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Ground Floor of the Baldwin Spencer Building

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET This form must be attached to all submitted written work with all sections completed to the Environments & Design Student Centre, Ground Floor of the Baldwin Spencer Building. An incomplete form may result in the delayed return of your assignment or of your mark for the assignment. Please keep a copy of all assignments before submitting them for assessment.

Subject Code: ENVSl0003 2014-SM1

Student lD Numberi 698447

Subject Name: Constructing Environments Student Name: Matthew John fhompson

Tutorial= T20

Assignment Name: A01 LOGBOOK FINAL SUBMISSION (all studio sessions) Assignment Due Date: May 19 2014

at 01:00 PM

Plagiarism is the act of representing as one's own original work the creative works of another, without appropriate acknowledgment of the author or source.

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Collusion is the presentation by a student of an assignment as his or her own which is in fact the result in whole or in part of unauthorised collaboration with another person or persons. Collusion involves the cooperation of two or more students in plagiarism or other forms of academic misconduct. Both collusion and plagiarism can occur in group work. For examples of plagiarism, collusion and academic misconduct in group work please see the University's policy on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism.

plagiarism and collusion constitute cheating. Disciplinary action will be taken against students who engage in plagiarism and collusion as outlined in University policy. Proven involvement in plagiarism or collusion may be recorded on my ' academic file in accordance with Statute 13.1.18. STUDENT DECLARATION Please tick to indicate that you understand the following statements: I declare that this assignment is my own original work, except where I have appropriately cited the original source. This assignment has not previously been submitted for assessment in this or any other subject. For the purposes of assessment, I give the assessor of this assignment the permission to: Reproduce this assignment and provide a copy to another member of staff; and take steps to authenticate the assignment, including communicating a copy of this assignment to a checking l={ EJ service (which may retain a copy of the assignment on its database for future plagiarism checking).

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Constructins environments log book Week 1: Block Tower Conitruction Building a stable structure using compression force was carried out in the tutorial- The use of M.D.F (Medium Density Fibre-board) allowed for easy construction as its lightweight structure made the placement of the blocks an easy task. The structure of the tower (as shown) is a rectangular based formation with gaps between each building block to allow great counter wait forces to be applied to each block. This would assist the later process of excavation when creating an arch

doorway/entrance to the structure.

As shown, the

two blocks situated underneath

a particular block share

the

base load as denoted by the arrows in this picture. This idea was to assist in

the prevention of collapse when block were removed from the structure using the comPression theory.

An ldentical trend was continued until a development of the structure could be noticed. Due to time constraints, the height of the tower was not to the endeavoured feat. However the practicality of the process was still shown-

block, it granted the easy removal of a specific section of the structure. However the stability Due to the downward force being placed upon successive

of the doorway decreased dramatically as more blocks were removed- This could be attributed to the reduction of raw materials which contributes to

the weight force which reaches a threshold to enable the build to remain erect.

to construct a structure aim of the exercise the large enough to facilitate the dinosaur, thus By executing this theory we were successfully able

successfully achieved.


The method of first building the structure then excavating at a single side to form a doorway proved more successfulthan building a doorway from the beginning of construction. This was due to the load force already present in the structure, acting on subsequent individual block pieces below a

particular piece. This means that building a doonnray from the start was more difficult compression force being applied from above was absent, as shown:

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ele?rning Summarv and Glossarv Materials are selected for certain constructions due to the.following criteria: a

Strength

a

Stiffness

a

Shape (Mono-dimensional, Planar, Volumetric)

a

Material Behaviours (lsotropic, anisotropic)

a

Economy

a

Sustainability

Landscape is a fundamental background to the constructive citY. ln the case of Melbourne, basaltic rock surrounded the landscape and indicated Melbourne's volcanic history. Bluestone is a material

that was selected from the economic category listed above. Being a local material, it was more cost effective to take advantage of the local landscape for building structures. This decision has become iconic to the city of Melbourne, giving the city its dark colour. As far as sustainability, it is logical to use local materials, as less energy is required in the production and transportation of the rock. This ultimately possesses a lesser environmental effect compared to the alternate building materials. The history of the city can be seen through the damage to the bluestone. Damage such as wheel ruts where the carriageways of the 19s century have left lasting effects on the structure. Others methods of damage include water damage and impact damage from heavy vehicles. Load path diagrams indicate that a particular applied load, whether it be dead or live, will be distributed on the most direct route down to the ground where a reaction force will come in contact

with the structure at an equal and opposite amount to the applied load.


