M I C H A E L
S O U T H E R N A C A D E M I C
P O R T F O L I O
B.A. ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY APL SESSION 2013/14
C O N T E N T S Year Design Report
Design Graduation Project - Lightness*
additional documents separate: material research diary the Lightness book pinhole photography booklet
European Project - Can Ricart* Charrette Week - Ganghut
Non-Design ARC 3013: Architectural Technology 71 ARC 3014: Professional Practice & Management (separate document)
ARC 3015: Principles & Theories of Architecture ARC 3060: Dissertation in Architectural Studies (separate document)
*For original work provided for final presentations refer to separate document
Year Design Report
From Last Year
European Project â€“ Can Ricart
Through the year design report, completed at the end of second year, I drew attention to the lack of inhabited spatial renders in my designs. Without these images I was unable to help people clearly visualise the ideas that I saw so clearly in my own mind. Through the course of this year I feel that I have developed a greater understanding of the process other people undergo to understand my project and the ways in which I can help further this understanding through clear images of inhabited spaces.
Can Ricart was the first project where my design took a really different direction to others. With a wide range of projects explored within my tutor group I choose to look into fabric and for the first time was facing a project with limited precedent and a long way out of my comfort zone.
Furthermore, from my second year feedback, I was encouraged to provide greater levels of reasoning behind my design choices. A lack of explained reasoning led to my designs seeming to leap from site analysis to a final design; this is something I have looked to address this year through providing clear and succinct diagrams along with well documented development work. (Figure 2 & 3)
Charrette Week With the year beginning with a week long period of intensive design through a Charrette project, all years of the degree were brought together. This year, being one of the more experienced members of the group, a lot of management and responsibility was left to me. I feel that I learnt a great deal about how to manage a group of people and how to allow everyone to have their ideas put across. I thoroughly enjoyed this week and have since supported members of the group in lower years through their studies while being able to turn to people with more experience when I was in need of their help.
The brief details this projects aims regarding conservation. From this I approached the design with a combination of restoration and alteration producing what I felt was a very resolved design in order to restore Can Ricart to both its former â€˜ancientâ€™ while giving the obsolete buildings renewed purpose. I fully enjoyed this projects second aim of looking at the site at a macro-scale. My main concept work was based around a figure ground and relating public spaces to precedents found in Barcelona. Having previously stuck to rigid 3D shapes and straight lines in my designs, I was now embarking upon a project more akin to de-constructivism than anything else. Through this project I was able to provide greater levels of reasoning behind my designs and more substantial 3D renders in line with my second year feedback. I was very impressed with my ability to produce a complete set of detailed sections showing my new additions in relation to the old fabric of the site. From the final crit my main feedback was that I needed to show more research into the topic of fabric. More conceptual cast models were needed along with a greater level of knowledge about fabric and the range of processes undertaken to make different kinds of materials. Being critical of my work I feel that I should have developed interior spaces in a more unconventional style in line with the free flowing nature a fabric. Furthermore, this design was one that was initially based around de-constructivism; the final design stayed far too safe and rigid. I have managed to address the issues raised in the final crit in regards to a greater level of understanding of the processes involved in making fabric along with providing more cast models.
Fig.1 - Inhabited render
Fig.2 - Diagramming
Graduation Project â€“ Lightness The graduation project started with a phase based around pinhole photography. In line with my stage 2 feedback, I looked to draw inspiration from this phase and created a design based around movement with continued reference back to this first week throughout the project. My final design looked to create a journey from dark to light with a separate journey of the process of photography happening on a separate adjacent level. The route reached its climax at the top of a 30m tower at a viewing platform with views out over the city of Newcastle. Through this project I sought to be more aware of my time and evaluated how long I should spend on pieces of work in order to prioritize key images. I feel that this turned out to be a success with all work being presented in the final crit to a level of which I was very happy with. Throughout the early stages of the project I was faced with feedback I had never received before. Each week I was told to increase the level of complexity in my design. I initially found this very hard to develop and was being too protective over my limited initial design. During the coming weeks I was able to increase the complexity of my project but with hindsight this may have been achieved with greater ease if I was less defensive about maintaining my original design ideas.
Non-Design Modules From the final crit my feedback received was largely based around aspects of materiality in relation to the concrete used. I was encouraged to show more materiality in drawings which I have been able to achieve through this portfolio submission. Concrete textures have been overlayed in images with renders exploring the texture of concrete further and how this relates to my tectonic intentions. Further studies have been undertaken in relation to concrete through my material research diary exploring further this diverse and innovative material. Furthermore I was told to look more at the way in which I make openings in the concrete. Precedents were given of Olgiatti and Markli which I have gone on to study a lot during the past weeks. New details have been drawn to address this feedback. (Figure 4) In addition to this feedback I felt that my project would benefit from a walkthrough of the spaces I had designed; I have achieved this with several new renders being added. I feel that my main weakness in this project has been my ability to draw from criticism; I have been too protective over my design and this has led to me failing to act upon key feedback at times. Throughout this project I have progressed greatly. I feel I have significantly developed my oral and visual communication skills and am now a lot more competent in talking someone through my design ideas. I have been able to achieve this by producing a more convincing and thorough development narrative along with a wider range of drawings than I have used in the past.
