Train the Trainer Workshop Training Design & Facilitation Givaudan SA Budapest May 2018
Behaviourally Stated Learning Objectives
The road to hell is paved with good intentions! Too many training needs analysis end with vaguely stated objectives
To test whether a learning objective is truly measurable, try: ‘What will I see, hear or feel as THE evidence that I have EVIDENCE achieved my CHALLENGE learning objective?’
re ally if we are to measu st be stated behaviour mu E se TIV ten JEC E OB UR ING FUT A LEARN tten in the ieved. It should be wri t as whether it has been ach trated by the participan ons dem be l wil our avi g beh at inin tra wh e the crib ing des and learned dur dge, skills or attitudes a result of the knowle is and URE PERFECT tense can be stated in the FUT E the TIV ing JEC dur e OB SE don e UR CO A pants will hav ining what the partici n!) stio que r the really useful in determ ano is ult change as a res course (whether they
Will learn Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels of training evaluation and use at least one for own courses
Will be able to structure a training course using the Icelandic pilot model
Will be observed to communicate openness to different opinions during next two courses
Will have worked in a small group to identify the applications of one of Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels of training evaluation
S tate all L earning Be a Objectives ’SLOB’ B ehaviourally!
Will have used a checklist at least twice to measure how well the group followed the Icelandic pilot model
Will have demonstrated the ‘reflect/deflect’ technique at least twice during group exercises
10 - 04 BESLOS
BRAINS AND MEMORY
• 100 billion neurons • Countless synaptic connections • Limitless capacity Axon Visualising Words
Feeling and Speaking Words
Visual, Hearing and Feeling data are stored in different parts of the brain
• • • • • •
Numbers Logic Words Speech Analysis Lists
• • • • • •
Space Images Colour Dreams Intuition Music
It’s possible that we keep in our brains 100% of everything we have ever experienced. Proof? • Hypnosis • Near Death Experience • Sensory Anchors (Déja Vu, Smell, Tastes etc.) • Electrodes in Brain • Memory Experts • Capacity
We retrieve information best which was, at the time of learning:
F irst in a series of events (bang, gap, outline etc.) R e vie wed (recapped by the trainer or revised) O utst a n d in g unusual or striking L inke d together (mnemonics etc.) L a st (recap, action plan, bang)
Time 1 Day 21a - 12 BM
Mnemonics FLAC: First Letter Acronym FLEP: First Letter Phrase SOUNDS:
• B. Gunar Edeg RAF (B)
• Richard of York gave battle in vain • Every good boy deserves favour
• Signature tunes • Themes • Song snippets • Sound effects (moo, crash, whistle, bells, bangs)
RHYMES & SLOGANS: • “30 days hath September…” • “People don’t argue with their own data” • “We keep your promises” • ‘Guinness is good for you!’ • ‘Your country needs you!’ LIMA: Logos and Image Association • Swiss Flag/Pharmacy • Lottery • Froll
Famous donkey-bridge builder Marcel Proust allegedly used tea and cakes as an instant memory device to recall happy times. In his famous work “A la Recherche du Temps Perdu”, Proust reports how he first discovered the power of taste as an ‘anchor’ to past experiences. “Overwhelmed by the dull, dreary day and the thought of a sad tomorrow, I sipped listlessly at a spoonful of tea mixed with a piece of ‘madeleine’ cake. As soon as it touched my palate I jumped with surprise. Something extraordinary was happening – a delicious but isolated pleasure was invading my very being. I could not tell where it was coming from…. Something was moving, trying to surface like an anchor you pull from a great depth. It was coming up slowly. I felt the resistance and heard the murmurs of distant memories. And suddenly the past appeared. The taste was that of the piece of madeleine which my aunt Leonie would dip into her tea and give to me every morning at Cambray when I went to say ‘bonjour’. The sight of the cake alone had reminded me of nothing. But as soon as I tasted it...” (Esquisse XIV: Unfinished) 25a - 08 DB
Mind Set Our belief system is vital to our survival but acts as a filter for all new information (“Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?” Warner 1927)
TYPICAL PARTICIPANT MIND SETS
• “I should be out selling – not listening to this old stuff” • “What can she tell me about this subject, she’s just a trainer!” • “Training is just theory – I live in a PRACTICAL world!” Plan a specific strategy to overcome participants’ negative mind sets during the GUNAR phase of your course (see Training Intervention Design)
How we deal with mind set COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
When we are confronted with information which contradicts a deeply held view, we suffer “cognitive dissonance”. We have two ways of dealing with this dissonance:
1) CHANGE OUR OPINION 2) SELF JUSTIFY NE IN W FO
• Discredit the source of the information (the trainer!) • Distort the meaning of the information to fit our present view • Seek alternative evidence to support our present view 26a - 07 MS
TRAINING INTERVENTION DESIGN The
Ask 7 times WHY including
ADULTS ONLY LEARN IF:
• What’s happening now to justify the intervention? • What will happen if no intervention? • Evidence of success?
