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MTGF Donates $85,000 for Turf and Grounds Research Phosphorus Runoff from Turf Japanese Beetle Management Bluegrasses are Still King Association Spotlight: MGCSA


“The Business of Your Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation” MTGF PRESIDENT DAVID J. OBERLE

The weather has made it easy to write my opening paragraph for the spring issue of MTGF CLIPPINGS. It has been another couple seasons of strange weather. Winter and early spring have been anything but normal. Let’s hope the summer settles into a more average and normal pattern, but these days “What’s normal”? This winter Shawn Bernick, MTGF Past President turned the reigns over to me. Shawn has served your association very well. Shawn took over the MTGF during a time of change, and was a great leader and steady guiding light during this time. You have heard the saying “big shoes to fill” and I will do my best. Thanks again to Shawn for his time and effort. It is with great pleasure I am able to share some good news with you regarding your Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. We received the financials for the Northern Green Expo at our March 15th Board of Directors Meeting. 2012 revenue increased approximately 28%. The MTGF’s greatest source of funding comes from the Northern Green Expo. Thanks to MNLA Executive Director Bob Fitch and his show staff for another well-run Expo. The March 15th BOD meeting was packed with many agenda items. We passed our 2012 Annual Operating Budget, awarded MTGF research grants, put some savings back in the bank and approved a new direction for 2012 Field Day. Due to the increase in revenue we were able to increase funding to on-going projects and add one new project. The following is a list of research projects and the Funding Grants awarded for 2012. $2,000.00 - Testing Annual Bedding Plants for Resistance to White Mold: By Michelle Grabowski, UM Extension Educator – Plant Pathology and Horticulture and Dean Malvick, UM Dept. of Plant Pathology $15,000.00 - University of Minnesota Program for Selecting American Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease: By Robert A. Blanchette and Jeffrey H. Gillman $3,000.00 - What’s Wrong With My Plant? An Online Diagnostic Tool for Insect, Disease and Abiotic Problems: By Jeff Hahn, UM Extension Entomologist and Michelle Grabowski, UM Extension Educator – Plant Pathology and Horticulture $50,000.00 - Turfgrass Program Support: By Dr. Eric Watkins and Dr. Brian Horgan $15,000.00 - University of Minnesota Fellowship Endowment Fund The MTGF BOD approved a new direction for the 2012 Field Day. The Field is going “VIRAL.” Dr. Brian Horgan and his team will capture the week-to-week and month-to-month highlights and changes via video clips. These will be supported both in the MTGF CLIPPINGS magazine and website posts. Dr. Horgan will also host “Association Workshop Seminars.” These seminars will need to be arranged with Dr. Horgan and his staff. As a reminder, your MTGF is made up of seven allied associations. Our Mission is to promote the Green Industries in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere. MTGF will continue to encourage the exchange of knowledge among members of the turf and grounds industry through educational conferences, workshops, seminars, and trade shows. Until next time, please take time to enjoy working in one of the greatest industries our country has to offer, “The Green Industry.” Sincerely,

David J. Oberle David J. Oberle President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

MINNESOTA TURF AND GROUNDS FOUNDATION Executive Committee President DavidOberle ExcelTurf&Ornamental VicePresident SusieJohnson GertensWholesale Treasurer SteveBalfany BalfanyFarms Secretary BrianHorgan,Ph.D. UniversityofMinnesota PresidentEx-Officio ShawnBernick RainbowTreeCare ScientificAdvancements DIRECTORS MTSC BrentBenike NorthernExcellenceSeed MASMS TracyClosson NorthfieldPublicSchoolsISD#659 MPSTMA PaulGriffin CityofWoodbury UMRepresentative JeffHahn UniversityofMinnesota MGCSA JeffIsche GoldenValleyGolf& CC MAC DavidKemp TheCatholicCemeteries MTA BryanLawrence RocketTurf&Nursery MTSC RichardMagnusson MagnussonFarms MPSTMA KevinManley JRK Seed&TurfSupply MAC RalphPierre UnionCemetery MASMS TomRedmann AnokaHennepinISD#11 MSA MarkStennes S& STreeSpecialists MGCSA RogerStewart,CGCS TPCTwinCities MTGFBUSINESSOFFICE JeffTurtinen ExecutiveDirector P.O.Box617 Wayzata,MN 55391 952-473-3722 jeff.turtinen@mtgf.org



MTGF / UM Field Day Replaced by On-line Research Videos for 2012 After many discussions, the MTGF Board of Directors will try a virtual MTGF/University of Minnesota Field Day for 2012 versus the traditional hands-on event it has been for the past 10 years. Dr. Brian Horgan and other researchers at the University of Minnesota will produce short, 2-3 minute videos of a variety of research projects currently taking place at TROE Center on the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. Two main factors for this change were declining attendance and timing. The past few years, attendance has steadily decreased. Field Day always has been well-supported by green industry vendors but less and less MTGF association members were attending. The timing of the event also may be an issue. Scaled-down work forces in the Fall can make it tough to leave work. The Board feels the hands-on experi-

The valuable hands-on experience at past MTGF/University of Minnesota Field Days will be replaced by short videos of the turf and grounds research taking place at TROE Center on the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. The videos will be available at www.mtgf.org.

ence of attending Field Day will be missed. For those who prefer to see the research in person, individual groups can make arrangements with Dr. Horgan

COVER PHOTO: No. 6, Meadows at Mystic Lake Aptly named “The Bear” because it requires a demanding tee shot and a well-placed second. The Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association (MGCSA) is spotlighted on Page 18.

