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Advance... Masked

A brief study of masks and masking

Mary Paschentis


Note to reader The information contained in this book is intended for educational purposes and for personal use. This book will not be published or used to make profit. All sources used or reffered to, have been sited in the back of this book. The content of this book is intended to be used as an evaluation of my Final Major Project work handed in for my 3rd year BA Hons in Graphic Design in UEL in May 2009.

This book is printed on paper which is managed from a sustainable Forest. Please recycle.


Advance... Masked Mary S. Paschentis


We all wear masks, and the time comes when we cannot remove them without removing some of our own skin. Andre Berthiaume


Middle Ages 21-25

Ancient World 14-20

Prehistory 12-13

Timeline navigation guide 9-11

The masks through time 7-41

Foreword 2-5

Contents


63-64

Image Bibliography

Bibliography 67-68

Epilogue

71-78

The person and his Persona 43-61

Contemporary World 36-41

Modern Era 32-35

Early Modern Era 26-31


Foreword The use of masks is almost universal. They are known through cultures spreading from antiquity to the present and from South American Andes to the Far East. Masking or else Masquerade is a ‘disguise’ and perhaps even ‘deception’ or ‘pretence’. “Properly speaking, a man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry an image of him in their mind. To wound any of these images is to wound him” William James, Principles of Psychlology

Mask is an art craft. Apart from the artistic elements portrayed in mask making, African masks have influenced Picasso and his contemporaries at the beginning of the 20th century. On the masking process two different outcomes are materialized. On one hand the masker is hidden, and on the other hand a new element is introduced: the masquerade and what it reveals. In the effort to set the line between concealment and revelation in any given case, the variability of masking tradition is discovered. “A multiple personality is in a certain sense normal….What we have here is a situation in which there can be different selves, and it is dependent upon the set of social relations that is involved as to which self we are going to be” George Herbert Mead, Mind Self and Society

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The anthropologist Daniel Biebuyck states: ‘Masks are used in an astonishing variety of ways. They are worn on the face, on the skull, on the back of the head, on the temples, near the shoulders, on the upper arms and on the knee; they are attached to a pole, fastened on a fence or placed on the ground; they are swung around or dragged by their beard…’. The transformation into an abnormal entity – the masked figure – brings with it abnormal powers to transform the condition of others. Exaggerating this effect we could say that masking creates social transformation. More realistically masking complements rather than brings social transformation. “The lie is the specific evil which man has introduced into nature….In a lie the spirit practices treason against itself” Martin Buber, Good and Evil

Looking carefully in the artistic historic culture of masquerade we can see three different groups involved with the mask: the artist, the wearer and the spectator. The artist with few exceptions has been an expert in this particular craft or a noted sculptor or artisan. Certain prescribed rituals had to be followed during the mask creation. A spirit power is often believed to inhabit the artist tools. The artist is selected as a mask maker because of his ability to represent the required image. The artist, in the metaphorical masking creation, as Karl Yung states, is the individual generating his public self, the image he presents to others, as contrasted with his feelings, cognitions and interpretations of reality anchored in his private self.

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The wearer, like the mask maker has to follow certain sanctioned procedures in his use of the mask. Without his posturing routines the mask will remain a representation without a full life force. The wearer has to become a partner of the character he impersonates, loosing his previous identity and bringing alive the new one, with his movement and poses. The wearer, as the individual in every day life, becomes psychologically attached to the character he has created. He looses his real identity and without his own will, he becomes a modern life automation, as a compromise between society and his own self

Masks are viewed by spectators or participants at ceremonies and their presence is required and necessary. A major role of the mask is to connect the present and the past integrating the culture without written history. The spectator becomes associated with the past affected by the spirit power of the mask and depending on the character the mask represents, the spectator can be completely absorbed in an imaginary state. On Wednesday, when the sky is blue, And I have nothing else to do, I sometime wonder if its true That who is what and what is who. A.A. Milne, Wiinnie-the-Pooh Would the individual need to create a compromise between his inner self and society if there were no spectators?

The masks with few exceptions derive their morphological elements from natural forms. The art craft of masquerade is essentially the theme of the human face. Even in the case of the so-called animal masks, except the more realistic ones, attempts of anthropomorphization of their

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expression are observable. It is this characteristic that raises the animal to a supernatural being, turning it into a powerful spirit in the eyes of the observer. Masks makers have shown extreme imagination in selecting and combining available materials. Among these is wood, metal, clay, stone, feathers, furs, paper, shells, ivory, fibers, cloth, leather and cornhusks. Surface treatments have ranged from polished woods and mosaics to gaudy adornments, leading to rugged simplicity or to intricate carving. Masks are as variable in appearance as they are in function and meaning. They were primarily associated with ceremonies with religious and social significance or are concerned with funerary and mourning customs, fertility rites or curing illness. In other cases masks are used on festive occasions or to portray characters in dramatic performance and in reviving mythological events. Warfare masks or protection masks in the sports field is another category with their architectural or decorative use closing their usage circle. “Each time one man reveals himself in privacy to another, a secret society springs into being� Sidney M. Jourard, The Transparent Self

