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Photographic Atlas of

Bioarchaeology from the Osteological Collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Manualia Universitatis studiorum Zagrabiensis


Sapienti sat!


Photographic Atlas of

Bioarchaeology from the Osteological Collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Mario Šlaus MSc, PhD, Full Professor Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Anthropological Center

Mario Novak MSc, PhD, Research Associate Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Anthropological Center

Vlasta Vyroubal Instructor Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Anthropological Center

Željka Bedić Instructor Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Anthropological Center

Hrvoje Brkić DDM, MSc, PhD, Full Professor University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine Department of Dental Anthropology

Marin Vodanović DDM, MSc, PhD, Assistant Professor University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine Department of Dental Anthropology


PHOTOGRAPHIC ATLAS OF BIOARCHAEOLOGY FROM THE OSTEOLOGICAL COLLECTION OF THE CROATIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS

Authors: Mario Šlaus, Mario Novak, Vlasta Vyroubal, Željka Bedić, Hrvoje Brkić, Marin Vodanović Published by: School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb and Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Copyright © 2013 by Mario Šlaus www.marioslaus.com ISBN 978-953-7781-01-9

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Mario Šlaus, e-mail: mario.slaus@zg.t-com.hr, web: www.marioslaus.com

A catalogue record for this title is available from the National and University Library in Zagreb, Croatia.

The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this book.

Publication of this book is supported by International Association for Paleodontology. For more information please visit www.paleodontology.com

Manualia Universitatis studiorum Zagrabiensis


TABLE OF CONTENTS Archaeological research and excavation ................................................................................................. 9 Anthropological analysis and osteological collection............................................................................ 19 Taphonomy and preservation ............................................................................................................... 29 Associated materials recovered during the cleaning of the skeletons ................................................. 39 Dental disease ....................................................................................................................................... 53 Subadult stress ...................................................................................................................................... 63 Infectious diseases ................................................................................................................................ 73 Indicators of physical stress and habitual activities .............................................................................. 85 Osteoarthritis ........................................................................................................................................ 97 Antemortem trauma ........................................................................................................................... 105 Perimortem trauma............................................................................................................................. 121 Miscellaneous ...................................................................................................................................... 143 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................... 153 Index .................................................................................................................................................... 159


Foreword

This atlas evolved from a much simpler project. One of my students, a lovely young lady, was helping me design a personal web page and to illustrate how these things look she showed me her own personal web page. This was a very nice looking page that not only had all of the data relevant to her ongoing education, but also a number of interesting personal details: her hobbies, books she had read and, because the young lady in question is an avid amateur photographer, a large gallery of pictures she had taken as well as those depicting her at various functions. I liked this personal touch but, as luck would have it I am, by no stretch of the imagination, lovely. So, while I do posses a large number of photographs featuring me engaged in diverse activities in various parts of the world, my first thought was – nobody deserves to see these. However, I also posses a huge number of pictures depicting various aspects of the investigations we carry out at the Anthropological Centre of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as well as numerous pictures of different pathologies we have identified in the remains of the past inhabitants of Croatia. Now, one of the few regrets I have as a scientist is that, all of us are extremely limited in the number of pictures we can use when illustrating specific features or arguments in our scientific publications. This is of course totally understandable as these pictures take up a lot of space and are costly to reproduce but, never the less still galling as, particularly in some sciences –such as bioarchaeology, photographs of morphological (or radiological or microscopic) changes in bone and dental tissue are crucial to our understanding of the ways in which diseases evolved over time, and the ways in which they affected human health and quality of life. Additionally, through my own research and through contact with colleagues and students from all over the world, I have noticed that some pathological entities manifest themselves subtly different in different parts of the world. For instance, here in Croatia cribra orbitalia is generally more severe in expression that what I have seen in the USA. Similarly venereal syphilis in the USA is frequently accompanied by a pathological change called ‘‘sabre-shin’’ tibia – caused by periostitis along the anterior and middle portion of the shaft resulting in anterior enlargement or ‘‘bowing’’ of the bone, while in Croatia, this change has (at least so far) been completely absent. For these reasons my first impulse was to create a gallery of these pictures and append them to my web page. Fortunately it was pointed out to me that a much better way to make these pictures available to those who have an interest in such things is to publish them in an ebook. Hence, this atlas. It is, as you will see, a modest and unassuming work that simply illustrates in more detail some of the investigations we have carried out and published in the past. Despite these limitations we have enjoyed making it, and also learned a little bit more about some of the pathological changes depicted in it. We hope that the same sentiments are felt by the readers of this book.

Mario Šlaus


Chapter 1

Archaeological research and excavation

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 1 – Aerial view of the Early Medieval cemetery in Radašinovci in Dalmatia. At this point approximately 50% of the cemetery had been excavated (Jurić, 2002; 2003).

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 2 – Ground level view of the Radašinovci cemetery.

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 3 – Grave architecture in the Radašinovci cemetery.

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 4 – Excavation of a grave from the Radašinovci cemetery.