Through the course of this year, non-design modules seem to have arrived too close to design module deadlines and as a result I have given them less respect and attention than they deserved at times. My technology submission, in relation to Can Ricart, was missing 3D details which is something that I have sought I include in my subsequent graduation project. I feel that for my graduation project my technical details were very thorough, working in both 2D and 3D with full 1:50 technical sections drawn throughout the building. Outside of Study Over the summer between second and third year I found myself very interested in graphic design and attempted to make an income out of such work. Through this year and specifically in the portfolio I have looked to include title images and show my work off in a graphically pleasing manner. Through last years learning journal submission I drew attention to my overall knowledge of architecture and a lack of architectural reading. This year I have addressed this matter by spending the first weeks of projects undertaking reading around the topic in order to broaden my understanding of the area. Through this yearâ€™s dissertation I feel I have also developed more architectural knowledge. There is still room for improvement and I hope that now with the completion of my studies I will be able to read more into areas that are of interest to me.
Fig.3 - Reasoning behind design
Fig.4 - Technical detail
D E S I G N
M O D U L E S
G R A D U A T I O N
P R O J E C T
-Alyson Belcher: Self portrait #75B, 2002 [left]; Self portrait #27C, 2008 [middle]; 6 month Solargraph, Helsinki, Tarja Trygg [right]
Pinhole Photography Exploration â€˜My photographs reveal what lies beneath the surface of the tangible world: stories, memories, and hidden truths.â€™ Alyson Belcher
Pinhole cameras - simple cameras with no lens and a small aperture - were used in the first week of the project in order to show the nature of light passing through different materials. Through this initial phase of the project several photographs were taken with exposures ranging from forty minutes to four hours. Once the photographic paper had been exposed for the required time images were developed in a dark room. The final image, Entry, is shown on the right. This image shows the entrance space to the Baltic 39 gallery drawing precedent from the works of Alyson Belcher. (Belchers works are shown on the top right) With an elongated exposure time pinhole camera images are able to show the nature of time in a photograph along with the three-dimensional space (see principles and theories essay, pg. 78 for further development) Movement is conveyed through blurred lines. Layers of tracing paper, cartridge paper and layout paper were used with pen in order to represent the nature of this photograph through a drawing as shown on the right.
- Entry, 40 minute exposure, Baltic 39 entrance foyer [above right] -Pinhole representation. Pen on layers of trace, matte paper and layout paper [right].
Site Analysis The site for this project was located on an unused patch of land behind High Bridge and Bigg Market. With the project brief based around creating a building entitled â€˜the Light Institute,â€™ of which was to be a home for the photographic institute of the Amber Collective, site analysis in relation to light was key. Several trips were taken to site at different times of day in order to fully establish which areas of the site received the best light at varying times of day. The drawing on the top right shows the sun path on the site with hatching used to show where the best light is both in the early morning and late at night. My initial design idea at this stage was to utilise this contrast in order to create a building split into two separate zones in relation to morning and evening light. With the site being enclosed on all four sides my initial response was that there were no views to frame from within the building. In response to this I decided to create a building with carefully considered views out. Light was to be achieved through the materiality of the building rather than glass planes.
‘Eyes have evolved because there was light’ Mary Ann Steane, The Architecture of Light
In response to reading on the topic of architecture and light a shallow plan building was chosen. Through the book ‘The Architecture of Light’ by M.A.Steane I was drawn to precedents of Ando and his use of the material concrete - a heavy solid mass - and the way in which he uses this material in relation to light. ‘Simple shapes fashioned with a mastery of light and materials’ Jodido on Ando
- Site anlysis of lighting condition during differing times of day [above left] -Site analysis model looking at the smallest possible building on site and where this would be placed [right].
From looking into Ando I was inspired by his works but at the same time I still deemed his projects to be somewhat too heavy for what I wanted to achieve. As a result of this I began to look into creating a contrast between light and dark within my building. Creating a journey that takes you from very dark to very light made possible through the choice of materials
Precedents & Readings
Koshino House, Ando
Jewish Museum, Berlin, Libeskind
BULBO Gallery, Milan, Stocchi & Guarnieri
Fun Palace, Cedric Price
An Turas, Sutherland Hussey Architects
Auditorium Plantahof, Olgiati
‘One thing that upsets me terribly in architecture is waste, apparent even in the use of light.’