Table of Contents 2 3 4 6 8 14 15 16 18

President’s Corner - David Oberle Field Day Replaced by On-Line Videos for 2012 Phosphorus Runoff From Turf - Horgan, Rice, Rosen Super Tuesday: A Look Back and What’s Ahead Japanese Beetle Management - Vera Krischik Message from the Minnesota Dep’t. of Ag - Kay Sargent Bluegrass is Still King - Joe Churchill MTGF Donates $85,000 Towards Research - Jeff Turtinen Association Spotlight: Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association

for a scaled-down visit to TROE Center and check out the research first-hand. (Editor’s Note: Brian Horgan, Ph.D. may be reached at bphorgan@umn.edu.)

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Phosphorus Runoff From Turf By Brian Horgan1, Pam Rice2 and Carl Rosen1

1University of Minnesota and 2United States Department of Agriculture, St. Paul MN

Turfgrass managers continue to face scrutiny on the types of inputs used to manage landscapes and playing surfaces. Questions and comments like: what type of fertilizers are you using, are they organic or synthetic; are those fertilizers slow release; why don’t you just use compost from the local recycling center. I prefer not to fertilize my lawn because I don’t want to pollute the environment. As stewards of the environment, turfgrass managers are responsible for proper application of inputs, developing conservation strategies and communicating those strategies with customers and the greater public. Perspective

process that increases aquatic plant growth and subsequent reduction of water clarity, habitat loss and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen. When properly maintained, turfgrass does an excellent job at minimizing soil erosion. The concern in a turfgrass system results from runoff of DISSOLVED (not particulate bound) phosphorus where there are high amounts of organic residue from clipping and thatch, high soil test phosphorus or recently applied phosphorus fertilizers. Research has clearly demonstrated that added phosphorus fertilizer should not be applied following establishment when soil-test P levels are high.

Phosphorus is an essential element required for plant growth and development of turfgrass. In soils, it is relatively immobile except in runoff water and erosion of soils. Off-site transport of P to natural fresh waters can result in accelerated eutrophication. Eutrophication is a

It Can’t Be That Simple

These laws typically exempt golf courses and sod farms and provide an opportunity to apply P when establishing a new lawn or a soil/tissue test states a deficiency. Minnesota’s fertilizer restriction has been in place since 2004 (metro) and 2005 (statewide). The primary outcome from this law is that the amount of P fertilizers sold has been significantly reduced and most fertilizer manufacturers have formulated a Zero-Phosphorus fertilizer. The expectation in Minnesota was that surface water quality would improve now that P fertilizers applied to lawns have been removed from the market. No been removed from the market. No changes in water quality due to the Minnesota law have been documented! Unfortunately, it isn’t that simple.

Phosphorus fertilizer use restrictions are popping up across the Upper Midwest. Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois and Minnesota all have a statewide use restriction on fertilizer applied to turfgrass.

Research Nuts and Bolts A study was conducted on a silt loam (Continued on Page 5)

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Phosphorus Runoff From Turf (Continued from Page 4)

soil at the University of Minnesota Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center with a 5% slop and high soil test P (27ppm Bray P-1) to evaluate P fertilization and clipping management effects on P runoff from Kentucky bluegrass. Phosphorus runoff was evaluated separately under frozen and non-frozen soil conditions. The study was conducted for 5-yrs following initiation of experimental treatments in Sept. 2004. Four fertilizer treatments were compared: (1) no fertilizer, (2) nitrogen and potassium only (0-P treatment), (3) complete fertilizer N + 1xP + K, and (4) complete fertilizer N + 3xP + K. For treatments 1-3, nitrogen was applied at 147 kg ha-1 (3 lbs per 1000 ft2). Potassium was applied based on soil test recommendations. Phosphorus rates were: 1xP = 49 kg ha-1 and 3xP = 147 kg ha-1 the first year (1 lb and 3 lbs P2O5 per 1000 ft2, respectively) and 1xP = 16 kg ha-1 and 3xP = 49 kg ha-1 for the following four years (0.33 lbs and 1 lb P2O5 per 1000 ft2, respectively). The 1xP treatment in the first year was equivalent to the recommended P rate for turfgrass in Minnesota in the establishment year at the measured soil test level. The 1xP treatment in the following four years was typical of the amount of P commonly applied before the widespread availability of zero P turf fertilizers. Each fertilizer treatment was evaluated with clippings removed or clippings recycled back to the turf for a total of eight experimental treatments. Data were collected for total P (TP) and dissolved reactive P (RP) concentrations in runoff, runoff depth, amounts of TP and RP transported in runoff, turfgrass growth and quality, P concentrations in plant tissue, P uptake, and soil test P levels (Bray P-1) at two soil depths. In the fourth and fifth years of the study, TP measurements were not made and only RP was measured in runoff. Results

the fact that turfgrass that is properly fertilized will actually improve runoff water quality from the landscape. At this research location, properly fertilized would be N and K only because of adequate supply of P in the soil after establishment. Soil testing is the only way to identify what “properly fertilized” turf means at your location. The public should not extrapolate or infer the following: If Phosphorus is bad for the environment then all fertilizer is bad for the environment. This is simply not true. From these results and in a separate 5-yr study on golf course fairway turf, any strategy to reduce runoff volume will reduce off-site movement of nutrients in runoff water. These strategies would include hollowtine aerification to reduce compaction, N fertilizers to increase plant density, vertical mowing to reduce thatch accumulation and proper fertilizer selection. When comparing hollow-tine and solid-tine aerification, hollow-tines reduce runoff volumes and P in runoff by 55% and 44% (2d after aerification), respectively. Follow the water! With regard to proper fertilizer selection, late season fertilizers should not contain P. There is no published research that suggests any benefit from late-fall or dormant applications of P fertilizers, especially in parts of North America that experience frozen soil conditions. Conclusions Properly fertilized turf will improve water quality. Soil testing will determine P fertilizer needs. Not apply P when an adequate supply is available in the soil will reduce P runoff. Any management practice implemented to keep water on the landscape will reduce nutrient loading into surface waters.

