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Quarterly Newsletter for the Mississippi State Guard

Mississippi State Guard unfurls new flag

October – December 2013

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Cover Story Page: MSSG unfurls new colors From the Commander



From the Command Sergeant Major 5 Deputy Commander’s Time 6

Veteran’s News


“Cost of Freedom” video gets special recognition 18 2nd Brigade NCO of the Quarter – SFC Bubba Carpenter 19 News from the 1st Brigade


From the Desk of the G-1


Answering the Call of the Wild – Article from CSM Michael Peusch 12

Flash Back to Disaster – 1900 Galveston Hurricane


Crossways – Message from Chaplain Nathan Barber 16

Article: The “Fighting 210th” continues to train and serve


Brigade Profile – 2nd BDE

From the State Guard Association



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From the Editor Back in 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, launched by NASA some months before, was scheduled to land on the Martian surface. An endeavor such as this is, no doubt, extraordinarily complicated, with many, many large and small things that must happen, for it to be a success. If anything, even the smallest of tasks, is not successful, the entire mission can be a failure. As an example; Curiosity was lowered to the surface of Mars with a new concept call the “Sky Crane”. The Sky Crane would lower the rover, during the very last moment of the mission, to the surface, very gently. However, before it got to the point where the Sky Crane would do its job, a very small, but extremely important piece of equipment would have to function properly, or the entire mission could have been a disaster. This small piece of equipment was a set of explosive bolts that would fire and separate the Sky Crane from the parachute that it was riding, as a part of the initial decent to Mars. These bots were a miniscule cost and a seemingly unimportant part of the mission as a whole, but, if they failed to function, the entire mission would have failed. The bolts did fire, the Sky Crane lowered Curiosity, and the mission was a complete success, thanks, in no small part, to the very small, but reliable explosive bolts. The Mississippi State Guard can sometimes seem as miniscule and unimportant as those bolts, but, just like those bolts, the MSSG is an important part of the mission of the Mississippi military department. The MSSG trains and maintains readiness, so that when we are called, we will be ready to serve as a professional and well trained military component, for the state of Mississippi. As a professional military unit, we train for any mission that we may be called on to complete, and we will complete that mission with well trained, competent, and highly motivated soldiers. Just like NASA believed in and relied on those small bolts, the Adjutant General can count on the MSSG to trained, ready, and willing to complete those missions that he needs us to complete. This trust was earned through past performance and can only be retained through continued high performance, of the missions that we are given, regardless of how large, or how small they may seem to be. We should all remember that even small missions, like overnight guard duty at Joint Force Headquarters, or explosive bolts to release a parachute, are critical to the overall success of a mission. Every mission is important and must be performed with the same professionalism and expertise as the largest and most complicated mission.

MISSISSIPPI STATE GUARD COMMANDER – David H. McElreath, Brigadier General (MS), MSSG Command Sergeant Major – Isaac Moore, Command Sergeant Major (MS), MSSG Acting Chief of Staff – Jimmy Shows, Colonel (MS), MSSG Public Affairs Officer/ Editor – Jeff Kennedy, Captain (MS), MSSG

Contributors: Jimmie Lindsey, COL (MS), MSSG Jerry Singleton, COL (MS), MSSG Carl Jenkins, LTC (MS), MSSG Nathan Barber, COL (MS), MSSG

Jimmy Shows, COL (MS), MSSG Doug Hayhurst, COL (MS), MSSG Don Jones, MAJ (MS), MSSG Bill Lee, MG (MS, Ret), MSSG

Chris Clements, COL (MS), MSSG Adrian Doss, LTC (MS), MSSG Michael Peusch, CSM (MS), MSSG Eddie Parvin, 1LT (MS), MSSG

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From the Commander As 2013 comes to an end, we can reflect on an outstanding year for our State, the Mississippi Military Department and the Mississippi State Guard. Our strength has almost doubled since April 2013. Our ranks continue to grow with not only extremely motivated and dedicated Mississippians, but also members from Louisiana, Tennessee, and Alabama, all with a desire and a commitment to serve when needed. BG David McElreath

Our individual and unit training has taken on intensity with an increased focus

upon mission related training, to include security support operations, emergency assistance, search and rescue, basic medical, first aid and emergency shelter operational services. Our three brigades and six battalions stand ready to provide operational support and assistance as may be required during a disaster and its aftermath. During the 2013 Hurricane season, our command was once called for partial activation. Each of us can take pride in the speed in which our personnel responded to the call and the truly exceptional service they provided in the accomplishment of their mission.

Colonel Doug Hayhurst swears in new members in December

While each of us have volunteered our time to be ready when needed, I am confident you will agree with me that our service brings back a remarkable degree of personal satisfaction. Looking forward into 2014, I am sure our brigades, battalions and companies will continue to grow as new members join our ranks, our training will further enhance our capabilities, and we will stand ready to don our uniforms and respond when called to duty. As we end 2013 and look forward to 2014, my wife Leisa and I would like to wish a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all. We are proud to serve with each of you and greatly appreciate the support your families extend in support of your service. BG and Mrs. McElreath

We can all take pride in our command and the role we play as a member of the Mississippi Military Department, standing ready to respond when called upon by our Governor and Adjutant General.

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From the Command Sergeant Major

Greetings MSSG members,

CSM Isaac Moore

It’s that time of year again and we are both fortunate and blessed to have made it this far. So let’s not forget those who are less fortunate than we are and keep them in our prayers and on our minds. The MSSG is growing at an astounding rate and we are getting outstanding people to join our ranks. However, don’t stop or slow down now, because I know that we can become better and stronger. There are literally hundreds of people in our various communities who would be glad to join us if they knew more about what we do and stand for. Let us all continue to beat the bushes and identify those folks who are waiting on us to reach them.

Have you ever heard a simple saying or experienced what you considered a mundane event that you never forgot or helped to shape who you are today? I remember going through basic training at Fort Leonard Wood in Missouri back in the summer of 1978 (yes, I know what you’re thinking). I was lucky to go through the training with two guys from the same unit as I. This particular evening we were training out in the boondocks at a place called “confidence course.” It consisted of crawling under a barbed wire fence about 12 inches off the ground through mud and water with bullets (blanks) and grenade simulators going off over your head. After crawling through the muck, you had to scale a wall and run across a large log spanning a ditch (many of you may have seen movies with these obstacles). Anyway, as I was crawling under the wire with mud in my mouth and everywhere else; the soldier in the next lane looked up and said the following words, “Stuff (paraphrase) can’t last forever.” Those words hit me in a profound way and changed my outlook. What he was saying is that nothing lasts forever and we should make the most of each day because all we have is measured by the day. Make the most of what and who you have today because whether good or bad it won’t last forever. Take the time to encourage and help those you can; it won’t take that much effort and you just might feel a little bit better about yourself. Be a good example and remember that someone is always paying attention to your behavior, whether positive or negative. Happy holidays!

*** ATTENTION ALL MSSG MEMBERS *** The relationship between the MSSG and the National Guard is continuing to grow. We are being considered for more and different missions. To help the National Guard better fit the MSSG into their missions they have asked us to do a survey of all of our members, to better help them identify the skills, professions, etc., of our members. Below are instructions to get to this survey. A link will also be on our website. It only takes a few minutes to complete. It is MANDATORY that ALL members take this survey. It must be completed by 31 January 2014. If you do not have access to a computer, you can get a paper copy of the survey and submit to your S-1. The S-1 will see that it is filled out online for you. All Commanders need to put in place a plan to verify that all of your members have completed this survey by the deadline. If anyone has any questions, please direct them through your chain of command. If this link does not work, please visit our website at to complete the survey

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Deputy Commander’s Time As I begin to write this article, it is the closing of the year 2013, for the State Guard. By the time this article is published, hopefully, each of you experienced a glorious and blessed Christmas, and had a wonderful new year, and now, for each of us, a new year and a new journey begins. In looking back at this past year, I am amazed [and so proud] at the tremendous growth, in many ways that we have experienced.

