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All Smiles in the Rain at the MPSTMA Community Service Project in Hamel


minnesota turf and grounds foundation

The mission of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation is to promote the green industry in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere.



The Business of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Executive Committee


President Manuel Jordan Heritage Shade Tree Consultants, MSA Treasurer Steve Balfany Balfany Farms, MTA Secretary/Treasurer Sam Bauer University of Minnesota Extension Ex-Officio Kent Honl Rainbow Treecare, MSA

Directors MAC

Dave Kemp The Catholic Cemeteries


Tom Redmann Tom Redmann Consulting


Tracy Closson Northfield Schools ISD #659


Jamie Benzanson City of St. Paul/Highland National


Matt Cavanaugh Rush Creek Golf Club


Adam Hoffmann Turfwerks


Ben Wallin National Sports Center


Bryan Lawrence Rocket Turf & Nursery


Brent Benike Northern Excellence Seed


Richard Magnusson Magnusson Farms Vendor Representative Jim O’Neill EcoWorks Golf Supply Vendor Representative Susie Johnson Gertens Wholesale UM Representative Chad Giblin University of Minnesota UM Representative Brian Horgan Ph.D. University of Minnesota * * * * MTGF Executive Director Jeff Turtinen 952-473-3722 P. O. Box 617 Wayzata, MN 55391

President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

This past January, MTGF President Kent Honl passed the MTGF President’s Gavel to me. Under his watch the MTGF had a very successful and productive year. Thank you Kent for serving as our President! I will do my best to continue the efforts the organization makes to serve our state’s Green Industry through support of research and development. This year, we welcome the following new board members: Matt Cavanaugh (Rush Creek Golf Club, MGCSA), Adam Hoffmann (Turfwerks, MPSTMA) and Chad Giblin (UM). They replace, respectively, Jeff Girard (Stoneridge Golf Club, MGCSA), Jon Almquist (The Toro Company, MPSTMA) and Angela Orshinsky (University of Minnesota). Thank you Jeff, Jon and Angela for serving on the board! As most of our members likely know, the greatest source of our funding comes from the newly named Northern Green annual event (formerly know as the Northern Green Expo). This event is co-presented by the MTGF and the Minnesota Nursery and Landscape Assocaition (MNLA) and is evolving into the premier Green Industry Expo in the Midwest. There were a lot of new changes at this year’s event, including absorbing MTGF Super Tuesday into the main program and eliminating Friday from the schedule. Even though we had a curveball thrown at us by Mother Nature, which impacted walk-up registrants, all in all the event was considered a success. If you missed the chance to purchase MTGF apparel, we have golf shirts and hats available for purchase at or by contacting our office before we run out! The 2018 Northern Green will be held on January 2nd, 3rd and 4th at the Minneapolis Convention Center. This shift back to the first week of January is due to Super Bowl LII being hosted on February 4th at US Bank Stadium in Minneapolis. The MTGF and MNLA will be co-hosting a Professional Lawn Care Forum on June 15 at the TROE Center on the University of Minnesota’s St. Paul Campus. This event is a great opportunity to see first hand what’s new in turfgrass research and become informed on emerging trends in lawn care. It’s a can’t-miss opportunity that is historically very well attended, so sign up while there is still space available. This year the MTGF funded $120,00 out of $214,000 that was requested. It was the same amount that was funded last year and that now brings out total to $1,349,326 since 2001! The funding recipients all commented on how MTGF’s previous funding has allowed their research to flourish and continue working to address new challenges and funding opportunities. I look forward to working with all our members and partners to have a productive 2017 for the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation and its seven allied associations. Sincerely,

Manuel Jordán President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation


The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf- and grounds-related associations and the University of Minnesota. Members of the following associations are also considered members of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. 4 4 4 4

Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota

Society of Arboriculture Association of Cemeteries Park & Sports Turf Managers Association Educational Facilities Management Professionals

4 Minnesota Sod Producers 4 Minnesota Turf Seed Council 4 Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association


President’s Report: The Business of the MTGF - Manuel Jordan, MTGF President Heritage Shade Tree Consultants


Winter Pruning Workshops Focus on Tree Preservation from Planting to Maturity - Chad Giblin, Research Fellow, UFORE Nursery & Lab, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota


2017 MTGF Funding: Selecting American Elms For Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease


2017 MTGF Funding: Turfgrass Program Support


Top 5 Home Lawn Questions & Answers - Sam Bauer, Extension Educator, Turfgrass Science University of Minnesota Extension


Association News: MPSTMA

Community Service Project

ABOUT THE COVER: The Minnesota Park and Sports Turf Managers Association spent a rainy April day in Hamel building a new mound, and home plate area at Paul Fortin Memorial Field in Hamel, MN. Pictured above from left to right: Bruce Leivermann, Mankato State University; Mark Poppitz, The Tessman Company, and Dave Simeon, Town & Country Landscaping.. (More information on Page 18)