The almost universal use of masks, reached in all six continents, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania, North and South America independently, long before man started to cultivate the soil. A fact that testifies it as a unique characteristic of humanity and ranks it among the oldest manifestations of human cultures. In the following pages it is attempted to briefly visually present the history and the evolution of masks and masking practices as well as their metaphoric use in our everyday life

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Mask through time

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Timeline Navigation guide

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Geographical Areas

Europe

Asia Africa

Oceania

North America

Central and South America

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Groups of mask use

Theatre

Festivals Funerary Ceremonies / Death masks

Social and Religious Rituals

Secret Societies

Protection masks

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30,000 BC Prehistory

First recording of mask use is a drawing found in the cave of the “Trois Frere” in Ariege of Southern France. It portrays a human form, the “Sorcerer”, who is wearing a deerskin mask with antlers. It is supposed to be a hunting mask

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Other traditional hunting animal masks were worn by the Altaic and Tungusic Shamans in Siberia, during the same period.

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Shamans and Shamanism Hunting masks

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It is assumed that this is the earliest use of mask aimed to disguise the hunter and to help him approach and catch his prey and to later house the animal’s spirit in order to make peace with it, for 3 killing it.

Shammanism is used to describe the belief systems of the ancient cave painters of Europe, the autochthonous Asian minorities and the American Indians. It is thought to have been brought to the New World from Siberia by reindeer hunters during the Ice Age circa 15,000 BC


5,000 BC

The earliest known Japanese mask has been used for ritual purposes and belong to the Jomon Period, which runs from 10,000 to 300 BC

The earliest evidence of mask found in Mexico, was a fossil vertebra of a now extinct lama that was used to represent the head of a coyote. Nothing specific is mentioned about the use of this mask. 7

Jomon period masks

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Small stylised examples of masks in both shell and clay have been excavated and it is believed that the purpose of this mask was to enable those who put them on, to gain the 8 magical abilities of a Shaman.

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3,000 BC Ancient World

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Masks used as funerary equipment, placed over the head of the mummies and reproduced the human face, were very common in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The mask acted as a substitute for the head and guaranteed the continued survival of the spirit after death. The masks provided the deceased with the necessities for a safe passage into the afterlife and it identified him with Osiris assuring his resurrection

Hunting masks appear also in Africa made of animal skins and heads, used to enable hunters to approach their prey. Rock paintings of the San (Bushmen), in the mountains of S. Africa, include masked figures.

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Ancient Egypt Later masks and mummy-form coffins were combined with the mask of the deceased portrayed on the coffin. Masks were primarily made of wood, or cartonage (layer of linen) and most of them had a blue wig which represented the blue lapis lazuli hair of the divine beings.

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Tutankamun

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One of the most famous and impressive death masks of the Pharaohnic period is that of Tutankamun, who’s legend has mythical dimensions 11 in the Egyptian History.


Among non-literate people unable to record their histories, masked rituals link the past with the present, while strengthening social bonds. In these rituals the masks represent dead chiefs, relatives, friends etc. and are either worn or exhibited. The ceremonies take place on a specific time of year while gifts are offered to the spirits or the people wearing the masks dance in their remembrance

Masquerading was considered a male activity and was often used as a way of discipline and reproach towards women, children and criminals

Masked discipline rituals Rituals: a link from past to the present Gifts are made to the Spirits incarnated in the masks, while in other cases dancers wearing morining masks with more extravagant features performed the perscribed ceremony.

It is believed that the first mask in Africa emerged for admonitory reasons. There is even a legend about a child, who was although told by his mother to not follow her to the river while she fetched water, he inssisted to disobey. To frighten and discipline the child the mother painted a hideous face at the bottom of the water vessel.

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1,500 BC

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It is believed that priests wore masks during funerary rituals to impersonate the God responsible for the embalming of the deceased. However there is not any strong evidence to support this. A pottery Jackal mask was found, which is assumed to be used by a living person either during religious dramas in temples or in rituals that aimed at curing illness

Animal masks were used for annual religious ceremonies initiation ceremonies and burial rituals, from the Chavin to the Inkas times. Many early masks and headdreses represented animals like the jaguar, puma and fox, which assumed anthropomorphic characteristics

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Anubis: The Jackal-headed God Anubis is the Egyptian name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. The Jackal masks were most probably representing this deity.

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From Chavin to Inkas

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The use of masks during that time was so significant that determined the political divisions of the Inka Empire, which was each represented by their own type of mask.


500 BC Ancient World

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In Peru and the Andes masks were used to cover the face of the dead. They were made dyed red or brown cloth, stiched to mummy design. With geometrical fecial features, sometimes indluding feline profiles and serpants.

Chicama masks

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Burrial masks were less commonly made of clay, although red terracota masks, were made in the Chicama region during 500-250 BC.

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The origins of masked drama were found in the Greek Archaic period where the chorus mask dances impersonated Satyrs or animals in the Dionysian Rituals

Dionysian Frstivals

Festivals of the god Dionysus(Bacchus) celebrated in ancient Greece, espe19 cially in Athens.

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300 BC

Masks are extensively used in the theatrical dramas created by the famous Greek tragic playwrights Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles. Mask use made it possible for Greek actors, who were limited to three for each tragedy, to impersonate a number of different characters simply by interchanging them.