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 5 – The Early Medieval St. Lawrence cemetery in Šibenik in Dalmatia (Krnčević, 1999; 2000).

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 6 – Close up of a grave from the same cemetery.

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 7 – The burial of an adult female from the same cemetery. This individual was aged between 30-39 years at the time of her death, and had most likely (because of bilateral deep pre-auricular sulci on the ilia, and deep pubic bone pits) previously given birth.

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Archaeological research Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 1 – Image 8 – Close up of the pelvic girdle of this individual. The remains of a full term fetus are clearly visible in situ: A – right parietal of the fetus; B – left clavicle; C – left ulna; D – 4th right rib; E – right humerus; F – left humerus; G – right ilium. The wrong orientation of the baby probably contributed to the tragic outcome of this birth (Šlaus, 2006).

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Chapter 2

Anthropological analysis and osteological collection

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 1 – Osteological collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 2 – Osteological collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 3 – Osteological material after transport to the laboratory, still in paper packages.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 4 – Removing earth from the bones using water and brushes.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 5 – Drying of the osteological material before analysis.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 6 – Anthropological analysis of the skeletal material.

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Anthropological analysis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 2 – Image 7 – Collecting samples for DNA testing.

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Chapter 3

Taphonomy and preservation

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 1 – Green oxidation marks on the mandible and maxilla of a 20-30 years old male from the Roman period Relja cemetery in Zadar in Croatia. The staining was caused by metal coins that had been placed in the oral cavity (Roman Period).

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 2 – Close up of the green oxidation marks on the mandible and maxilla from the same burial with a reconstruction of the manner in which one of the coins may have been placed (Roman period). Although placing coins in the mouth of the deceased to pay for his journey to the other world has been reported in countless historical sources, this is the only time we have encountered physical proof for this practice in the Osteological collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts – a collection that has approximately 5500 skeletons of which approximately 2000 derive from the Roman period.

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 3 – Oxidation marks on the left arm bones and fingers, and pelvic girdle of a 6.57.5 years old subadult from the Roman period Relja cemetery in Zadar in Croatia. The staining was caused by bronze artifacts (Roman Period).

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 4 – Discoloration of the complete skull of a 20-30 years old male from the Bezdanjača cave in continental Croatia caused by staining from a bronze helmet. Note marked staining of exposed tooth roots accompanied with slight staining of tooth crowns (Bronze Age Period).

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 5 – Bones excavated in different archaeological sites. Note the difference in color caused by the different types of soil the bones were buried in. The second femur from the left side additionally exhibits clear oxidation marks from a belt buckle.

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 6 – Well preserved inner ear bones: stapes (A), malleus (B), and incus (C) from a 30-40 years old male from the Early Medieval Velim cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period).

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 7 – Different conditions of preservation of the cortex, varying from excellently to poorly preserved.

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Taphonomy and preservation Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 3 – Image 8 – Incinerated human bones originating from the Early Iron Age Kaptol – Gradci site near Požega (Early Iron Age Period).

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Chapter 4

Associated materials recovered during the cleaning of the skeletons

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 1 – A small fragment of a tortoise shell. The grooves resembling the ‘‘Peace’’ sign so popular during the sixties of the last century are part of the normal morphology of a tortoise shell. The fragment was comingled with the remains of a subadult recovered from the Roman period Narona cemetery in southern Dalmatia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 2 – A pair of gold and red glass paste earrings recovered from the skull of an older female from the Roman period Ankaran cemetery in Slovenia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 3 – A well preserved bird's beak found comingled with the remains of a subadult recovered in the Eraci cemetery from the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 4 – A small well preserved scorpion commingled with the remains of an adult male buried in the Guran na Križu cemetery in Istria (Late Antique/Early Medieval Period; Šlaus et al., 2007).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 5 – A comb made out of animal bone found commingled with the remains of an adult female buried in the Roman period cemetery in Osijek in the continental part of Croatia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 6 – A single gold and green glass paste earring recovered in the fragmented skull of an adult female from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Dalmatia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 7 – A small amber pendant depicting a phoenix holding a twig recovered with the remains of an adult female from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Dalmatia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 8 – Wooden rosary beads recovered with the remains of an adult female from the Early Modern cemetery in Rijeka on the Adriatic coast (Early Modern Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 9 – Golden threads that were at some time part of the clothing of an upper class male recovered from the Late Medieval Udbina cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 10 – Small bronze earring commingled with the remains of an adult female buried in the Roman period cemetery Zmajevac in the continental part of Croatia (Roman Period, Filipović, 2010).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 11 – Glass beads, possibly part of a necklace or bracelet commingled with the remains of an adult female buried in the Roman period cemetery Zmajevac in the continental part of Croatia (Roman Period).

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Associated materials Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 4 – Image 12 – A part of the clothing - golden ‘‘hooks and eyes’’ commingled with the remains of an adult female buried in the Roman period cemetery Zmajevac in the continental part of Croatia (Roman Period).