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Winter Pruning Workshops Focus on Tree Preservation From Planting to Maturity By CHAD GIBLIN Research Fellow, UFORE Nursery & Lab, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota Nearly six dozen arborists, landscape managers, parks workers, and maintenance staff joined University of Minnesota scientists and professional arborists to learn more about pruning trees in January, February, and March 2017. Workshops at both the Saint Paul and Duluth Campuses stressed the importance for timely and effective tree pruning beginning at planting and carrying forward into maturity. Our Saint Paul workshops brought together staff from many different organizations. In late January, UMN Landcare and the Davey Tree Expert Company joined us for a full-day workshop to cover the basics of developmental and structural pruning during the first 10 to 15 years of life. In March, a second campus workshop pro- (Fig. 1 - Using simple rope access equipment and techniques gives arborists an ideal work position to make the best pruning cuts.) vided training for parks and public works staff from the City of Eden transition from frequent nursery pruning schedules to Prairie, City of Minnetonka, City of Prior Lake, and those that are much less frequent in the landscape. The Washington County Parks. These workshops provided a challenge lies in developing a functional mature crown great opportunity for a diverse group of practitioners to while maintaining an attractive young form. In many cases team up and problem solve pruning challenges. Work a compromise in aesthetics is required to establish a focused on a variety species and many different sizes of young trees. Also included was an examination of different strong canopy. Proper pruning dose is the volume of canopy that can work positioning techniques to provide safe and efficient safely be removed during a single pruning event. Dose is access to young tree canopies. calculated using several factors including tree establishPruning young trees is really about proactive tree ment status, growth rate, inherent resistance to decay, and preservation. When the proper pruning dose is applied at the time between pruning cycles. A dose that is too low or the ideal time, care is directed at creating a mature form too high can have equally negative effects on the developthat is structurally sound and able to resist branch failures ing crown in a young tree. during wind, snow, and ice loading events. When trees are (Continued on Page 6) smaller than eight inches pruning should focus on the


Pruning Workshops(Continued from Page 5)

The first step in pruning young trees is to identify a strong central leader. Next, the height of the lowest permanent scaffold branch should be established; this may be variable depending on the species and location. Trees located in public boulevards may require higher permanent canopy than those located in parks or on private property. Branches below permanent canopy are considered temporary and will need to be pruned to a smaller lateral branch to reduce or suppress their growth and eventually thinned at the main stem. All temporary branches need to be managed to keep them less than one-half the size of the stem where they are attached until permanent removal. This will minimize the wound size when they are thinned at the main stem and promote quicker wound closure. The exact size of the pruning cut will vary depending on the tree species and its growth rate as well as resistance to decay. (Fig. 2 - Young lindens often require several courses of reduction pruning cuts to slow the growth of large temporary branches and codominant leaders.)

(Continued on Page 7)


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(Fig. 3 - UMN Landcare, Davey, and UMN Forest Resources staff at the January workshop.)

Pruning Workshops(Continued from Page 6)

On February 17th we returned to Duluth, MN for the Second Annual Northeast Pruning Workshop hosted at University of Minnesota - Duluth. UMD generously provided the Bagley Classroom and Nature Center for our home base while giving access to the entire campus for teaching subjects. Joining the teaching staff this year were Louise Levy of Levy Tree Care, Liam McClannahan of Branch and Bough Tree Service and Landscape Care, and Hannibal Hayes of the City of Minnetonka. Returning to the UMD campus

(Fig. 5 - Liam McClanahan and Hannibal Hayes demonstrate proper branch reduction in a pair of Autumn Blaze Freeman maples.)

(Fig. 4 - Hannibal Hayes discusses developmental pruning on a young tamarackconifers also benefit from these techniques!)

allowed us to really examine how trees have been responding to the pruning performed last winter and give instructors opportunity to discuss and demonstrate proper pruning dose. When approaching medium sized trees ranging from 8 to 12 inches in diameter, pruning cuts should be kept relatively small and in the outer periphery of the canopy. As trees approach maturity their growth rates level off and some species may respond poorly to large pruning cuts, especially when made on the main stem. Knowing tree species profiles and their ability to resist decay is critical in making these decisions. In many cases, if a large branch doesn’t need to be removed for clearance it can simply be reduced to direct resources to higher, more central (Continued o n Page 8) SPRING / SUMMER 2017 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 7

Pruning Workshops(Continued from Page 7)

portions of the canopy. This year we had a great opportunity to discuss and demonstrate techniques for managing large and mature trees. This includes trees in the 20 inch and greater DBH range and those with permanent established canopy. Larger trees really need to be assessed for structural defects that create risk due to targets below. These defects may include decay, branch inclusions, and codominant leaders as well as branch unions that are actively failing. The goal is to prevent or mitigate the effects of failure. Much like the approach with medium-sized trees, pruning cuts should focus on the outer canopy to reduce the sail on weak or defective branches. This can reduce the lever action on poorly attached unions and prevent failure during loading events. Cabling can be used to reduce the load

(Fig. 6 - Hannibal Hayes and Louise Levy continue work on developing mature canopy in an Autumn Blaze Freeman maple.)