Jimmy Shows, COL (MS), MSSG

First; in the number of personnel that has been added to our roles, and perhaps more importantly, in the increase of

our capabilities, as a military organization this increase in our numbers create. I that many of the new people coming into the state guard are very educated individuals, highly motivated and desirous to serve their fellow Mississippians. You are the best our state has to offer to its citizens. You are the true citizen-soldier, and the consummate volunteer who is ready to answer the call. You serve out of your heart’s desire to help others, caring for those who live within the borders of our state. Mississippi is proud of you. I salute each of you and extend to you a warm “welcome”. Secondly; our ability to accomplish any task the Adjutant General assigns to the State Guard grows each day. As a highly motivated military organization, our soldiers are constantly training and preparing themselves for our known missions, (our METL) and looking for ways for improvement in the way we do our business, and “Our Officer Corp is a can-do ways to expand our mission capabilities. The Corp, proudly and Mississippi State Guard is proud of our service, and professionally leading the state considers it a great privilege, and honor to serve with, and be a force multiplier, for the Mississippi guard.” National Guard. Thirdly; I see our mission capability improving as we train more, and train harder. We have many new certifications to earn. We have added a new TDA, modified the 10-4, added new training qualifications, and a training academy. All of which, will pay us many dividends in the coming future. We now have our own flag, a new uniform, high esprit-de corp., and we are ready to move forward. With these many changes, I and the Commander are looking at 2014 with great expectations. We recognize the Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Corp as the backbone of the State Guard, however; we see them as being underutilized, according to Army standards. I have asked the State Command Sergeants Major (CSM) to take a hard look at how our NCO’s are receiving their training, and how they are being used as a trainer of enlisted personnel, within the command. NCOs are the principal trainer, for their subordinate members, and are the ones who teach them the tools they need to meet the army standard. He will look at how the NCO promotion boards are used and insure no one is promoted outside the guidelines of the 10-4. To promote any person into a NCO position who is not trained is setting them up for failure, and that practice will stop.

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Cost of Freedom This cost, of America’s freedom, has been paid with American blood. In almost every country in the world, white-washed tombstones stand as silent testimony of how valued freedom is to every American. Listen carefully to the words spoken, in this special presentation, regarding every period of war, from World War One, called the war to end all wars, to the present conflict. Every Airman, Seaman, Soldier and Marine proves this fact every day; that our freedom is precious, even more so than our own lives. This special tribute, covering the past one-hundred years of our great nation, is given to the men and women of the American military. Those who have answered the call to serve their country in time of war, along with so many others who have spent their own blood, so that you and I might remain a free people. To view a special preview of this moving video, please visit: f_Freedom_DVD.html There you will able to print an order form or order directly from our store.

One of his responsibilities, as the top NCO within the command, is to ensure that his NCOs can perform as NCOs. If we say our NCOs are equal to the National Guard NCOs, then we must be able to work on the same level and with the same knowledge that they have. To assist in this endeavor, the MSSG Training Academy will step up to the plate, by offering more classes, and by teaching quality, Army training that will ensure all persons graduating from academy courses, can pass the go-no-go standards. Because promotion to a higher rank in the Officer’s Corp is becoming more performance based, our training has become more time consuming, and will require harder work to attain of our goal of being the best Officer Corp we can be. In addition to the increased training and performance for officer promotions, the OCS candidate application process, where the MSSG soldier aspires to become an officer, now requires performance testing commensurate with their current rank, a written exam, and an oral interview with the Command Promotion Board, before acceptance into the OCS program. The school itself is becoming more intensive, as the academy works to develop a leader who, someday, will have to shoulder the job of running our organization. The old adage that says:” to whom much is given, much is required;” this is now our duty call. A captain’s career course will also be published shortly, as well as, basic branch qualifications. This is intended to develop the younger officer into a seasoned officer. In an effort to “raise the bar” of our Officer Corp, those who have never attended such training will have to complete these courses, as well, before becoming promotable. Our Officer Corp is a can-do Corp, proudly and professionally leading the state guard. What does it take to be the best? If you are up to the task, then hard work and a consecrated effort by everyone will accomplish what we are setting out to do. These seem to be loftily goals, to be sure, but I have confidence in you all. Another old adage states: “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

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” Working as a team, rolling up our sleeves, and everyone doing his or her part, will make the year 2014 a great year for the Mississippi State Guard, one that we will be proud of. I am proud to serve with you, thank you for your service. In the absence of our Chief of Staff, I want to announce the scheduled staff meetings for the General Staff: DATE 1. January 18, 2014 2. February 21, 2014 3. March 25, 2014 4. April 7-12, 2014

TIME 0800 until 1700

AGENDA TOPIC ACU Inspection G-3 Training, AT

0800 until 1700 G-3 AT 0800 until 1700 G-3 AT Annual Training (AT) for all, Camp Shelby, MS

I need any staff member to contact me, no-less than 2 weeks before a staff meeting, to get placed on the staff agenda, if you need to update the Commander on any issues, otherwise; we will meet, and break out into work sessions, as we need to ensure every detail of AT is worked out. Our responsibility, as the General Staff, is to provide the Commander, MSSG, with the plans & processes he will need to accomplish the mission of the state guard. Once he receives what we offer, he can then make his decision of what course we will follow. I expect every member of the General Staff to look military. We will be in the ACU’s and need to have good haircuts [no hair on the ears], and a clean properly fitting uniform. If in doubt of what you can wear and how to wear it, or your appearance, refer to AR 670-1 and our Annex, MSSGR 670-; both of which can be found on our website. The G-3 has prepared the agenda for our AT, and has all instructors in place. LTC Thompson, his staff, the Training Academy and all staff members who have worked on this project are to be commended. The G-1 shop, under Col Jimmie Lindsey, has worked many-many extra hours getting us the new uniform items, and getting them out to you, for the new ACU’s. Your hard work is recognized with a special “Thank You”, for your hard work. A lot of new information is coming our way. The Command CSM has almost completed his NCO and Soldier of the quarter & year SOP. This is a very positive step in moving our enlisted corps to where they should be. Without them, nothing would move in the MSSG. Recruiting Command is also working on a recruiter of the quarter & of the year, along with incentives for all members to recruit more. The Medical Corp is looking at ways to improve and expand what they can do and adding more to their command. Brigades are doing more training, with quality of training as their goal. The Chaplains Corps has added more Chaplains and are now working in National Guard units, all making the difference and saving our state tax dollars in providing free services as we continue our role as a “Force Multiplier “. What does this mean for us? We have the ability to grow significantly in 2014, and I know we will. We have more that we can offer to our fellow citizens, our esprit de corps is growing each day, and we are becoming the professional military we say that we are.

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I am so proud to say I am a member of the Mississippi State Guard, and that I am serving along with the best that Mississippi has to offer. Thank each of you for your service. Sincerely, Jimmy D. Shows, Colonel (MS), MSSG Acting Chief of Staff

Benefits of the Mississippi State Guard 

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General military training: o Military training uses a variety of methods to enhance the learning experience and provide the right training at the right time to service members. Often, a blended-learning approach is used to provide students with the benefit of more than one mode of instruction, including on-line, classroom, and on-the-job field training. Advanced training in military police MOS (military occupational specialty): o You will be trained to provide a wide range of diverse support and challenged to adapt to any mission or environment. This training is designed to transform a civilian into a Soldier and to provide the necessary expertise needed to be a Military Police Soldier. Incident Command System courses that are provided by FEMA: o All State Guard personnel are required to complete several Incident Command System courses that are provided by FEMA. These courses are all online and will prepare you as Guardsman to be able to work with MEMA and FEMA during a major emergency situation. Self defense and martial arts training: o Various martial arts for self defense are taught that will help you protect yourself in life-threatening situations. You will learn the basics, up to the more advanced types of striking and grappling that will enable you to incapacitate or disarm your enemy. Free or low cost emergency medical, law enforcement, firefighting, and Hazardous Material technician training, offered through state and private agencies: o Members of the MSSG have the opportunity to train with other agencies in the fields of emergency medical, law enforcement, and firefighting and often this training earns official state certifications that can be used to help start or enhance careers in those fields. Substantial tuition discounts at Belhaven University: o Members of the MSSG are eligible for significant tuition discounts at Belhaven. Pride in serving something bigger than ourselves: o There is great pride and satisfaction in patriotic, honorable, and noble service. Commissioned and non-commissioned officers receive advanced training in leadership: o Military leadership is based on a concept of duty, service, and self-sacrifice. Our obligation to subordinates is viewed as a moral responsibility, and defining leadership as placing subordinates needs before those of the leader. Military camaraderie: o The friendships and personal relationships that you gain, through military service can be some of the most valuable benefits that you get from being a part of a military unit. You really do make friends for life. Military discounts: o Can save you hundreds of dollars a year, in military discounts. Great enhancement on your resume: o State Guard training can be a true benefit for you personally and can be a great enhancement on your resume when looking for a new job. Most employers value military service and the training that military members receive. Being a Mississippi State Guardsman may the thing that gives you that competitive advantage over someone else when competing for a job.