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After five years of data collection, our results can be summarized as: • Phosphorus in water runoff, the soil, and turfgrass tissue increased linearly with increasing P fertilizer application rate. • 86% of phosphorus runoff occurred when the soil was frozen • 78% of the water runoff (total volume of water running off the turfgrass) occurred when the soil was frozen • 72% of runoff P was dissolved reactive P • No clipping management effect was found • In year one, highest P runoff occurred from the 3xP treatment • In years 2-5, highest P runoff occurred from the no fertilizer treatment • P runoff can be reduced without affecting turf quality by not applying P fertilizers when soil test P levels are high • Properly fertilized turf can reduce P runoff The Story Considering the results just presented, in parts of North America with prolonged frozen soil conditions, the majority of off-site movement of P from the landscape occurs during the winter when plants are not actively growing and the entire landscape is impervious. Stating this differently, management practices to mitigate or reduce off-site movement of P from the landscape can impact 14% of the total P lost. Plants that are actively growing and actively managed reduce P runoff. Further consideration of these results should also lead you to www.MTGF.org

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National Speakers Highlighted 2012 MTGF Super Tuesday This year's MTGF Super Tuesday's speakers attracted a sizeable crowd at the annual event held on January 3, 2012. Three well-respected speakers enlightened the audience talking about informative and timely issues concerning turf managers and Arborists. The MTGF-hosted event was sponsored by: Gertens Wholesale, John Deere Landscape, JRK Seed and Turf Supply, and Professional Wireless Communications. The speakers were James Urban, FASLA, Dr. David Gardner, The Ohio State University, and Dr. Bruce Clarke, Rutgers. JAMES URBAN James Urban, FASLA, spoke about 'Managing Trees in Urban Soils.' Plant root health is dependent on both soil conditions and root conditions that exist when the tree is planted. In urban areas, soil conditions are significantly degraded and modifications to soil or even complete replacement of soils will be necessary. Once the tree is in the ground there is often little that can be done to improve large scale soil issues such as compaction or poor drainage or these modifications become quite expensive. This presentation discussed soil solutions appropriate to projects in urban soils ranging from dense urban core sites to suburban development. James Urban specializes in the design of trees and soils in urban spaces. He has written and lectured extensively on the subject of urban tree planting and has been responsible for the introduction of many innovations including most of the current standards relating to urban tree plantings. His 2008 book ‘Up By Roots:

MTGF SUPER TUESDAY SPEAKERS David Gardner, left, The Ohio State University, and Dr. Bruce Clarke, Rutgers. The information they presented, along with a third speaker, James Urban, was very informative and timely.Super Tuesday annually took place on the Tuesday of the MNLA / MTGF Northern Green Expo Week this past January. The 2013 Super Tuesday will focus on Pest Threats (See Page 7).

Healthy Trees and Soils in the Built Environment,’ is becoming one of the principal tree and soil references. James Urban was instrumental in the development of structural cells and structural planting soils for use under sidewalk pavements, and is credited with helping to reawaken the profession of landscape architecture to the skills required to successfully plant trees in difficult urban soils. DR. DAVID GARDNER Dr. David Gardner is an associate professor of turfgrass science at The Ohio State University. His research interests are in the areas of pesticide/nutrient fate and

shade stress physiology. He also conducts a large number of herbicide trials each year. Dr. Gardner teaches undergraduate courses in the areas of turfgrass management, statistics, and landscape horticulture. Dr. Gardner's talked about several important new herbicides that have come onto the market in the past few years for the control of broadleaf weeds, including mesotrione and aminocyclopryachlor. The uses, advantages and disadvantages of these products were discussed, as well as how these products fit into a weed management program. (Continued on Page 7)

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Super Tuesday(Continued from Page 6)

DR. BRUCE CLARKE Dr. Bruce Clarke, Rutgers, spoke on the impact of cultural practices on turf diseases. His session covered the impact of management practice on turfgrass diseases, current BMPs for control of anthracnose and current strategies for dollar spot management on golf courses. Dr. Clarke, is the vice chair of the department of plant biology and pathology at Rutgers. The principal focus of his research deals with the identification and control of abiotic and biotic diseases associated with cool-season turfgrasses. To date, research findings have been utilized by turf managers to reduce pesticide usage through improved management. Research also has been initiated to develop disease forecasting and detection systems and to identify genetic resistance to diseases in new and existing turfgrass cultivars.