Glossary Force

-

a force is any influence

that produces change in the shape or movement of a body. Basic

structural forces include tension and compression Load path

-

The direction in which consecutive load will pass through connected members. For

example, a dead load being distributed down particular structure of the building Point loads- a load that is localized to a specific location of the structure Static loads -loads that are assumed to be applied slowly until it reaches its peak value without

fluctuating magnitude or position Live loads

-

comprise of any moving or movable loads on a structure. Typically acts vertically

downward Occupanry loads

-

loads resulting in the weight of people, furniture, stored material, and other

similar items in a building. Snow loads- as a result of snow accumulating on the roof of the building Rain loads-as a result of rain accumulating on the roof of the building Dead loads

-

static loads acting vertically downward on a structure

lmpact loads- kinetic loads of short duration due to vehicles, equipment, and machinery Dynamic loads- loads that are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in

magnitude and point of application Wind loads- forces that are exerted by the kinetic energy of a moving mass of air, assumed to come from any horizontal direction Masonry

-

The process of constructing buildings or structures with individual units held together by

mortar. Reaction force- an opposing force

lsotropic- a materialthat displays simiiar characteristics regardless of which direction the force is applied

lecture 1: Absent due to timetable clash The lecture aimed to explore the idea of spreading the base load of an object. This was accomplished by folding 1 sheet of paper such that it would spread the weight force applied by a single brick.


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Week 2: Balsa wood frame construction Using the idea of triangles in conjunction with part-by-part assembly, the construction of our frame

occurred in stages, and came together as a single structure almost instantaneously. Through logicalthinking, it was decided that the tower would need to become narrower in sections in order for the base to

support the load above. Therefore it was calculated that equilateral triangles of side length 30cm should be constructed in order to support the applied force which would eventually be supported by the base.

This is an example of our "part production" method. The length of the prism was 60cm. Although this didn't seem stable at the time, extra triangle braces were added in a uniform pattern to grant the frame structure extra strength. This would assist in Ioad distribution and stability of the structure as it expands in

height. The tower was formed through a series of fixed joints held

together at a particular point. This often made it hard to construct a straight, structurally sound tower. This was because the fixed joints caused bending as either a result of miscalculated lengths of balsa or an angle that was not identical

to the other braces being formed with the base.

The bending can be seen in this picture as indicated. The base section showed no sign of bending before the second section was applied. This may be attributed to an applied load (above) being applied to this particular member, causing a bending at the joint

Furthermore, the pieces of balsa were in some cases were not straight lines and in particular places, had quite severe bends from the cutting process. Extra bracing was also added in attempt to negate this bending

that was observed.


pictured is a smaller based pyramid, which connects to the top

ofthe structure shown above and brings aboutthe peak ofthe structure. The smaller triangle added to the middle of the frame was purely to increase the stability of the structure without applying a heavy weight force to the peak of the structure'

The final structure was just short of the ceiling, as we attached straight piece of balsa, mocking structure such as the empire

a

state building to increase height

The arrows denote signs of structural instability, as there was sever bending in many places of the frame structure' This is once again attributed to the fact that the structure contains (the fixed joints and a compression force is being applied on top above frame) resulting in bending.