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Chapter 5

Dental disease

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 1 – Large interproximal caries on the first right mandibular molar of an adult male from the Early Medieval Konjsko polje cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period; Novak et al., 2008).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 2 – Pronounced dental wear on the anterior maxillary teeth of a 40-50 years old male from the Late Medieval Lištani cemetery in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Late Medieval Period).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 3 – Large interproximal caries on two molars in an adult female from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Dalmatia (Roman Period; Vodanović et al., 2012).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 4 – An alveolar abscess on the left maxillary first molar in an adult male from the Early Medieval Velim cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 5 – Antemortem tooth trauma to the right maxillary incisors in an adult male from the Early Medieval Velim cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 6 – Extreme occlusal abrasions on the anterior maxillary teeth of an adult male from the Early Medieval Velim cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period; Šlaus et al., 2011).

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Dental disease Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 5 – Image 7 – Complete antemortem tooth loss in the maxilla of an adult female buried in the Požega cathedral (Early Modern Period).

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Chapter 6

Subadult stress

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 1 – Cribra orbitalia in a 1.5-2.5 years old subadult from the Late Medieval Dugopolje cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period; Novak and Šlaus, 2007).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 2 – Severe, active cribra orbitalia in a 3.5-4.5 years old subadult from the Late Medieval Korlat cemetery in Dalmatia (Late Medieval Period).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 3 – Deep linear enamel hypoplastic defects on the left central permanent incisor of a 30-40 years old female from the Medieval Kranj cemetery in Slovenia (Medieval Period).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 4 – Linear enamel hypoplasia on the anterior mandibular teeth of a 20-30 years old female from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Croatia (Roman Period; Šlaus, 2008).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 5 – Linear enamel hypoplasia on the anterior maxillary and mandibular teeth of a 30-40 years old male from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Croatia (Roman Period; Novak and Šlaus, 2010).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 6 – Severe, active cribra orbitalia in a 2.5-3.5 years old subadult from the Roman period cemetery in Štrbinci in Slavonia in continental Croatia (Roman Period; Šlaus et al., 2004).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 7 – Healed cribra orbitalia in a 11.5-12.5 years old subadult from the Roman period cemetery in Štrbinci in Slavonia in continental Croatia (Roman Period).

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Subadult stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 6 – Image 8 – Deep, bilateral linear enamel hypoplastic defects on the permanent maxillary central incisors of a 12.5-13.5 years old subadult from the Early Medieval Velim cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 7

Infectious diseases

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 1 – Active periostitis on the tibial shaft of an adult male from the St. Dominic’s church in Zadar, Dalmatia (Early Modern Period).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 2 – Active periostitis on the femoral shaft (note newly formed layers of bone) of a subadult recovered in the Eraci cemetery from the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 3 – Chronic osteomyelitis of the right fibula in a 30 to 40 years old male from the Late Medieval Udbina cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 4 – Close up of the same fibula. A large cloacal opening (A) with a small irregularly shaped sequestrum (B) is located in the involucrum (C).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 5 – Spinal tuberculosis. Complete destruction of the vertebral bodies of the 7th, 8th, and 9th thoracic vertebrae resulting in a sharp-angled kyphosis (Pott’s gibbus) caused by tuberculosis in an adult female from the Nin – St. Anselm cemetery (Late Medieval Period; Šlaus, 2006).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 6 – Spinal tuberculosis. Complete destruction of the vertebral bodies of the 10th, 11th, and 12th thoracic, and 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae caused by tuberculosis in an adult female from the Early Modern cemetery in Rijeka on the Adriatic coast (Early Modern Period).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 7 – Irregularly shaped lytic lesions on the pleural sides of ribs caused by tuberculosis in a 5-7 years old subadult from the Early Modern cemetery in Rijeka on the Adriatic coast (Early Modern Period).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 8 – Severe active osteomyelitis with superficial cavitations surrounded by active periostitis in combination with concentric swelling of the cortex on the left tibia and fibula as a result of venereal syphilis. Adult female recovered from the Crkvari – St. Lawrence cemetery in continental Croatia (Early Modern Period; Šlaus and Novak, 2007).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 9 – Advanced stage of leprosy (facies leprosa) characterized by severe resorption of the central section of the maxilla followed by the enlargement of the nasal aperture in an adult male from the Early Medieval Radašinovci cemetery in Dalmatia (Early Medieval Period; Šlaus, 2006; Watson et al., 2009).