Le Corbusier ‘In Eyes, a Clock Calibrated by Wavelengths of Light’: Laura Beil
Hedmark Museum, Sverre Fehn
‘Artificial light is a single tiny static moment in light and can never equal the nuances of mood created by the time of day and the changing of the seasons’
Louis Khan, 1959 Drawing style precedent ‘The Architecture of Light’M.A.Steane
La Congiunta, Peter Markli
Site analysis - natural light throughout the day at the north of the site
Due to a lack of street presence a monumental mass was placed on the site
Additional buildings were added to create axis along the lines of entry to the site
Taking Greys Monument as a point for the tower on the site the road lines were used to determine the form of the building
Building mass built up from map of Newcastle
Elevated walkway formed to create continuous route through building to top of the tower.
Initial Design Sketches
As the diagrams [right] show I was determined to utilise the northern corner of the site - the area where light is available for the longest period of the day. With the site lacking any street presence my next step was to try and make a building that acts as a beacon to the site, drawing people onto this unvisited patch of barren land.
The above sketch on the left shows the first drawing of my idea to use a tower to achieve this street presence. The drawing also shows the materiality changing from dark to light as you progress upwards. The subsequent sketch shows the decision to create a building to aid this upwards journey. It shows the decision to use a series of ramped walkways to reach a open platform at the top of the site.
â€˜Architecture is not based on concrete and steel and the elements of the soil. It is based on wonder.â€™ Daniel Libeskind
In order to decide upon the form of my building I took precedent from the work of Libeskind in his design process for the Jewish museum in Berlin. Libeskind overlayed the star of David onto a plan of Berlinâ€™s rivers in order to determine the form for this building.
Overlay of map of Newcastle on the site
Early Concept Drawing
Taking the map of Newcastle and using Greys Monument as a point to locate the tower on the site, I overlayed the map onto the site in order to determine the form of my building. (process shown on the right) This form was then raised up in order to create a series of sloping walkways guiding people on a journey of which would end up at the top of the tower at a viewing platform.
Plans 1:200 1 - Plant Room 2- Archive Reading Area 3 - Archives 4 - Plant Room Access 5 - Finishing Area 6 - Light Maze 7 - Dry Area 8 - Film Developing 9 - Wet Zone
10 - Staff Room 11 - Kitchen 12 - Light Exhibition 13 - Teaching Centre 14 - Baltic 39 Cafe 15 - Film Booth 16 - Studios 17 - Viewing Platform
Unfolded Section 1:200 An unfolded section is the best way in which to show the continuous journey form dark to light in this design. A long sloping gallery is split into 3 zones, each with a different lighting condition, showcasing a different topic of photograph in relation to the lighting condition. Whilst the public undergo this journey there is a separate story in the background with private spaces inhabited by the Amber Collective intertwined with the public’s journey. On the far right of the image you can see the entrance and reception area. From here you are invited to begin your journey around the building starting in the first gallery -The Social Photography and Film gallery lit solely by red light. In connection with this there are views down into the Amber Collective’s dark rooms for photographic and film development. Upon completion of this gallery you have the option - like you have at the end of every gallery - to stop your journey and return to the main space. If you choose to carry on you enter the Labour and Technology Photography gallery. This gallery space is artificially lit with blue neon lights connecting all floors together. In this space are the Amber Collective’s studios, located within a pod hanging down from the ceiling. As the section shows the journey is beginning to get lighter. The final gallery is based around landscape photography. This gallery is naturally lit from windows in the top corner of the space. As you progress through this gallery the materiality changes from concrete to a lighter corrugated glass. The corrugated glass is used to house an elevated walkway spanning 30 metres across the site taking you back to the tower where you can carry on your journey up to the viewing platform 30 metres above ground level.
‘A film and photography collective based in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Amber films, Side Gallery and Cinema are all part of it’ The Amber Collective website
‘Whoever paints the wall chooses the colour’ The Amber Collectives chosen quote
The client for this design is the Amber Collective. A handout included on the left hand page has been used to show the programme of my design and how it relates to the clients needs. The collective sees their role as celebratory; their job is to celebrate and promote the works of local photographers. I see this building as a chance to showcase local works while at the same time celebrating the process of which they undertake to achieve these final images displayed. While the sloping gallery spaces have been mentioned previously I would like to highlight the private spaces of which are to used by the collective. Dark rooms, with space for developing both photographic paper and film, are joined to a finishing area through a light maze. Studios have been developed to include spaces for working on films and animations with technology becoming ever more intertwined with the low tech approach to photography undertaken by the Amber Collective. A separate teaching centre is located to the South of the site. Here the collective can hold lectures open to the public with local photographers talking about there work as well as providing a space for the screening of films. The design also provides a shop to help provide an income for the collective and local artists along with a cafe and outdoor screening area located along the entrance axis to the site.