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In Greece the progress from ritual to ritual-drama, was continued i highly formalized theatrical representations. When Lycurgus rebuilt the theatre of Dionysus the “onkos� masks were introduced, which had an exaggerated expression of horror around the mouth and eyes

Masks in Ancient Greek Drama

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Greek Theatrical masks, as Greek paintings and sculpture, disguised the real personality with an idealized one. Content and inspiration are for the sculpture what drama and libretto are or the masks

The Ancient Greek Theatre masks tended to present stereotypes defining the general category of person to be portrayed. For example, old men, young men, Kings, beggars etc. Greek masks were made from terracotta, bronze, marble and engraved gemstones. They were also painted into frescos, worked into mosaics, portrayed into vase paintings or engraved into fragments of stone


Ancient World

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The mummy masks were revived after a long period of rare usage during the Ptolemaic rulers. During this period the Pharaonic traditions (of the Middle Kingdom) are complemented with elements of the Mediterranean world. Masks, which had no real Characteristics of the deceased during the Pharaonic period, became more personalized as result of this influence

Masks have long been used in battle anf warrior. The ancient Greek and Romans used battle shields with grotesque masks or attached terrifying masks to their armor to instill fear in the enemy.

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Sample of the impact of the Roman conquest of Egypt

Oedipus Tyrannous During a theatrical performance a character’s mask was changed if the person’s situation was dramatically reversed during the play. For example, at the beginning of Sophocles’s “Oedipus Tyrannous”, the hero is portrayed as a King at the height of his fame and fortune but in the end blind to the fact that he has killed his father and married his own mother

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100 BC

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500 AD

In Rome, masks were most commonly used as death masks. When a male member of one of the patrician families died an impression of his face was taken in wax and was worn in the funerary process by another who had practiced imitating the dead person while alive

The tradition of masks in the performing arts in Japan start when new religious concepts came from China and Korea

Sculptures from death mask reproduction Related to the death-masks practice in Rome, is the fact that Romans embraced realism in portraiture based on the death masks. The reproduction of facial features was a associated with a right to a death-mask as mark of noble birth

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Gigaku & Bugaku

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Gigaku was brought to Japan arround 550 AD from Central China. Gigaku performanceshad a moralistic theme. An example is Konron, the embodiment of lust and an obstacle to enlighment is overcome byt the guardians of Buddhism. All the characters in Gigaku are masked


Middle Ages

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The Gigaku was a ritual dance offering prayers where masks were carried in procession with musical accompaniment around a temple courtyard. Gigaku masks have facial characteristics, which are not of Japanese origin. They demonstrate influences from China and India

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The Bugaku is a dance form of orchestral tradition, influenced from the courts of China, Korea, Manchuria and India. Bugaku was performed during feasts, for imperial audiences and at temples for purifications ceremonies. The Bugaku masks were more dramatic and stylized and they allowed greater freedom of movement. They often had movable parts such as nose eyes or chins, which served to heighten the dramatic or comic part of the performance

and the performances are accompanied by the lively music of flutes, drums and cymbals. Bugaku as well derived from the courts of China and was adapted by the Japanese Imperial court who divided it in to styles which indicated from which region it had been collected (Korea, Manchuria, India). The different forms created a rich and comlex drama. Bugaku was separated in dances of the left and dances of the right. The 31 first were generally more cheerful than the latter.

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Middle Ages

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Japanese Samurai used grimacing Menpo or mask helmets. Samurai masks can be grouped into the following categories: Happuri, a whole face mask with center opening for the nose eyes and mouth. Hoate, the mask protects only the cheeks. Somen, a mask covering the entire face.

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Jade masks The Maya used to place a jade bead in the mouth of the dead which served as currency for this journey. Related to this custom, some beautyful funerary Jade masks have been found.

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The Maya in S. Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras used a naturalistic style of portrait for funeral masks. Most of the surviving Maya masks have funerart or underworld associations.

Jade mosaic mask with eyes and mouth inlaid with shell and pyrite. 527 AD Maya, Guatemala This mask was found in a burial chamber and probably represents the deceased with whom it was 36 interned.


1,000 AD

Uses of masks in the period of 1000 – 1521 AD: > Funerary use: The Aztecs wrapped the bodies of high-ranking priests and rulers in fine fabrics and placed masks over their faces before they were cremated. > Impersonalizing Deities: In Codices images of masked deities often appeared. > Trophies: Human skulls and flayed skins brought back from the battles were commonly uses for making masks > Warrior Head Dresses: Warriors wore pelts and animal heads of the animal they had chosen to represent them, for strength in battle > Entertainment: Masks were uses by court entertainers to impersonate animals and neighbors and performed what appears to be like early theatre.

Aztec Masks

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1,200 AD Middle Ages

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Masks appear in Buddhist temple processions in Japan

It looks like the Aztecs didn’t use the masks for transformation or to escape from the self, but they wore them for religious and political purposes and were considered to possess supernatural power

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Contemporary Buddhist masks During a Buddhist ceremony a holy image, which is normaly kept unseen in a temple, is paraded through the streets accompaniedby attendants wearing masks presenting Buddhist deities. They are supposed to postpone the state of enlighment in order to help with the salvation of mankind.