(Fig. 7 - Liam McClannahan discusses cabling options for mature trees.)

on these unions as well. Liam spent time with the participants discussing options for canopy preservation using both static and dynamic cabling techniques that complement the pruning techniques demonstrated throughout the day. I would like to thank the Minnesota Turf & Grounds Foundation and the Minnesota Society of Arboriculture for their financial and in-kind support of these workshops. Also many thanks to all of our attendees, it’s been great seeing so many new and returning faces at these workshops! Your attendance makes all of this possible. - Chad Giblin

(Fig. 8 - Workshop participants had a chance to try out rope access techniques under the expert guidance of Louise Levy and Hannibal Hayes.) 8 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2017

2017 MTGF FUNDING - $60,000

Research: Selecting American Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Principal Investigators: Robert A. Blanchette, Benjamin Held, Gary Johnson and Chad Giblin University of Minnesota - Twin Cities As new exotic insects and diseases continue to threaten our urban and natural forests, Dutch elm disease (DED) has become no less of a threat to American elm (Ulmus americana) and many other species in the elm genus. However, elm selections resistant to the disease have shown great promise and this proposal continues the screening of potentially Dutch elm disease (DED) resistant Minnesota native elm selections and those from worldwide sources, both in the greenhouse and field. Funding would also support work to find more rapid methods of propagation and screening. This joint effort between the Departments of Forest Resources and Plant Pathology at the University of Minnesota is showing great promise in obtaining DED resistant elm cultivars that will grow well in Minnesota and across the northern United States. Continued heavy disease pressure from the aggressive strain of the fungus, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is still occurring and trees continue to die. Of great interest are the few trees that remain alive in areas of heavy disease pressure. With the help of arborists, foresters and the public throughout the state, we have been able to identify surviving elms that appear to have disease resistance. However, to determine if these trees are in fact resistant, it is necessary to propagate the trees and rigorously test them by inoculation with the pathogen. Field testing of these trees is also essential and for


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this long-term research to be successful, continued support is needed. Rationale, Benefits to Grounds Managers The implementation of DED resistant elm selections in urban and community forests has increased, as an effort to provide options for areas devastated by emerald ash borer (EAB) and DED. However, since its initial introduction the DED pathogen (Ophiostoma ulmi) has been displaced by the more virulent strain Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Brasier 2001). Because the resistance mechanisms in elm are not currently understood, it is not clear how today’s resistant varieties will tolerate the pathogen if its virulence changes in the future. The resistance of particular elms to DED will last only as long as the virulence of the pathogen remains the same or lower. This means it is very important to have a variety of species and genotypes of resistant elms to protect against losing large populations of trees with similar genetic background. Furthermore, it is exceedingly important that newly-identified trees with putative-resistance are thoroughly tested before they are marketed as “resistant”. We currently have over 150 elm selections of interest, collected from various locations throughout Minnesota. These trees have been identified in collaboration with individuals, landowners, city officials, arborists and foresters throughout Minnesota as candidate elms for our program. An interactive map has been developed and is on-line to show the locations for the various elms that have been identified around the state of Minnesota. The map can be found at Many of these elms are currently being propagated and will be ready for screening this summer and over the next few years. American elm (Ulmus americana), rock elm (U. thomasii), red elm (U. rubra), and elms from European and Asian origin are all well-represented in our collections. The goal of this work is to increase the availability and diversity of disease-resistant elm cultivars available for use in Minnesota landscapes. The ability to generate more clones in a shorter time period will also lead to a more rapid identification of new disease-tolerant cultivars. This project will help to preserve, promote, and maintain disease-resistant elms while striving to distribute them into native landscapes and urban and community forests throughout Minnesota. The objective of our research is to identify and test putative resistance of selected elms in an effort to bring disease resistant, cold hardy, aesthetically pleasing elms that grounds managers in Minnesota can utilize in diverse landscapes throughout the state.

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1. Elm Collection & Surveys: With the help of (Continued on Page 11)

American Elms(Continued from Page 10)