Technical Sections 1:100 Above are four technical sections used in order to show the contrast in lighting conditions between each gallery space. Starting in the dark and undergoing a journey from dark to light, the above sections show how different types of lighting, materiality and openings area used to achieve this aim. Along with the flat sections, 3D technical models were placed in front to give a feel for the space and how this lighting is seen in 3D as shown on the left. The first section cuts through the social photography and film gallery of which is lit soley by the red light used for
photography in line with the dark rooms of which the gallery looks into. The second section shows the technology and labour gallery showing how light emitting concrete is used to light up the space in conjunction with limited amounts of natural light. The final two sections show cuts through the landscape galley with the last section taken through the elevated walkway. These spaces are a lot lighter as a result of the natural light from above and in the final section through the materiality of corrugated glass.
Site Strategy With the exterior of the building being concrete except for the corrugated glass walkway, wild plants were selected in order to provide the landscaping around the site. These plants are used to determine the walkways around the site and lead people into the building. The figure ground on the right shows how the public can flow from either the access from High Bridge or Bigg Market. Within the courtyard space, formed by the building form, is a sloping seating area providing an area to view films projected onto the plain concrete wall at the North of the site. Next to this is an overflow seating area for the cafe. ( shown in ground floor plan, page 16) Images showing selection of plantlife for the site
Section showing proposal in relation to Greyâ€™s Monument
Site Plan 1:1000
Recycled Aggregate Concrete
With a growing problem in relation to the amount of concrete in the worlds landfills (around 25%) the decision to use recycled aggregate concrete is far more sustainable for the building industry. Despite having lower strength than usual concrete this material has been declared structurally sound for this building. This material will be used to make concrete sandwich walls, giving the building both its structure and aesthetic.
To be used for the elevated walkway this material, provided by Joel Berman Glass Studios International Ltd, is available as clear float glass, low iron glass, coloured, stfumato and many other styles. For this purpose the opaque style has been chosen in order for views out to be obstructed while allowing people outside to see activity occurring in the walkway from ground level.
Litracon pXL, a cheaper alternative to the expensive original Litracon, has been used on the back wall of the Labour and Technology gallery in order to give a continuous glow to the wall. Litracon pXL uses a specially formed plastic unit, similar to plastic optic fibres, to allow light to pass through the concrete. On the right this material has been explored in greater depth.
For more information please refer to Material Research Diary
Light-Emmitting Concrete Exploration
Process of casting
With Litracon pXL chosen as one of a select few materials for this design. I chose to explore this relatively new material further. The final cast (shown on the right) was produced by casting concrete with plastic optic fibres running through it. The fibres spell out the name of the building, â€˜the Light Instituteâ€™ when light is shone through the back of the cast. In order to get the fibres through the concrete a base was made using modelling clay. The desired text was printed in reverse and then stencilled onto the modelling clay. From here the fibres were forced into the clay using tweezers to form the text. As shown on the left Litracon pXL has the ability to spell out text. This will be used above the reception desk to give the building more identity.
- Process of casting [top] - Final cast [middle] - Cast with light shining through it [bottom]
Technology The walls of the building are to be made using a concrete sandwich wall system. This is shown in 3D on the left with 2D sections provided on the right. This system gives a structural concrete interior with an external concrete cladding. Where openings are formed in the concrete the details have been carefully considered in order for the concrete to still seem continuous. A parapet roof has been used in order to hide the construction and to give a clean line to the top of the building.
Bruder Klaus Chapel, Zumthor
La Congiunta, Peter Markli
K + N House, Olgiati
Creation of Openings in Concrete Precedent was taken from the works of Valerio Olgiati, Peter Zumthor and Peter Markli. Zumthors building, Bruder Klaus Chapel , looks as though the entrance has been carved out of existing concrete. This technique has also been used by Olgiati with his openings not falling in line with the formwork used to cast the walls. The depth of opening shown in Olgiatis K + N House is something of which has inspired the detail for the openings of my design.
Entrance Doorway Plan 1:50
Around the doorways the concrete has been made thicker in an attempt to make people see the openings as thicker objects. This is done in order to make the building feel heavier and to create more of a threshold into the building. At the same time the floor surface at the entrance slopes down at a gradient of 1:12 over the 600mm entrance depth. Despite being only a small drop this still creates a feel of going down into a deeper structure. This is hoped to make the building feel sunken into the site and somewhat stronger. This idea takes precedent from La Congiunta by Markli. Sketches showing intentions for openincg in concrete walls
1:100 Interior Model
1:100 Interior Model A 1:100 interior model was made to show the routes through the building and to highlight the way in which each gallery space will feel. This model shows the insertions into the gallery spaces. In the landscape gallery, pods are introduced of which will show off photographs in 360 degrees with images projected onto the surfaces of the pods making the viewer really feel like they are in the photograph. The model also shows how the publicâ€™s journey starts with narrow walkways at the minimum allowance of 1.8m going onto become 3m wide as the gallery changes from dark to light. The gallery spaces look to challenge your eyes along with your sense of space starting from being very constricted to finishing at the viewing platform feeling more open and free.