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1,500 AD

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Noh masks are generally neutral in expression and it is the skill of the actor that brings the mask to life. In contrast, Kyogen masks express emotions quite openly

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Noh masks

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Masks start to appear in theatre performances in Japan. Noh, was the tragic from of the drama performances and Kyogen represented the comic side of the performance

Noh plays are grouped in five categories:

Kyogen masks

Cami Noh: Concerning Deities Shura Noh: Battle plays Casura Noh or Wig plays: Love stories Zatsu: Tragedies and obsessions Kiri Noh: Demons and supernatural stories

They represent: Gods Animals, plants and spirits Human beings

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1,700 AD

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In the Colonial Contemporary Latin America, the Spanish banned the native ceremonies and traditions of masquerade. Following that, in their effort to establish Christianity, they gradually connected the old rituals with the ones in the Christian calendar. This was the foundation of the New Religious traditions dramatized in festivals and plays

In the middle ages masks were used in the mystery place, dramatizing portions of the old and new testaments. Forms, such as devils, demons dragons and personifications of the seven deadly sins, were to stage live by the use of masks. These masks, mainly constructed of papier-mache, were marvels of creativity and artistry

Comedia del Arte Corus Christi Celebration A famous ceremony in Equador was (and still is) the Corpus Christi celebration. The ceremony opens with noisy and acrobatically capable masked devils invading the streets and squares

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Coedia del Arte is a form of improvisational theatre that began in Italy in the 16th century and rapidly spread in France Germany and England where it maintained its popularity through the 18th century. Performances were un-


Early Modern Era

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Formalized Youth association in France and in Italy organized the entertainment and shows of the masquerade carnival. After the 18th century, carnivals were banned across all Europe

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In Italy, during the Renaissance, theatrical activities flourished. Comedies based on ancient Roman dramas, under the title of “Comedia del arte”, in which the actors were usually masked. Sometimes the masks were grotesque and fanciful, but generally a heavy leather mask disguised the comedian player

scripted, held outside, and used few props. They were free to watch, funded by donations. A troupe consisted of ten people. Outside Italy the form was also known as “Ital56 ian Comedy”.

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A death mask is a wax or plaster negative cast made of a person’s face, which was produced following his death. That in turn acted as a mold for the re-creation of the person’s head, frequently cast in bronze. Death masks were also kept as mementos of the dead and have often been used for creation of post-mortem portraits. Furthermore, the death masks were often painted and attached to a dummy body, with hair and clothing added to be used for display in commemorative ceremonies.

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Famous Death masks: Ludwig Van Beethoven

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Vladimir Lenin

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James Dean

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Early Modern Era

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In Africa one of the richest masking traditions is that of the Chokwe. The have introduced Chokwe masking related traditions in the course of circumcision rites and the masked figure is one of the leading subjects of Chokwe sculpture. 64

In many cultures arround the world, a judge uses a mask to preotect him from future recrimations. In such cases the mask represents a sanctioned spirit from the past who is assumed to have the responsibility for the decision taken by the court.

The Chokwe circumcision process: The initiands are all boys betweed the ages of thirteen and fifteen, preferably those who have already achieved puberty. They are led off on a final tour of the village, escorted by a masked figure, to the ultimate destination where the operation will take place, known as the “place of dying�. As the enter the seclution lodge they are made one by one to remove the mask from the masked figure and thus reveal for the first time the identity of the masker. The initiates must swear and oath never to reveal to the uninitiated this or any other aspect of their instruction.

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1,800 AD

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In Bolivia, Virgin Candelera is celebrated which represents the battle between the Good and the Evil and the celebrations extend to rituals for good harvest and good mining

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Virgin Candelera Festival In this festival, Lucifer represents the mine owners who exploit the poor miners and it’s defeat by the Virgin Candelera, anticipates redemption from hardship and poverty

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In North America, especially on the west coast, masks played a small but vital role in Potlashes. Potlashes were ceremonies to demonstrate wealth and prestige by giving away or destroying goods. The main occasions served by Potlashes: Funerals, memorials and earpiercing ceremonies of noble children

The strongest example of Potlash ceremonies, which is still alive today, is the winter ceremony of the Kwakwaka’wakw tribe’s masked performances. In some cases, apart from demonstrating wealth, the participants dance and eat human flesh while wear67 ing bird masks


Early Modern Era

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The main feature of the ceremonial art in the Northwest American coast is the Family or clan emblem, representing natural phenomena, mythical creatures and ancestors. At the centre of these emblems lies the treatment of the human face. This activity did not produce common masks to be used as face coverings, but the mask is part of a totem pole, canoe prose etc

Masks in this region, were also associated with the Shaman and their spirit helpers. Their role was to control forces of both natural and human origin for the benefit of their people. Each Shaman would possess four masks, one for each spirit, but the most powerful ones might possess up to eight

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Totemism Totemism is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. The totem is usually an animal or other naturalistic figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan.