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Infectious diseases Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 7 – Image 10 – Large irregular defect surrounded by porous bone on the palatine of the same individual (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 8

Indicators of physical stress and habitual activities

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 1 – Benign cortical defects usually referred to as rhomboid fossae at the attachment sites of the costoclavicular ligaments on the inferior surfaces of the sternal ends of both clavicles in an adult male buried in the Roman period cemetery Vinkovci in the continental part of Croatia (Roman Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 2 – Bilateral rhomboid fossae in an adult male from the Roman period cemetery Relja in Zadar in Dalmatia (Roman Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 3 – Deep benign cortical defect at the insertion of the biceps brachii muscle on the right radius of a young male recovered from the Eraci cemetery from the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 4 – Benign cortical defect at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle on the right humerus of an adult male from the Dubravka – St. Barbara cemetery near Dubrovnik (Late Medieval Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 5 – Irregular-shaped Schmorl’s node on the inferior plate of the seventh thoracic vertebrae in a 30 to 40 years old male from the Koprivno – Kod Križa cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Early Modern Period; Novak and Šlaus, 2011).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 6 – Schmorl’s node on the inferior plate of the seventh thoracic vertebrae in an adult male from the Koprivno – Kod Križa cemetery from the Dalmatian hinterland (Early Modern Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 7 – Teeth facets caused by habitually holding objects (nails?) in the mouth in a 35 to 45 years old male recovered from the Medieval Korlat cemetery (Late Medieval Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 8 – Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) in an adult male from the Early Modern Period cemetery in Sisak. Although commonly called ‘‘tennis elbow’’ this overuse injury has been recorded in a variety of occupations including bricklayers, carpenters, plumbers, dentists, bakers, shoemakers and violinists (Early Modern Period).

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Indicators of physical stress Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 8 – Image 9 – Large bilateral squatting facets on the distal tibias of an adult female from the Medieval Kranj cemetery in Slovenia. Squatting facets occur when the foot is in hyperdorsiflexion – in other words when the toes and forefoot are raised towards the knee (Medieval Period).

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Chapter 9

Osteoarthritis

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Osteoarthritis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 9 – Image 1 – Severe osteoarthritis on the distal femur (most likely caused by a poorly healed antemortem fracture to the corresponding tibia) characterized by osteophytes, micro- and macro-porosity, and eburnation in a 40 to 50 year old female from the Late Medieval Dugopolje cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Osteoarthritis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 9 – Image 2 – Severe osteoarthritis characterized by micro- and macroporosity, and eburnation in 50 to 60 year old male from the Late Medieval Lištani cemetery in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Late Medieval Period).

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Osteoarthritis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 9 – Image 3 – Severe osteoarthritis characterized by osteophytes, macroporosity, and eburnation on the 5th cervical vertebrae in 50 to 60 year old male from the Late Medieval Lištani cemetery in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Late Medieval Period).

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Osteoarthritis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 9 – Image 4 – Severe osteoarthritis characterized by mild osteophyte development, and eburnation in the left shoulder of 30 to 40 year old male from the Late Medieval Udbina cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Osteoarthritis Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 9 – Image 5 – Severe osteoarthritis characterized by moderate osteophyte development, micro- and macroporosity, and eburnation in the proximal tibia of 50 to 60 year old female from the Late Medieval Zagvozd – Gradac cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10

Antemortem trauma

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Antemortem trauma Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 10 – Image 1 – Healed blunt force trauma to the cranium of a 50 to 60 year old male from the Late Medieval Kozica cemetery in Dalmatia (Late Medieval Period).

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Antemortem trauma Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 10 – Image 2 – Poorly healed antemortem fracture of the right radial diaphysis with pronounced displacement in a 50 to 60 year old male from the Late Medieval Kruševo cemetery in Dalmatia (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 3 – Poorly healed antemortem fractures of the left radial and ulnar diaphyses with pronounced angulations in a 30 to 40 year old male from the Late Medieval Udbina cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 4 – Antemortem traumas to both nasal bones in a 30 to 40 year old male from the Late Medieval Crkvari – St. Lawrence cemetery in Slavonia in continental Croatia. Note pronounced deviation of the nasal septum that may have been caused by the same blow that fractured the nasal bones (Late Medieval Period; Šlaus and Novak, 2006).

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Chapter 10 – Image 5 – Poorly healed antemortem fractures of the 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones in a 30 to 40 year old male from the Late Medieval Eraci cemetery in Dalmatia (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 6 – Close up of antemortem fractures to the 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones of the same individual. Note marked mediolateral and longitudinal displacement of the broken ends (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 7 – Well healed antemortem trauma to the cranium of a 30 to 40 year old male from the Late Medieval period Koprivno cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland. Note partially remodeled but still visible fracture lines (Late Medieval Period; Šlaus et al., 2012).

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Chapter 10 – Image 8 – Close up of the same injury. Note the healed margins of the fracture and the absence of any evidence of inflammation (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 9 – Fracture and non-union of the 7th left rib in a 30 to 40 year old male from the Early Medieval Glavice – Gluvine kuće cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 10 – Fracture and non-union of the left ulna in a 50 to 60 year old male from the Late Medieval Kozica cemetery in Dalmatia. Note also traumatic dislocation of the left elbow (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 11 – Close up of non-union of the left ulna in the same individual. Note extensive callus formation and remodeling of the broken ends of the bone that suggest a considerable amount of time had passed between the time that the fracture had been incurred and this individuals death. Of interest is the fact that this individual also exhibits a large healed depression fracture on the sagittal suture of the skull, spiral fractures of the right ulna and radius, a fracture of the left talus, and a fracture of the 5th left tarsal bone (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 10 – Image 12 – Subcondylar fracture of the left mandibular ramus with non-union in a 15 to 20 year old male from the Early Medieval cemetery in Stenjevec in continental Croatia. The fracture has completely separated the condyle from the mandibular ramus. There is new bone formation on both the outer and inner sides of the left ramus. The fragment is completely separated from the rest of the mandible with both elements exhibiting closed margins and no bone union (Early Medieval Period; Bedić and Šlaus, 2010).

