Page 1

MTGF Clippings OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MINNESOTA TURF AND GROUNDS FOUNDATION SPRING / SUMMER 2015 VOL. 23, NO. 1

MTGF

minnesota turf and grounds foundation

The mission of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation is to promote the green industry in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere.


PRESIDENT’S REPORT BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The Business of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Executive Committee President Paul Griffin City of Woodbury, MPSTMA

By PAUL GRIFFIN

Vice President Kent Honl Rainbow Treecare, MSA

President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Treasurer Steve Balfany Balfany Farms, MSP Secretary Dr. Brian Horgan University of Minnesota Ex-Officio Susie Johnson Gertens Wholesale. Vendor Rep. Directors MASMS Tom Redmann Anoka Hennepin ISD #11 MASMS Tracy Closson Northfield Schools ISD #659 MAC Dave Kemp The Catholic Cemeteries MAC Kari Bradshaw Minnesota Association of Cemeteries MAC Ralph Pierre Union Cemetery MPSTMA Jon Almquist The Toro Company MGCSA Mike Manthey Midland Hills CC MGCSA Jamie Benzanson Oneka Ridge GC MSA Manuel Jordan Heritage Shade Tree Consultants MTA Bryan Lawrence Rocket Turf & Nursery MTA Earl “Duke” Halley Central Turf Farms MTSC Brent Benike Northern Excellence Seed MTSC Richard Magnusson Magnusson Farms UM Representative Sam Bauer University of Minnesota UM Representative Dr. Angela Orshinsky University of Minnesota Vendor Representative Jim O’Neill CycleWorks Golf Supply EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Jeff Turtinen 952-473-3722 jeff.turtinen@mtgf.org MTGF OFFICE P. O. Box 617 Wayzata, MN 55391

www.mtgf.org

This past winter, MTGF President, Susie Johnson, turned the MTGF presidential reigns over to me. Susie served your association well. Under her watch, the MTGF had a successful Northern Green Expo, MTGF Super Tuesday and a well-attended, informative MTGF / UM Field Day at TROE Center. I will do my best to continue the forward progress of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. I look forward to the challenge. This year, we have some new faces on the Board: Jamie Benzanson, Oneka Ridge Golf Course, is a new MTGF rep for the MGCSA; Duke Halley, Central Turf Farms, will help represent the Minnesota Sod Growers Association, and Jim O’Neill, CycleWorks Golf Supply, will be a Vendor representative for the seven MTGF allied associations. The MTGF’s greatest source of funding comes from the MNLA/MTGF Northern Green Expo. The MTGF and MNLA co-host this event each year at the Minneapolis Convention Center is January. The 2016 Northern Green Expo will take place Jan. 13-15. This year, the MTGF used these funds to donate $110.000 towards turf and grounds research. (Please read Pages 10-18 for information about the MTGF-funded research.) MTGF Membership Information As a member of one or more of the MTGF Allied Associations (listed below), you are automatically a member of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, too. Any association engaged in the development, care and maintenance of public or private grounds is eligible to become an allied association member of the Foundation subject to approval of the MTGF Board of Directors. Individuals or businesses may become regular Foundation members by joining one or more of the member allied associations best suited to their needs and interests. The 7 MTGF Allied Associations are: + Minnesota Association of Cemeteries + Minnesota Educational Facilities Management Professionals + Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents' Association + Minnesota Park and Sports Turf Managers Association + Minnesota Society of Arboriculture + Minnesota Sod Producers + Minnesota Turf Seed Council There are no membership fees associated with either allied association membership or regular membership. However, if an individual or business subscribes to the mission and purpose of the Foundation but is not a member of an allied association, they are eligible for affiliate membership. Affiliate membership is subject to Board approval and does carry an annual membership fee as established by the Board of Directors. Those interested should contact the MTGF Business Office at 952-473-3722 for information. Sincerely,

Paul Griffin Paul Griffin President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

2 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

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The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf- and grounds-related associations and the University of Minnesota. Members of the following associations are also considered members of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. 4 4 4 4

Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota

Society of Arboriculture Association of Cemeteries Park & Sports Turf Managers Association Educational Facilities Management Professionals

4 Minnesota Sod Producers 4 Minnesota Turf Seed Council 4 Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association

MTGF CLIPPINGS TABLE OF CONTENTS

2

President’s Report:

The Business of the MTGF - Paul Griffin, City of Woodbury

5

A Good Day for Young Trees at Midland Hills - Ryan Murphy and Chad Giblin, University of Minnesota

9

MTGF Donates $110,000 for 2015 Research

10 MTGF Super Tuesday Creates a Buzz 11 Bee Friendly Plants - Karl Foord, University of Minnesota

12 MTGF Funding: Turfgrass Program Support NORTHERN GREEN EXPO “CAMPFIRES” proved to be a successful addition for the Northern Green Expo’s Trade Show. The Trade Show floor educational sessions were attended by many people during the Expo. The dates for the 2016 MNLA / MTGF Northern Green Expo are set for Jan. 13-15 at the Minneapolis Convention Center. More than 6,200 people attended the Expo.