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1,900 AD

Ancestor masks with generic features were worn by Dan and Ngere tribesmen to act as mediators in petition or offering ceremonies towards the Gods

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Masks were also used by secret societies whose responsibility ranged from education and conduct, politic and economic affairs and magical medicine. For example, to punish criminals

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Poro Society and Sande Societies

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The leading institution associated with masking in Africa, is the secret society known as Poro. The authority of Poro’s members comes from the control they excerise over spirits as witnessed by their ability to orchetrate spirits in masquereade. Poro is the male society, cotrasted in a number of areas, with the female association known as Sande. It is impressive that in some areas it is women who underscore the authority of Poro. Women, female ancestors have a greater ideological weight than men. In the


Modern Era

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More commonly masks are used in male and female (practiced by Sande society) initiation ceremonies, the mysteries of the masquerade being a primary subject of the initiation process. Two types of masks appear during the circumcision ceremonies. Those worn by the performers of the circumcision and those worn by the dancers, which accompany the candidates to their village

Secret Societies also existed in Oceania. Two of the most known were the Dukduk and Tamate. Masks served in these societies as an instrument of social control. The Dukduk in particular wore gigantic, monstrous masks, to police, to judge and to execute offenders

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Dukduk masks secret language of Poro initiates, there is a common phrase use as a password, which translates as: “At our Mother’s work�. The true head of Poro, turns out to be a woman.

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The Dukduk masks are constructed of a variety of materials, including tapa and bark cloth, usually painted with brick red and acid green colors

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Modern Era

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Masks were also used in Oceania in agricultural ceremonies for fertility promotion and successful fishing expeditions. Masks were mainly crafted by men, with women just providing materials and costumes. They were made of a variety of materials and often had an ephemeral use, which is why their traces have been lost to this day.

Hevehe Ceremonies Hevehe was a cycle of ceremoniesduring in which the dangerous female sea spirits visited the vilage brought to men materials for the constructions of masks. This ceramony is considered as a process of disillusionment and as a means of social advancement.

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The Mardi Gras Carnival festivities where revived and masks were allowed to be used from the 26th of December for 3 months. Gradually their use has been limited to one week before the beginning of lent

Venetian Masquerade One of the most renowned European carnivals is the Venetian Masquerade. However, in the past, the Venetian masks were used on other occasions such as a device for hiding identity and so82 cial status


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In the 20th century, after almost 200 years of disappearance of the masks in the western theatre, periodic revival of the mask usage is noticed in the theatre

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Theatrical mask revivals > In “Alice in Wonderland” were masks were used for animal figures > In “dreaming of the bones” and other plays by W.B. Yeats > In “the Great God Brown” by Eugene O’Neil, where actors wore masks of their own faces to indicate changes in the internal and external lives of their characters

In Tibet, sacred dramas are performed by masked actors. The dance of the Red Tiger Devil, a play for exorcising demons, is performed at fixed seasons of the year. It is performed exclusively by the priests, who wore inspiring masks made of cloth, papier-mache and some times copper

The Red Tiger Devil dance

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1,940 AD

Masks were used for protection from disease in China against measles and cholera epidemics. The disease mask is mostly developed in Sri Lanka, were 19 distinct disease devil masks have been devised. These masks were of ferocious aspects with startling eyes, gaudily colored and some times having articulating jaws

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Masks are made until today in Oceania to be used for traditional ceremonies and for tourist attraction

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Disease devil masks

Dukduk today

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The Dukduk Society exist until today but no longer acts as terrorist group but as a traditional tourist attraction.


Contemporary World

Contemporary masquerade in Mexico and Central America is expressed in three varieties of festivals:

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> Commemorating, struggle and conquest > Pre-Hispanic and Christian, agricultural ceremonies > Comical dances by Clowns and Buffoons

Mexican masks 84: Elaborate masks such as these are made for an anual devil mask competition. (16th of September) 86: Leather helmet masks representing tigers, used in ritual battles during the Festival of the Cross. (3rd May)

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Contemporary World

Apart from the mask appearance up to the present day in traditional Japanese dance and drama, the mask is used for enjoyment at dance festivals 94

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State sponsored competitions, intending to encourage innovation in masks styles, stimulated amazing creativity in mask making. Some of these masks were used in the village ceremonies. But mainly they promote commercial activity

Hyottoko masks A character featuring in traditional Kagura performances. Themask is extremely comical and represents either a man whistling or trying to kindle a fire by blowing on it. It is often closely associated with that of Okame, a plump-looking young girl who symbolises prosperity and well-beeing. The two characters can often be found dancing together at village festivals in Japan. These masks can be bought at the many small stalls, which are tradiotionally found in the precints of temples and shrines.