Who? When? Where?
• They WANT and/or NEED to
• Intervention content in view of ‘why’s’? • Minimum vital learning points? (30 seconds on TV) • Vehicle? • VHF support?
• They can practice the new learning in a realistic setting
• Participant level, experience, culture, expectations?
• They can measure their progress and receive guidance/correction
• Season? Day? Morning/afternoon (“Graveyard shift”)?
• They feel comfortable in a non-threatening learning environment
• Room layout? Environment?
• They can relate the learning to past, present or future experiences
How To Structure A Learning Experience BANG! Gap
• Always start with a “learning hook” or attention-getter • Establish the gap between the participants’ present skills, knowledge or attitudes and those to be acquired during the intervention • Check that participants understand the existence and size of the skills, knowledge or attitude gap • Establish the need for participants to close the gap. (What are their W.I.F.M’s? Why should they come back after coffee?)
Ask/Answer • If necessary, ask and answer questions to check individual participant’s learning needs
• Outline intervention coverage, stressing results to be achieved. “At the end of this intervention you will...”
• Explain each new message to the participants’, left brain in “digestible chunks”, using appropriate VHF support
• Demonstrate skills (to RIGHT brain). Show samples. Give examples. Use anecdotes, metaphors or parables
• Get participants to exercise the learning with a case, role-play, discussion, quiz, etc.
Guide & Correct • Show participants how well they have learned and correct any inadequacies
• Recap with quiz, test, handout, resumé case study etc. to check understanding
B.GUNAR EDEG R.A.F (B)
Action Plan • Agree on action necessary to transfer learning to real life
• Agree on follow-up necessary to reinforce the learning experience • Always finish with éclat! Tie up the learning with a succinct and punchy conclusion 40a - 14 TID
STARTING WITH A BANG! 1. The Classical Bang 2. The ‘Imagine’ Bang
• Introduce yourself and your subject with one or two “punchy” details
• Appeal to a common memory (‘You all remember when...’) • Evoke a hypothetical situation (‘Just imagine that...’) • Create a metaphor/analogy for your message (‘It’s a bit like...’)
AN ATTENTION-GETTING HOOK
• Tell a relevant parable (‘Once upon a time there was...’)
3. The Mystery Bang 4. The Participation Bang
• Disguise your opening with 2-3 ambiguous clues before announcing it with good delivery and timing
• Ask the audience a question and use the answers as a bridge to introduce the topic • Conduct an icebreaker exercise • Give the participants some kind of a test • Ask for a volunteer to do something • Ask a participant to tell an anecdote or a story
5. The Dramatic Bang
• Use a gimmick/accessory of some kind
• Use a surprise audio/visual device
• Act out a sketch with a colleague
• Make a provocative statement
• Tell a humorous story related to the topic (N.B. Avoid ‘jokes’. If it doesn’t offend someone, it probably isn’t funny!) 40b - 15 BANG
ESTABLISHING THE GAP What is a Gap?
How to Measure?
At the beginning of any training course it’s important to establish the gap between participants’ present knowledge skills and attitudes and those they will acquire during the course. This will allow you and each participant to gauge how experienced they are in the course subject matter compared to others. Make sure people feel OK to share their gap. That’s why they are on the course!
One-Dimension Examples of Gap Questions • How happy/satisfied are you with your present level of XYZ knowledge, skills...?
• How much training have you had in ABC?
Draw some kind of continuum (big arrow, thick line, target etc) on a flip or pinboard with a scale from low to high. Write the GAP QUESTION and ask participants to come and stick adhesive dots or make a cross at the place representing their answer to the question. For two-dimensional gaps make a graph like the ones below.
Two-Dimensions How Satisfied are You with Your XYZ Skills?
• How much do you know about ABC? • How many years/months experience do you have in XYZ?
How Much Do You Know About ABC?
Examples of Gap Questions • How would you rate your present ABC skill level? How important are these skills to your job? • How interactive are your present courses? How many different media do you use? • Present knowledge of XYZ? Motivation to learn more? • For a Presentation Skill Course: Delivery Skills? Structure of Presentations?
Rate Your Present ABC Skill Level 100 75 50 25 0
Present Knowledge of XYZ?
How Important Is it to Your Job?
High Med Low
Motivation To Learn More?