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Brigade Profile

December 2013

2nd Security Brigade (MSSG) The 2nd Security Brigade is commanded by COL Doug Hayhurst, a 41 year veteran of the army. LTC Carl Jensen III, Ph.D. fills the position of executive officer and is a Naval Academy graduate and a veteran of over twenty years with the FBI. Currently he is the Director, Center for Intelligence & Security Studies Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Center for Intelligence & Security Studies University of Mississippi. Completing the command team is CSM Lloyd Hoover who is a veteran of the US Army and a graduate of the army Military Police school. CSM Hoover has been a member of the MSSG since 2007 and has deployed with the MSSG during past disasters. CSM Hoover currently serves as a certified police officer in the state of Mississippi. The 2nd Security Brigade is located in the northern most part of our state and includes a coverage area of 38 counties. The 210th Battalion incorporates all the area along the Mississippi Tennessee state line from Arkansas in the west to Alabama in the east. The 220 MP Battalion is located in the south area down to Greenville and east to Starkville and Columbus. We have been concentrating our recruiting efforts within the major population areas and have been successful setting up outside local shopping venues and introducing people to the Mississippi State Guard. The biggest deterrent to people joining is they simply just don’t know we exist. Getting the word out about our organization and the service we train to provide to our fellow citizens is the biggest challenge we face. LT Cunningham is the company commander of the 217th MP CO (MSSG) located in Grenada and is instrumental in building membership in that area through getting our story on the front page of the local paper and enlisting seven people through one recruiting event outside the local Wal-Mart.

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The biggest success story in our recruiting effort is the partnership between our personnel and LT Eddie Parvin, the recruiter responsible for the 2nd Brigade area. LT Parvin’s tireless efforts have been instrumental in our success. His dedication to being anywhere in our large area whenever needed goes far beyond the normal duty requirements. Training continues to be our number one priority as we prepare for being able to successfully complete our mission when called upon. We know training is best when we can perform our duties in a realistic as possible manner. Both of our Battalions have searched out areas to accomplish this by getting involved in their local communities and being able to participate in local events. The 210th BN worked with a local county sheriff’s department and provided security at a county wide veterans’ day event at a local park. The 220th BN recently assisted a city police department with traffic control during a city’s Christmas Parade. These experiences and interaction with local authorities go a long way to provide the training our soldiers need and develops the relationships and confidence with the local authorities that is essential during a time of disaster where we might be deployed. The American Legion each year places wreaths on the graves of heroes in our national cemeteries across the country. Recently 15 personnel of the 215th MP CO (MSSG), in Corinth, were able to participate in the ceremony to honor those who have served and assisted in the placing of over 480 wreaths at the national cemetery in Corinth. This cemetery holds the remains of our soldiers from the civil war to the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.

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It seems like it was only yesterday when I served with my son, Staff Sergeant Steven Drew Peusch, during the disaster relief efforts, after Hurricane Katrina had destroyed the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Actually, he and I served together during the storm as we rode out the strong winds, as they hammered everything in their path reaching a hundred plus miles per hour. We hunkered down in our respective shelters, along with hundreds of displaced people who were forced to flee their homes ahead of the approaching devastation. As members of the Mississippi State Guard ‘s 402d Military Police, we served together with our fellow soldiers in tasks such as conducting area security patrols, shelter security, displaced persons transport, distribution center operations, and many other military police activities. Our assigned missions on the coast lead us to serve with the Mississippi National Guard, Alabama National Guard, and the Massachusetts National Guard along with many other out of state agencies.

Drew Peusch during the Hurricane Katrina deployment

In the months following Katrina, Staff Sergeant Peusch concluded his studies at the University of Southern Mississippi with a degree in Polymer

Science. As it was with other graduates who now had their degree in hand, he set his sites on leaving the campus to secure a job in the business world. His planned journey down the road into the business world wasn’t to be. His road trip was a short one. Immediately after concluding his studies, the university hired him as an instructor in the very department he had graduated from. Staff Sergeant Peusch began his tenure at the school and continued to serve in the Mississippi State Guard’s military police unit. But something wasn’t right. Something seemed out of place in his life. In the Jack London novel, “The Call of the Wild”, the natural instinct of wanting to be free constantly tugged at the dog Buck’s mind and heart as he struggled to exist in a world that wasn’t quite right with him. There was somewhere else he was supposed to be. There was something else he was supposed to be doing. Staff Sergeant Peusch also had something constantly tugging at his mind and heart. Unlike the dog Buck in London’s novel, who just longed to be free, Drew longed to keep others free. He longed to keep them free from fear and tyranny. He longed to serve. He had to serve. He had to answer his call of the wild, and answer the call he did.

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Staff Sergeant Peusch left his good paying instructor job with the University of Southern Mississippi and joined the United States Army. The Army’s Officer Candidate School was a route he could actively pursue due to his education but he would have none of it. The enlisted ranks and a future Non Commissioned Officer role was the road he would take. He had to follow his heart. Off the basic training it was. During his U.S. Army basic training he realized that the training he had received in the Mississippi State Guard would serve him well. Soon, his basic training instructors began relying on him to help them teach the other new soldiers basic soldier tasks. After completing his basic training, the months came and went and the now Corporal Drew Peusch of the United States Army was assigned to a specialized unit in the Army. Corporal Peusch concluded his assigned training and continued his service to his country, waiting for his next assignment. He would not have to wait long. His orders to prepare for deployment to the Republic of Iraq came. His service area would now change from the sand of the Mississippi Gulf Coast to the sand of a country half way around the world. Corporal Drew Peusch made his way to the place that would now be his new home for the next year of his life. During his service in Iraq the need for another Sergeant in his unit arose. Corporal Peusch along with twenty three of his fellow soldiers took the required tests and then passed before the units Sergeant’s board. Out of the total of twenty four who took the required test and were interviewed by the board-Corporal Drew Peusch would now be Sergeant Drew Peusch. Sergeant Peusch completed his tour of duty in Iraq and returned to America. In the following months he was stationed in the United States and completed more training. Again the call to serve came. A place called Afghanistan would now be his new home. Again, his tour of service came and went and Sergeant Peusch returned to the land of the free and the brave. During the months following his return to the states, Sergeant Peusch began a new round of training in his specialized field. October 2013 saw Sergeant Peusch returning home to Jackson for a week of furlough. I noted that he would be returning home the same week that the Mississippi State Guard’s current Initial Entry Training class was taking place. Seizing the opportunity, I asked him to come speak to the IET soldiers about his service in the MSSG as a Staff Sergeant and the transition to the full time regular Army. Sergeant Peusch again went beyond the call of duty and offered to come be an instructor for one of our classes. He quickly accepted. Sergeant Drew Peusch conducted his scheduled class at the IET training and participated in the drill and ceremony training for the whole training session. He had come full circle. He was once again back home at a MSSG training session barking orders at enlisted personnel.

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While all of the faces he now saw during the training session were new to him as he conducted the IET drill and ceremony session, there was one that he was very familiar with. Private Rachel Marie Peusch had followed his footsteps and was now in formation waiting for his next training command. His sister had also answered her call of the wild. There is just something about wanting to keep others free from fear and tyranny.