FIGHTING BACK! 2013 Super Tuesday Will Address Pest Threats to Minnesota Grounds Professionals in charge of trees and grounds in cities, golf courses, parks, cemeteries, schools and landscapes are facing a deluge of threats form invasive insect species. Greatest Threats Overview EAB, gypsy moth, Japanese beetle, Dutch elm disease, oak wilt and Asian longhorned beetle. A Park Without Trees? What would your park, golf course, cemetery or boulevard look like with no trees, trees with no leaves, or only small trees because you had to start over? Environmentally-tested and EPA-approved products are available to help prevent or control the effects of emerald ash borer, Japanese beetle and Dutch elm disease. Tree care professionals can help you save mature trees and legacy trees through on-going plant health management. Replacement Options The best time to plant a tree was 30 years ago...the second best time is today! What trees and shrubs should you be planting to minimize future pest problems? The Value of Trees: Educating Your Boss, Lawmakers, Residents or Clients Trees are environmentally priceless! Learn the talking points and approach you need to have to convince decision-makers about the value of trees. Trees provide shade and temperature control, potentially reducing your energy bills 12%; trees can filter air pollution and noise pollution; trees help restore natural balance in cities by absorbing stormwater runoff; trees provide biodiversity and wildlife habitat; trees can increase your home’s property value by up to 15%, and trees provide recreation and aesthetic.


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Japanese Beetle Invasion:


Associate Professor and Extension Specialist University of Minnesota

The Quick Read The Japanese beetle (JB) arrived from Japan in 1920 in Pennsylvania on potted plants. JB larvae (grubs) are a serious pest of turf and JB adults feed on foliage of over 300 species of ornamental plants, preferring rose, ivy, linden, and birch. Grubs only feed on the roots of grass. Adults feed on the top of plants in the sun and emit a pheromone to attract others. At dark the pheromone is no longer produced and adults are highly mobile and fly from feeding sites during the day to turf at night to lay eggs. Management of newly hatched grubs requires insecticide application in May thru early June and again in late July thru August. Applications in September will kill grubs if the soil temperature remains above 50 degrees F for two weeks, but these grubs are larger and more difficult to kill. In mid-June grubs pupate and turn into adults so insecticide application is not effective. Imidacloprid (class neonicoinyl) is less water soluble than thiamethoxam or clothianidin and has less chance of being washed


off the grass by irrigation and rain. In my research I find imidacloprid granular formulations (Merit 0.5%) that dissolve slowly compared to foliar sprays (Merit 2F), to be much more effective. A major issue with killing grubs is that imidacloprid can only be used 1 time in the season at the higher application rate for all formulations. If you apply imidacloprid in May at the maximum rate of 0.4lb/acre, then your second application in late July can be another neonicotinyl such as thiamethoxam (Meridian 0.33G, 25WG) or clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena .5G, 50 WDG). In mid July thru Sept you can use halofenozide (Mach 2) or chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn) on smaller grubs. Both are environmentally friendly, do not kill predatory insects, and application can be repeated. In July, adults that are emerging and are walking on the turf or when sitting on foliage, can be killed with an application of bifenthrin (Talstar), carbaryl (Sevin), chlorantraniliprole (Acelypyrn), chloropyrifos ( Dursban 50W, PRO), clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena .5G, 50 WDG), clothianidin +bifenthrin (Aloft), deltamethrin (Deltaguard), imidacloprid+bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera), lambda-cyhalothrin (Battle, Scnitar) and imidacloprid (Merit 2F). A soil application of imidacloprid on plants will kill adults in about one week on shrubs and two weeks on trees. On shrub roses, JB adults feed on flowers to avoid the spiny leaves and foliar sprays appear to be more effective. A very good summary of all pesticides for use on golf courses, AG bulletin 408, is available from North Carolina Cooperative Extension turf files at http://www.turffiles.ncsu.edu/PDFFiles/004176/ AG408PestControl_Professionals.pdf Details on JB Life Cycle in Minnesota from University of Minnesota Extension Bulletin WW0764 In Minnesota JB adults start to emerge from the soil in early July to fed and lay eggs. An adult female can live for 6 weeks as they have few natural enemies. Females lay eggs every other day. Eggs take about a week to hatch. If an area has a large number of adult beetles, then you need to control the grubs in the turf. The principles of IPM advise you to scout for the grubs by cutting the turf near the brown spots and look for the feeding grubs. Smaller grubs are easier to kill. In the East extremely high populations of beetles were found in the 1960s, but by 2012 the adult beetles are rarely seen. Research at the Connecticut Agricultural Station demonstrated that Ovavesicula, a soil-inhabiting biological control microsporidian, was killing Japanese beetle grubs in the soil. In 2007, Dr. Dave Smitley of Michigan State University introduced the pathogen to some Michigan golf courses. In 2009 his team continued to collect data that compares populations of Japanese beetle at sites where Ovavesicula is active with sites where it is absent. His data revealed that Ovavesicula reduces survival of Japanese beetle grubs by 25 to 50% per year. We need to perform research to introduce these to Minnesota.



(Continued on Page 9)


Japanese Beetle -

Figure 1. Adult stages of several white grub species

(Continued from Page 8) Identifying Adult Japanese Beetles

Japanese beetle adults are approximately 3/8 inches in length with a dark metallic green head and metallic dark tan wings. Key characteristics for adult JB are two white rear tufts and five white lateral tufts of hair (Figure 1). Identifying the grub stage of Japanese beetles Japanese beetle larvae or grubs are "C" shaped and live in the soil and feed on grass roots. JB was recorded to feed on the roots of corn, beans, tomatoes, and strawberries. Grubs can be identified to species by the pattern of hairs on their brown hind ends (raster). Using a 10power hand lens, you can see that the hairs on the raster of Japanese beetle form a small "V" shape just below the anal slit (Figure 2 on Page 10). (Continued on Page 10)

adult Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Japanese beetles have two white rear tufts and five white lateral tufts of hair. Adults found on plants.

adult False Japanese beetle Strigoderma arbicola False Japanese beetles lack the five white hair tufts along wing margin. Adults rarely seen.

adult rose chafer Macrodactylus subspinosus Rose chafer are a light green tan color with long legs. Adults found on plants.

adult May/June beetle Phyllophaga species Adults found at lights.

adult masked chafer Cyclocephala borealis Adults do not feed so not found at lights or plants.

adult black turfgrass Ataenius Ataenius spretulus The smallest species found in turf with high organic matter.