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2,000 AD

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In the contemporary world masks perform at critical junctures in the yearly cycle. The seasonal passages (end of the harvest, transition from winter to spring) as well as more arbitrary, historical and cultural events (Christmas, carnival and lent) are the occasions for masquerading. The carnivals of Nice, Binche, Venice and Viaregio, as well as many other carnivals around the world, retain elements from popular culture

In Mexico City, to this day, new cults are being established around real life masked heroes. In wrestling matches were the contestants are masked, the climax of the game is when the winner removes his opponents mask

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Superbarrio Superbarrio Gomez is a “reallife superhero�. He used his identity to organize rallies, protests and to file petitions in his attempt to help the poor. His real identity was revealed in 1996 to be Marco Rascon Cordova

Nice carnival

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Contemporary World

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Masquerading nowadays regenerates the connection of the dead with the living. In Italy and Spain, on the Eve of All Saints (Halloween) the dining room is prepared for the returing dead. The dead are also offered gifts, in order to return happily in their underground world from where they will enable the grown of the crops in the forthcoming 102 season

Day of the Dead in Mexico

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In Britain and the United States, in Halloween eve, Children wearing skull-like masks (representing their ancestors) visit the neighborhood collecting offerings. The choice is to give and leave, or refuse and die. Giving to the children represents coming to terms with the ancestors satisfying them and sending them back to their realm

The Day of the Dead celebrations is one of the most famous festivals in Mexico in which the natives remember and honor their deceased relatives. They wear masks and costumes that represent the dead and they march in the streets. The festival lasts for three days, where the first day it is believed that the deceased children came to see their families for the day 104 and the adults came the following day


In the 20th century, with the decreasing interest in folk cultures the masks has become more of a decorative object. Around the world, masks are produced largely for tourists. Mask collections are a common current interest. Masks have also influenced modern art movements at the beginning of the 20th century, when masks from Africa and Western Oceania inspired French and German painters

Many sports nowadays require using masks. Of course these masks have no other purpose than to protect the athlete and the only requirements in designing them is to be safe. Some of these masks have flashy modern designs, which have no cultural value.

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Sports and Decorative masks

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The Person and his Persona

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God has given you one face and you make yourself another William Shakespeare

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Marina

Anxious for perfection

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There is just one life for each of us: our own. Euripedes

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Peter

Games people play

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The most exhausting thing in life is being insencere Anne Morrow Lindbergh

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Ioanna

The dreaming business woman 49


Originality is... a byproduct of sincerity Marianne Moore

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Mary

Beaming with Joy

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Be who you are and say what you feel, because those who mind don’t mater and those who matter don’t mind. Dr. Seuss

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Angela

No feelings, no face

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Be what you are. This is the first step toward becoming better than you are. Julius Charles Hare

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Sofia

Forever Smiling

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You are born an original. Don’t die a copy. John Mayson

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?

Mary B.

Who am I?

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It is better to be hated for what you are, than to be loved for something you are not. Andre Gide

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Julia

Can you see me?

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Wherever you go, go with all your heart. Confucius

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Naya

Innocence Unmasked

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Epilogue In contemporary psychology the study of personality is conceptualized as the study of the actor and his mask. The Latin word ‘persona’ has a variety of meanings such as: >As one appears to others >The part someone plays in life >An assemblage of personal qualities that fit a man for his work >Distinction and dignity Another Latin phrase ‘per sonare’, whose meaning is ‘to sound through’ is as it proves directly connected with the masking process. ‘Persona’ was originally used to designate the masks worn by ancient Greek Drama actors and later adopted by their Roman counterparts. The phrase ‘per sonare’ referred to the mouthpiece of the theatrical mask through which the actor beneath the facade projected his voice. This historical etymological account demonstrates how the term ‘persona’ slowly evolved to a more abstract concept indicating the dichotomy between appearance – the mask – and the actor, the everyday individual in our world. The Greek equivalent ‘prosopon’ (face) also describes the theatrical mask and the distinction between superficial and fundamental characteristics. The implication of this brief survey is that below the surface of the public behavior of each one of us, there is a private and most of the time different person concealed from view. One may question though, whether the inner person is more real or genuine than the surface phenomenon.

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What I have been noticing, in the short period of my life, is that most people wear masks, each one for his own, separate reason. For instance, one may conceal his insecurity by presenting a strong and capable self while another projects a low and timid profile under which is hidden a courageous personality. Similarly, an extrovert could be considered to have a shallow character and an introvert, a profound one. The reasons for the social expressions of their character may be completely different and a lot more complicated. Fear, insecurity, sensitivity, ambition, anger, doubt, pain and countless other feelings trigger the individual’s subconscious to undertake his social role and to disguise himself under a mask. In worst cases the role is consciously chosen and strategically performed. As Jung said, “The persona is nothing real; it is a compromise between the individual and society as to what a man should appear to be. He takes a name, earns a title exercises a function, he is this or that. In certain sense all this is real, yet in relation to the essential individuality of the person concerned it is only a secondary reality, a compromise formation, in making which others often have a greater share than he”. What remains to be answered is whether the mask becomes more real than the actor. Is there a difference between the performance of a role and the actor’s genuine belief that he is the role? One thing is certain, as Descartes said, we advance… masked!