14 MTGF Funding: Greenhouse Gases 18 MTGF Funding: Dutch Elm Disease

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PRUNING WORKSHOP

A Good Day for Young Trees At Midland Hills Country Club By RYAN MURPHY and CHAD GIBLIN University of Minnesota Department of Forest Resources

Pruning young shade trees is an essential part of turf and grounds maintenance. Pruning these juvenile specimens with the proper tools and techniques at the correct time ensures strong growth and a functional mature form. In their natural environment, young trees are shaded by more mature neighboring trees and this competition naturally gives rise to a single straight leader as the tree reaches and fights for any available sunlight. However, when a tree native to a forest setting is planted out in an open landscape such as a park, golf course, or home yard, it can grow in ways that can negatively affect future form and long-term health. Luckily, arborists and tree care professionals can step in to prevent these problems by applying developmental pruning practices throughout the early years in the landscape. This not only helps to eliminate defects in the young tree but also guides each tree to reach its full species potential. A general understanding of tree biology and a species’ growth habits is essential and will provide a good foundation for making proper pruning decisions throughout the life of a tree. Throw in some practical knowledge of basic pruning techniques and anyone can set up a tree for future success. This was the goal of the

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recent Developmental Pruning Workshop hosted at Midland Hills Golf Course in Roseville, MN. This full-day event paired seasoned arborists with those looking to gain greater insight into how they might better care for their young trees. Instruction was done through general session talks and small group workshops out on the course. Attendees got a chance to prune several young trees firsthand with guidance from professional arborists using essential pruning tools such as hand saws and

shears as well as pole tools giving access to branches higher in the tree reducing the need for ladders and climbing. One main topic covered was pruning for strong central leader development. Since trees that are planted in open landscapes have abundant resources at their disposal (sunlight, water, and nutrients) they tend to develop several co-dominant branches that compete to be the main leader. (Continued on Page 6)

SPRING / SUMMER 2015 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 5


Pruning Workshop (Continued from Page 5) Understanding this, lateral branches that are similar in size to the central leader need to be suppressed or removed before they rob the developing central leader of resources. During his morning general session, Craig Pinkalla, an arborist with the Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board, suggested removing temporary, lower branches before they reach a size that is more than one-third the size of the main stem. Like co-dominant leaders, these temporary branches consume incredible amounts of resources and restrict the growth of the main leader thus limiting the tree to a smaller mature size. Executing perfectly timed pruning is not always a reality. Many professionals need to be ready to compromise and adapt depending on the number of trees needing attention. Pruning decisions must made based on the expected pruning cycle and different approaches need to be taken for a tree that will be visited once a year versus a tree that may be visited once every three or five years. (Continued on Page 7)

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Pruning Workshop (Continued from Page 6) Small pruning cuts early in a tree’s life can help avoid big problems down the road. Eric North, a Research Fellow in the Department of Forest Resources at the University of Minnesota, discussed the issue of included bark during his morning general session. Included bark occurs when outer bark becomes internalized at a branch union. A proper branch attachment displays a ridged branch collar while included bark will tend to have a folded or rolled appearance at the union. Included bark can form on branch attachments with sharply acute angles to the main stem perhaps an advantage for trees growing in a forest in the case of a main leader failure. When a proper branch attachment forms, wood from the main stem and wood from the developing branch interweave and form a strong bond. When the bark becomes internalized (or included) this interweaving cannot take place creating a point of weakness. As this branch continues to grow, more and more mechanical stress is placed on the branch union. Eventually, the stress becomes too much - for example during a wind, snow or ice loading event - and the branch breaks and tears out a large section of main stem. In many cases these tear-outs caused by included bark and poor branch attachments could have been prevented years before when the tree was still young. A demonstration after the morning general sessions pointed out the ease of pruning trees at the time of planting. Karl Mueller, an arborist with the City of Saint Paul showed how easy it is to tip a tree and prune it before planting. This method gives full access to portions of the tree that may soon be out of reach with a simple hand shears. Future workshops are being planned that will focus

specifically on the needs of young trees and nursery stock – even before they are planted. In many cases, modern aesthetics and tree biology run into conflicts. Turf and grounds professionals need to navigate the line between giving a tree its best chance for long-term health and form with the short-term aesthetic. Suppression cuts can be a good method to both curtail growth on non-permanent, temporary branches and meet the aesthetic demands of the situation. Pruning cuts that take off approximately 50% of a branch’s mass will significantly decrease its rate of growth and allow the main stem to utilize a greater amount of resources. (Continued on Page 8) www.MTGF.org