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Japanese Beetles (Continued from Page 9)

Scouting for Grubs Grubs chew off grass roots and reduce the ability of grass to take up enough water to withstand stresses of hot, dry weather. As a result, large dead patches of grass develop in grub infested areas. These dead patches can be rolled back like a carpet to expose the lack of turf roots. Grubs can be found in adjacent green areas. Early recognition of the problem can prevent this destruction. Starlings and crows, as well as moles, shrews, and skunks may be seen digging up grubs, also damaging the turf. Grub populations between 7 and 15 per square foot can cause significant damage to non-irrigated turf. Irrigated turf can withstand a higher grub count because the increase in water compensates for the roots chewed off by the grub. JB Life Cycle Adults emerge from the soil in early July, feed, mate, and lay eggs. In July adults are noticed feeding on vines, linden trees, roses, and many other orna-

mentals. Activity is most intense over a 6 to 8 week period, after which the beetles gradually die off. Individual beetles live about 60 days. Over 2 months females can lay a total of 60 eggs. JB adults feed in full sun at the top of plants, moving downward as the leaves are consumed. Odors emitted from beetle-damaged leaves causes beetles to aggregate. Also, adults release an attraction pheromone that causes them to aggregate. At dusk, this pheromone is no longer produced and the females fly to turf to lay eggs. Females burrow 2 to 3 inches into the soil and lay their eggs. The grubs grow quickly and by late September are almost full-sized (about 1 inch long). When the soil cools to about 60째F in the fall, the grubs begin to move deeper. Most pass the winter 2 to 6 inches below the surface, although some may go as deep as 8 to 10 inches. Grubs feed again in May when ground temperatures are above 50째F (Figure 3). Timing Pesticide Application Adults fly long distances to food plants; so adult infestations do not indicate turf infestations. Timing of pesticide treatment is important.

Figure 2. Grub rastral patterns are used for identification. The hind end of the grub, its raster, contains sutures with hairs. JB has a small "V" shape suture with hairs. Clockwise from top are rasters of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, May/June beetle, and black turfgrass Ataenius.

Insecticides for grubs can be applied from May through mid-June, when recently overwintered grubs (larvae) start feeding. However, these grubs are large and may be difficult to kill. Starting in mid- June most grubs are in the pupal stage and insecticides are not effective. In early July (Continued on Page 11)




Japanese Beetles (Continued from Page 10)

adults emerge to feed on plants, mate, and then at night fly to grass to lay eggs. The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from mid-July until early September. Granular applied insecticides distributed on soil with a spreader are usually the best insecticides for JB (Figure 3). Insecticide Recommendations for Grub Control

Figure 3. Life cycle of Japanese beetle: egg, grub, and adult stages. In June, the grub turns into a pupa. It emerges from the soil in late June and July as an adult, to mate and lay eggs. Females live for a few weeks feeding on trees, shrubs and roses in the morning, returning to the turf in the afternoon to lay more eggs. Eggs hatch in July and grubs are almost full grown by late August. Grubs dig deep in the soil for the winter months and then move upward in spring as the soil warms. Grubs do best in warm, slightly moist soil that has plenty of organic matter and tender grasses. However, they can survive in almost any soil.

If many adults are feeding on leaves in an area, it does not indicate a grub infestation in the turf. Before applying an insecticide for grubs, make sure you have a large infestation. Look for areas of brown turf and search in adjacent green areas for grubs and pupae. Insecticides are needed to control grubs and adults if the damage is extensive. Irrigating after applying an insecticide improves its insect control. However, a significant rainfall shortly after the application may reduce the insecticide's concentration below effective levels. Infestations should be checked one week after an insecticide is applied, especially if the original grub population was high. If after 10 days the grubs are still alive, apply a different product. Also, read the label carefully for cautions about their use (Tables 1 and 2). The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from mid-July until end of September. Granular applied insecticides distributed on soil with a spreader are usually the best insecticides for JB. There are conventional insecticides that kill grubs (imidacloprid) and biorational insecticides that conserve beneficial insects in turf (halofenozide and Acelepryn). In trials in Ohio milky spore disease (Bacillus popillae) has not been as successful in killing JB grubs as was reported in the 1960's. A beneficial nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, attacks JB grubs. Nematodes are microscopic parasitic roundworms that transport and feed on bacteria. When they find a grub, the nematodes penetrate the larva and inoculate it with bacteria, which quickly multiply within the grub's body. The nematode then feeds on the bacteria. Nematodes need to be applied to soil at night and the soil must be irrigated daily to kill it moist so the nematodes stay alive.

ed in 30 minutes at a pH of 9. Do not lime your lawn just before or after treatment for the same reason. Trichlorfon can be used as a rescue treatment when damage is observed late in the summer. Chlorpyrifos -- is only available to golf courses. It is generally not considered a top choice due to the high binding ability of the active ingredient to the thatch. It is a good choice for adult (Continued on Page 12)