Mississippi State Guard Unfurls a New flag 8 Dec 2013, Jackson, MS

On the morning of 8 Dec 2013, a ceremony was conducted at the new headquarters for the Mississippi State Guard during which Major General Augustus Collins, the Adjutant General of Mississippi, uncased and presented a set of Command Colors to the Mississippi State Guard. The ceremony was attended by a wide range of family, friends, supporters, members of the National Guard and former members of the Mississippi State Guard, to include several of the former Commanding Generals and Command Sergeant Majors. Major General William Lee (Ms), former commander of the MSSG and President of the Mississippi State Guard Association, said “this is a proud day for the Mississippi State Guard, the kind of recognition that the State Guard has worked very hard, for many years to achieve.�

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Major General Collins addressed those in attendance and said it came to his attention earlier this year that the Mississippi State Guard did not have Command Colors. He said, “I noticed during the change of command ceremony in April 2013, which the State Guard did not possess Command Colors.� At that point, he decided to authorize the design, production and presentation of Command Colors.

CSM Moore receives the Colors of the Mississippi State Guard from BG McElreath (MS)

To have our Command Colors for our command and have those Colors reside in joint forces headquarters with the other commands in the

Mississippi Military Department is a great honor and is viewed with pride by each of us, said David Hughes McElreath, current Commanding General of the Mississippi State Guard. Each of us are very grateful to General Collins for not only his service to our Nation and State, but also for the outstanding leadership, support and trust he has demonstrated for the Mississippi State Guard. Major General Collins with Mississippi State Guard SNCOs

PATH TO ACU'S As most of you know by now The Adjutant General has given us permission to go to ACU uniform on 1 January 14. Although we have the go ahead for January, it is not mandated that we change at that time. Your BDE commander will advise you when he wants you to change over to the ACU. We will have a wear in date as of the 2013 Annual Training, in April. Everyone that is planning on going to AT in April MUST be in the ACU uniform. Our planned trip this month to Ft. Jackson, SC, to pick up uniforms and boots has been changed until January. We will advise everyone when we have them available for sale. We have all of the hook and loop patches, Mississippi flag, MP Patches, Nametapes for your uniform in stock. We also have the Sand colored T-shirts available for sale thru the association store. The brown T-shirts that we are using now can be used with the ACU uniform until the wear in date of AT. Colonel Jimmie Lindsey ACofS G-1

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CROSSWAYS CHAPLAIN (COL, MS) NATHAN L. BARBER Command Chaplain, Mississippi State Guard

Nathan Barber, COL (MS)

HOW DO WE NAVIGATE THE YEAR 2014? Recently, I heard the story of a missionary who lived near the very dense jungles of South America. He needed to travel to a distant area deep in the jungle. He sought out and engaged a guide to take him to his destination. After traveling for a short period of time in the jungle, the missionary suddenly stopped. Astonished, he said to his guide, “I have noticed that there is not a road, a path, or even a marker of any kind ahead…how will we find our way?” Surprised by the question, the guide responded, “I am the way”. The meaning of this illustration could not be clearer.

As each one of us stands before the uncharted days of 2014, we need to engage a guide who is able to lead us into the future. May I encourage you to choose the One who is described in the Scripture as “The Same yesterday, today, and forever”. Time nor seasons, hold anything that is unknown to Him. He who won the victory over death, sin, and the grave said, “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father except through Me”. Choose your guide for today with eternity in mind.

From the State Guard Association Christmas is the most special and blessed time of the year. The season fills us with warmth of friends, family and loved one. And, Oh! for all the delectable food that will cause use to let out our belts a notch or two. One of the features of season is the wonderful Christmas music. I am in the car a great deal and have the opportunity to listen to Christmas melodies quite often. This really sets me in the mood. For all of the cherished moments, let us all be remember to always keep Christ in Christmas for he is the reason for the season. The State Guard Association of Mississippi wishes each of you and your families a joyous Christmas and a safe and Happy New Year! Giving thanks the birth of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. MG (MS) Bill Lee, Ret. President, SGAOMS

Remember, dues for the association are due by the end of January 2014. Please renew now. Enlisted dues are $10.00, and officers’ are $20.00. If you are not yet a member, please go to our website and download an application. Mail your check or money order to: SGA, P. O. Box 4395, Jackson, MS 39286

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Veteran’s News Veterans to Receive 1.5 Percent Cost-of-Living Increase December 4, 2013 New Rates for Compensation and Pension Benefits in 2014 WASHINGTON – Veterans, their families and survivors receiving disability compensation and pension benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs will receive a 1.5 percent cost-of-living increase in their monthly payments beginning Jan. 1, 2014. “We’re pleased there will be another cost-of-living increase for Veterans, their families and their survivors,” said Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric K. Shinseki. “The increase expresses in a tangible way our Nation’s gratitude for the sacrifices made by our service-disabled and wartime Veterans.” For the first time, payments will not be rounded down to the nearest dollar. Until this year, that was required by law. Veterans and survivors will see additional cents included in their monthly compensation benefit payment. For Veterans without dependents, the new compensation rates will range from $130.94 monthly for a disability rated at 10 percent to $2,858.24 monthly for 100 percent. The full rates are available on the Internet at

We’re pleased there will be another cost-of-living increase for Veterans, their families and their survivors,” “

The COLA increase also applies to disability and death pension recipients, survivors receiving dependency and indemnity compensation, disabled Veterans receiving automobile and clothing allowances, and other benefits. Under federal law, cost-of-living adjustments for VA’s compensation and pension must match those for Social Security benefits. The last adjustment was in January 2013 when the Social Security benefits rate increased 1.7 percent. In fiscal year 2013, VA provided over $59 billion in compensation benefits to nearly 4 million Veterans and survivors, and over $5 billion in pension benefits to more than 515,000 Veterans and survivors. For Veterans and separating Service members who plan to file an electronic disability claim, VA urges them to use the joint DoD/VA online portal, eBenefits. Registered eBenefits users with a premium account can file a claim online, track the status, and access a variety of other benefits, including pension, education, health care, home loan eligibility, and vocational rehabilitation and employment programs. For more information about VA benefits, visit, or call 1-800-827-1000.

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“Cost of Freedom” Gets Special Recognition 25 October 2013, Jackson, MS Earlier this year, the State Guard Association of Mississippi produced a short film honoring our nation, veterans, and those that have paid the ultimate price for our freedoms while in service. This film, entitled “The Cost of Freedom”, was produced with the help and great generosity of Edward Saint Pe`, his staff at the Weathervision studios, and

Doug Hayhurst, COL (MS), Bill Lee, MG (MS), Jeff Kennedy, CPT (MS), Nathan Barber COL (MS)

Colonel Jimmie Lindsey. The film was previewed at the 2013 Mississippi International Film Festival. Mr. Saint Pe` organizes and presents the Mississippi International Film Festival, as an annual event to showcase films from around the world. Mr. Saint Pe`, who is a great supporter of the Mississippi State Guard, was the driving force behind the selection of the film. Members of the Mississippi State Guard

attended the preview, on the opening night of the festival, and participated in evening events. According to BG McElreath, “speaking for both myself and the Mississippi State Guard, we are extremely honored to be included in such a great event.” Being invited to the Mississippi International Film Festival was a great honor and great success for promoting the MSSG and brought more awareness of the great sacrifices of those who have given their lives in the defense of freedom.

CHRISTMAS PARTY On behalf of the Headquarters Staff, I want to thank all members of the Mississippi State Guard who came to our Annual Christmas Party at the Cherokee Inn, Jackson, MS, on 8 December. We had a good turnout and everyone seem to have had a good time. We had lots of door prizes to give out and I want to thank all of the companies that donated items and a special thanks to the MSSG members that stepped forward and asked these companies for the door prizes or donated money toward the party. The owners and staff at the Cherokee Inn were very generous with their time and we appreciate them very much. They are usually closed on Sunday and they opened up just for the Mississippi State Guard. If anyone has any ideas of additional things we can do to make the annual event better, please past them on to me. A very special thanks to Captain Mary Lou Ayers for all she did to make the party come off without a hitch. Colonel Jimmie Lindsey

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2nd Brigade NCO of the Quarter The 2nd brigade is proud to feature Sergeant First Class Lester (Bubba) Carpenter as our NCO of the quarter. SFC Carpenter serves as a recruiting NCO for the MSSG and is a veteran of the Mississippi Army National Guard, where he served as a member of the COC 198th AR, 155th combat brigade team. He joined the MSARNG while he was still a senior at Burnsville High School in 1988. In December of 1990, he was activated for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. At the time of his separation, he had earned the rank of Staff Sergeant and was slotted as a tank commander.