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Chapter 10 – Image 13 – Close up of the same fracture from the lateral side. Of potential interest is the fact that this individual also exhibits chipped teeth (antemortem damage to the crown of the tooth) on the left side of both his maxilla and mandible. Small pieces of enamel are missing on the buccal sides of the left maxillary canine, both maxillary premolars, and the first maxillary molar, as well as on the labial side of the left mandibular first molar. There is also a well healed antemortem fracture to the left superior articular facet of the first cervical vertebra (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 11

Perimortem trauma

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Perimortem trauma Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

Chapter 11 – Image 1 – Sharp force trauma on the posterior side of the right scapula of a 10 to 15 year old subadult from the Late Medieval period cemetery in Čepin in continental Croatia (Šlaus et al., 2010). The injury was most likely inflicted with a saber. This individual is one of three subadults (out of a total of 22 individuals) that include 12 males, 7 females, and 3 subadults, that exhibit evidence of perimortem trauma in the Čepin skeletal series. These individuals were most likely victims of a raid carried out in 1441 by Ottoman Turkish light cavalry.

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Chapter 11 – Image 2 – Perimortem sharp force trauma to the anterior left side of the skull in a 20 to 30 year old male from Čepin (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 11 – Image 3 – Close up of the same injury. The cut is 49 mm long and was inflicted from above. It was most likely inflicted with a saber (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 11 – Image 4 – The same individual also exhibits a sharp force perimortem injury that bisected the right mandibular ramus, as well as the inferior portion of the right mastoideus (not shown).

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Chapter 11 – Image 5 – The same individual also exhibits a small, sharp force perimortem injury to the distal part of the first phalange of the left 4th finger.

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Chapter 11 – Image 6 – Right side of the skull of a 30 to 40 year old female from the Čepin cemetery. This individual exhibits a total of 11 relatively short, shallow (none have penetrated the cranial vault) sharp force perimortem injuries to the cranium (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 11 – Image 7 – View of the same skull from above showing the longest (22 mm), and deepest cut located on the right posterior part of the frontal bone.

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Chapter 11 – Image 8 – Close up of the same injury.

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Chapter 11 – Image 9 – The location of four sharp force injuries on the right side of the skull. Note that they are all shallow, relatively short, and parallel to each other. To some degree they are reminiscent of scalping injuries with, however, the important distinction that scalping injuries are horizontally oriented while these are vertical.

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Chapter 11 – Image 10 – The articulated pelvic bones of a 20 to 30 year old female from Čepin. This individual exhibits a total of 22 perimortem injuries (21 sharp force, and 1 penetrating injury) all of which are located on the innominates and proximal right femur. The most inferior cut is located on the anterolateral side of the right femur, 101 mm inferior of the lesser trochanter, while the most superior injury is located 14 mm inferior of the left iliac crest. All 22 injuries are, therefore, concentrated in an area of the skeleton that is approximately 270 mm long (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 11 – Image 11 – The proximal right femur of the same individual showing numerous sharp force perimortem injuries.

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Chapter 11 – Image 12 – Close up of some of the injuries to the femur. Note that these injuries were inflicted from below.

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Chapter 11 – Image 13 – Close up of the two deepest and largest injuries to the femur. The injuries are located on the lateral side of the femur and, similar to the previously shown ones, were inflicted from below. The injuries were most likely inflicted with a saber.

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Chapter 11 – Image 14 – Schematic representations of the sharp force perimortem injuries identified on the right femur.

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Chapter 12 – Image 15 – Schematic representations of the sharp force perimortem injuries identified on the right femur with the directions from which the injuries were inflicted. As is evident from this picture, eight (8) injuries are located on the lateral side of the femur and all have been inflicted from below. Five (5) sharp force perimortem injuries are located on the anterior side of the femur, and all have been inflicted from above.

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Chapter 11 – Image 16 – The right posterior side of the pelvic girdle exhibits three (3) perimortem injuries: two (2) sharp force injuries on the posterior part of the right ilium, and one (1) penetrating injury.

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Chapter 11 – Image 17 – The dorsal view of the penetrating injury to the right ilium. The injury is roughly oval in shape, and exhibits slight beveling on its posterior surface. Experiments carried out with Ottoman Turkish weapons curated at the History Museum in Zagreb suggest that this injury may have been produced with the beak of a war hammer.