Grub Insecticides Imidacloprid -- use as from July until early September. It has minimal risk to mammals and fish. Acelepryn -- use from July until end of August to control smaller grubs. It paralyzes muscles. Halofenzide -- use from July until end of August. It mimics an insect hormone and is best applied when adults are active and laying eggs. Minimize thatch since heavy thatch will prevent the insecticide from penetrating to the area where insects are feeding. Trichlorfon -- is fast-acting, but susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. It degrades very rapidly in very hard or alkaline water or in a high pH soil. Half of the active ingredients will be degradwww.MTGF.org


Japanese Beetles (Continued from Page 11)

adult Japanese beetle control, but is available only to nurseries and golf courses. Milky spore disease -- is caused by the bacteria Bacillus popilliae and is sold under the names of Japidemic Doom and Milky Spore. Recent trials with these formulations have not reduced Japanese beetle grub numbers in turf. Insecticide Recommendations For Adult Control Removing beetles by hand may provide adequate protection for backyards, especially when beetle numbers are low. The presence of beetles on a plant attracts more beetles. Thus, by not allowing beetles to accumulate, plants will be less attractive to other beetles. One of the easiest ways to remove Japanese beetles from small plants is to shake them off into jars filled with soapy water. With all insecticidal products, foliage and flowers should be thoroughly treated. The application may need to be repeated to prevent reinfestation. Follow label directions and avoid spraying under windy conditions. Never spray when bees are foraging. Be sure the insecticide is registered


for use on the plant or crop you intend to spray. If it is a food crop, note the minimum number of days that must be observed between the date of the last application and the date of harvest. Different chemicals are used on adults when feeding on foliage. Foliar sprays of contact insecticides kill adults and offer

“The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from mid-July until end of September.� immediate knockdown, such as carbaryl, acephate, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids. Examples include pyrethroid products such as cyfluthrin (Tempo, Bayer Advanced Lawn & Garden Multi-Insect Killer), bifenthrin (TalstarOne, Onyx), deltamethrin (Deltagard), lambda cyhalothrin (Scimitar, Spectracide Triazicide), esfenvalerate (Ortho Bug-BGon Garden & Landscape Insect Killer) and permethrin (Spectracide Bug Stop Multi-Purpose Insect Control Concentrate and other brands). Both pyrethroids and carbaryl provide around two weeks of pro-

tection. For adults, repeated applications may be necessary because of the relatively short residual effect of the pesticides. Insecticides that are advertised as organic usually do not kill adults. Formulations with pyrethrins and PBO (piponeryl butoxide) are more effective. Neem products such as Azatrol may provide about 34 days deterrence of feeding. Insecticidal soap, extracts of garlic, hot pepper, or orange peels, and companion planting, are generally ineffective (Tables 1 and 2 on Page 14). Soil-applied imidacloprid is systemic and translocated around the plant and kills adults when feeding on foliage. However, when adults feed on petals of shrub roses rather than the spiny leaves, imidacloprid is not effective. Soil-applied imidacloprid used on linden or basswood trees or any plant visited by bees or beneficial insects, can potentially kill any bees or beneficial insects feeding on the pollen and nectar in the flowers. JB Traps: Are They Useful in Controlling JB Adults? Pheromone traps contain a lure with the scent of geraniums and rose (geraniol) and the sex pheromone of the JB female. The pheromone is very powerful and will (Continued on Page 13)


Japanese Beetles (Continued from Page 12)

call in beetles from a few thousand feet. Research demonstrated that more beetles fly toward traps then are caught; resulting

in surplus beetles that feed on your plants. Think twice before purchasing and installing a pheromone trap. Some growers have set pheromone traps over basins filled with soapy water with a white bottom (opaque white plastic bag) to increase the size of the area to catch beetles. Some

testify that these pools fill with beetles that drown in the soap and reduce the numbers in the area. If you are really frustrated with JB numbers, please try this method and see if JB numbers on your plants are reduced.

Table 1. Insecticides to control Japanese beetle grubs and adults. Use for grubs when damage is observed. Use for adults when feeding and damage is observed on ornamentals. If a product does not work, switch to a different insecticide. common name trade name target class comments Insecticides to control Japanese beetle adults: incomplete list of professional and homeowner products imidacloprid Merit, Grubex, grubs neonicotinyl Low toxicity to mammals. Menards Grub Control halofenozide






IGR, insect growth regulator; diacylhydrazine insect muscles





Bacillus popilliae

Milky spore, Japademic, Doom



Conserves adult predators. Environmentally friendly. Available to professional applicators. High toxicity to birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water. Available for homeowner use. Not effective in pH 8 water. Not shown to be effective in Ohio State tests.


bacteria and nematodes

Water before and daily after application.

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

Conserves adult predators.

Insecticides to control Japanese beetle adults: incomplete list of professional and homeowner products carbaryl Sevin adults carbamate High toxicity to bees, earthworms; moderately toxic to birds, fish. Do not use adjacent to water. Available for homeowner use. bifenthrin Talstar, Menards adults pyrethroid High toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than Insect Control, many 100 yards from water. other names cyfluthrin Tempo, Bayer adults pyrethroid High toxicity to birds, fish. Do not use adjacent to water. Advanced Lawn & Garden Multi-Insect Killer), lambdaScimitar, grubs pyrethroid High toxicity to fish. cyhalothrin , Spectracide Triazicide permethrin Astro, Spectracide adults pyrethroid High toxicity to fish, bees. For home lawns only. Bug Stop MultiPurpose Insect Control Concentrate esfenvalerate Ortho Bug-B-Gon adults pyrethroid High toxicity to honeybees. Odor may be a problem in public places. Garden & Landscape Insect Killer) deltamethrin DeltaGard adults pyrethroid High toxicity to birds, fish. Do not use adjacent to water. chlorpyrifos Dursban adults organophosphate High toxicity to birds, fish. Not available for home lawns.