Bubba Carpenter, SFC (MS)

Today SFC Carpenter earns his living as a paramedic and as a member of the Mississippi House of Representatives, where he serves the residence of the 1st district of Mississippi, as their elected

representative. He is married to Niesha Carpenter and they have one son, Noah. We are proud to have SFC Carpenter as a member of the MSSG and especially as a member of the 2 nd brigade. We thank Bubba for this service to his country, and his state as both an elected member of the legislature and as a member of the Mississippi State Guard.

Mississippi State Guard Serving with the Mississippi National Guard

The Mississippi State Guard (MSSG) is the constitutionally authorized State Defense Force of the State of Mississippi. It operates under the authority of the Mississippi Military Department, and is on an equal constitutional basis as the Mississippi Army National Guard, and the Mississippi Air National Guard The MSSG is an all-volunteer, organization that allows citizens to serve their state, in a military unit that trains to provide support and assistance to the Mississippi Army National Guard, during state emergencies. The MSSG is currently seeking new volunteers of people that want to give back to their state and offer their service as a member of a well trained and dedicated state military unit. People in the MSSG come from all walks of life and have a great diversity of education and experience. If you feel the call of service, we have place for you. Please visit our website for more information, about the MSSG.

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News from the 1st Brigade Members of 120th MP Battalion activated for Tropical Storm Karen When Tropical Storm Karen threatened the Mississippi Gulf, 10 members of the 120 th Military Police Battalion - 1st security brigade were called into action. The Mississippi National Guard requested the Mississippi State Guard assistance in proving physical security at Joint Force Headquarters, Jackson, MS during Tropical Storm Karen from October 4th to October 5th, 2013. The 120th MP Battalion deployed a 10 member team lead by 1LT Skelton, 125th MP Company Commander and SFC Nordan, 120th MP Battalion Training NCO. As the Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge 1Lt Skelton and SFC Nordan arrived in advance of the Security Detail and were briefed by SGM Reines (ARNG) of the security needs at Joint Forces Head Quarters. The Security Detail consisting of SGT Singleton, SSG Hadley, CPL Terry, SGT Spring, PVT Peusch, SGT Seavey, SSG Lay and PVT Shaw displayed enthusiasm and exceptional attention to detail for the entire mission. Pride and Professionalism were the resounding themes in all the tasks assigned to the security detail. The Security Detail from the 120th ensured a seamless transition from citizens to soldiers and provided installation security for JFHQ and JOC during Operation Karen. The two day deployment went smoothly and proved that the Mississippi State Guard can be counted on to provide professional services even with short notice. All 10 members of the security detail were awarded the Mississippi Emergency Service Medal for their actions during the Tropical Storm Karen Activation. Training Tomorrow Troops With new FEMA training requirements going into effect 01Jan2014, members of the 1st Security Brigade have been diligently working to complete their required web based Incident Command System Courses though Many of the men and women of the 1st security Brigade have already completed most, if not all of the new ICS courses. The website ( is set up to work on smart phones and tablet devices. And that has helped some of our Guardsmen get their courses completed� stated SFC Nordan, the 120th Security Battalion’s Training NonCommissioned Officer.

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In last quarter of 2013, six members of the 1st Security Brigade have completed MOS training to become Military Policemen in the Mississippi State Guard. Those newly qualified MP’s are Maj Kaminski, Sgt Spring, Sgt Seavey, Pvt Shaw, Pvt King and Pvt Summerlin. Twelve members of the 1st Security Brigade completed CPR / First Aid Training in November 2013. The newly qualified CPR/First Aid providers are Pvt H. Gargner, Pvt L King, Pvt Summerlin, Sgt R King, Cpl Tanner, Pvt Cole, Pvt Puesch, Pvt Shaw, Maj Kaminski, Pvt McMillian, Pvt Poarch and Pvt Janett. Additionially, Sgt Seavey qualified as a Certified CPR / First Aid Instructor. Several Senior NCOs from the 1st Security Brigade have been selected as instructors for Initial Entry Training. IET instructors from 1st Security Brigade include SFC Carlin, SFC Nordan, SFC York, SFC Ludgood, MSG Russell and CSM Richardson. These and other Senior NCOs have been tasked with ensuring that all entry level troops receive the proper training and instruction to make them assets and future leaders of the Mississippi State Guard. Entergy Corporation Community Connections Grant In November 2013, Entergy Corporation made a grant to the Mississippi State Guard. Through Entergy’s Community Connection Program, $750 was donated to the Mississippi State Guard on behalf of their employee, SFC Nordan. The grant was awarded to the Mississippi State Guard in recognition of SFC Nordan’s volunteer service with both the Mississippi State Guard and the Boy Scouts of America.

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From The Desk of The G-1

Jimmie Lindsey, COL (MS)

2014 is upon us. 2013 is behind us, or is it? No doubt 2013 was one heck of a year. We moved to a new location. We had a new Commander take the reins. We had tremendous growth in membership. We had a lot of changes in the makeup of our brigades. We started more training classes, so our members can learn and grow to do the jobs the MSSG needs to fulfill our missions, and to continue moving forward. The list goes on, but, the question of; is 2013 really behind us? And the answer is NOT REALLY. 2013 cannot be behind us until all the paperwork catches up with the member’s 201 file in the Brigades and at Headquarters. Until we have all members assigned a position,

until we have all the required paperwork finished correctly and submitted to the BN and BDE S-1, and the Headquarters G-1, we are not finished with 2013. Headquarters staff has put together the procedures, SOP's, and forms to guide you thru the necessary paperwork for a new member, for a promotion packet, for an OCS packet, for preparing a PAF, or Manning report. All of this information is available on our web site. It is more important than ever that we have our paperwork flowing smoothly, correctly, and as quick as possible. With all the growth we are experiencing it does not take long to get behind and lost in forms and paperwork. All the reports, forms, etc., are very important. We need this information for the Commander to be able to see where people are assigned, where we may need people, what areas we may have too many people assigned, and he needs this information readily available to him so, at any time, he can advise JFHQ of our numbers and readiness status. Remember, it takes all of us working together to accomplish our duty and our mission. So let's get 2013 behind us and let's keep 2014 as current as we can.

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FLASHBACK TO DISASTER: THE GALVESTON HURRICANE OF 1900 Authors: LTC D. Adrian Doss, Ph.D. LTC Carl Jenson, Ph.D. MAJ Don W. Jones, Ed.S. Overview Between June 1 and November 30 of each year, the coastal United States experiences the threats associated with the hurricanes that form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. When activated, one of the primary missions of the Mississippi State Guard is to respond to hurricane events and to provide assistance and support during disaster relief operations within the state. During its history, the Mississippi State Guard has served numerous active duty periods and missions. Many of these operations resulted from the damage inflicted by hurricanes. With Mississippi in the direct path of many of the storms, it is very appropriate to look back and reflect upon the damage inflicted by some of the most severe storms to endanger the nation. One such storm occurred during 1900 in Galveston, Texas. Although this storm occurred over a century ago, its lessons are timelessly grim reminders of the dangerousness of nature and the necessities of incident preparedness, response, and recovery. The Storm that Destroyed Galveston The deadliest hurricane to strike the United States began as a tropical storm in the central Atlantic on August 27, 1900 and followed a path south of Cuba. As it moved over Cuba on September 3rd and 4th, it remained a tropical storm. On September 5th and 6th, 1900, it gained intensity and reached hurricane status as it passed just west of Key West, Florida, on September 6th.1 The following figure shows the path of this storm.


The Weather Channel. 2013. “Hurricane: The Galveston Hurricane of 1900.� (accessed December 10, 2013).