SPRING / SUMMER 2015 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 7


Pruning Workshop (Continued from Page 7) This workshop would not have been possible without the generous support of our sponsors! These organizations include the Minnesota Turf & Grounds Foundation, Gertens & JRK Turf and Seed Supply, Minnesota Society of Arboriculture and A.M. Leonard. We also wish to thank Mike Manthey, Caitlin Arnold and the staff and members of Midland Hills Country

Club. Their generosity in hosting and planning the event helped make it a success. A big thanks goes out to the arborist instructors who took time out of very busy schedules to add an incredible level of professionalism to this workshop. Our instructors joined us from these companies and organizations: Branch and Bough Tree Service, Rainbow Treecare, City of Saint Paul, Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board, HeritageShade Tree Consultants and the University of Minnesota. Finally, we would like thank all those that attended this workshop. We are continually striving the meet the training needs of turf and grounds professionals and would like to hear about your ideas for future workshops and training opportunities. Feel free to send your thoughts to Chad Giblin at giblin@umn.edu

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MTGF HAS DONATED MORE THAN $1,000,000 TOWARDS RESEARCH SINCE 1993

MTGF Donates $110,000 in 2015 For Turf and Grounds Research The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf and grounds related associations representing nearly 2,300 employees in the turf and grounds industry. The MTGF is also in partnership with the University of Minnesota. The mission of the MTGF is to promote the green industries in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere. The MTGF pursues its mission in various ways. One of these is an annual "Call for Proposals," titled the "MTGF Research Gift Program," whereby researchers, instructors and outreach faculty and staff involved in turf and grounds work may submit requests for unrestricted gifts to support their activities. THIS YEAR: In 2015, along with a commitment of $10,000 for a University of Minnesota start-up position, the MTGF is donating $100,000 to three projects. The researchers are: Dr. Brian Horgan,Eric Watkins, Sam Bauer, Dr. Angela Orshinsky,

Robert Blanchette, Benjamin Held, Gary Johnson and Chad Giblin, Kristina Smith Walker, Ph.D., and Katy R. Nannenga, Ph.D. TROE CENTER: Research at the TROE Center is vital for the future development of our industry and the Research being done at the TROE Center is of great benefit to our members. The MTGF supports the work at TROE Center and provided an unrestrictive gift of $70,000. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS: The objective of the proposed project is to evaluate golf course irrigation practices in order to identify practices that promote overall plant health and turfgrass quality while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving water. The MTGF supports this research and provided an unrestrictive gift of $10,000. DUTCH ELM DISEASE: The goal of this research is to increase the availability and diversity of disease-tolerant elm cultivars available to the public. The ability to generate more clones in a shorter time period will also lead to quicker identification of new disease-tolerant cultivars. The MTGF supports this research and provided an unrestrictive gift of $20,000. * * * * (Editor’s Note: More information about the research being funded is on Pages 12-18 of this issue of MTGF CLIPPINGS.)

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SPRING / SUMMER 2015 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 9


BEES: THE IMPORTANCE OF POLLINATORS IN THE LANDSCAPE

MTGF Super Tuesday Creates a Buzz The 2015 MTGF Super Tuesday focused on the importance of pollinators in the landscape. A super lineup of speakers gave various viewpoints about pollinators. Ian Lane, University of Minnesota led things off with a talk centered around turf that can support flowers and mowing for pollinators. Karl Foord, University of Minnesota, followed Lane Lane and focused on pollinator friendly plants. Foord also offered a Bee Friendly Plant handout (pictured on Page 11). Foord Karen Reardon, Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment (RISE), told the audience that Minnesotans have a voice in Washington D.C. through RISE. RISE is a source for environmental questions. Bev and Mike O’Connor, Reardon Blueberry Fields of Stillwater, spoke on fruit grower issues. Becky Masterman, University of O’Connors Minnesota Bee Squad, talked about the Bee Squad’s Hive to Bottle Program. Kent Honl, Rainbow Treecare, gave a presentation on good cultural practices regarding pollinators. Masterman

Honl

Kristy Lynn Allen, Beez Kneez, told her story about how bees have become a major part of her life. Jim Zwack, Davey Tree, talked about what commercial companies deal with in the field. * * * * (Editor’s Note: All presentations are available at www.mtgf.org) Allen

Zwack

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10 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

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Bee Friendly Plants Plant Prunus spp. (Plums, cherries) Malus spp. (cultivated and crabapples) Rubus spp. (raspberry, blackberry) Wild Mustard (Brassica arvenisi (L.)