landowners, park, city and state personnel, arborists, and our surveys of the Minnesota landscape we have identified and collected from several survivor American and red elms during 2016 and early 2017. Collections in late 2016 yielded 14 new American and red elm selections from St. Cloud, MN and Forestville State Park. In early 2017 collections were made from two very large elms located in Corcoran, MN and Maple Plain, MN. Both are trees that have been under observation for many years by staff from Three Rivers Parks District. Collections in Duluth, MN allowed for additional collections from trees identified in 2016 and from two new selections on city property and on the Glensheen Mansion grounds. The trees in Duluth are growing under intense disease pressure and are clearly in an area where they are exposed to overland transmission of DED frequently. 2. Propagation: We continue to observe variability in rooting success among different genotypes within our American elm collection, with some genotypes easily rooting and others proving more difficult. While these results are interesting, they also reveal the challenges associated with clonal propagation of elm. Work in summer of 2017 will continue to refine propagation techniques and offer solutions for production nurseries wishing to include elms in their production schedules. Grafting continues to be a very successful method for propagation for screening purposes and is currently being used to create clones for both greenhouse and field trials. 3. Greenhouse Inoculation Screening Trials: Once trees have been identified in the field, propagated (cloned or grafted) seedlings are grown for replicated inoculation studies in the greenhouse. Previous methods that we have found to be successful will continue to be used for the new selections in 2017. To obtain fungal spores for inoculation, the pathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, is grown in a liquid culture for several days. Spore counts are then adjusted to 1 x 106 spores/ml, of which 30 μl is injected into a 3 mm hole drilled in the main stem 8 cm above the soil. A Minnesota isolate of the Dutch elm disease pathogen isolated from a recently diseased tree is being used for the screening investigations. Survivors of the greenhouse inoculations are propagated for planting in the field and for additional field inoculation tests. Greenhouse inoculation trials are a way to quickly identify potential genotypes with superior disease-tolerance. Field trials are essential to the screening process, however, and it takes between three and five years from initial cloning to grow a tree to size for reliable field screening. Greenhouse trials provide a glimpse into a genotype’s potential for diseasetolerance in just one year. 4. Field Inoculation Screening Trials: A critical step in the resistance screening process are field trials, which are continuing on putatively resistant trees (clones) that have been out-planted in field plots at the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota State Capitol, and Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Field testing clones is part of a long-term assessment that is essential to meet the goals of this project and these tests will ensure the selected resistant clones will perform well when they are released. The field space allocated to this project at the University of Minnesota has nearly doubled over the last

two years and is currently at seven acres. Field plots established in the fall of 2016 will be utilized for inoculation trials in spring 2018 and spring 2019. Inoculum for field trials is produced in the same manner as the greenhouse trials, however, trees in the field are inoculated in the crown instead of the main stem. Field inoculated selections are continually assessed for disease symptoms to document recovery. An inoculation study at the Minnesota State Capitol is examining disease resistance in established ‘Princeton’ American elm at the World War II Memorial. This trial is being conducted on trees slated for removal in spring 2017. Final results will be collected in early June and will provide disease resistance data on very large trees and how they perform when inoculated in different locations on the main stem and in the crown. Research plots at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum were maintained and expanded throughout last year to provide new trial locations on nearly three acres of field space provided by the Horticultural Research Center and Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Additional trees will be added to this plot in 2017 to establish the entire site for elm research, outreach, and evaluations. Field inoculation trials at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum are also testing large trees that were previously part of the National Elm Trial. This trial includes 14 unique genotypes that are currently in the nursery trade but have not been tested for Dutch elm disease resistance for over 12 years. Results from this trial will ensure confidence when urban foresters and landscape managers select disease resistant elms. 5. Resistance Mechanisms: During the past year we examined five commercially available cultivars of American elm and two wild type populations with varying levels of resistance to DED to evaluate protocols for identifying specific resistance mechanisms that may occur in elm. Previous studies have found that putative resistant elm genotypes have smaller mean vessel diameters than susceptible genotypes (McNabb 1970; Sinclair et al. 1975; Solla and Gil 2002). After comparing all genotypes, we found the two most resistant cultivars had the smallest mean vessel diameters and the greatest vessel density. Currently, we are examining larger trees of some of the genotypes to determine if a correlation exists between mean vessel diameter of stems of small trees (3 to 4 years old) and branches of larger trees. If a strong correlation exists, we can utilize mean vessel diameter of branches in survivor elms to make more informed decisions on what survivor elms to focus on for propagation and screening. The seven genotypes were also assessed for differences in their ability to compartmentalize infection. By passing an aqueous dye through the plants, we were able to distinguish functional from non-functional xylem. After examining the genotypes being tested, we determined two methods by which these genotypes limited 6. Elm Selection and Maintenance: Selecting for disease resistance is just one part of the process when selecting elms for public, private, and institutional landscapes. Young elms provide incredible challenges for maintenance personnel during the first 10-15 years of their life and providing maintenance at the correct time and dose is critical to the survival of the young trees. Research conducted in the city of Saint Paul in 2015 and 2016 (Giblin an d Johnson, unpublished data) has shown that disease resistant American elms are failing in wind-loading events at a rate that sometimes exceeds 10 times that of other species. (Continuied on Page 12) SPRING / SUMMER 2017 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 11

American Elms(Continued from Page 11)

This rate of failure is also occurring at a size that is less than onethird that of other species. These results have helped confirm the need for additional research and continuing education for arborists and landscape managers to help select the best elm species and cultivars and maintain them. Staff from the University of Minnesota hosted five pruning workshops in cooperation with MTGF, Minnesota Society of Arboriculture, and other cooperators and instructors from throughout Minnesota. These workshops have reached dozens of practitioners and have provided valuable training that will help ensure the survival of young elms and other species in Minnesota landscapes. This is an ambitious proposal and the funds requested will continue our current program and expand in the areas described above. We have worked very hard to get additional funds from the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund (ENRTF) through the LCCMR. Unfortunately, full funding was not provided through the ENRTF and funding from MTGF will help stretch these research dollars further and continues to demonstrate to state legislators and administrators that the industry supports our research and outreach efforts. Publishing Plan Intensive publication and presentation plans have continued to