Facilitating Responses However good your Training Needs Analysis has been there is likely to be a fairly wide range of responses to your gap questions. Encourage those with smaller gaps to help others (or leave the course!) lead exercises or give examples. Make it clear to those with bigger gaps that they have an excellent opportunity to learn and grow! 40c - 16 EG
Using Your Voice P r oj e ct i o n A r t ic u l atio n M od u l a t io n P r onu nciatio n E nu nc ia tio n R e p e t it io n S pe e d
• Speak louder than usual. Throw your voice to the back of the room • Don’t swallow words. Beware of “tics”. Space out words • Vary tone and pitch. Be dramatic, confidential etc • Watch tonic accents. Beware of “malapropisms” • Over emphasise. Accentuate syllables • Repeat key phrases with different vocal emphasis • Use your delivery speed to “colour” your messages (speed up for exciting messages; slow down for dramatic ones)
Eye Contact BE A LIGHTHOUSE! Keep the group alert by using eye contact like a lighthouse. Sweep round the group slowly staying an average of 2 seconds on each participant. This graph shows the average for MUTUAL eye contact so, when talking to one participant, look away often so as not to intimidate
Body Language • • • • • •
Prepare (breathing, centering, grounding) Keep body open at all times Exaggerate all gestures Hold notes/markers in one hand only Empty pockets, check hair, clothing Don’t sit on the furniture!
Length of mutal eye contact
% of People in Study
• Keep water handy • Play “success film” in your head before starting • Throw the monkey in first 30 seconds 98 - 06 DS
K O P
some answers but, above all, know how little you really know!
with open questions. Show interest in their ideas and encourage them to elaborate/expand
and “reformulate” what participants say to help them reach understanding. Ask reflective questions like: • “What you are saying is ?.....” Encourage debate with: • “So you disagree with Mr X ?” or • “Wouldn’t that also imply that.....?”
useful ideas on a flip chart. If you use your own words, ask for permission
your own comments and suggestions to guide and direct discussion
SOCRATES (470-399 BC) The great power of Socrates as a teacher was that he didn’t teach! Nor did he ever write anything. He would wander around the squares and markets of Athens discussing with people and asking them questions rather than lecturing to them. His mother had been a midwife and, like her, he saw his vocation as helping people to give birth (Maieutikos) to their understanding of the world. By playing ignorant, Socrates often forced people to use their common sense to solve problems. But this maieutic method also forced them sometimes to see the weakness of their arguments. This, of course, can hurt and his political enemies eventually condemned Socrates to death for they knew that he could see right through them. Asking questions is so much more powerful than giving answers! Even though many people considered him as the wisest man who ever lived, Socrates remained humble. “One thing only I know”, he once said to his disciple Plato, “and that is that I know nothing”.
17 - 05 KOPSA
The Facilitation Rainbow AMOUNT OF INTERACTION WITH PARTICIPANTS
SOCRATIC DIRECTION How to decide which Facilitraining style/strategy to use
FACILITATING DISCUSSION Plenty
TEACHING Very Little
TIME AVAILABLE High
Low PARTICIPANTS' PRESENT LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE
High (Attitude Change)
(Knowledge Acquisition) Low
OWNERSHIP OF OUTCOME NEEDED
Only One Option CERTAINTY OF 'ONE BEST WAY'
To be consulted
To be told
CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS Low
High YOUR SKILL AS A FACILITATOR
HIGH Â© John Townsend and Paul Donovan 1997
7 Facilitraining styles/strategies RED Presenting (Low Interaction / High Contribution) The classical and often necessary style to put across information. However, as competition from the multimedia environment grows, trainers need to perform at an increasingly professional pitch in order not to be ‘zapped’ by participants! ORANGE Demonstrating (Medium to Low Interaction / High Contribution) Not as ‘one-way’ as lecturing, demonstrating involves interaction with participants in as much as they are asked to try out in some way what has been presented. YELLOW Teaching (Medium to High Interaction / Medium to High Contribution) When in the classic teaching mode, the trainer provides structured learning experiences and guides participants towards pre-determined learning objectives. He or she nevertheless allows some latitude for interpretation at an individual level. GREEN Socratic Direction (High Interaction / Low to High Contribution) This is the ‘maieutic’ method pioneered by Socrates whereby the facilitrainer asks questions and then reformulates the answers as necessary to lead participants to a desired learning outcome. The rainbow provides for a wide range of leading strategies from relatively open to relatively closed. The common element in all Socratic strategies is the high amount of interaction. It is based on the premise that people don’t argue with their own data, even when it is massaged and channelled towards a ‘hidden’ learning outcome - as long as the ‘facipulation’ is done professionally and sincerely. BLUE Facilitating Discussion (Medium to High Interaction Low to Medium Contribution) When using this style, the facilitator interacts quite often with participants to invite opinions, control the process and give own opinions (if only to provoke more discussion) INDIGO Brainstorming (Low to Medium Interaction / Low Contribution) Here the facilitator ‘conducts’ a classic brainstorming session - interacting with participants only to encourage them to give their ideas but hardly ever evaluating or adding ideas. VIOLET Process Monitoring (Low Interaction / Low Contribution) As the ‘guardian of the process’, the facilitator makes no personal contribution to the content of the discussion but occasionally regulates the flow of participants’ contributions according to a previously agreed set of process rules.
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Train the Trainer workshop Budapest May 2018