Flowering Time & Color May white white white yellow

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

N - Nectar P - Pollen N & P N & P N N & P

lavender

N & P

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)

pink

N & P

Swamp rose (Rosa palustris)

pink

P

Beardtongue (Penstemon grandiflorus)

Golden Alexanders (Zizia aurea) Red Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

yellow

N & P

red

pink

N & P

Culver's root (Veronicastrum virginicum )

white

Leadplant (Amorpha canescens)

purple

N & P

Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis)

blue

N & P

Smooth Penstemon (Penstemon digitalis)

white

N & P

N

Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium )

white

Blue Sage (Salvia azurea)

blue

N & P N

Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea)

purple

N & P

Western Sunflower (Helianthus occidentalis)

yellow

N & P

Catmint (Nepeta x faassenii )

purple

N

Onion (Allium spp.) Cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum) Borage (Borago officinalis )

white

pink

N & P

yellow

N & P

lavender

N & P

blue

N

Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

lavender

N

Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)

blue

N

Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium)

pink

N

Lavender Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)

purple

N

Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

purple

N

Dotted Mint (Monarda punctata)

lavender

N

Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)

red

N

Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica)

yellow

N & P

Obedient Plant (Physostegia virginiana)

pink

N

Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium maculatum)

pink

N & P

purple/pink

N

Downy Sunflower (Helianthus mollis)

Dense Blazingstar (Liatris spicata)

yellow

N & P

yellow

N & P

pink

N & P

Woodland Sunflower (Helianthus strumosus )

yellow

N & P

New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae ) Karl Foord, Extension Educator and Professor - University of Minnesota

purple

N & P

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia x grandiflora )

red

Stiff Goldenrod (Solidago rigida) Sedum x 'Autumn Joy' (Hylotelephium telephium)

(Editorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Note: Graph Courtesy of Karl Foord Ph.D. MBA, University of Minnesota â&#x20AC;˘ Extension Educator & Professor, Horticulture. Foord may be contacted at 651-558-1218 or by email at foord001@umn.edu)

www.MTGF.org

SPRING / SUMMER 2015 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 11


2015 MTGF FUNDING - $70,000 Turfgrass Program Support

Principle Investigators: Dr. Eric Watkins, Dr. Brian Horgan, Sam Bauer and Dr. Angela Orshinsky University of Minnesota - Twin Cities We are proud of our dynamic and evolving turfgrass program. This summary document will describe new employees and graduate students, grants (MNDOT), extension programs (Great Lakes School of Turfgrass Science), articles published and exciting initiatives (Science of the Green). Arguably, we have assembled the best turfgrass team in North America. We are productive and appreciate the relationships we have developed with industry. We work hard to make your jobs easier through innovative programming and cutting edge research. For the last few years, our program has been working internally to build a case to renovate the University of Minnesota Les Bolstad golf course. This initiative is referred to as The Science of (the) Greensm (www.scienceofthegreen.org). This initiative builds scholarship into all aspects of the pre- and post-renovated golf course. The resulting model will assist the golf industry as it strives to add sustainable practices around business, agronomics and the environment. We have been given permission by the University leadership to pursue partnerships, vet the vision and fundraise. In 2014, we introduced Science of (the) Green to over 2,000 individuals, 90 corporations/non-profits and have received endorsements from national, regional and state golf and turf related organizations. Since 2012, our research program published 17 scientific papers, 20 abstracts, and 32 technical articles in magazines or proceedings. In 2014, our research was presented at 5 international conferences, 13 state and 12 MN turf conferences reaching over 7,000 people. It is important to note that this grant funding primarily supports graduate students and scientist positions, but does not cover costs associated with research center maintenance. Without the field facility manager and the TROE Center, we would not be competitive for these grants. Therefore, this proposal is for general TROE Center support, which includes our field facility manager (Craig Krueger). Craig is an integral part of our team. OUR RESEARCH Environmental Sustainability Environmental issues will continue to be a focus of turfgrass management in the coming years. Research in this area will be an important resource for turfgrass managers as they make changes to help increase environmental sustainability in their communities. Current projects include the Science of (the) Green initiative, management practices to mitigate the loss of nutrients and pesticides in runoff; acute drought stress tolerance; developing a soil test to predict nitrate leaching potential; and use of alternative turfgrass species in an integrative pest management program. Management and Production Research on general turfgrass management and production will start to build a body of literature on the performance of the best varieties and species of turfgrasses for a range of greenspace uses. The data will be useful for homeowners, professional turf12 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