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Chapter 11 – Image 18 – Close up of two sharp force injuries inflicted to the posterior right ilium. The shorter cut is 25 mm long, while the longer one measures 58 mm. This cut sliced off the posteriormedial part of the right ilium. Note that both injuries had been inflicted from below. The injuries were most likely inflicted with a saber.

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Chapter 11 – Image 19 – The left ilium exhibits six shallow, roughly parallel cuts on its anterior surface that were inflicted from above. Because of the concave nature of the anterior iliac surface 3 of the 6 cuts are discontinuous. It is, however, clear that each injury was the result of a single action, most likely a horizontal cut through the left abdominal area of the victim with a war knife whose point scraped along the anterior iliac surface.

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Chapter 11 – Image 20 – Schematic representations of the sharp force perimortem injuries inflicted to the left ilium.

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Chapter 12

Miscellaneous

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Chapter 12 – Image 1 – Pathological changes consistent with osteochondritis dissecans in the medial femoral condyles of a subadult aged between 13 to 15 years from the Early Medieval Glavice-Gluvine kuće cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland (Šlaus et al., 2010). The lesion on the right femoral condyle is an oval crater-like defect with well defined margins and a porous floor of rough trabecular bone. The defect is slightly larger than the one on the left side with an anteroposterior diameter of 24 mm and a transverse diameter of 19 mm. Careful analyses of all of the recovered osseous material from the grave failed to identify the displaced bone fragment (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 12 – Image 2 – Radiological image made with computed tomography in the sagittal direction of the right medial femoral condyle of the same individual. The right medial femoral condyle shows a well-demarcated radiolucent defect in the articular surface of the joint surrounded by a thin sclerotic repair zone (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 12 – Image 3 – Spina bifida occulta of the sacrum in an adult male from the Late Medieval Korlat cemetery in Dalmatia (Late Medieval Period).

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Chapter 12 – Image 4 – Ossified pleura found in the skeleton of an adult female from the Late Medieval Lištani cemetery in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Late Medieval Period).

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Miscellaneous Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

A

B

C

Chapter 12 – Image 5 – Ankylosing spondylitis in an adult male recovered from the Early Medieval cemetery Velim in Dalmatia (Šlaus et al., 2012): a) anterior view of the spinal column and pelvic girdle; b) antero-lateral (left side) view of fused thoracic vertebrae (T3-T7) and ribs; c) anterior view of the fused sacroiliac joints of the same individual; (Early Medieval Period).

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Chapter 12 – Image 6 – CT scan – close up of fused thoracic vertebrae and ribs.

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Chapter 12 – Image 7 – Radiographic image (anterior view) of fused lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joints from the same individual.

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Chapter 12 – Image 8 – Bone tumor (osteochondroma) on the anterior side of the neck of the right femur in an adult male recovered from the Early Medieval cemetery Lobor in northwestern Croatia (Early Medieval Period; Šlaus et al., 2000; Šlaus, 2002).

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Bibliography

153


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Bedić Ž, Šlaus M. 2010. Supernumerary teeth and pseudarthrosis of the mandible in a young male from the mediaeval cemetery in Stenjevec. Bull Int Assoc Paleodont 4: 4-10.

Filipović S. 2010. Kasnoantička nekropola u Zmajevcu. Osijek: Muzej Slavonije Osijek.

Jurić R. 2002. Novija istraživanja srednjovjekovnih groblja na zadarskom području. Histria Antiq 8: 295-312.

Jurić R. 2003. Radašinovci – Vinogradine 2002. Obavijesti HAD-a 2/2003: 83-84.

Krnčević Ž. 1999. Rezultati istraživanja srednjovjekovnih arheoloških lokaliteta na šibenskom području u godini 1997. i 1998. Obavijesti HAD-a 2/1999: 79-86.

Krnčević Ž. 2000. Sustavna arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu sv. Lovre u šibenskom Donjem polju – rezultati kampanja 1999. i 2000. Obavijesti HAD-a 3/2000: 122-126.

Novak M, Šlaus M. 2007. Učestalost i distribucija cribrae orbitaliae u kasnosrednjovjekovnoj populaciji iz Dugopolja. Starohrv prosvj 34: 451-475.

Novak M, Vyroubal V, Bedić Ž, Šlaus M. 2008. Antropološka analiza groblja Konjsko polje-Livade u kontekstu drugih ranosrednjovjekovnih groblja iz Dalmacije. Starohrv prosvj 35: 211-238.

Novak M, Šlaus M. 2010. Health and disease in a Roman walled city: an example of Colonia Iulia Iader. J Anthropol Sci 88:189-206.

Novak M, Šlaus M. 2011. Vertebral pathologies in two Early Modern period (16th-19th century) populations from Croatia. Am J Phys Anthropol 145: 270-281.

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Šlaus M. 2002. The Bioarchaeology of Continental Croatia. An analysis of human skeletal remains from the prehistoric to post-medieval periods. Oxford: Archaeopress, BAR International Series.