Many other groups where unsuccessful in building their structure. lt seemed that a common factor was a squared based building. lt seemed that not enough materials were supplied to successfully frame a square stable structure'

Structure load Path & desien idea

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elearning Summarv and GlossarY Structural systems can be categorised into solid, shell, surface, frame, skeletal, membrane and hybrid systems. Construction systems can be categorised into enclosure, structural and service systems. The choice behind each category is based on performance requirements, aesthetic qualities, economic efficiencies, environmental impacts and also the construction context as a whole. When building a structure, both the initial cost and life rycle costing of the building. This includes the longevity of the building and its ability to act as a filter, maintaining comfort without the need of electrical appliances (eg. Air conditioning).

Ecologically sustainable design is the conscious effort to reduce the environmental impact when cons$ucting new buildings or infrastructure. Common strategies include:

o r o o o o o o o o

Local materials

Materialefficiency Thermal mass Night air purging Solar energy

Wind energy Cross

ventilation

Smart sun design

lnsulation Water harvesting

Certain materials require certain amount energy in order to be produced. This must be taken into account when choosing particular materials in reference to their respective carbon footprint.

Glossary Carbon footprint- a measure of the amount of greenhouse gases generated during the fabrication,

transportation and use of a particular product Embodied energy- is the total energy used during all stages of a material's life. Life Cycle- from the beginning to the end of a particular material in a specific process

StructuralJoint- can be classified as either roller, pin or a fixed joint. Bracing- added support to brace a structure Column- a supporting pillar, generally found to be under some sort of compression force.


lecture ? lnvestigated the framing process using an example of the 'water

tanK. The knowledge from the lecture was taken into our studio session

that a triangular shaped frame would possess higher stability than that of a square base structure. This was as it was decided

shown as a variety of triangle framed water tanks tested a higher resistance to an applied forced than other attempts. Load capacity was increased when supplied with more pins and

straws for the exercise. Some strategies included:

o o r o o

Use of two pins, result in stronger structural

joint connections

Triangulation (our chosen method) of posts Extra bracing between posts Larger footing, increase load distribution at ground level

Shortening post length, structure closerto ground level

Some strategies were more successfulthan others and this was noted and executed when building

the balsa wood tower. Triangulation proved the most successful, however without extra bracing between posts, this may not have been enough support forthe structure. lt appears that to have a successfu! structure you must use a collaboration of the above techniques without compromising efficiency of materials.


Week 3

Tutorial The aim of this weeKs studio session was to examine real life examples of the theory that was learnt in the elearning. A tour was conducted around the university

to identify different structural

elements and also in particular, different characteristics of masonry construction.

Here is an example of the use of pre-cast concrete as structure members of a structural environment. The reason

behind the use of pre-cast is that it makes the speed of construction faster and more efficient as they can be put in place with ease, rather than constructing each individual member on site. The bond of masonry was heavily focused on in this session.

lt

was highlighted in structures around the university, and thus became easy to distinguish different patterns over the course of the tour.

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Examples of different pre-construction designs were shown.

The pylons for the Melbourne University Car Park form areas in which above, trees are planted. This helps with drainage and water efficiency of the area. Each pylon is positioned within the vicinity of trees or gardens. Concrete was used in this case for its easy in modifying its shape to one which is desired for the design.

The importance of designing and planning before going ahead with construction was very much emphasized in this example, with the idea of the future and sustainability in mind.


The steel structural members of this staircase at Union House form an "optical illusion" in terms of the members

that are actually load bearing. The member indicated by the arrow carries very minimal load designed to form this effect.

as

the structure was

Steel cable is used to suspend the beams under the stairs, which are under tension from the weight forced of the

structural member The load is taken directly to the ground where it is met with an equal but opposing reaction force, as shown here.

Another parallel beam to the one seen above is supported by two columns, which are under heavy compression force. The structural joints present are fixed joints at the bottom

ofthe staircase, and the beam connecting to the stair framing.