grassmanagers and architects for designing, establishing and permitting new or reconstruction projects as it will narrow the potential varieties and mixtures to be considered. The results will also provide guidelines for best management practices for various inputs to turfgrass systems. Current projects include: NTEP trials (bentgrass green, fine fescue golf course fairway, fine fescue home lawn, Kentucky bluegrass,); overseeding and interseeding as effective tools for species conversion; low-maintenance grass selection and cool-temperature turfgrass maintenance strategies. Breeding and Genetics In the coming years, there will be a need for new species to use in low-input environments. We will be well-positioned to be at the forefront of this process both in Minnesota and across the northern United States. Low-input turfgrass varieties for cold climates will have an impact beyond Minnesota. Current projects include: improving winterhardiness in perennial ryegrass, reducing rust severity in seed production fields; increasing allelopathy in fine fescues; selecting turfgrasses that result in more favorable interactions with the rhizosphere; screening for resistance to snow mold disease; screening cultivars and selections for drought tolerance; and breeding fine fescues for use on golf course fairways. Germplasm improvement efforts will continue with perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, prairie junegrass, tall fescue, hard fescue, sheep fescue, and tufted hairgrass. We are also the lead program on a large multi-institution fine fescue improvement project, and we will continue to work on a number of fine fescue research projects with our collaborators. The main goal of our program is to release cultivars that can be utilized by consumers and the turfgrass industry—in this area we have been quite successful. One of our recent perennial ryegrass varieties, ‘Arctic Green’ has been very popular and is one of the top-selling perennial ryegrass in the country. We have recently released two additional cultivars, ‘Royal Green’ and ‘Green Emperor’, which should be available to consumers in 2015 and 2016 respectively. We also entered a hard fescue into the NTEP trial (MNHD14) and are hopeful that this will be successfully released in the coming years. Sustainable Turfgrass Disease Management Fungicides are a large part of golf course maintenance budgets. Water quality, environmental, and health concerns have prompted a movement towards cosmetic pesticide bans in various parts of North America and opened a market for reduced risk pesticides and biological controls. The main goal of the sustainable turfgrass disease management program is to investigate the feasibility of building disease prevention and management programs utilizing only reduced risk fungicides, biological controls, and targeted fertility practices. This will be achieved by performing research to design optimal use programs and by providing Extension and outreach to turfgrass managers to assist in implementing these programs. (Continued on Page 13) www.MTGF.org


Turfgrass Program Support(Continued from Page 12)

Notes about Staff: Angela Orshinsky, horticulture plant pathologist, has hit the ground running. This past summer, Angela traveled to numerous golf courses to investigate disease outbreaks, visited nursery operations to assist in evaluating disease problems, and has teamed up with Kathy Zuzek to characterize an emerging bacterial disease on Hydrangea plants. Angela fielded numerous turfgrass disease samples at the plant disease clinic (www.pdc.umn.edu), offering both diagnostic support as well as recommendations for reducing disease severity to turf managers. In addition, Angela initiated several turfgrass pathology projects that are based on input from the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents needs assessment survey that she conducted in 2013. The projects include an assessment of defense activators for turfgrass disease, developing a dollar spot management program using only reduced risk fungicides, fertility practices for reducing fall epidemics of dollar spot and snow mold disease, and characterization and management of snow scald fungi in Minnesota. Angela has provided material resources, access to specialized equipment and training on molecular biology techniques to students from the turfgrass program. Support from the MTGF has allowed Angela to hire a research fellow, Kurt Hockemeyer, who is a turfgrass pathologist and will conduct studies on turfgrass and ornamental diseases. Angela is servicing the professional needs of the Turf and Grounds industry. Sam Bauer has been with our program as an Extension Educator now for three years. This year he led the coordination of a face-to-face UMN and MTGF Field Day on the St. Paul Campus after offering the field day virtually for two years. The field day was held one month earlier in August with 18 presenters and 202 total attendees, generating over $2000.00 for MTGF. We’ve also added more content and frequent updates on the Turfgrass Science Blog, which you can now subscribe to via email (www.turf.umn.edu). The Great Lakes School of Turfgrass Science is an online short course that’s in its second year and Sam coordinates 10 professors from 8 institutions. This is a great step into a new age of online education. In 2014, the turfgrass science program added Matthew Cavanaugh as a Scientist. Mattworks primarily on research projects related to golf course turf, and MnDOT sponsored research on roadside turf. Matt has his master of science degree from the University of Minnesota, was a former assistant golf course superintendent and most recently worked for PBI Gordon. He is a great addition to our team. Two graduate students earned Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Eric Koeritz finished his project looking at the use of metabolomics as a method for selecting rust-resistant perennial ryegrasses; Eric is now employed by Syngenta as a plant breeder. Josh Friell completed his thesis project on roadside salt-tolerant turfgrasses and is now employed at the Toro Company as a senior agronomist within the advanced R&D group. We currently have six graduate students in the turfgrass science program. Madeline Leslie is investigating how to best communicate information about low-input turfgrasses to the public. Long Ma is conducting research related to fine fescue improvement; he is currently evaluating several cultivars for their ability to produced root exudates that reduce weed growth. Garett Heineck is doing a number of projects related to improving winter hardiness in perennial ryegrass, and is currently investigating how endophtyes affect freezing tolerance in this important grass species. Clemon Dabney is researching the rhiwww.MTGF.org