1:200 Exterior Model
Walkthrough of Spaces
Social Photography & Film Gallery - Red Light
Labour & Technology Photography Gallery - Artificial Light
Landscape Photography Gallery - Natural Light
The renders, spread over the past pages, show a walkthrough of the spaces through the design. The walkthrough begins with an image showing the entrance space and the way in which the opening is made with no reference to the form-work of the concrete. Moving on from this, the next render shows the social photography and film gallery. Here you can see how the space is completely in darkness except for light provided by red lights. You can also see the connection with the dark rooms below along with a film booth towards the right. Following this is the technology and labour gallery where you can see the neon blue lights running through the space. The rear wall is lit by Litracon giving a soft glow to the space. In this render you can see the studio space suspended from the ceiling in the form of a glass cube. The last render on this page is showing the exhibition space. This is a completely dark room with one bead of light coming down from the roof. This space is to be used as a permanent exhibition by itself with the idea that other exhibitions can be housed here at times. Natural light is shown in the next two renders with light pouring in from the corner skylights and in the elevated walkway light is allowed to pass effortlessly through the corrugated glass cladding. The final render on the left shows the viewing platform. A band of text runs around the glass directing peoples view in the direction of places seen throughout the exhibitions visited.
E U R O P E A N
P R O J E C T
Can Ricart, Barcelona
Catalonia [left], Barcelona [top right], Barcelona Grid System [bottom right]
Study Visit From the study visit to Barcelona I was particularly interested in the contrast between the large public spaces and the smaller ones. I found that large open spaces were not as successful as smaller ones hidden amongst streets. The above images show the more intimate and romantic feel to the smaller
courtyards. The narrow entrance ways and an element of surprise were of particular interest to me. Through the use of smaller restrictive entrances to the courtyards you get a sense of individual discovery when findings these hidden spaces.
Site Location Poblenou, once the epicentre of Catalan industry, is the location for this conservation project. â€˜[22@] Transforms 200 hectares of industrial land of Poblenou into an innovative district offering modern spaces for the strategic concentration of intensive knowledge-based activitiesâ€™ 22@ Barcelona Located within the 22@Barcelona district the site of Can Ricart is in an area dedicated to preserving heritage while creating an atmosphere for people to learn and be educated about the past uses of the area. Juxtaposed from the conventional Barcelona grid system shown on the previous page this location offered plenty of precedent for a new build.
Site Analysis In 1855 the factories of Can Ricart were commissioned to house to booming Catalan textile industry. Sadly by the end of the 19th Century the industry fell into decline. Despite several attempts to redevelop the site over the coming years Can Ricart has never managed to regain its former glory. The site is rife with graffiti and decay with the existing buildings telling a story of the many changes, new additions and alterations that have occurred since 1855. My main site observation was in relation to the public spaces. A large open space was witnessed with no divides or purpose. The narrow walkways of Barcelona were present on the site but with no final product in the public space of which they led to. I chose to work with building 3 from the project brief. This building lacked the most purpose on the site. It was the building that least fit and offered little to the overall area. My main aim for this project was to draw precedent from the previous use of the site for the Catalan textile industry. Fabric is the driving force behind this proposal.
La Machine The client for the design is La Machine - a French artistic collective. Based in Nantes, the collective was formed by artists, designers, fabricators and technicians in the early 1990s. Well known for their extraordinary theatrical machines, permanent installations and also theatrical productions, La Machine are committed to innovative and sustainable arts. The programme for the project is to create a home for the collective. There is a requirement for a large scale workshop to house their constructions along with a studio space, gallery and education centre. In addition to the required elements this design gives La Machine an area for their theatrical productions and an overspill area for La Machine to inhabit with their works and new ideas.
- The Sultans Elephant, 2006 [top] - La Princesse, 2008, Liverpool Capital of Culture [left]
1:500 Site Model
Lou Ruvo Centre, Gehry
Superkilen, Denmark, Topotek1
Fabric Facade Studio Apartment, Florian Schmid
Zenith Music Hall, Massimiliano & Dorianna Fuksas
Residential Reskin, Hertl Architekten
Tahari Showroom, New York, Gisela Stromeyer Design
Linen Blend: 60% Linen, 40% Cotton
PU: 64% Polyurethane Polyester, 26% Cotton PU
Linen Blend: 70% Viscose, 30% Linen
Wool Blend: 60% Cotton, 40% Wool
With the design drawing inspiration from textiles the above casts show the texture of different fabrics imprinted into plaster. These casts draw inspiration from Caruso St John Architects building of Nottingham Contemporary.