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Figure 1.0 -- Path of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane Image Source:

Over the next two days, the storm crossed the Gulf of Mexico gaining greater strength. On September 8, the storm reached the Texas coast south of Galveston as a Category 4 hurricane with a storm surge of 8 to 15 feet. Warnings were issued to Galveston regarding the tropical events as early as September 4.2 While the storm approached, communication was disabled because the hurricane's outer bands brought high winds and heavy rain into southern parts of the state. As a result, meteorologists were unable to report the track of the storm. Because of the communications disruption, Galveston was unaware of the severity of the incoming hurricane. In 1900, Galveston, Texas was a prosperous city and a major center of commerce with a population of approximately 40,000. It was the second largest port on the Gulf coast, and was the third largest city in Texas. It boasted 35 churches, 30 hotels, and 4 national banks. Economically, Galveston was a thriving seaport and a mainstay of American agriculture. Before the storm, approximately 70% of the U.S. cotton crop was processed through Galveston.3 After the hurricane, other seaports accommodated such economic activity, and the Galveston seaport never recovered fully its power as an economic hub. Warning Failure Although many factors contributed to the great loss of life, one of the major factors contributing to this death toll was the lack of a timely warning thereby contributing to a large percentage of the population

Rubin, Claire. 2012. Emergency Management: The American Experience, 1900-2010 (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. 19. 3 Ibid., p. 17. 2

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of Galveston remaining in the town instead of evacuating in a timely manner to safer locations. A second factor was the high storm surge that swept intensively across this coastal community. Although the National Weather Service maintained an office in Galveston, the residents of the town were unaware of the impending danger as the hurricane moved westward across the Gulf of Mexico. Local meteorologists and residents of Galveston had no perceptions of danger or misread the major indicators of the storm until hours before the hurricane made landfall. Because of these shortcomings, an effective evacuation was impossible.4 Impact of the Storm and the Resulting Destruction The storm impacted the city with its full force and magnitude. It is difficult to describe the extensiveness of the damage inflicted upon Galveston as result of this hurricane. The surviving photographs reveal that the city was devastated and that the geographic landscape was almost unrecognizable. More than 3,600 homes were destroyed on Galveston Island, and the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss at the time of approximately $30 million.5 During the storm, the water level was reported to have risen approximately four feet within four seconds.6 The following figure shows an example of the damage that was witnessed during the aftermath of the storm.

Figure 2.0 – Damage Resulting from the Galveston Storm Image Source: Galveston after the September 8, 1900, hurricane. Texas State Library photo.

The Death Tolls The Galveston, Texas Hurricane of 1900 was the deadliest hurricane experienced by the United States. Though an accurate count of the casualties caused by the storm, both killed and injured, has never 4

Frantz, Vickie. 2012. “Deadliest Hurricanes in US History,” (accessed April 24, 2012). 5 Smith, Michael. 2013. Post-storm rebuilding considered 'Galveston's finest hour.' (accessed December 10, 2013). 6 Rubin, Claire. 2012. Emergency Management: The American Experience, 1900-2010 (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. 18.

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been accurately determined, it is estimated that the deaths which resulted from the Galveston hurricane were between 8,000 and 12,000 individuals.7 It is believed that many of the casualties were uncounted during the confusion of recovery operations, were washed out to sea, or were concealed by the rubble resulting from the destruction inflicted by the storm. The initial attempts to eliminate the bodies of the deceased, including taking them into the Gulf via barges and dumping them into the water, contributed to an increased amount of confusion when they washed ashore. Later, funeral pyres were used to cremate the victims. It was reported that the nauseating scent of these funeral pyres was smelled nearly 100 miles “out to sea” by incoming relief personnel.8 An average of approximately 70 victims per day was discovered during the first month after the storm. The funeral fires burned into November. The last discovery of human remains was reported on February 10, 1901.9 The following figure shows an example of the removing of human remains.

Figure 3.0 -- Relief Workers Recovering Bodies Image Source:

Within this great disaster were countless individual tragedies. One of the saddest stories that emerged from the storm was the death of 10 sisters and 90 children from the St. Mary's Orphans Asylum operated by the Sisters of Charity. As the storm intensified and the flood waters rose, the nuns took the children to the second floor of the females’ dormitory where each sister used a clothes line to connect a string of children to her waist. However, the intensity of the storm was too great for the orphanage


Longshore, David. 2008. Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones. New York, NY:Infobase Publishing, p. 126. 8 Brennan, Kristine. 2002. The Galveston Hurricane. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishing, p. 16. 9 Ramos, Mary. 1998. “Galveston's Response to the Hurricane of 1900,” (accessed December 10, 2013).

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dormitory. During the evening, the building collapsed resulting in the deaths of the sisters and the children.10 Relief Operations A major relief operation was immediately launched after the storm. The initial goals of this operation were to “establish committees, sanitation measures, and emergency health care facilities.”11 Commensurate with modern disasters, the initial search and recovery efforts were performed by the survivors and factions from unaffected regions. Sources relief assistance involved both governmental and non-governmental factions. Military units were moved to the area to establish order to conduct relief operations including the establishing of temporary housing, supporting medical responses, and providing food for both survivors and relief workers. Medical relief operations were conducted to provide health care, evaluate the conditions of survivors for immediate medical attention, distribute foodstuffs and clothing, distribute disinfectants, and prevent any incident of epidemic illness.12 The response efforts included support from the Red Cross and 78-year-old Clara Barton.13 Relief materials consisted of both financial and material resources. Assistance was solicited across the nation. Benefactors were obtained from New York, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Illinois, peer locales in Texas, and various other states, cities, and communities.14 Financially, contributions were obtained from mere children (e.g., $1.50 from operating a lemonade stand) to thousands of dollars offered by both individuals and cities.15 The profits from sporting events and concerts were forwarded to Galveston.16 Charitable organizations also rendered financial assistance.17 Materially, relief items consisted of varied resources. Numerous goods were directed to Galveston from a variety of sources. Examples include carbolic acid, charcoal, coffee beans, tea, rice, corn meal, beans, peas, lard, and baking powder. 18 Other items consisted of medicines and clothing.19 Aftermath and Recovery Thomas Edison sent early movie cameras to record the devastation. The films, many of which still exist, provide a remarkable insight into the disaster. The period of recovery was both dangerous and laborious. For the city of Galveston, major efforts were made to fortify the city thereby reducing its vulnerability to another storm. Major portions of the city were raised above sea level and barriers were established along the coastline to reduce the direct impact of tidal surges. Cumulatively, these efforts encompassed a period of approximately 12 years after the storm.20 Despite its survival, for a period, the city 10

MacDonald, Linda. 2013. “The Sisters of Charity Orphanage.” (accessed December 10, 2013). 11 Wall, Barbra and Arlene Keeling. 2011. Nurses on the Front Line: When Disaster Strikes, 1878-2010. New York, NY: Springer Publishing, p. 33. 12 Ibid. 13 Don Peak. 2013. “Galveston Relief Effort was Barton's Last Disaster Mission,” (accessed December 9, 2013). 14 Green, Nathan. 2000. Story of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 Wall, Barbra and Arlene Keeling. 2011. Nurses on the Front Line: When Disaster Strikes, 1878-2010. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. 20 Willett, Donald. 2013. Galveston Chronicles: The Queen City of the Gulf. Charleston, SC: The History Press, p. 132.