Table 2. For nurseries, insecticides (professional) to add to soil media to control JB grubs. common name bifenthrin imidacloprid


trade name Talstar Marathon

class pyrethroid chloronicotinyl

comment For use in containers. For use in containers.



Do You Use Your Pesticide License To Control Vertebrates in Turf and Ornamentals? By KAY SARGENT Minnesota Department of Agriculture

Persons holding a Commercial or Noncommercial Pesticide Applicator License and certified in the Turf and Ornamental Category are qualified to control vertebrate pests at these sites. Examples of such control include using repellants to reduce bird or animal

browsing on ornamentals or using baits to control pests such as moles or voles burrowing in turf. The use of pesticidal control to mitigate vertebrate pests has been a part of Category E – Turf and Ornamentals MNStatute18B.01 category for some time. Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) is Definitions:"Pesticide" unclear whether vertebrate control is a meansasubstanceor typical part of the job of the person in mixtureofsubstances the industry or if this is more specialty intendedtoprevent, work. The MDA would like to obtain a destroy,repel,or clearer picture of who performs vertemitigateapestanda brate control tasks and how it fits in substanceormixtureof with other turf and ornamental pest substancesintendedfor useasaplantregulator, control tasks. This knowledge will help defoliantordesiccant. MDA provide pesticide applicators with appropriate licensing categories. In early May, MDA sent a short survey to companies employing licensed applicators certified in Category E - Turf and Ornamentals. Please complete the survey to help MDA understand the licensing needs of the pesticide applicators who are controlling vertebrates.





Bluegrasses Are Still King But You Can’t Treat Them All Equally By JOE CHURCHILL Reinders, Inc.

Have you looked at a bluegrass NTEP Trial lately? I’m guessing not and I’d wonder about you if you had. A good number of you might be wondering, “What’s an NTEP?” The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Turfgrass Evaluation Program evaluates new and existing turfgrass varieties for overall turf quality and performance based on several criteria. There’s an NTEP trial for all turf species including Kentucky bluegrass, the fine fescues, tall fescues, ryegrasses and bentgrasses. You can check them all out at www.ntep.org. If you’d like help navigating through the reports or deciphering the results, talk to your favorite seedman. In the meantime, you’ll have to take my word for it -- bluegrass varieties are as widely varied as fish are in the sea. There are short ones, tall ones; there are light green ones and dark green ones; some grow more upright while others grow low to the ground; there are even some that do well in light shade while most require full sun. Because of their broad genetic diversity, it’s important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each variety when selecting the right bluegrass-based grass seed mixture. This issue becomes most critical when selecting bluegrasses or bluegrass/ryegrass mixtures for seeding new ball fields or overseeding existing ones. So how do you know which ones to use? Allow me to present Exhibit A -- the Bluegrass Classification Chart. Space does not allow reproduction in this edition of MTGF CLIPPINGS. With a bit of effort on your part, you can print off your very own


copy at: http://www.sroseed.com /resources/pdfs/articles/KB_classifications.pdf This Bluegrass Classification System was developed by Rutgers University to help tell the story I’ve outlined. This par-

“Because of their broad genetic diversity, it’s important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each variety when selecting the right bluegrass-based grass seed mixture.”

ticular version belongs to SRO and was “massaged” by Dr. Leah Brilman, Director of Turf Research & Technical Services at Seed Research of Oregon. There are 14 different classifications, believe it or not. To say it in a different way, there are 14 different “subsets” of bluegrasses. The Bluegrass Classification System lists most of today’s commercially available varieties and categorizes them based on similar growth characteristics. This particular chart also highlights common traits shared by varieties within each class. Very cool. Five of these classes are intended for use on high traffic turf much like what you would find on heavily used athletic fields, courtyards and playgrounds. The five classes are:

1. Compact 2. Compact Midnight 3. Compact America 4. High Density 5. Julia The remaining nine classes, though worthy of recognition in other applications, are not specifically intended to be used in high-traffic situations. Will your ball fields spontaneously combust if you use varieties from one of these nine classes? Of course not. But to expect high performing turf on intensely used ball fields grown from these varieties may be wishful thinking. Not only do bluegrass varieties from these 14 bluegrass classes vary significantly in terms of performance, appearance and turf quality, they also vary greatly in terms of cost. You wouldn’t expect a Mercedes SUV to be priced the same as a Ford station wagon. Nor should you expect a bluegrass from one of the “Top 5” to cost the same as a Shamrock or BVMG. That’s why when you get quotes for a 50/50 Blue/Rye Mix without knowing what to ask for, you’ll receive a broad range of prices from $1.00/lb. up to $2.00/lb. Any 50/50 will serve you well in that neighborhood park or your neighbor’s backyard. But when your site receives 150-200 games per season, you’re best to stick with the Mercedes. Simple translation -- consult your seed supplier and specifically request a bluegrass/ryegrass mixture that includes two or more varieties from one of the five athletic turf bluegrass classes. If you don’t, you’ll be stuck driving that station wagon.