zosphere associated with low-input turfgrasses in order to see if there are differences in how certain grass species affect the soil microbial community and is also studying silica body formation in turfgrasses. Maggie Reiter is researching fine fescues for golf course fairways and is focused on evaluating the use of these species with reduced water and pesticides. Finally, Ian Lane is evaluating the potential of lawns as a beneficial pollinator habitat. Our field facility manager, Craig Krueger, is an integral part of our team. For the last few years, our program has been working internally to build a case torenovate the University of Minnesota Les Bolstad golf course. This initiative is referredto as The Science of (the) Greens (www.scienceofthegreen.org). This initiative builds scholarship into all aspects of the pre- and post-renovated golf course. The resulting model will assist the golf industry as it strives to add sustainable practices around business, agronomics and the environment. We have been given permission by the University leadership to pursue partnerships, vet the vision and fundraise. In 2014, we introduced Science of (the) Green to over 2000 individuals, 90 corporations/non-profits and have received endorsements from national, regional and state golf and turf related organizations. Since 2012, our research program published 17 scientific papers, 20 abstracts, and 32 technical articles in magazines or proceedings. In 2014, our research was presented at 5 international conferences, 13 state and 12 Minnesota turf conferences reaching over 7,000 people. As you can see and we hope appreciate, the MTGF gift for 2014 to support the TROE Center gave a stellar return on investment.

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2015 MTGF FUNDING - $10,000

Research: Irrigation Conservation Practices on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Golf Course Turf Principle Investigators: Kristina Smith Walker, Ph.D., and Katy R. Nannenga, Ph.D. University of Minnesota - Crookston During the 2014 U.S. experience drought. It is cruOpen at the Pinehurst No. 2 cial for the golf course indusâ&#x20AC;&#x153;The objective of the course, water usage and try to identify irrigation pracwater conservation took centices that conserve water proposed project is to ter stage in the media. In our usage and protect our envievaluate golf course irrigation recently funded MTGF projronment through the reducect (2013-2014), soil moisture tion of greenhouse gas emispractices in order to identify was the most significant presions which accelerate the practices that promote overall dictor of greenhouse gas lossglobal climate change pates from fertilized and nonterns facing the world today. plant health and turfgrass fertilized turf. These results The concentration of carindicate more control over bon dioxide (CO2) in the quality while reducing greenhouse gas emissions can atmosphere is increasing at greenhouse gas emissions be achieved with moisture an unprecedented rate, due management on the golf primarily to fossil fuel burnand conserving water.â&#x20AC;? courses. The objective of the ing and land use change. The proposed project is to evaluincreased awareness of this ate golf course irrigation global problem has led to practices in order to identify practices that promote overall plant increased pressure by society to minimize the impacts of elevated health and turfgrass quality while reducing greenhouse gas emisatmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). sions and conserving water. The irrigation practices that will be Nutrient Cycling evaluated in this project are no irrigation (i.e. natural rainfall), supplement natural rainfall to provide 1.5 inches of rainfall per Nutrient cycling on golf courses has the capacity to sequester week, syringing during the hottest part of the day to wet the turf, GHG through the accumulation of soil organic carbon. However, and deep and infrequent irrigation scheduling set by the superincultural management practices can offset sequestration by mititendent. This will allow quantification of turfgrass quality and gating GHG emissions directly (irrigation) or indirectly (maintegreenhouse gas emissions associated with lower water use in the nance equipment). Turfgrass management practices including northern plains. With the current climate change models predictirrigation have the potential to contribute to emissions and mitiing the northern plains will be entering into a drought and much gation of greenhouse gases, leading to uncertainties in the net of the western United States currently experiencing drought concontribution of turfgrass ecosystems to climate change. ditions; strategies to reduce water usage and flux of greenhouse The purpose of our past MTGF funded research project (2013gases into the atmosphere are critical at all societal levels includ2014) was to determine the impact of fertilizer source (Urea, ing turfgrass management. Encapsulated Polyon, and Milorganite), turfgrass species Current greenhouse gas emission research focuses primarily (Agrostis stolonifera L. and Poa pratensis L.), and site location on golf course fertilization practices. Ours in particular, focused (soil moisture regime) on GHG (carbon dioxide [CO2], methane on the use of different fertilizer sources (fast versus slow release). [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) emissions and overall turfgrass While we have found significant differences in fertilizer sources, quality. Our preliminary results have shown that soil moisture we have also found that soil moisture and soil temperature are and soil temperature are significant predictors of GHG flux. Soil highly significant predictors of greenhouse gas losses from manmoisture has the potential to be managed on golf courses with the aged turf. Therefore, we are proposing to identify irrigation monitoring of soil moisture and the implementation of waterregimes that will reduce greenhouse gas losses while conserving reduction irrigation practices. Therefore, the purpose of the prowater resources on golf courses. Evaluation of greenhouse gas posed study is to identify irrigation and/or water conservation emissions is proposed on Creeping Bentgrass greens and practices that will decrease GHG losses while maintaining adeKentucky Bluegrass fairways managed under the previously menquate soil moisture needed for overall plant health and turfgrass tioned irrigation regimes. quality. Potential Benefits of Research Objectives It is apparent that traditional golf course management strategies need to become more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Golf course management strategies to achieve lush and green turf from over watering and fertilizing are the way of the past. Water is a limited resource that will only become more limited as the population continues to grow and regions begin to 14 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