promote the University of Minnesota Elm Selection Program and the support received by MTGF. Presentations have been made at the American Elm Restoration Workshop, MASMS State Conference, MTGF Super Tuesday, MNLA Northern Green, Minnesota Shade Tree Short Course, Minnesota Shade Tree Advisory Committee forums, and at various workshops and meetings in the plant pathology, urban forestry, and arboriculture communities. Results from work funded by MTGF are currently being reviewed for publication in the journal “Forest Pathology” which examined resistance mechanisms in various American elm cultivars. Two additional publications are being prepared for publication in The Proceedings of the American Elm Restoration Workshop by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station in Delaware, OH. References Brasier, C.M. 2001. Rapid evolution of introduced plant pathogens via interspecific hybridization. BioScience 51:2:123. McNabb, H.S.Jr., Heybroek, H.M., and Macdonald, W.L. 1970. Anatomical factors in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 76:196-204. Sinclair, W.A., Zahand, J.P., and Melching, J.B. 1975. Anatomical marker for resistance of Ulmus americana to Ceratocystis ulmi. Phytopathology 65:349-352. Solla, A. and Gil, L. 2002. Xylem vessel diameter as a factor in resistance of Ulmus minor to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Forest Pathology 32: 123-134


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2017 MTGF FUNDING - $60,000 Turfgrass Program Support

Principle Investigators: Dr. Eric Watkins, Dr. Brian Horgan, Sam Bauer and Dr. Angela Orshinsky University of Minnesota - Twin Cities The Turfgrass Science Program at the U of M continues to evolve and grow, and this is largely a result of support from the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. In 2016, we saw employee transitions and new hires, generated new grant dollars leading to valuable research projects, provided presentations nationally and locally, and published our work in peer-reviewed journals. We also led a successful MTGF Turf and Grounds Field Day on the St. Paul campus with over 180 attendees and the 2016 Great Lakes School of Turfgrass Science. This summary document outlines our key achievements in 2016, as well as new employees and graduate students, grants, extension programs, and articles published. We are very proud of our relationship with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, and we appreciate your continued support of our program. You will see in this Program Support document that your dollars go a long way in advancing the turf and grounds industry in Minnesota and worldwide. On November 1, 2015, Dr. Brian Horgan announced the creation of a unique new partnership between the University of Minnesota and the United States Golf Association (USGA). The USGA committed 2.5 million dollars to the University over a 5-year period to study some of golf’s greatest challenges. This partnership, spearheaded by Dr. Horgan, will enable these two great leaders the opportunity to advance our knowledge around three sustainability challenges of the golf industry: 1) economic, 2) agronomic, and 3) environmental stewardship. Part of this initiative involves the creation of a living laboratory for studying golf related issues at the University’s Les Bolstad Golf Course. This initiative is referred to as The Science of (the) Green™ ( ) at GolfLAB. To learn more about this exciting partnership, visit these webpages: and Sam Bauer had a great year in 2016, receiving a new grant from the Metropolitan Council studying home lawn irrigation and continuing to work on grants with the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Roadside Turfgrass) and the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program. These grants are answering important questions for the turfgrass industry in Minnesota and the nationwide. Sam coordinated field days at the Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center (TROE) on the St. Paul campus: 1) the UMN and MTGF Turf and Ground Field Day in August with 18 presenters, 2) the inaugural Bee Lawn Field Day was held in June, and 3) the Capitol Region Watershed District and St. Paul Parks Dept. training was held for 25 staff at the TROE Center in June. Sam also led the 2016 Hennepin County Sentenced to Serve Horticulture Training Program, teaching the 6-hour turfgrass management section and coordinating sessions on Landscape Management and Pesticide Safety. The Great Lakes School of Turfgrass Science was in its second year in 2016; in total, 56 participants engaged in this 12week live online program taught by 12 instructors from collaborating institutions across the Great Lakes Region.