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Bibliography The sources and articles used in this book are listed below:

Books: Monte, C. F. (1977) “Beneath the mask- An introduction to theories of personality”, U.S.A., Praeger Publishers Edited by Mack, J. (1994) “Mask the act of expression”, London, British Museum Press Herold, E.. (1992) “The World of masks”, London, Reed International Books Web sites: Mask. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 09, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/367906/mask Death Masks, Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www.onmylist.com/category/ miscellaneous/Death_masks_of_the_famous_and_infamous_1 Maya civilisation. Wikipedia. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Maya_civilization

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Kwakuit. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www.angelfire.com/realm/ shades/nativeamericans/kwakiutl.htm A Short History of Venetian Carnival Masks. Tieuli M.J. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www.venetianmasksshop.com/history.htm Mexico Festivals. About.com. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://gomexico. about.com/od/festivalsholidays/p/day_of_the_dead.htm Demons and Deities. Murray, T. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www. asianart.com/articles/murray/ Hallowfreaks. Cormaney, D. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www.hallowfreaks.com/masks.shtml World Timelines. British Museum. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www. worldtimelines.org.uk/ Greek Masks. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www.mask-and-moremasks.com/greek-masks.html The Iriquois Dream and Spirituality. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www. webwinds.com/yupanqui/iroquoisdreams.htm Trois Frere. Wikipedia. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Trois_Fr%C3%A8res The Cultural History of masks. Retrieved 09, 2009 Online: http://www. life123.com/hobbies/antiques-collectibles/masks/history-of-masks.shtml

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Image Bibliography The images used in this book were found in the following sites: Pic.1: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/100613/7844/Painted-and-engraved-figure-of-the-Sorcerer-at-Trois-Freres Pic.2: http://www.mysterydance.com/himalayanmasks/1.html Pic.3: http://www.templeton.org/humble_approach_initiative/Innovations_ Material_Spiritual_Cultures/chair.html Pic.4, 5, 6: http://laughing1wolf.blogspot.com/2007/05/siberian-shamanismredux.html Pic.7: http://www.hmh.pref.hokkaido.jp/english/E_jouten/E_theme1/E_domen.htm Pic.8: http://www.tnm.go.jp/en/servlet/Con?processId=00&ref=2&Q1=&Q2= &Q3=&Q4=11102________&Q5=&F1=&F2=&pageId=E15&colid=J36874 Pic.9: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/index.html?curid=2757295 Pic.10: http://chnm.gmu.edu/worldhistorysources/unpacking/imagesq2.html Pic.11: http://home.earthlink.net/~jci/tut.html Pic.12: http://www.skilderkrantz.co.za/skilderkrantz_map.htm

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Pic.13: http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/ HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.perform.ent_type. search&language_id=1&trait_item_id=30085&search_subtypes=yes Pic.14: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis Pic.15: http://www.zlatoinku.cz/en/exponate.html Pic.16: http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/5371 Pic.17: http://www.tomkinscollection.org/static/object_266.html Pic18: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dionysos_mask_Louvre_Myr347.jpg Pic.19: http://illuminations.berkeley.edu/archives/2004/article. php?volume=1&story=3 Pic 20, 21: http://www.greektheatre.gr/greek_theater_masks.html Pic.22: http://student.britannica.com/comptons/art-91352/In-this-detail-of-avase-painted-by-a-Greek Pic.23: http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/GreeksMultimediaProject/Oedipus/OedipusLessonPlan.html Pic. 24: http://passionateabouthistory.blogspot.com/ Pic.25� http://www.flickr.com/photos/44124324682@N01/255749816 Pic.26: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/alexmuseum.htm Pic.27: https://www.allposters.com.au/-sp/Roman-Death-Masks-Recovered-from-Underwater-Excavations-Roman-Museum-of-Antiquities-Posters_i3964066_.htm

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Pic.28: http://www.dm-art.org/Dallas_Museum_of_Art/View/Collections/Ancient_ Mediterranean/ID_012648 Pic.29: http://sips03.narahaku.go.jp/exhib/2004toku/shosoin/shosoin-10-10_e.htm Pic.30: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83716/bugaku#ref=ref289392 Pic.31: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/w/ wooden_gigaku_mask.aspx Pic.32: http://www.japanese-somen.com/NewFiles2/index_2.html Pic.33: http://www.micheleyounglive.com/masks2.htm Pic.34: http://lagaleria-artcrafts.com/ Pic.35: http://www.precolumbianjade.com/maya.htm Pic.36: http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mayan-masks.htm Pic. 37: http://www.wulflund.com/sculptures/america/aztec-funeral-mask.html Pic. 38: http://www.thedreamgrouptrilogy.com/Aztec_Gods_and_Goddesses.html Pic.39: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/589535/94225/Tezcatlipocamask-a-human-skull-lined-with-leather-and-inlaid Pic.40: http://karenswhimsy.com/aztec-indians.shtm Pic.41: http://www.tibetartwork.com/Tibetan-Eight-Sacred-Buddhist-Symbols.html Pic.42,43,44: http://www.artexhibitionrentals.com/Art%20Tribal%20Art%20Buddhist%20Masks/art-tribal-buddhist-masks.html