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of Galveston was not prosperous economically after the storm. 21 Galveston never again achieved the same economic status as a seaport that it enjoyed and heralded before the storm.22 Safeguarding the city of Galveston against future storms necessitated a massive engineering effort involving “every home, every church, every school, every sidewalk, every fence, every electric line, every everything.”23 This effort also included “trees and shrubs” within the city.24 The engineering initiative required raising everything in the city at least 17’ above “mean low tide.”25 This undertaking encompassed the raising of approximately 4,500 structures within the city.26 Completing this endeavor necessitated a period of 11 years, and involved the slurry of approximately 11 million cubic yards of sand underneath Galveston.27 The engineering effort also necessitated the erecting of a seawall to guard against tidal surges. This bulwark was approximately three miles in length, had a base thickness of approximately 16’, and was buttressed against the eastward segment of the land mass.28 The construction of the wall commenced in 1902, and encompassed nearly two years.29 After it was finished, a second wall was erected to protect the northern region of Galveston.30 Social factors affected the endeavors which occurred during the aftermath of the Galveston storm. Considerations of social class influenced the disaster response, and “contemporary societal and cultural tensions” emerged regarding gender.31 Instances of looting and violence were reported during the aftermath of the storm.32 Both police officers and soldiers were ordered to shoot anyone that was discovered “looting or attempting to loot.”33 Galveston experienced a painfully hard lesson regarding the dangerousness and destructiveness of nature. Despite its tragic losses, the city endeavored to guard itself against future hurricane calamities. The erecting of seawalls and the raising of the municipal infrastructure represented aspects of preparedness that benefitted Galveston during future years. During 1909, while the city was being elevated, another hurricane struck Galveston.34 Although its engineering measures were incomplete, the damages and destruction of this incident were much less severe when compared with the effects of the 1900 storm incident. This second hurricane resulted in the deaths of 275 individuals, “but none in the parts of Galveston behind the seawall, even though six feet of water washed into some parts of the city that hadn’t been raised.”35 Conclusions and Recommendations 21

Wall, Barbra and Arlene Keeling. 2011. Nurses on the Front Line: When Disaster Strikes, 1878-2010. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. 22 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2013. “The Galveston Hurricane of 1900: Remembering the Deadliest Natural Disaster in American History,” (accessed December 9, 2013). 23 Williams, Jack and Bob Sheets. 2001. Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on the Earth. New York, NY: Vintage Books, p. 68. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 31 Wall, Barbra and Arlene Keeling. 2011. Nurses on the Front Line: When Disaster Strikes, 1878-2010. New York, NY: Springer Publishing, p. 33. 32 Green, Nathan. 2000. Story of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. 33 Ibid. 34 Williams, Jack and Bob Sheets. 2001. Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on the Earth. New York, NY: Vintage Books, p. 68. 35 Ibid.

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Examining the Galveston incident reveals some stark contrasts regarding the before and after conceptualizations of the city. In its initial state of unpreparedness, the city was devastated as the result of the 1900 hurricane. After erecting protective bulwarks and raising the height of the city, Galveston experienced significantly less death and destruction during the 1909 hurricane. The lessons learned from Galveston are profound reminders concerning the intensities of natural disasters and the necessities of preparedness. Such observations are itemized as follows: Prediction – The Galveston incident ushered a greater emphasis towards hurricane prediction.36 Having some knowledge of the anticipated paths of hurricane events embellishes the ability to warn residents and to enact evacuation measures. Understanding methods whereby storm quantities are forecast contributes to preparedness efforts during modern times. Much of the modern awareness of hurricane prediction is attributed to the Galveston incident. Preparedness – The Galveston incident incited nations globally to craft methods, via legislation and regulation, whereby losses of life regarding such incidents would be lessened.37 Although it is impossible to imagine every possible threat scenario that affects a locale, understanding the major threats and preparing for them accordingly is a wise investment of resources. Through preparedness, during modern times, some amounts of both human life and physical infrastructure may be spared from devastation. Mitigation – Galveston was unprepared for the impending calamity. Its ability to mitigate the effects of the disaster were either impaired or non-existent. Therefore, the city experienced the full force of nature without any means of diminishing the severity of its effects. As a result, many humans perished and many physical and economic infrastructures were irrevocably lost. Because of such ravages, mitigation practices are now attempted as methods through which the negative effects of incidents are reduced. Response – The response to the Galveston incident marshaled resources locally, regionally, and nationally to provide assistance to the affected region. The response efforts included financial contributions and the necessities of sustaining human life (e.g., foodstuffs, medicine, clothing, etc.). Individual citizens, commercial organizations, and government organizations all contributed to the response initiatives. Their efforts ranged from medical assistance to sanitation. Similarly, during modern times, analogous endeavors are witnessed during the aftermaths of calamities. Recovery – The recovery period necessitated changing the governmental structuring of Galveston to accommodate considerations and endeavors that were related to safeguarding the city against potential future disasters.38 Recovering from the incident necessitated the erecting of bulwarks to guard against sea swells, and the raising of the city physically. Despite its best attempts to recover from the incident and to resume some normalcy among the lifestyles of its citizenry, Galveston never completely recovered from the 36

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2013. “The Galveston Hurricane of 1900: Remembering the Deadliest Natural Disaster in American History,” (accessed December 9, 2013). 37 Longshore, David. 2008. Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones. New York, NY:Infobase Publishing, p. 126. 38 Brennan, Kristine. 2002. The Galveston Hurricane. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishing, p. 65.

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incident with respect to its economic status and quality of life that existed before the storm.39 This observation provides a timeless lesson regarding recovery – no guarantee exists that a locale shall completely recover and achieve its previous sense of normalcy that existed before a calamity occurred. Communication – Communication is an essential aspect of any emergency. During the period of the Galveston incident, communicating across great distances was accomplished primarily through the use of telegraph lines and machines. Because the storm destroyed telegraph lines as it traveled toward Galveston, the city had no method of receiving further warnings regarding the incoming threat. As a result, evacuation and protective measures were immaterial. Had communication not been impaired, then additional warnings and protective measures could have been beneficial toward the sparing of human life. This notion is applicable during modern times. Warnings are absolutely necessary before incidents. Communication must be established and maintained (if possible) with an affected region. Although the Galveston incident was tragic, its lessons influenced much of the emerging of emergency management. These lessons are relevant during modern times, and are applicable for any state defense force. Given these notions, some recommendations are offered as follows: Prediction – All state defense forces require knowledge and understanding of potential threats. It is recommended that state defense forces actively train and maintain their intelligence personnel regarding forecasting and predictive analysis methods whereby storms and projected paths may be speculated. It is recommended that intelligence personnel work closely with their counterparts among peer organizations to ensure the integrity of their forecast information during any period of danger. It is recommended that intelligence personnel have the ability to predict other variables of interest that may be related to an incident. Such factors may vary involving predictions regarding the quantities of affected individuals, quantities of food and beverages, quantities of medicine and medical personnel, and other similar attributes that are pertinent to the considered situation. Preparedness – All state defense forces must be trained and prepared to experience a variety of different incidents. Threats vary according to geographic location. For instance, a state defense force in New York may prepare for both hurricanes and blizzards whereas a state defense force in Missouri may prepare for tornadoes and summer heat waves. Regardless, state defense forces must train unceasingly to accommodate the needs of dynamic threat domains. The Galveston incident involved a hurricane event in which communication was disabled. Communication is essential regarding any calamity. It is further recommended that all SDFs test frequently their communications systems and have some communications redundancy. Mitigation – State defense force organizations and their individual personnel must be versed in mitigation concepts. When disaster strikes suddenly without little or no warning, individual personnel must have an awareness of what to do to spare themselves and others from possible death or injury. In some locales, old buildings may still contain Cold War shelters and bunkers which may be valuable during tornadoes or other events. It is 39