Sam’s 2016 extension activities totaled 62 presentations across the state and nationally. Audiences reached by this program include master gardeners, homeowners, sports turf managers, grounds managers, golf course superintendents, facility management professionals, lawn care operators, pesticide applicators, sod growers, students, institutions, corporations, manufacturers and distributors, and the scientific community. Finally, Sam conducts research, writes publications, and provides consultation for the audiences previously mentioned. For more information on Extension Turfgrass Science activities, visit: and Dr. Angela Orshinsky has continued to conduct research both in the field and in the laboratory to improve the sustainability of turfgrass management on golf courses and landscapes. Angela’s work includes the assessment of plant defense activators for turfgrass disease, development of disease management programs with reduced environmental impacts, targeted management of snow mold fungi through assessment of fungicide sensitivity to individual active ingredients, and diagnosis of turfgrass pathogens. Angela is also continuing to serve the ornamentals industry through research on the identity and host range of bacterial spot on Hydrangea. In addition to her own projects, the Orshinsky lab has provided material resources and access to equipment for microbiological and molecular biological research projects conducted by students in collaborating turfgrass science programs. Support from the MTGF helps to ensure research and outreach support to the turf pathology program. Dr. Eric Watkins leads the turfgrass breeding program. He currently advises or co-advises five graduate students. His breeding program has been able to obtain significant external funding from both state and federal agencies. Publications and new funding for his program are listed in the appendix. Research Staff Craig Krueger - After 25+ years of service to the University of Minnesota and over 10 years with our turf program, Craig etired. He was an integral team member and we all valued his efforts and enthusiasm. We wish Craig all the best in his next chapter of life. Andrew Hollman - Andy continues as our lead research scientist. This past year, Andy has taken on greater responsibilities with his own research goals. Florence Sessoms - Florence started in 2016 as a new research scientist. Her research focus is on soil fertility, soil microbiology and the soil biome. Dr. Sessoms brings new strengths to our team. She makes a wonderful addition. Jonah Reyes - Jonah is involved in several of our MnDOT projects and the Met Council irrigation study. In particular, he has developed and studied alternative roadside irrigation systems to increase the success of our roadside plantings. Jon Trappe - Jon is a post-doc in our program. He came to us from Purdue University where he studied carbon flux into and out of the turfgrass system. Jon is working with Dr. Watkins on alternative turfgrass species. Parker Anderson - Parker started in 2016 and has his Masters of Landscape Architecture and Masters of Ecology from (Continued on Page 14) SPRING / SUMMER 2017 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 13

Turfgrass Program Support-

Graduate Students: Current Research

(Continued from Page 13)

the University of Michigan. Parker works with Dr. Horgan on the USGA Science of the Green research initiative. Graduate Students Several graduate students successfully completed degree programs in 2016. Maggie Reiter - Maggie finished her M.Sc. in spring 2016 and is now a Extension Educator in Fresno, California. Her research was on the use of fine fescue mixtures on golf course fairways. Ian Lane - Ian completed his M.Sc. in Entomology in May. HIs thesis described several plant options for bee lawns and also offered research-based solutions to the establishment and maintenance of bee lawns. He is now enrolled in the Entomology Ph.D. program at the University of Minnesota. Garett Heineck - Garett completed his M.Sc. degree in December. He identified new management options for perennial ryegrass seed producers that can result in multi-year seed production (this species is currently grown for seed in a just a single year in Minnesota). He also found that endophytes do not have a direct effect on perennial ryegrass freezing tolerance, but are often associated with winter hardy plants. Clemon Dabney Clemon recently completed his M.Sc. degree and is now a Ph.D. student in Plant Biology graduate program at the University. Clemon found a new way to study silica bodies in grasses, and also did some very interesting work on how turfgrass plants affect soil microbial communities.

Ryan Schwab will be focused on use of wetting agents to help conserve water in the managed landscape. He will also lead a new USGA funded project on managed and no-mow native areas on golf courses. Garett Heineck is continuing as a PhD student in our program investigating better ways to breed perennial ryegrass for improved seed production. He is also investigating how endophyte infection affects rust disease. Yinjie Qiu is PhD student studying snow mold disease. He is conducting research that will help us better understand how fine fescues can resist this important pathogen. Michael Laskowski joined the turfgrass breeding program in summer 2016. He is working on prairie junegrass and his research is focused on gaining a better understanding of the reproductive biology of this native, low-input turfgrass. James Wolfin is a M.Sc. student in Entomology, co-advised by Dr. Watkins and Dr. Marla Spivak. He is building off the work of Ian Lane and trying to better understand how bee lawns can provide benefits to urban landscapes. David Herrera recently joined the turfgrass breeding program. He graduated from New Mexico state in December and is now a M.Sc. student. His research is focused on learning more about fine fescue seed production in Minnesota. In 2016, our research was presented at eight national and over 20 Minnesota turf events reaching over 5,000 people. Additionally, our turfgrass science program received $1.7 million dollars in new grants in 2016. As you can see, the $60,000 MTGF gift for 2016 to support the TROE Center provided a large return on investment.

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MNLA & MTGF Professional Lawn Care Workshop Join us for a half-day workshop to stay connected and informed about lawn care. DATE June 15, 2017 TIME 8:00 a.m.: Registration/Donuts & Coffee 8:30 a.m.—11:30 a.m.: Revolving Education Stations LOCATION University of Minnesota Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center, St. Paul Campus—near the corner of Larpenteur Ave. W and Cleveland Ave. N. This event is being held outside. Please dress for the weather!

DETAILS • Spend a half-day outside at the University of Minnesota Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center—approximately 10 acres of turfgrass research. This event is a great opportunity to see first-hand what is new in turfgrass research and to also become informed on emerging trends in lawn care. •

Revolving stations presented by faculty of the University of Minnesota will provide lawn care education for industry professionals.