The cast in the top left corner shows a generic linen blend fabric showcasing the thick weave of fabric and the imprint these individual threads leave. Moving on from this PU, an imitation leather material, was used displaying a very different type of texture.
In relation to the patterned Catalan textiles, the bottom two casts show a floral pattern imprinted into the cast. The cast on the bottom right is one of which all concrete used on the site will be cast like.
Material Exploration For this design I wanted to use common building materials in unconventional ways. For example using damp proof membranes as aesthetically pleasing materials; vapour control layers as internal separations and finally using concrete in a manner to represent fabric. The models on this page showcase an exploration of the way in which concrete can be cast to look lightweight and free flowing. Below are pictures detailing the process of casting in this way. A waterproof layer is placed on top of a bed of sand with the desired form imprinted into the sand. This technique produced the cast on the left. Further casts are shown on the right.
1:1 Textile Models
- Process of casting showing the use of sand to produce fabric folds [left]
Development My design has been orientated around the initial figure-ground sketch I produced shown on the left. Spaces and the form of a new addition have been defined based around the creation of three public spaces, each with a different feel. In line with La Machines theatrical approach to design the proposal looks to create a building equalling this theatrical nature. Openings have been formed in the new addition by ripping the material cladding. Through doing this links are drawn with the rustic nature of the existing fabric. In other places entrance points to the new addition are formed by the cladding seeing to be pulled back to reveal entrances. The texture of all the materials used invite the viewer to touch and feel the buildings creating a greater sense of understanding of the construction techniques used. Development Sketches
The process of manufacturing fabric has been taken further into the design process by the way in which a stage has been made for La Machine. Old wooden palettes are arranged in a weaving pattern. The use of recycled materials falls in line with the environmental ethos held by La Machine.
The above sketch on the right shows how the new addition sits in relation to the existing building. You can see evidence of the existing above the new build element clearly distinguishing between whatâ€™s old and whatâ€™s new.
Ground Floor Plan 1:400
First Floor Plan 1:400
Roof Plan 1:400
Section EE 1:400
Section DD 1:400
Section CC 1:400
The first external public square is to be used as an education space to inform visitors of both the history of Can Ricart along with the values of La Machine. In this space there are full height windows looking into the workshop giving a connection between what visitors are learning and whatâ€™s going on. Moving on from this square you are invited either into the main building for more information or onto the gallery space.
The gallery is housed in the new build element with both a light and dark gallery space. A skylight is formed by tears in the material cladding in order to create a theatrical feel within the gallery. Another public square is relatively hidden away meaning that you have to explore the site and can somewhat accidentally stumble upon it. This square is an intimate cafe space was plant-life creating a contrast between this and the first space.
Section EE 1:400
The final public square is located at the heart of the site. This square is to be used by La Machine to show off their work. With a large screening and stage area the space will have different feel depending on what is occurring at the given time. The ground of this area has been overlayed with
a image of origional Catalan textile made using rubber. The remaining buildings left on site are to be kept as ruins with walkways formed through them. These ruins can be used by La Machine to house their works.
Interior Render Showing Ripped Skylight
On the right is a night-time render of the proposal. Here you can see the journey of La Machines work as they parade new pieces around the site. The fabric additions are to be lit from below of an evening in order to make the building seem to glow and stand out from the existing buildings on the site. You can see the entrance to the site with a fabric addition to the existing brick wall. This fabric is made to look as though this existing wall has been folded back to show the new era for the site of Can Ricart. Moving into the future the design leaves room for La Machine to experiment further with casting and fabrics and hopefully take the motif of fabric into their work.
Section EE 1:400
Site section showing interior galley space
Ganghut C H A R R E T T E
W E E K 2 0 1 4
The Charrette week brought together all years of the degree for a week long period of intensive design. Ganghut, was a project based around using recycled materials to produce a platform for conversation. Wooden palettes were selected as the material for our design with a 1:1 scale platform constructed from them.
In relation to the use of a recycled material for our design we invited the Sustainability society to inhabit it for the day. With chairs and shelter provided a platform was made for conversation about sustainability to begin.
N O N - D E S I G N
M O D U L E S
ARC 3013 TECHNOLOGY
Can Ricart, Barcelona
Catalan textile rug used as outdoor ground treatment on site
Meso Scale Build Up
The structure of the building is split up into two parts. The addition to the workshop is a concrete element cast to look like fabric of which sits on top of a steel frame. On top of the cast concrete is a steel structure of which will support a polycarbonate roof. The second part of the construction is a timber framed building. Glue lam beams allow for this build to reach its maximum span of 2100mm.