MTGF Providing $85,000 for Turf and Grounds Research at the UM for 2012 By JEFF TURTINEN Executive Director Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf and grounds related associations representing nearly 2,300 employees in the turf and grounds industry. The MTGF is also in partnership with the University of Minnesota. The mission of the MTGF is to promote the green industries in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere. The MTGF pursues its mission in various ways. One of these is an annual "Call for Proposals," titled the "MTGF Research Gift Program," whereby researchers, instructors and outreach faculty and staff involved in turf and grounds work may submit requests for unrestricted gifts to support their activities. In 2012, along with a commitment $15,000 to a University of Minnesota Endowment Fund, the MTGF is donating $70,000 to four projects. The researchers are: Dr. Brian Horgan/Eric Watkins; Michelle Grabowski/Jeff Hahn, and Robert Blanchette/ Jeffrey Gillman. U of M On-Line Diagnostic Tool

Plant? An Online Diagnostic Tool for Insect, Disease and Abiotic Problems” by Jeff Hahn, UM Extension Entomologist and Michelle Grabowski, UM Extension Educator – Plant Pathology and Horticulture. The MTGF will fund $3,000. U of M TROE Center Research at the TROE Center is vital for the future development of our industry and the Research being done at the TROE Center is of great benefit to our members. The MTGF supports the work at TROE Center and provided an unrestrictive gift of $50,000. White Mold The MTGF also is supporting Michelle Grabowski’s research on "Testing Annual Bedding Plants for Resistance to White Mold." Research on S. sclerotinia on bedding plants and their level of resistance or susceptibility is beneficial to the grounds managers. The MTGF supports this type of work and provided an unrestricted gift in the amount of $2,000.

New this year, MTGF is funding “What’s Wrong With My

(Continued on Page 17)

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MTGF Funding(Continued from Page 16)

Dutch Elm Disease The MTGF is also supporting Robert Blanchette and Jeffrey Gillman’s research on "Selecting American Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease." Research on Dutch Elm Disease-resistant elm cultivars will be very beneficial to the grounds managers. The MTGF provided an unrestricted gift in the amount of $15,000. MTGF Mission Statement The mission statement of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds


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SPOTLIGHT The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation (MTGF) is made up of seven affiliated groups that deal with the maintenance and planning of turf and grounds. One of these associations is the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association (MGCSA). Since 1927, the MGCSA’s objective has been to advance the art and science of golf course management, to collect and disseminate practical solutions to problems with a view to more efficient and economical maintenance and production of golf courses, and to promote the welfare of the Superintendent and the profession. The MGCSA offers a scholarship program designed to assist children and grandchildren of Class AA, A, SM, C, D, Associate and Affiliate members. The MGCSA provides scholarships to students attending college or vocational programs at any accredited post-secondary institution. Scottie Hines, CGCS, Windsong Farm GC is president of the MGCSA. Other officers include: Roger Stewart, TPC Twin Cities, Vice-President; Brian Brown, Chisago Lakes GC, Secretary; Paul Eckholm, CGCS, Treasurer, and Paul Diegnau, CGCS, Ex-Officio. The board is

The Beauty of Golfing “Up North” Since 1921, golf has been an important part of Ruttger’s Bay Lake Lodge in Deerwood, Minn. Carved from 100 cares of rugged north-woods terrain, each hole offers a challenge as well as the beauty of northern Minnesota.

comprised of Joe Churchill, Reinders; Eric Counselman, Somerby GC; Kerry Glader,

In general, the turf on golf courses survived the mild winter in great shape. Pictured above is Prairie View Golf Links, Worthington, Minn., an acclaimed prairie links golf course that meanders through wetlands and natural grasses. The course was inspired by the treeless links where golf was born. 18MTGFCLIPPINGS ~SPRING/SUMMER2012


Plaisted Companies; Bill Gullicks, Bellwood Oaks GC; David Kazmierczak, CGCS, Prestwick GC; Matt McKinnon, The Legacy Courses at Cragun’s; Bob Porter, Hiawatha GC, and Jake Schmitz, Olympic Hills CC. Jack Mackenzie currently is the Executive Director of the association. The MGCSA conducts monthly meetings throughout the year for its members. A very popular Turfgrass Research Benefit Week raises more than $17,000 annually to help support turfgrass research. MGCSA is an association committed to the advancement of the turfgrass industry. The association’s Hole Notes magazine is produced in a digital format available at www.mgcsa.org. MGCSA provides its members with numerous educational opportunities including the MGCSA Mega-Seminar, Northern Green Expo, Super Tuesday, and Pesticide Re-certification opportunities. (Editor’s Note: For more information about the MGCSA, visit www.mgcsa.org or contact Executive Director Jack MacKenzie at 651-324-8873 or jack@mgcsa.org.) www.MTGF.org




Great Start to 2012 at Expo!








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MTGF CLIPPINGS is the official publication of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. The magazine is published twice a year - Spring/ Summer and Fall/Winter. The magazine is mailed to the members of each of its Allied Associations in addition to several educational institutions and government agencies.


Minnesota Society of Arboriculture www.msa-live.org

Minnesota Association of Cemeteries www.mncemeteries.org

Minnesota Park and Sports Turf Managers Association www.mpstma.org

Minnesota Educational Facility Management Professionals www.masms.org

Minnesota Turf Association www.mnturf.org

Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association www.mgcsa.org

Minnesota Turf Seed Council www.mnturfseed.com



A publication featuring turf managment of the green industry.


A publication featuring turf managment of the green industry.

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