Turfgrass Species and Variety Selection (Andrew Hollman, Senior Research Scientist) Bee Lawns and Management for Pollinators (James Wolfin, Graduate Research Assistant) Developing a Weed Management Plan (Dr. Jon Trappe, Post-Doctoral Research Associate) Developing a Fertilizer Management Plan (Sam Bauer, Extension Educator) Irrigation Practices and Technology (Jonah Reyes, Research Scientist) Cultural Programs for Lawns (Dr. Brian Horgan, Professor)

MNLA CP: 2 pts | Level: Beginning Sponsorships available for this seminar. Contact Faith at 952-934-2891

ADVANCED REGISTRATION Please note that payment MUST accompany this form or it will not be processed. We are no longer able to invoice for registration.

Make checks payable and mail registration to: MNLA, 1813 Lexington Ave N, Roseville, MN 55113 Online registration available at: Firm Name: ______________________________________________________ Primary Contact: __________________________________________________ Address: _________________________________________________________ City: _________________________ State: ______ Zip: ___________________ Phone: ______________________ Fax: ________________________________ E-mail: ___________________________________________________________ On or before June 5 MNLA/MTGF Member: No. of Persons __________ @ $30.00 = ________ Non-Member: No. of Persons __________ @ $40.00 = ________ After June 5 MNLA/MTGF Member: No. of Persons __________ @ $40.00 = ________ Non-Member: No. of Persons __________ @ $50.00 = ________ Names of People Attending ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____ Check enclosed for $__________ ____ Visa ____ MasterCard ____ Discover Card Number: __________ - __________ - __________ - __________ Exp. Date: __________ / __________ Name on Card (please print) _____________________________________________________________ Check here if the address listed above the same as the billing address for this credit card. If not, you will need to provide the billing address for the credit card below. Address: ________________________________________________________ City: _____________________________ State: ______ Zip: ______________ Refund Policy. For all MNLA/MTGF education events, we will gladly make a full refund of your registration fee if cancellation notice is received more than two business days in advance of the event. In the two business days prior to the event, a 50 percent refund will be given. No refunds will be given for no-shows or cancellations made the day of the event.

Top 5 Home Lawn Questions & Answers By SAM BAUER Extension Educator, Turfgrass Science University of Minnesota Extension

As turf and grounds managers, we frequently receive questions from the general public related to problems encountered in home lawns. For some of these problems there may be a quick and simple solution, while for others the remedy may be more complex. Outlined below are five of the most common questions that we receive in the Extension office, and the answers may help you to address these issues for your clients, friends, or neighbors. How do I Control Creeping Charlie? By far the number 1 question that we receive from homeowners relates to the control of creeping Charlie, and if you haven’t been asked this question then you may be living under a rock. Creeping Charlie, or more accurately- ground ivy, is a perennial broadleaf weed with aggressive stolons that enable it to spread rapidly in the right environment. It thrives in moist, shady areas and will outcompete grasses in this situation. Effective control and prevention of creeping Charlie requires a holistic approach aimed at improving the environment for turfgrass growth, proper selection of shade tolerant grasses, judicious use of herbicides, and in some cases giving up and embracing creeping Charlie or planting more shade tolerant ground covers. Improving the environment may include pruning tree canopies, aerating the soil to reduce compaction and surface moisture, and removing plants to allow for more air movement. Shade tolerant grasses include fine fescues, tall fescue, and rough or supina bluegrass. The most effective herbicides for control of creeping Charlie are those that contain the active ingredient triclopyr and control is most effective in the fall through several applications. For more information on the control of creeping Charlie, please visit: http://blog-yard-garden-news.extension 04/weed-management-creepingcharlie.html 16 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2017

Ground Ivy

Why is My Lawn so Lumpy/Bumpy? Bumpy lawns can present a safety issue for those maintaining or recreating on the lawn. Most bumpy lawns are caused by earthworms or nightcrawlers due to the castings that they create when they come to the surface of the lawn. These invertebrates often indicate a healthy, well aerated soil, and their presence is more common on irrigated lawns or during seasons of heavy rainfall. There are no pesticides labeled for the control of earthworms, and our first suggestion would be to try and tolerate their presence. In situations where safety is a concern, two approaches must be taken. The first approach includes leveling existing castings by the use of a power rake set to penetrate the grass canopy; in some cases rollers can be used to smooth the lawn. To prevent reoccurrence of earthworms, Early Bird Organic Fertilizer, which contains a certain oil seed, will act as a deterrent ( labelpages/lbl_earlybird.html). This is the only product recommended for preventing earthworms. For more information on earthworms in lawns, please visit: 554.pdf (Continued on Page 17)

Home Lawn(Continued from Page 16)