Šlaus M. 2006. Bioarheologija. Demografija, zdravlje, traume i prehrana starohrvatskih populacija. Zagreb: Školska knjiga.

Šlaus M. 2008. Osteological and dental markers of health in the transition from the Late Antique to the Early Medieval period in Croatia. Am J Phys Anthropol 136: 455-469.

Šlaus M, Orlić D, Pećina M. 2000. Osteochondroma in a skeleton from an 11th century Croatian cemetery. Croat Med J 41: 336-340.

Šlaus M, Pećina–Šlaus N, Brkić H. 2004. Life stress on the Roman limes in continental Croatia. Homo 54: 240-263.

Šlaus M, Novak M. 2006. Analiza trauma u srednjovjekovnim uzorcima iz Kliškovca i Crkvara. Pril Inst Arheol Zagrebu 23: 213-228.

Šlaus M, Bedić Ž, Vyroubal V. 2007. Forenzično–antropološka analiza ljudskih kostiju iz groba 1 s nalazišta Guran – Na križu u Istri – Davno počinjeno ubojstvo i primjer kako postmortalna oštećenja kostiju mogu oponašati ubojstvo. In: Bekić L, editor. Zaštitna arheologija na magistralnom plinovodu Pula–Karlovac. Zagreb: Denona. p 42-48.

Šlaus M, Novak M. 2007. A Case of Veneral Syphilis in the Modern Age Horizon of Graves near the Church of St. Lawrence in Crkvari. Pril Inst Arheol Zagrebu 24: 503-510.

Šlaus M, Cicvara-Pećina T, Lucijanić I, Pećina M, Strinović D. 2010. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee in a subadult from a medieval (ninth century AD) site in Croatia. Acta Clin Croat 49: 189-195.

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Šlaus M, Bedić Ž, Rajić Šikanjić P, Vodanović M, Domić Kunić A. 2011. Dental health at the transition from the Late antique to the Early medieval period on Croatia's eastern Adriatic coast. Int J Osteoarchaeol 21: 577-590.

Šlaus M, Novak M, Vyroubal V, Bedić Ž. 2010. The harsh life on the 15th century Croatia-Ottoman Empire military border: Analyzing and identifying the reasons for the massacre in Čepin. Am J Phys Anthropol 141: 358–372.

Šlaus M, Novak M, Bedić Ž, Strinović D. 2012. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the Eastern Adriatic from the Antique to the Late Medieval period (2nd-16th century AD). Am J Phys Anthropol 149: 26-38.

Šlaus M, Novak M, Čavka M. 2012. Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis in medieval skeletal series from Croatia. Rheumatol Int 32: 3985-3992.

Vodanović M, Peroš K, Zukanović A, Knežević M, Novak M, Šlaus M, Brkić H. 2012. Periodontal diseases at the transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia. Arch Oral Biol 57: 1362-1376.

Watson CL, Popescu E, Boldsen J, Šlaus M, Lockwood DNJ. 2009. Single nucleotid polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. Leprae DNA. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7547. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007547.

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Index

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Index Atlas of Bioarchaeology Šlaus, Novak, Vyroubal, Bedić, Brkić, Vodanović

A abscess, 58 amber, 47 animal bone, 45 Ankaran, 42 ankylosing spondylitis, 149 antemortem trauma, 110 anthropological analysis, 19, 26

cribra orbitalia, 65, 66, 70, 71 Crkvari, 82, 110 Croatia, 4, 31, 33, 34, 45, 50, 51, 52, 68, 69, 70, 71, 82, 87, 110, 118, 123, 152 Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1, 3, 4, 21, 22

Č Čepin, 123, 124, 128, 132

D

B belt buckle, 35 Bezdanjača cave, 34 bird's beak, 43 blunt force trauma, 107 bone tumor, 152 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 56, 100, 101, 148 bracelet, 51 Bronze Age Period, 34 bronze artifacts, 33 burial, 17, 32

Dalmatia, 11, 15, 36, 41, 46, 47, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 66, 72, 75, 83, 88, 107, 108, 111, 116, 147, 149 dental wear, 56 discoloration, 34 DNA testing, 27 drying, 25 Dubravka – St. Barbara, 90 Dubrovnik, 90 Dugopolje, 65, 99

E C callus, 117 canine, 119 caries, 55, 57 cavitations, 82 cemetery, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 31, 33, 36, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115, 116, 123, 128, 145, 147, 148 chipped teeth, 119 clavicle, 18, 87 cloacal opening, 78 collecting samples, 27 comb, 45 computed tomography, 146 condyle, 118, 145, 146 cortex, 37, 82 cortical defect, 87, 89, 90 costoclavicular ligaments, 87 cranial vault, 128 cranium, 107, 113, 128

ear bones, 36 Early Iron Age, 38 Early Medieval cemetery, 11, 15, 36, 44, 55, 58, 59, 60, 72, 83, 84, 115, 118, 119, 145, 146, 149, 152 Early Modern Period, 48, 61, 75, 80, 81, 82, 91, 92, 94 earring, 42, 46, 50 eburnation, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103 elbow, 94, 116 enamel, 67, 68, 69, 72, 119 enamel hypoplasia, 67, 68, 69, 72 Eraci, 43, 76, 89, 111 excavation, 14