An example of sandstone block masonry was observed at the arts west building. A

difference in materials was frequently made between this building and other buildings, which were formed from pre cast concrete. The use of sandstone, a sedimentary rock, masonry gives an aesthetic property to the building, which is not achieved by concrete. Also, Limestone is very frequently used in a similar way. Glossarv

Moment- The moment of a force is the tendancy to make an object or point rotate (Moment= Force. x Distance)

Retaining wall- are used when sites are excavated to create basements, holds back earth from falling

into the already excavated area. Strip Footing-Used when loads from a wall or series of columns is spread in a linear manner. Pad footing- also called isolated footings, these type of footings help spread a point load over

a

wider area Substructure- Foundations are the substructure, their function is to transfer all loads acting on the building to the ground


elearning and Lectures LectureLondon was compared to Barcelona, however there needed to be use for the site after the games concluded. The wellbeing of the people was heavily considered in the construction of the Olympic park, which catalysed a central (middle) park to be heavily utilized at the conclusion of the games. Problems with soil quality arose in the early development of the infrastructure. The large cost in transport the soil was one issue, but the main contributor being it was heavily polluted. Engineers needed to treat the soil with the following steps Remediation Wash

7. 2. 3. Sieve 4. Shake 5. Removed oil, gas, tar, cyanide, carsenic as a result

Groundwater was treated by injecting compound into the soil, which generated oxygen. Problems occurred with housing in that the need for evolution of the space after the athletes left was a difficult to manage process. lmportance of legary was heavily emphasized, being that there must sustainable/usable area left for the English people in the future.The garden/park,s Landscape was productive, seasonal and efficient. Rubber infill that was in the area was removed to reveal

footbridges after the games completion. Further giving th9 site purpose. Stadium was located on an island separated from other parts of the olympic province. The stadium was considered to be a contributor to the legacy of the site, potentially used after games by a soccer team at the games conclusion (Westham FC). The Stadium was considered as a theatre in the building process as wetl as a home for sport.The acoustics were achieve by the stadium being buried low in the ground.

o o

80,000 capacity 25,000 ground capacity and 55,000 in the frame structure

A decision was made to change to light steel cable netting which consequently used 1000 tonnes less steel. The canal system was used to transport mass and building materials as it has been for

generations before. This represents the efficiency that this system possessed even centuries ago. Compared to Beijing London used 8x less carbon and a% of the steel making it a far more sustainable Olympics. Furthermore, the swimming pools were reused in high schools, meaning the waste of materials was significantly reduced.


Figure: Range of mortar finishes and The Australian standard measurements for a single brick unit


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Week 4

Tutorial This tutorial main objective was to understand the concept and importance of scale when it comes to construction. The idea of why and how scale is important when designing/planning construction was heavily discussed. Scale is important in drawings, as it allows the architect to accurately measure life size materials and structural interactions, on a relatively small, easy to work with piece of paper. However, in order for this process to worh every measurement and detail must be exact as the factor in which you multiply your measurements on paper to get "real life" size, may incur large errors.

Preferred working units were those with known standard sizes, for example bricks or standard timber sizes. These allow the ease in calculation of the length of particular members of the structure. Appropriate common architectural scales were decided to be 1:L, 1:10, and 1:20. These numbers are very easy to convert measurements to either side of the scale. A questionnaire was undertaken regarding the Oval Pavilion, which is currently under construction. This raised the question surrounding design and plans, elevations in drawings, sections and drawing detailing.

elearnins and Lectures Lecture: The Oval Pavilion was the focus of this lecture. The main focuses of the lecture were to explore: Planning and organisation involved The way cultural diversity impacted on the structure, reflects different backgrounds Engineering

. .

. . . .

Architecture Technology used for design Communication

These ideas are shown in the following mind map.


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f,ryrm*okruf,a.SfI06E Figure: Examples of spacing of different members and span distance

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]oist- a horizontal member that runs between at least two supports in order to carry the load of a ceiling or floor Steel decking- the decking seryes as a working platform during construction and as formwork for an in situ concrete slab Span- the distance measured between two structural supports

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Spacing- the rep6ating distance between a series of like or similar elements, measured centre to centre.