Identify golf course irrigation and/or water conservation practices that will decrease greenhouse gas fluxes. Identify the level of soil moisture needed for overall plant health and turfgrass quality while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. (Continued on Page 16) www.MTGF.org


Figure 1. Soil temperature generally is an uncontrollable variable, but soil moisture especially on golf courses is frequently managed. Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture plotted against soil CO2 and N2O flux. The black dots represents the data points and the matrix represents the model generated using SAS to explain 99.99% of the data. CO2 = [(0.09201)*temperature + (0.05011) moisture + 1.29697]^4; N2O = [(-0.000316)*temperature + (0.0002943) moisture + 0.13343]^(-1/3) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Continued from Page 14) Materials and Methods This project will be conducted at a local golf course near the University of Minnesota Crookston. The research plots (0.61 m x 0.61 m) will be located on creeping bentgrass greens, Kentucky bluegrass fairways, and potentially Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass tees. Research plots will be irrigated under four irrigation regimes: no irrigation (i.e. natural rainfall), supplement natural rainfall to provide 1.5 inches of rainfall per week, syringing during the hottest part of the day to wet the turf, and deep and infrequent irrigation scheduling set by the superintendent. GHG samples will be taken each week using a vented closed gas chamber that will be placed over the plots for 40 minutes following the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (USDA-ARS GRACEnet) methods. Samples will be taken from the same location as the anchors for the gas chambers will be tamped into the ground flush with the soil surface at the beginning of the growing season. To ensure a good seal, the tops of the gas chambers will also be tapped in after they are placed over the anchors. Gas samples will be taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes post closure of the chamber. This method will allow gas concentrations to build up inside of the chamber, and a flux rate of the gases from the surface to be calculated based on the change in concentration over time. In addition at each sampling date air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, turfgrass quality and canopy greenness data will be collected. Turfgrass quality is on a visual rating of 1 to 9 where 1=bare soil, 6=minimally acceptable, 9=optimum uniformity, density, and greenness. Canopy greenness will be assessed using a CM 1000 (NDVI Meter; Spectrum Technologies) chlorophyll meter. Weather data will be collected daily using a weather station located on site. 16 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

Figure 2. we found the temperature and moisture to be much more significant predictors of flux for these two gases

Previous GHG Results Data analysis from the 2013 growing season indicated that soil temperature and moisture were highly significant (p<0.001) indicators of soil CO2 and N2O flux (Figure 1). While we did also identify differences in greenhouse gas emissions with nitrogen source (Figure 2); we found the temperature and moisture to be much more significant predictors of flux for these two gases (Figure 1). Soil temperature generally is an uncontrollable variable, but soil moisture especially on golf courses is frequently managed. www.MTGF.org