F facets, 93, 95 facies leprosa, 83 femoral shaft, 76 femur, 35, 99, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 152 fetus, 18 fibula, 77, 78, 82 finger, 127 fracture, 99, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 119

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frontal bone, 129

M macroporosity, 100, 101, 103 malleus, 36 mandible, 31, 32, 118, 119 mandibular ramus, 118, 126 maxilla, 31, 32, 61, 83, 119 metacarpal bones, 111, 112 metal coins, 31 microporosity, 99, 100, 103 molar, 55, 57, 58, 119

G glass beads, 51 Glavice – Gluvine kuće, 115, 145 golden threads, 49 grave architecture, 13 Guran na Križu, 44

H helmet, 34 History Museum in Zagreb, 139 hooks and eyes, 52 humerus, 18, 90 hyperdorsiflexion, 95

N Narona, 41 nasal aperture, 83 nasal bones, 110 nasal septum, 110 necklace, 51 Nin – St. Anselm, 79

I ilium, 18, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142 incinerated human bones, 38 incisor, 59, 67, 72 incus, 36 involucrum, 78 Istria, 44

O occlusal abrasions, 60 oral cavity, 31 Osijek, 45 osteoarthritis, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103 osteochondritis dissecans, 145 osteochondroma, 152 osteological collection, 21, 22, 32, 85 osteological material, 23, 25 osteomyelitis, 77, 82 osteophyte, 99, 101, 102, 103 Ottoman Turkish light cavalry, 123 Ottoman Turkish weapons, 139 oxidation marks, 31, 32, 33, 35

K Kaptol – Gradci, 38 Konjsko polje, 55 Koprivno, 91, 92, 113 Koprivno – Kod Križa, 92 Korlat, 66, 93, 147 Kozica, 107, 116 Kranj, 67, 95 Kruševo, 108 kyphosis, 79

P L

palatine, 84 paper packages, 23 pelvic bones, 132 pelvic girdle, 18, 33, 138, 149 pendant, 47 penetrating injury, 132, 138, 139 periostitis, 75, 76, 82 phalange, 127 phoenix, 47 pleura, 148 porosity, 99 porous bone, 84

Late Antique, 44 Late Medieval Period, 43, 49, 56, 65, 66, 76, 77, 79, 89, 90, 93, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 124, 125, 128, 132, 147, 148 lateral epicondylitis, 94 leprosy, 83 Lištani, 56, 100, 101, 148 lytic lesion, 81

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Pott’s gibbus, 79 Požega, 38, 61 pre-auricular sulci, 17 premolar, 119 pubic bone pits, 17

subadult, 33, 41, 43, 65, 66, 70, 71, 72, 76, 81, 123, 145 syphilis, 82

Š Šibenik, 15 Štrbinci, 70, 71

R Radašinovci, 11, 12, 13, 14, 83 radial diaphysis, 108 radiographic image, 151 radiological image, 146 radius, 89, 117 Relja, 31, 33, 46, 47, 57, 68, 69, 88 removing earth, 24 rhomboid fossae, 87, 88 rib, 18, 81, 115, 149 Rijeka, 48, 80, 81 Roman Period, 31, 32, 33, 41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 57, 68, 69, 70, 71, 87, 88 rosary beads, 48

T talus, 117 tarsal bone, 117 teeth, 56, 60, 68, 69, 93, 119 tennis elbow, 94 tibia, 82, 99, 103 tibial shaft, 75 tooth crowns, 34 tooth loss, 61 tooth roots, 34 tooth trauma, 59 tortoise shell, 41 tuberculosis, 79, 80, 81

S

U

saber, 123, 125, 135, 140 sacroiliac joints, 149, 151 sacrum, 147 sagittal suture, 117 scalping injuries, 131 scapula, 123 Schmorl’s node, 91, 92 scorpion, 44 sequestrum, 78 sharp force trauma, 123, 124 Sisak, 94 skull, 34, 42, 46, 117, 124, 128, 129, 131 Slavonia, 70, 71, 110 Slovenia, 42, 67, 95 spina bifida occulta, 147 spinal tuberculosis, 79, 80 St. Dominic’s church, 75 St. Lawrence, 15, 82, 110 staining, 31, 33, 34 stapes, 36 Stenjevec, 118

Udbina, 49, 77, 102, 109 ulna, 18, 116, 117 ulnar diaphyses, 109

V Velim, 36, 58, 59, 60, 72, 149 vertebrae, 79, 80, 91, 92, 101, 149, 151 Vinkovci, 87

W war hammer, 139

Z Zadar, 31, 33, 46, 47, 57, 68, 69, 75, 88 Zagvozd – Gradac, 103 Zmajevac, 50, 51, 52

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