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Pictograph Also known as pictograms, can be defined as either elementary illustrations or representations of words that began the start of languages and alphabet usage. Used by early civilizations to communicate information and ideas, and this was often done by cave paintings or carving in the wall of a cave or rock.


Ideograph This can be portrayed as either a picture or symbol that is meant to convey any thought or idea.


Petroglyph Another form of prehistoric communication that used carvings and paintings to convey a message through symbols.


Hieratic Scale Size is used to show importance of an object in a illustration or structure and showing that the smallest item is the least important of the object.


Trademark This is a distinctive mark or feature used by a manufacturer or merchant in order to designate his or her goods and to distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others.


Rebus A rebus is a type of puzzle that uses symbols, letters, or illustrations of the object or what the object might represent, which is used to create a message.


Ligature This is a typographic character that is the combination of two or more characters into one character making a ligature. Some ligatures in typography represent particular sounds or words and others just primarily make type look more appealing to the eye and common ligatures are “fi”, “fl”, or “ae”.


Ampersand This is a typographic symbol that represents the word “and”. It originated from “et” in the Latin language which is understood to be “and”.


Illuminated Manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a handwritten book that has been brilliantly decorated with gold leaf, silver, and/or luminous colors. They are bordered with intricate designs that can encompass small illustrations.


INitial Cap This is a style that requires the enlarging of the first letter of either a word or name. The initial cap incorporates the drop cap since they can both be established below the base line, but initial caps can be found below, adjacent, or even at the same level as the base line.


Drop Cap A drop cap is the initial letter that is dropped down below the base line. They are created to be much larger then the remainder of the text, plus it starts either the beginning of a chapter or paragraph.


Interlaces Often seen in illuminated manuscripts and Celtic work. It is shown as a woven design.


Lacertines They are a type of interlaces that is created using animals.


Textura A style of lettering that was a popular style in the gothic era, which was defined by its strong verticals and pointed serifs.


Calligraphy A style of writing that was and is condisered beautiful script.


Chop This was a sort of stamp or relief printing that recorded an oweners posesstions such as paintings.


Logogram A logogram is a symbol or graphic character that was created to represent one word.


Moveable type A form of relief printing that was used in a printing process and had to be aranged in a way that was pleasing to the eye.


Arabesque This is a style that creates a whimsical design and was named after the areas that the designs founded named for the Arabic areas of which they were developed in.


Gothic The Gothic style was first seen in France and was encouraged by the French Monarchy and many of the Gothic structures can be define by pointed arches, flying buttress, nave, clerestory, and the vaults.


Pointed arches The pointed arches found in the Gothic period were originally inspired from the Islamic architecture and were found to be more architecturally sturdier than the rounded arches that had been previously used.


Flying Buttress Created during the Gothic era to help better support the massive structures that were being created that had taller walls and more windows. It is typically slanting forming an arch from a separate pier to the wall that it is supporting.

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Rose Window These are beautiful circular windows that are made up of stained glass. All the pieces seem to be radiating from the center of the window

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Stained Glass Stained glass was and still is used to create stunning windows. This colored glass is used create intricate designs and produce an amazing work of art.

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Woodcut Originating in China, woodcutting is a printing technique that can create images, designs, or text. It begins with cutting away the design in a block of wood and then it is created like a stamp by using the negative space.


Renaissance During the renaissance period, from the 14th century to the 17th, it marked an amazing growth in art and education for the world. Many famous artists and works of art came from this modernizing period.


foreshortening This is a perspective method of creating art pieces that creates more a more deep feeling and creates more distance by using the angle of the object.


Flourishes These are a type of ornament that creates a busier or a more fulfilled typographic piece. They can be used to fill space or used as extending parts to letters.



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