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recommended that all personnel should familiarize themselves with the characteristics of their locales to facilitate quick action and to lessen confusion and ignorance during an ongoing event. Organizationally, SDFs should be well-trained to conduct any mission that is assigned whereby the negative effects of an ongoing incident are diminished. Response and Recovery – Any SDF may be activated during the periods of response and recovery during the aftermath of an incident. Individual soldiers must realize the seriousness of warning orders, and anticipate a callout when necessary. Depending upon the requirements of the incident and the determinations of state governments, SDFs may be deployed for varying periods ranging from mere days to months. Other – All SDF personnel must be prepared mentally, physically, and personally to experience service of varying times. Therefore, go-bags and equipment must be maintained to support potentially long missions. Personnel should be in good physical condition to hamper the effects of stress. Employers and family members must be aware of the potential deployment commitments that are associated with SDF enlistments and commissions. All missions must be treated with grave seriousness. Therefore, all SDF personnel should have their personal medical information readily available and should have drafted a copy of their last will and testament. Certainly, many more recommendations are appropriate and imaginable. The preceding listing is only a mere sampling of recommendations that can be gleaned from observing historical incidents and conjecturing what measures may be taken by SDFs and their personnel when disasters strike. All SDF soldiers have a fiduciary obligation to serve their respective states to the best of their abilities. In short, all personnel should be prepared for disaster, and committed to rendering their highest and best service during activations involving ongoing incidents and their aftermaths. Although an incident may be perceived as being initially of low dangerousness, it may develop into a significantly dangerous event rather quickly. This notion characterizes the Galveston incident. Certainly, it describes an innumerable array of disastrous happenings over the preceding century since Galveston. Regardless, much is gleaned from pondering the events that transpired at Galveston. Unpreparedness and an absence of communication were a devastating combination that affected Galveston and forever changed the city. During modern times, municipalities, organizations, and individuals must be mindful of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Permeating these notions is communication. Communicating effectively and efficiently during these phases may counter the effects of ignorance and misunderstanding. Many perished at Galveston in 1900. However, these deaths should neither be deemed as senseless nor forgotten in the annals of history. Instead, modern society should acknowledge the dangers of a myriad of threats, including hurricanes. Any SDF organization must have an efficient, effective method of communicating. Certainly, this ability must have some levels of redundancy. Organizationally, any SDF must train frequently and vigilantly to enhance its preparedness. Certainly, SDFs must have ample supplies and equipment to support deployments during varying periods of activation. No guarantee exists regarding the severity or the extensiveness of an event when it transpires. Nature can be quite unpredictable and surprising. Regardless, preparedness measures can be taken to safeguard against and to mitigate the effects of the potential dangers and ravages of incidents. Although incident responses may occur, no guarantees exist that locales may completely recover from an incident and experience a restored sense of normalcy within society. Thus, as the old saying goes, one may only “expect the worst, and hope for the best” regarding any incident. However, such attributes of hopefulness are often dispelled by the seriousness of reality. In the case of Galveston, only the worst was experienced and endured by the region.

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The brief description of the Galveston incident herein is insufficient for accurately conceptualizing the event itself, its trauma, and its aftermath. Only the experiencing of such an event and its aftermath is sufficient for truly understanding nature’s potential. Anyone who has ever experienced directly such an event knows the seriousness of preparedness and the necessity of communication. Among SDFs, many soldiers have experienced such events either directly or indirectly. All SDF personnel should endeavor to contribute towards avoiding or diminishing the effects of modern incidents that are comparable to the historic Galveston event. In short: be knowledgeable, be prepared, be vigilant, be safe, and communicate well. NOTE: The authors are always glad to discuss the contents of this article. They may be contacted via the email addresses contained within their biographies.

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1. Brennan, Kristine. 2002. The Galveston Hurricane. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishing, p. 65. 2. Frantz, Vickie. 2012. “Deadliest Hurricanes in US History,” (accessed April 24, 2012). 3. Green, Nathan. 2000. Story of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. 4. Longshore, David. 2008. Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones. New York, NY:Infobase Publishing, p. 126. 5. MacDonald, Linda. 2013. “The Sisters of Charity Orphanage.” (accessed December 10, 2013). 6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2013. “The Galveston Hurricane of 1900: Remembering the Deadliest Natural Disaster in American History,” (accessed December 9, 2013). 7. Peak, Don. 2013. “Galveston Relief Effort was Barton's Last Disaster Mission,” (accessed December 9, 2013). 8. Ramos, Mary. 1998. “Galveston's Response to the Hurricane of 1900,” (accessed December 10, 2013). 9. Rubin, Claire. 2012. Emergency Management: The American Experience, 1900-2010 (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. 18. 10. Smith, Michael. 2013. Post-storm rebuilding considered 'Galveston's finest hour.' (accessed December 10, 2013). 11. The Weather Channel. 2013. “Hurricane: The Galveston Hurricane of 1900.” (accessed December 10, 2013). 12. Wall, Barbra and Arlene Keeling. 2011. Nurses on the Front Line: When Disaster Strikes, 1878-2010. New York, NY: Springer Publishing, p. 33. 13. Willett, Donald. 2013. Galveston Chronicles: The Queen City of the Gulf. Charleston, SC: The History Press, p. 132. 14. Williams, Jack and Bob Sheets. 2001. Hurricane Watch: Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on the Earth. New York, NY: Vintage Books, p. 68.

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About the Authors LTC(MS) Adrian Doss, Ph.D. LTC Adrian Doss is the Mississippi State Guard Command Historian and is an assistant professor with the University of West Alabama. He is the author of numerous textbooks, proceedings, and articles pertaining to homeland security, criminal justice, and information systems. Before entering academia, his professional career consisted of software engineering and analytical positions in the defense and commercial industries. COL(MS) Carl Jensen, Ph.D. COL Carl Jensen is a retired FBI agent and currently a professor with the University of Mississippi where he serves as the director of the University of Mississippi Center for intelligence studies. He is also the author of numerous textbooks, proceedings, and articles pertaining to homeland security and criminal justice.

MAJ(MS) Don Jones, Ed.S. MAJ Don Jones is an academic administrator with Belhaven University, is an ordained minister, and is also a widely published author. His writings include textbooks, articles, and proceedings in justice system financial management and education. Before academia, he worked in marketing and sales.

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The “Fighting 210th” Continues to Train and Serve During the second half of 2013, the MSSG 210th MP Battalion experienced unprecedented growth of over 200%. Battalion CO MAJ (MS) Don Jones attributed the growth to the high morale exhibited by members of the 210 th and their dedication to realistic integrated training with local emergency management officials throughout north Mississippi. “I couldn’t be prouder of the efforts put forth by our troops” quipped MAJ Jones. “Both the 215th MP Company in Corinth and 217th MP Company in Southaven have shown a willingness to train hard to be mission ready. Members get together between drills for planning and additional training, and they all pull together to take care of one another. You couldn’t ask for a better group of guardsmen.” The “Fighting 210th,” as they are ironically and affectionately nicknamed, have a long history of working with local EMA personnel to create realistic training scenarios. This year the Fighting 210th has focused on training that gets guardsmen out of the classroom and into the community. Since Annual Training 2013, the battalion has undergone the following integrated training with community groups:

    

Search and rescue training with the Desoto County EMA Communication training with the Alcorn County Amateur Radio Club Air evacuation training with the Alcorn County Air Evac Team out of Corinth NOAH Storm Watcher training Provided security alongside the Desoto County Sheriff’s Department for the Horn Lake Veteran’s Fall Fest.

MAJ Jones stated, “Under General Mac’s (BG David McElreath) and COL Hayhurst’s guidance, the 210 th made handson training a priority. This has increased our public profile and enhanced community awareness of the MSSG.” Members of the 210th also rendered first aid to Marine Corps JROTC members who passed out in formation at the Veteran’s Fall Fest in October. “The professional and speedy response of SSG Jason Motz, SGT Amy Wigington, and CPL Matthew Tigner kept those JROTC personnel from experiencing greater injury. Our folks recognized what was happening, stabilized the patients, and transported them to a waiting ambulance” Jones proudly related.

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In addition to training outside of the classroom with local EMA agencies, the Fighting 210th has undergone 31-B training under the guidance of SGM Fred Perez. SGM Perez is a detective with the Desoto County Sheriff’s Department. Calling on the experience of MSSG members like SSG Cliff Freeman (a criminal justice instructor at the University of Memphis), CPL Joe Stanford (a long-time forensic technician and law enforcement officer) and others, SGM Perez has ensured that the 210th is ready to secure crime scenes, collect evidence, and even do basic evidence gathering. These skills enhance the basic 31-B military police training the battalion regularly undergoes. In Corinth, the 215th MP Company was asked by the local American Legion Post 6 to assist in laying holiday wreaths on the headstones of veterans. And in Southaven, the 217th MP Company worked with Belhaven University’s Desoto campus and Outreach for Christ Church to collect, pack, and distribute holiday food baskets to 110 homeless individuals and four struggling families. For the first quarter of 2014, the Fighting 210th is preparing for Annual Training 2014. In addition to getting a number of new recruits basic METL and IET training, the unit will be updating first aid and CPR certifications in January. In February, the battalion will be joining its sister unit for brigade drill at Camp McCain and will undergo intensive 3day CERT Training under the instruction of S-3 NCO SSG Jason Motz.

Close the loop (October - December 2013)  
Close the loop (October - December 2013)  

3rd Quarter 2013 edition of Close the Loop, the quarterly newsletter for the Mississippi State.