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Week 5

Tutorial In this tutorial we constructed a scale model of the Oval Pavilion using materials and bonding agent ofour choosing. Our group decided that cardboard and paper with strong superglue would provide strong structure members as well as the ease of working and shaping the sections we needed. As the cardboard did not have a large surface are at the end of each piece we cut to size, the glue was

not setting in place fast or securely enough.

Thus, as a management strategy, the group used paper pieces to which the glue was applied, and placed at the joints of each structural member.

This largely improved the stability of the structure and allowed the construction to occur much more efficiently.

Due to time constraints, the wall that the roof elements connect to in the real life structure was modelled very poorly, as shown. However, by putting the wall in place, it gave the general idea of

how the roof structure interacted with the corresponding wall system.

The floor system was constructed very easily and quickly, due to the lack of time. Our idea was that we mark out the measurement of each step and the floor space to scale, and then simply fold the lines where indicated. Once again, it was not a very accurate representation of the building, but it gave the model some sort of base structure and a visual idea of how all the structural systems interact


elearnins and Lecture Lecture For basement construction to take place, retention systems must be in place. Steel reinforcing cages are lowered into a hole and are pored with concrete. Capping beam joins the tops of the board piers and thus the concrete beams hold back the dirt from falling in. Shockcrete is then sprayed onto the surface to secure the wall from coming back into the basement. Board piers were closer together near the old commerce building fagade to carry the heavier load. The basement was excavated further in some areas for such rooms as the lecture theatre. Pre cast concrete columns were used for internal columns of the building.

throughout the structure however stairwells require bigger footings in terms of a raft slab. Reasoning for this may be that they carry a larger live load to other parts of the structure. Structural connection must always Pad footings were used

be made. Pre cast concrete used for the new building is cast flat stacked vertically for storage and then transported to site. The process is more efficient if pre casted rather than in situ as structural connections are cast into the precast concrete. The concrete is pale coloured due to the minerals present mainly from the lack of using bluestone aggregate.

Cantilever structures are identifiable in the building. The structure must be ffiangulated in order for it to be held in place, the diagonal beam take majority of the load. The cantilever in the architecture building was built 15mm upward with the knowledge thatthe applied load would pull the structure down to approximately 15mm so it becomes level.

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Tutorial This tutorial was the presentation of our full size assignment.

elearnins and Lectures Lecture: This lecture helped to investigate property development and how such developments are considered successful. The lecture covered 3 main locations as examples of different property developments and the variation between them.

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. Royal Children's Hospital . l7l Collins street (BHP building) ' 35 Spring Street

The ideas and concepts explored by this lecture are shown in the mind map on the following page.

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Alloy- a mixture of properties

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Soffit- the underside of a particular element Top chord- the upper horizontal structural member present with a truss


Week 7

Tutorials and Lectures Both tutorial and lecture sessions did not run in week 7 due to the Easter break eI parning rrsrAs.rilG roR

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Down pipe- take water from gutters and discharge it into a dry well or storm water system Flashing- refers to the thin continuous Pieces of sheet metal or other imPervious materials installed to Prevent the Passage of water into the building heat loss Insulation- the use of a material in an attempt to retain heaVreduce heatwithin a building passage of movement of Sealant- used to provide a protective seal against the water and air causes the water Drip- Used to stop the stream flow on member of the building to drip

in a construction to Vapour barrier- is a material of low perrneance installed it can condense into pointwhere a p.J*r"r,a moisture from entering andreaching a liquid.


Week

I

Tutorial: This tutorial was an opportunity to draw a re-scaled architectural drawing. We started with a drawing of the oval pavilion with a scale of 1:5 and our object was to transform it into a 1:1sketch, which included detailing.