Within this build there is a partial thermal envelope around the first floor construction of the drawing and modelling atelier. Other than this the rest of the building is left open and uninsulated. A large skylight forms a focal point on the interior of the structure. The roof has a slope of 1/80 towards the middle to allow it to drain into a gutter around the roof light. This gutter drains towards the existing building with the drainage hidden by the interior hung fabric.
The first environmental consideration of which was faced in this design was a response to the climate of Barcelona. With a high temperature throughout the majority of the year with very little rain this design looks to create an environment suited to this. The semioutdoors exhibition space was a result of these considerations. As well as this there are large glazed folding doors throughout which can be left open to create natural cross ventilation throughout the building to limit the need for mechanical ventilation and as a result will help keep down the running costs of the building while producing a more stable environment in the intense sun of the region. Another environmental based consideration was the impact of natural lighting upon the building. I have looked to maximise the impact of natural lighting as can be seen in the skylight for the exhibition space.
available locally helping to reduce transport costs. Existing walls are linked in with the new structure in order to reduce the amount of materials needed. Through breaching the brief to have the majority of the information centre as an external information garden the construction needed has again been reduced. This is an acceptable design choice due to the climate in Barcelona and it fits in with the overall concept of my design. My new build component is a simple box structure despite the detailing achieved through its aesthetic finish. A more intricate and complex structure wasnâ€™t needed in this case as the materials used do the work in creating an architectural experience. I feel that the existing buildings on the site display enough character and interest that the new addition needs to solely re-invigorate the site and give it a new meaning and purpose in order to bring it out of its current state of abandonment.
As has been previously mentioned the stage area of which has been made up from palettes has many uses, its the intensification of use that helps the buildings environmental factor. It can be used for film screening, performances, large scale events or for more intimate occasions.
My design intentions were to have as little impact on the existing site as possible in an attempt to keep its existing character but utilising the new build component to give the building new meaning and character. This design requires little construction due to the open air nature of the new addition. No specific custom made parts are required meaning that all the building components necessary will be
The use of timber would have very little carbon footprint however the use of concrete on the site would be more of an issue in this regard. This
footprint could be offset by using some of the rubble found on site as an aggregate for the new concrete. The use of common materials as the exterior cladding of the building is very environmentally friendly. These materials such as damp proof membranes are commonly available, very easy to locate and transport and could even be reused from other construction sites where they are no longer needed. The use of reused fabrics would offer a new dimension to the project as these materials would come with an aesthetic history complimentary to that of the buildings of Can Ricart. Reuse Reuse on site is something that I would like to extend further to include all the accumulation of materials of which have been left abandoned on the site. In one of the buildings we had access to were several old oil drums and a load of timber and string. It is found objects like this that I would like to see La Machine use in their works and alternatively I would look for found objects such as these to be used as furniture in the new scheme strengthening further the sense of history on the site. A stage has been created out of reclaimed palettes again looking to reuse found materials helping to reduce transportation costs, landfill usage and the overall cost of the scheme.
Wall - Micro Scale 1:10
Roof Light Detail - Micro Scale 1:10
ARC 3015 PRINCIPLES & THEORIES OF ARCHITECTURE Can Ricart, Barcelona & Lightness
an Ricart was once home to the Catalan Textile industry manufacturing printed fabrics throughout the 19th Century. This past use provides precedent for the renewal of the site. Fabric is the driving force behind this projects intervention. The design for the site looks to use the idea of fabric to create a direct link between the history of the site and the new build elements helping to house La Machines creative flair. New build elements use the idea of fabric, looking especially at its lightweight nature. The way in which fabric would decay over a given period of time has led to a de constructivist element in the design. Common building materials are used in a manner in which they will mimic fabric; common materials such as damp proof membranes, waterproof sheeting, concrete, wooden pallets and roofing membranes have been utilised to create this desired effect. Concrete is to be cast on a bed of sand which will allow for folds to be made so the cast concrete will be given the appearance of hung fabric. It is this contrast between a heavy building material, such as concrete, being cast to represent a lightweight material in fabric of which has formed the basis of this exhibition piece. Concrete and fabric are the media of which have been chosen to represent the key idea of this project. The nature of concrete lends itself to experimentation, it is a material of which has developed its history on building sites. It is this experimental nature of which has led to concrete being used in this project to represent fabric. With this project being all about using common building materials in an innovative manner to compliment the main precedent of fabric it seemed logical to use a model in order to illustrate this.