What Can I Do to Prevent Damage from Dog Urine? We are likely all familiar with the dog spot “disease� and have heard many myths about preventing this type of damage to lawns. Grass dies from dog urine due to toxicity from nitrogen and salts, and the nitrogen in urine is why we often see a dark green ring surrounding the damaged area (in under fertilized lawns the entire area can green up). Female dogs generally cause more damage than male dogs simply because they concentrate their urine. There are no pills that you can feed your dog to prevent this issue and adding tomato juice to their dog bowl will only make the dog food less appetizing. Two simple remedies to reduce the damage associated with dog urine include training your dog to urinate on a mulched area (or an area where you can tolerate damage, such as your backyard) or diluting their urine with a hose immediately after your dog has done its business. For more information on preventing urine damage to lawns, please visit: http:// www.ext. What is the Lighter Colored Grass in my Lawn? Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and fine fescues are the most common species planted on lawns in Minnesota. These species often have a dark green appearance and any other grass species in a lawn can impact visual uniformity and general lawn performance. The most common light-colored weedy grasses in lawns include annual bluegrass, creeping bentgrass, rough bluegrass, or crabgrass. Annual bluegrass can be identified fairly easily, as seedheads will be prominent on this species for most of the year and especially in the spring or early summer. Creeping bentgrass and rough bluegrass are stoloniferous grasses (above ground creeping stems) often found in low lying and wet areas of lawns. These grasses are cool-season perennial species and very few selective controls are available for lawns composed of cool-season grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass. Non-selective controls (ex: Roundup, glyphosate) will often be the only option, and reseeding will be required following the use of this herbicide. This tool can be used to help identify grasses: For more information: PoaannuaControls2010c.pdf and https://www.extension. garden/diagnose/weed/grass/creepingbentgrass.html

Dog Urine

al bunch-type species best controlled with preemergent herbicides in the spring of the year. Quackgrass is a coolseason (grows best in spring and fall) perennial species with underground rhizomes that enable it to spread quickly in lawns. Infestations of quackgrass require non-selective herbicides and reseeding or sodding to reestablish the area; unfortunately, this is the only option. For crabgrass prevention, use the growing-degree-day tracker ( to schedule preemergent applications in the spring. If you miss the preemergent window, postemergent products such as quinclorac or fenoxaprop can be effective. More information on control of these species can be found here: garden/diagnose/weed/ idlist.html

What is the Difference Between Crabgrass and Quackgrass? Crabgrass and quackgrass are two species of weedy grasses that are often confused with one another. Crabgrass is a warm-season (grows best in summer)



MTGF ALLIED ASSOCIATION NEWS MPSTMA’s Annual Community Service Project Spruces Up Paul Fortin Memorial Field in Hamel - Despite the Rain! By JEFF TURTINEN Executive Director, Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

On April 26, volunteers from the Minnesota Park and Sports Turf Managers Association (MPSTMA) gathered at Paul Fortin Memorial Field in Hamel with plans to renovate and spruce up the locally-loved baseball field for the 2017 MPSMA Community Service Project. Back in the day, “it seemed like the whole town of Hamel was there every summer Sunday to watch the Hawks play town ball” said Dave May, a Hamel resident who mowed the grass and helped take care of the field as a 13-year old under the direction of the late Paul Fortin. The MPSTMA CSP Committee picked the Hamel field, out of a pool of applicants, for its 2017 project. Overnight rain and morning rain required CSP plans to be re-evaluated. More than 20 volunteers from MPSTMA and those who have an interest in Hamel baseball were on hand. However, homeplate and a lot of the infield was saturated from a rainy baseball game the prevous night. The pitchers mound was damp but deemed workable. Those on hand in the early morning gathered in and around the first base dugout and anticipated a postponement for another day. But, one guy didn’t seem to think the day should go to waste because of the number of volunteers and equipment on hand. Mike McDonald, CSFM (Certified Sports Field Manager), University of Minnesota, figured if a tent could be raised over the pitchers mound area, the mound could be rebuilt and also thought the CSP plans for the homeplate

On-Site CSP MPSTMA Volunteers Mike McDonald, CSFM University of Minnesota Ben Boeding, CSFM City of Eagan Reid Johnson, CSFM St. Paul Academy Mike Brunelle Town & Country Landscaping

area could be accomplished, too. Highway 55 Rental was just a couple blocks away and had tents available but did not open for business until 9 a.m. The tent was soon up and the group focused on rebuilding the mound and homeplate areas. MPSTMA had plans to help other parts of the field but continuous rain and wet turf prevented further improvements. Afterwards, the CSP group enjoyed spaghetti, salad and beverages at Inn Kahoots which is a baseball toss away between 1st base and home at Paul Fortin Memorial Field. Each year, the MPSTMA has a Community Service Project (CSP) application along with more CSP information available on its website at Communities in Minnesota are encouraged to apply if a field needs a little help from well-qualified sports turf managers. More information about the MPSTMA Community Service Project is available at

Dave Simeon Town & Country Landscaping Bruce Leivermann Mankato State University Seth Langager Mankato State University Sam Bauer University of Minnesota Mark Poppitz The Tessman Company Matt Grosjean University of Minnesota Larry Gorman MTI Distributing Inc. Jon Almquist The Toro Company Thomas Kuefler Tree Trust Rick Gabler Superior Tech Products Steve Scanlan Cushman Motor Company Paul Kubista Twin City Seed Company John Glattly Twin City Seed Company Jeff Turtinen MTGF & MPSTMA

Supplies & Equipment Town & Country Landscaping of Rogers Twin City Seed Company The Tessman Company Reinders, Inc. Cushman Motor Company The Toro Company MTI Distributing Inc. Superior Tech Products Plaisted Companies, Inc. 18 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2017

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