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Pic.45: http://www.sonic.net/~tabine/SAApoem_nikki_noh_fall_2005/ saa2005aki_noh_yamamba.html Pic. 46: http://www.old-japanese-masks.com/ Pic. 47: http://www.pasar5.com/NOH_MASK/mask/shikami.html Pic. 48: http://www.unesco.emb-japan.go.jp/htm/nogaku.htm Pic.49: http://www.harumiantiques.com/website/10-1998/10-1998.html Pic.50: http://www.flickr.com/photos/duckmarx/2345874796/ Pic.51: http://pro.corbis.com/search/Enlargement. aspx?CID=isg&mediauid={80017E8D-B6A6-48A6-B895-7592CA6704AE} Pic.52: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AntiguaGiantsDance.jpg Pic.53: http://bo.kalipedia.com/graficos/polichinela. html?x=20070418klplylliu_3.Ges Pic.54: http://pr.kalipedia.com/graficos/arlequin. html?x=20070418klplylliu_2.Ges Pic.55: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Commedia_dell%27arte_-_troupe_ Gelosi.JPG Pic.56: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Four_Commedia_ dell%E2%80%99Arte_Figures_claude-gillot.jpg Pic.57-61: http://www.onmylist.com/category/miscellaneous/Death_masks_ of_the_famous_and_infamous_1

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Pic.62: http://www.african-art-work.com/africa-mask.html Pic.63: http://www.tribal-explorer.com/african_tribes/ Pic.64: http://blogs.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/archive/2007/08/08/ rationale-for-resorting-to-more-and-more-secrecy-surrounding-executionsa-smokes.htm Pic.65: http://www.turisticalperu.com/domiruth_newsletter07_eng.htm Pic.66: http://nativedance.ca/index.php/masks/masks4?bg=6&gfx=l Pic67: http://nativedrums.ca/index.php/Masks/Dzunukwa Pic.68: http://wingsofdreamsshop.com/art/totem-masks/ Pic.69: http://www.chaforthefinest.com/bronze-sculptures-by-regat/totems/ totem-sun-mask/prod_118.html Pic:70: http://www.vancouverbb.com/picturegallery.html Pic.71: http://www.tomkinscollection.org/static/object_254.html Pic. 72,73: http://www.zyama.com/dan/pics..htm Pic.74: http://pro.corbis.com/search/searchFrame.aspx Pic.75: http://www.famsf.org/imagebase2-200/852832011567/ images/8528320115670013.jpg

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Pic.76: http://www.uiowa.edu/uima/collections/african.shtml Pic.77: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4809/Helmet_Mask_(ndoli_jowei)_for_Sande_Society Pic.78: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367906/mask/9060/ Funerary-and-commemorative-uses Pic.79: http://www.morobeshow.org.pg/gallery/gallery-dancing.htm Pic.80: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/objectdetails.aspx?oid=163387&pa ge=33&imagesonly=true Pic.81: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367906/mask/9060/ Funerary-and-commemorative-uses Pic.82: http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo1059842.htm Pic.: 83: http://theatre.fortlewis.edu/past_productions/2002-03.asp Pic.84: http://www.masksoftheworld.com/India/Himalayan%20Mahakala%20Mask%202.htm Pic.85:http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/02/tibets_great_prayer_festival.html Pic.86: http://www.antiquejapanesedolls.com/pub_masks/masks.html Pic.87: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/367906/36801/Disease-devil-mask-from-Sri-Lanka-worn-to-cure-sufferers

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Pic.88: http://www.masksoftheworld.com/India/India%20Mask%20Sri%20 Lanka%201.htm Pic.89: http://www.art-vs.de/inhaltsseite_fotogalerie,48.html Pic.90: php?album=54&pos=24

http://gallery.orchidspng.com/displayimage.

Pic91: http://www.cabq.gov/museum/education/ Pic.92,93: http://www.mexconnect.com/en/articles/1084-the-masks-ofmexico-part-2 Pic94: http://nohmask21.com/eu/hyottoko.html Pic.95: http://mingei-fukuda.com/eng/gangu.html Pic.96: http://www.upn.hondunet.net/Honduras-Real-Estate.html Pics.97: http://www.gianlucapulcinifoto.com/140%20WRESTLING%20 MESSICANO/wrestling%20messicano%20001.html Pics98: http://hemi.nyu.edu/journal/1_1/sb.html Pic99: http://pixdaus.com/single.php?id=22045 Pic100: http://www.daylife.com/photo/0daL5ru0ES6tx Pics.101: http://concordpastor.blogspot.com/2007_10_01_archive.html Pic.102: http://www.mexicomusings.com/2008/10/musings/cafe-writingday-of-the-dead-in-la-paz/

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Pic.103: http://www.muncaster.co.uk/halloween-week Pic.104: http://www.destination360.com/north-america/mexico/day-of-thedead.php Pic.105: jpg

http://www.hockeymasks.com/profiles/96-Gilles-Meloche-Mask.

Pic,106: http://www.masqueradevenetianmasks.com/display_tragicomica. htm Pics 107: http://wtfknits.blogspot.com/2007/10/nightmare-ski-mask.html Pic 108: http://www.mooncostumes.com/item/4237 Pic109: http://mocoloco.com/art/archives/cat_ceramics.php Pic110: http://www.geocities.com/cchatz/maskenglishtable.htm

The pictures on the cover were taken from www.corbis.com

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True, whoever looks into the mirror of the water will see first of all his own face. Whoever goes to himself risks a confrontation with himself. The mirror does not flatter, it faithfully shows whatever looks into it; namely, the face we never show to the world because we cover it with the persona, the mask of the actor. But the mirrior lies behind the mask and shows the true face. C. G. JUNG, Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious

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Advance... Masked  

A brief study of masks and masking