Kalay states that ‘modelling is a form of representation that helps designers make the object of their design tangible enough to be appraised visually and analytically, and enable its sharing with other members of the design team.’ It is the ability of a model to become a tangible element of which has led to its use here. A model allows its viewer to fully engage with the piece and encourages the use of the sensation of touch as well as sight. Kalay goes on to talk about the three-dimensional nature of models; in this piece the three-dimensional nature of models is used to allow the viewer to explore the model of their own accord. Different folds and treatments are visible when waking around the model encouraging the viewer to make their own experience. Kalay backs up this point stating that an advantage of a model is that ‘the receiver can turn it around, enter into it, and examine it from any desired vantage point.’ The composition of this model allows viewers to find their own unique angle of which to appreciate the model from in contrast to a one-dimensional image where the view point is dictated to its viewer. Le Corbusier once stated ‘Architecture and sculpture: the masterly, correct and magnificent play of forms in light.’ It is this reference to light that highlights another reason to use three-dimensional models as a form of representation. Light strikes the model forming natural shadows and tones of which show off the intent of the model. In this given model, light highlights the folds and curves in the fabric and concrete in a way of which would not be as easily achieved through a one-dimensional image.
Diagrams are typically used in architecture in order to show arrangements of parts, processes of construction and how components are put together. This is a diagrammatic model. The model shows the process of construction of concrete cast to represent fabric. It shows the lightweight material of fabric and how this material is then used to create the dense and heavy concrete element at the base of the model.
Bibliography Kalay, Y.E. (2004) ‘Architecture’s New Media,’ Massachusetts Institute Technology. Spuybroek,L. (2011) ‘Textile Tectonics,’ Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Allen,S. (1997) ‘Minimalism: Architecture and Sculpture,’ Academy Group Ltd. Weston, R. (2003) ‘Materials, Form and Architecture,’ London: L K Publishing.
ARC 3015 - Lightness
‘Images are significant surfaces. Images signify something ‘out there’ in space and time that they
[photographers] have to make comprehensible to us as abstractions; as reductions of the four dimensions of space and time to the two surface dimensions.’ 1
The above quote from Flusser highlights that images are built up of two components: space and time. It is generally straightforward to represent space in an architectural graphic; my chosen piece looks to strengthen the representation of time through a two dimensional image. Through the graduation studio of Lightness, I began my project through an exploration of pinhole photography. The final image, Entry, of which I produced (shown on the left) was taken in the entrance foyer to the Baltic 39 gallery. Movement is the theme of which was captured. Through a 4-hour exposure the image is able to show the ingress of the entrance space. Blurred lines represent movement. By being with the camera over this exposure I could see the traces of events that happened in this period that without explanation are hard to establish. I could see where an art student left an insulation board; I could work out which movements belong to the receptionist and I can identify the cars which parked up outside the doors. A modern day generic photograph shows the space fixed in the focal lens over its exposure time, typically 1/500s. By extending the exposure time through a pin-hole camera the image now conveys the space over a period of several hours. ‘My photographs reveal what lies beneath the surface of the tangible world: stories, memories, and hidden truths.’ 2
Precedent was taken from the works of American photographer Alyson Belcher whose above quote explains why she looks to utilise low tech photography in order to capture more than just physical space in her images. Photographers have been experimenting with ways to represent time lapses through photography since the works of the realist photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1872. Muybridge used sequential photography in order to establish whether all four feet of a race horse were ever off the ground at the same time. Moving on from this zoopraxiscopes, flip books and strobe photography have all been utilised in order to show a longer period of time through still images. My image, Movement, is taken from my original pin-hole camera over a forty minute exposure. Throughout this exposure, scale people were moved around my final model in order to show the movement around my design. Movement is the key concept for my project of which is based around a long sloping gallery space which travels around the building in parallel with a private photography journey occurring below. This representation technique was chosen in order to show the space of my project, the way in which it is to be populated and most importantly to show the journey people will undergo. Looking at the middle of the image I have been able to capture a lack of movement showing the studio space in contrast to the fast moving adjoining gallery. The level of detail of which can be achieved through this medium is still to be explored further. Going forward I would look to capture the pace of which people would move around each gallery space in line with the architectural intentions of each axis.
The process undertaken to produce this image is one of trial and error. There is no certainty or precision. Through pin-hole photography the exposure time can be calculated using the focal length, f-number and pin-hole diameter but the process I utilised was trial and error, going through several attempts in order to achieve the desired image.
Bibliography Kalay, Y.E. (2004) ‘Architecture’s New Media,’ Massachusetts Institute Technology. Spuybroek,L. (2011) ‘Textile Tectonics,’ Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. Allen,S. (1997) ‘Minimalism: Architecture and Sculpture,’ Academy Group Ltd. Weston, R. (2003) ‘Materials, Form and Architecture,’ London: L K Publishing.
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S With Special Thanks to: Ray Verrall Daniel Mallo Armelle Tardiveau Steve Dudek
Undergraduate Architecture Portfolio, Newcastle University, 2011-2014.