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Deflection-is the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under tranwerse loading increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section or the modulus of elasticity of the material Moment of inertia-is the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from the coplanar axis of rotation. Stress-a combination of compression and tension stresses developed at a cross section of a stmchrral member to resist a transverse force. Shear Force-forces which actin both directions


Week 9

Tutorial The construction site of the Portrait Building located on Swanston Street was visited in this week tutorial. As a class we examined the different aspects of the sites construction, including both structural and non-structural elements that make up the building. The construction was completed to floor 29, thus where we began our tour. It contains/will contain: o 35 stories o 27 apartment levels o 536 apartments, which only 1- remains unsold o Retail shops o Rooftop spas and BBQ Completion of the structure is projected to be around Christmas this year. These structural supports help stabilize the formwork in which the slab to the above level is poured. These supports remain here until4 subsequent levels are considered load bearing. Then, the formworkwill be

removed from the bottom most level and added to the next level being built.

The edge of the building was caged on every level which hadn'tyet had the outglass windows installed. The cage is

positioned slightly further out from the building. This allows workers to work on parts of the buildingwhich overhang, allowing for certain processes which would otherwise notbe available without these caged fences. The concrete slabs are composite materials. They are poured and cured with mesh and cables. This makes ita reinforced post-tension concrete slab. The cables are pulled extremely

tight

under high tension, to straighten the slab. They metal casing is then filled with grout, into the yellow tubes highlighted, to retain tension and stop the slab sinking. This is done on the outer edge using the cages for safety from falling.


Two cranes were used on site to lift heavy materials to either the top floor or to loading docks located on lower levels, which the materials are then slid into the building. Loading materials into the building is a process that must be well thought through, otherwise, larger materials such as plasterboards, may not be able to fit into certain rooms if structure is already built

Concrete is transported through the centre of the building, the core, using

the machinery seen in this photo. The core of the building is established

first, as it provides a centre point for construction. The blue piping is the concrete

transportation. It runs through a shaft from the bottom floor to the top, much similar to an elevator shaft but on a smaller scale. This technology has increased the speed of construction greatly. The tour guide emphasized the speed of slab pouring, indicating that 1 floor worth of concrete can be poured every 4 days. This is 1400 square meter area.

Allow slabs are poured on site, the use of precast concrete is still heavily observable. It is mainly used in column and shear walls The red plastic moulds prevent concrete

from filling certain areas. This forms a rylindrical casted area for pipes so that they can easily be fitted through the slab.


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Glossarv Sandwich panel- two aluminium sheets which contain a non-aluminium core material Bending- additional loading causes the column to deflect further until collapse occurs in the means of bending

Skirting- predominatelywooden board running along the bottom to protect the plaster from damage Composite Beam- a beam formed from two or more dissimilar materials which joined together to act as a single unit used for stone, and is joined closer to the centre of the objec! with a slight gap seen easily in the connection, as shovrm Shadow line joint-a joint

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Figure: Representation of corrosion occurring in the Statue of liberty. Water penetration causing expansion

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Glossary Sheer wall-

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structured wall made up of braced panels

Soft story- exists in a building when one or more floors are significantly weaker o. .or" h"*ible than those above and/or below. They result in uneven load distribution and are often cause by architectural desires in bottom floor lobbies etc.

Braced frame- bracing added to a new or existing frame structure to help against wind and earthquake forces Lifecycle- the creation, use and waste management of a particular material over time (it's "life") Deflect- a deflection of a structural element measure in degrees Fascia- situated underneath a roofs edge and runs horizontally

Corrosion- the destruction of materials over time due exposure to weather conditions causing chemical reactions IEQ- Indoor environment quality, refers to health when using materials


References: Francis D.K Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated (4t'ed.), Hoboken, New fersey: fohn Wiley & Sons The university of Melboume, 2OL4, Flipped Classroom, Retrieved from

https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.isp?tab tab group id= 5 1& url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexequte%o2Flauncher%.3Ftypeo/o3DCourse%26id o/o3D 27

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Matthew Thompson-698447  

Log book final submission The University of Melbourne

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