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2015 MTGF FUNDING - $20,000

Research: Selecting Minnesota Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Principal Investigators: Robert A. Blanchette, Benjamin Held, Gary Johnson and Chad Giblin Department of Plant Pathology / University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Ultimately, the goal is to increase the availThis proposal continues the screening of ability and diversity of disease-tolerant elm potentially resistant Minnesota native elm cultivars available to the public. The ability to selections to Dutch elm disease (DED), both in generate more clones in a shorter time period the greenhouse and field and it also supports will also lead to quicker identification of new work to find more rapid methods of propagadisease-tolerant cultivars. This project will tion and screening. This joint effort between help to preserve disease-tolerant trees and Professors Robert Blanchette and Gary strive to distribute them back into the regions Johnson and staff from Forest Resources, Plant they came from. Using cuttings as a method Pathology and Horticulture at the University of for propagation is sporadic in its success. Minnesota is showing great promise in obtainMicropropagation offers the potential to proing DED resistant elm cultivars that will grow duce a larger number of clones in a smaller well in Minnesota and across the northern unit area with less parent plant tissue comUnited States. Dutch elm disease has been pared to traditional propagation techniques. in Minnesota since 1961. Since that time, the Ulmas americana locted in Polk There is also a narrow window during the year losses have been enormous and disease has County was sole survivor of several in which cuttings can be made successfully. killed millions of elm trees. The American elm planted in the 1940s. Studies supTissue culture also offers the ability to propais an excellent tree for urban areas and is also a ported by MTGF are determining if some elms are truly resistant to gate almost continuously throughout the year very important forest species. The elm tolerates Dutch Elm Disease. using growth chambers and greenhouses. salt, pollution and other stresses better than most other tree species. It also is an important We currently have over 80 elm seleccomponent in the ecology of Minnesota’s forests. Continued tions of interest, collected from various locations heavy disease pressure from the aggressive strain of the fungus, throughout Minnesota. These trees have been identified by Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is still occurring and trees continue to die. interactions with individuals, landowners, city officials, arborists Of great interest are the few trees that remain alive in areas of and foresters throughout Minnesota to identify candidate elms heavy disease pressure. With the help of arborists, foresters and for our program. An interactive map has been developed and is the public throughout the state, we have been able to identify sur- on-line to show the locations for the various elms that have been viving elms that appear to have disease resistance. However, to identified around the state of Minnesota. The map can be found determine if these trees are in fact resistant it is necessary to at http://elms.umn.edu/elm-map. Many of these elms are curpropagate the trees and rigorously test them by inoculation with rently being propagated and will be ready for screening this sumthe pathogen. Field testing of these trees is also essential and for mer and over the next few years. American elm (Ulmus amerithis long term research to be successful continued support is cana), rock elm (U. thomasii), and red elm (U. rubra) are all wellneeded. represented in our collections. The overall objective of our research is to identify and test putative resistance of selected elms in an effort to bring disease Rationale, Benefits to Grounds Managers resistant, cold hardy, aesthetically pleasing Minnesota elms that grounds managers can utilize back into our landscape. In an effort to combat DED and keep American elms in our landscapes, resistant selections are being used with increasing frequency in urban areas. This has been a positive trend toward Objectives the reestablishment of the American elm. However, the DED pathogen has hybridized in the recent past and Ophiostoma ulmi 1. Continue surveys statewide to identify survivor native has been displaced by the more virulent strain Ophiostoma novoelms in the Minnesota landscape. ulmi (Brasier 2001). Because the resistance mechanisms in elm 2. Increase propagation success and efficiency using are not currently understood, it is not clear how today’s resistant grafting, budding and micropropagation techniques varieties will tolerate the pathogen if its’ virulence changes in the 3. Establishment and maintain the elm seedling nursery future. The resistance of particular elms to DED will last only as 4. Greenhouse screening trials using putatively resistant long as the virulence of the pathogen remains the same or lower. selections from the Minnesota landscape and This means it is very important to have a variety of genotypes of grafted material. resistant elms to protect against losing large populations of trees 5. Inoculate trees in the field. with similar genetic background. Furthermore, it is exceedingly 6. Determine ploidy of selected MN elms that have important that newly-identified trees and putatively-resistant resistance trees are thoroughly tested before they are marketed as “resis7. Study the mechanisms of resistance in elms to Dutch tant.” elm disease. 18 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2015

www.MTGF.org


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ABOUT THE COVER: In April, Chad Giblin (pictured on the center), University of Minnesota, organized a Pruning Workshop which turned out to be a good day for young trees at Midland Hills Country Club. Many MTGF allied association members attended this informative, hands-on event.

MTGF ALLIED ASSOCIATION 2015 CALENDAR MGCSA MGCSA MGCSA MGCSA MGCSA

DATE 6/15/2015 6/23/2015 7/20/2015 8/17/2015 9/28/2015

EVENT The Scramble Southwest Exposure Event Northern Exposure Event The Lakes Area Event The Championship

VENUE Medina Golf & CC Rose Lake GC The Quarry Alexandria GC Le Sueur CC

MSA MSA MSA MSA MSA MSA MSA

5/16/2015 6/11/2015 6/12/2015 6/24/2015 August 9/11/2015 9/23/2015

Tree Climbing Championship Arborist Workshop Certification Exam Plant Diagnostics Workshop Research Nursery Day Climbing Workshop Day of Service

Shakopee Rochester Cottage Grove Shade Tree Event St Paul

MSA MSA MSA MSA

10/1/2015 10/2/2015 November 11/21/2015

Fall Conference Certification Exam Cabling Workshop Women's Retreat

MTGF

minnesota turf and grounds foundation

TBD

Fort Snelling National Cemetery St Paul St Paul TBA

Villa Maria Retreat & Conference Center

MPSTMA MPSTMA

DATE 6/9/2015 6/10/2015

EVENT Network Picnic MPSTMA Tour on Wheels

MPSTMA MPSTMA MPSTMA

7/17/2015 9/18/2015 Aug/Sept

MINN / IOWA Chapter Clash MPSTMA Fall Workshop Community Service Project

MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS MASMS

5/12/2015 5/21/2015 6/17/2015 6/18/2015 6/23/2015 6/25/2015 9/30/2015 9/30/2015 10/1/2015 10/2/2015 10/21/2015 11/10/2015 11/19/2015

State Meeting Northern Chapter Mtg Custodial Days Custodial Days Northern Custodial Days Southern Custodial Days State Conference Scholars Golf Tournament State Conference State Conference Southern Chapter Mtg Metro Chapter Mtg Northern Chapter Mtg

VENUE Town & Country Fence CHS Field, Target Field, Baker Park Ames, Iowa St. Louis Park Rec Ctr. TBD TBD

Arrowwood Lodge TBD TBD TBD TBD

St Cloud Wapicada GC St Cloud St Cloud Mankato Minneapolis Arrowwood Lodge

MTGF Clippings Spring 2015  

A publication for turf and grounds managers.

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