilion. It stays open from mostly three sides, full of light and more connected to the outside. It is made up of stone columns and a slab on top.

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Architecture as a means of suspending contradictions It is been said that there is no single truth. Every society and culture has their own version of truth. All form of art in a particular culture offer a view particular to that culture, yet leave room for the same narrative to be interpreted differently. The same applies to architecture. Though from the studies, it can be derived that dwellings can be divided in two major categories: the ones that are dependent on nature and social forms and the ones that show dominance over nature and celebrate ‘Individuality’. However there is no distinct line between these two categories, which means every house, is a combination of both in different proportions. It can also be derived from the examples that true architecture never shows a singular truth. It always has parts that contradict each other and speak a different truth. It is also seen from the analysis that apart from ‘Associational meanings’ conventional to each culture, the abstract structure of purely architectural attribute form a system of meaning. At the end of this study, one can conclude that architecture is made up of tangible elements such as ground, sky, room, roof, plinth and intangible formations such as lightness, darkness, smoothness, roughness, solidity and fragility. Together, the tangible and intangible attributes of a work of architecture become ‘Characters’ and ‘Structures’. Thus a work of architecture is a kind of narrative. This narrative has many layers of possible meanings. Every culture or historical period emphasises a particular kind of narrative structure. Over time, we experience and reinterpret this narrative, revealing ever-new possibilities.

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Bibliography: Bechalar, Gaston. Poetics of space. Beacon Press, 1994. Bollnow, O.F. "Lived Space." 15 June 2014 <>. Paniker, Dr K. Ayyappa. Indian Narratology. Sterling, 2003. Propp, Vladimir. Morphology of Folktale. Austin: Americal folklore society and indiana university, 1968. Schulz, Christian Norberg. Intentions in Architecture. MIT press, 1968. Schulz, Norberg. Existance, Space and Architecture. Great Britain: Studio Vista Limited, 1971. Further References: Lecture notes, Proff. Neelkanth Chhaya, Ways of looking at Architecture. Cept University, 2013. Lecture notes, Proff. Neelkanth Chhaya, Architectural Thinking. Cept University, 2014. Basu, Manisha Shodhan. Le Corbusier's villa Sodhan. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture , 2008. Bourdier, Jean Paul and Trinht Minh-ha. African spaces : designs for living in upper volta. New York: Africana Pubg. Co., 1985. Hoffmann, Donald. Frank Lloyd Write's Falling Water: The house and Its History. United States: Dover Publications, 1978. Jain, Kulbhushan B and Minakshi Jain. Architecture of the Indian desert. Ahmedabad: AADI Centre, 2000. Smienk, Gerrit and Niemeijer, Johannes. Palladio, the villa and the landscape. Basel: Birkhauser, 2011. Yoshida, Tetsuro. Japanese house and garden. London: Architectural Press, 1963. Unpublished Thesis: Dayal, Deepti and Neelkanth H. (Guide) Chhaya. Study of an architect's own house : from conception to manifestation, Balkrishna Doshi's residence, Ahmedabad Thesis . 1996. Shetty, Sagar S and Neelkanth H. (Guide) Chhaya. Traditional houses of the bunt community, Dakshina Kannada : a study : the Gutthu Houses Thesis. 1989.

Illustration Credits: For the drawings and photographs of Kamala House and Patwon Ki Haveli on pg.40/41 Kamala House: From: Dayal, Deepti Study of an architect's own house : from conception to manifestation, Balkrishna Doshi's residence, Ahmedabad, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architeture, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, 50/51. Photographs by Author Patwon ki Haveli: Drawings From: Jain, Kulbhushan B and Minakshi Jain. Architecture of the Indian desert. Ahmedabad: AADI Centre, 2000,100/101. Photographs by Hiral Bhenjalia

Narrative structure of architecture  

Research based undergraduate thesis mainly focusing on architecture's role in communicating preferred relationships of Human to other human...

Narrative structure of architecture  

Research based undergraduate thesis mainly focusing on architecture's role in communicating preferred relationships of Human to other human...