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Vol. 3 / Issue 1 / May 2016

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO URBAN INCLUSION

Edited by

Paola Alfaro d’Alençon Daniela Konrad Felipe Link Roberto Moris

Johannes Novy Mika Savela Hendrik Tieben Francisca Zegers

REFLECTIONS REFLECTIONS


Vol. 3 / Issue 1 / May 2016

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO URBAN INCLUSION

Berlin Santiago Hong Kong Edited by

Paola Alfaro d’Alençon Daniela Konrad Felipe Link Roberto Moris

Johannes Novy Mika Savela Hendrik Tieben Francisca Zegers

REFLECTIONS REFLECTIONS


R EF L E C T I ON S Vo l u m e 3 / Issue 1 / May 2 0 1 6 I s s u e Ed i t ors Pa o l a Al f a r o d’ A l e n ço n D a n i e l a Ko nrad Felipe Link R o b e r t o M ori s J o h a n n e s Novy M i k a Sa v e l a H e n d r i k Ti eb e n F r a n c i s c a Z e g e rs Se r i e s Ed i t ors M i k a Sa v e l a H e n d r i k Ti eb e n Se r i e s D e s ign M i k a Sa v e l a 2 0 1 6 © S c hoo l of A rch i tectu re, CUHK Pu b l i s h e r Sc h o o l o f Archi tectu re T h e C h i n e s e U ni versi ty o f H on g Kong AI T B, S h a t i n , N ew Te rri ori e s H o n g K o n g S A R , C h i na h t t p : / / w w w.arch.cu h k.e d u .h k a r c h i t e c t u r e@cu h k.e d u .h k Tel : + 8 5 2 3 9 4 3 6 5 8 3 F a x : + 8 5 2 26 0 3 5 2 6 7 M . Sc . i n U rb a n D esi gn P rog ram m e h t t p : / / w w w.arch.cu h k.e d u .h k/u r bandesign Al l r i g h t s r ese rved . N o p a r t o f th i s pu b l i ca ti on may be r epr oduced w i t h o u t t h e p ri o r pe rmi ssi o n o f the publisher. I SS N 2 2 2 7 - 8 0 4 4 (PA P E R B A C K ) I SS N 2 3 0 4 -1 6 2 5 (P D F ) 2nd Edition Pr i n t e d i n H o n g K o n g


CONTENTS I N T R OD U C T ION I n te rdi sci p l i n a ri ty C l uster Tim eline

3 4- 15 7- 9

T he Qu e st fo r (U rb a n ) Inclusion and the Case for Intedisciplin ar i ty - J ohannes N ov y

10

T he U rb a n L a b A pp roach: Inter disciplinar y Teaching in Built E nv i r onm ent Educ ati on D an i el a K o n rad

12

C L U ST E R ME E T IN G 1 - Santiago

18- 59

I n trod u cti on - F e l i p e Link

20

I n te g rate d P u b l i c S p aces as Inclusion Str ategy: To p i cs an d C ase S tu dy - Felipe Link & Rober to M or is

30

P u b l i c S p a ce s: A T he or etical Appr oach - Elke Schlack

32

N ei gh b o rho o d R eco ver y Pr ogr am m e - Antonio Fr itis

34

T he C ha l l e n g e s o f Municipal M anagam ent - Gonzalo Dur an

36

J un to a l B arri o F ou n dation - Car m en Glor ia Tr oncoso

38

P l an n i ng S trate g i es and Sustainable Ur ban M anagem ent in th e Co mmu n e o f P rovi de ncia - Nicolas Valenzuela

40

J u a n A nto n i o R i o s N eighbour hood - Constanza Ulr iksen

42

Hu e mul N e i gh b o u rho od - Valentina Salgado

46

T h e U rb a n L a b o rato ry Appr oach Pao l a A l fa ro d ’ A l e n con & Daniela Konr ad

50

Re -en vi si o n i ng C ommunity Spaces in Sai Ying Pun - Hendr ik Ti eben

54

Ne w Tow ns a n d C ommunities: Exper iences fr om Ur ban Design W orksho p s i n H on g Kong - M ika Savela & M o Kar Him

56

T H E B A B E L P R OJ E C T S UPPLEM ENT C L U ST E R ME E T IN G 2 - Hong Kong I N / E X Inte rdi sci p l i n ar y Appr oaches to Ur ban Inclusion I n trod u cti on - H e n d ri k Tieben

60- 89 90- 141 94

L and In j usti ce a n d th e Um br ella M ovem ent - Edwar d Yiu Chung- y i m

104

T he R i se o f C ommu n ity Activism - Essy Baniassad

108

I n te g rate d B u t C on te sted: An Inter disciplinar y Per spective on the R ai l Stati on Ar ea R ed e ve l op men t P roj ect ‘Stuttgar t 21’ - Johannes Novy

11 0

t h e E d g e C on d i ti o n + the [vulner able] – the Case of [Johannes bur g] + [Pr etor i a] S o l am Mkh a b e l a

11 4

T he U nd e rstan d i ng o f Space by South Asian Youth in Hong Kong P a u l O ’ C on n o r

11 6

A b se n ce o f C ommu n i ty Planning and People’s Right to the Ci ty Mee K a m N g

11 8

E xp l ori n g a n d L e a rni ng fr om Conflictive Rationalities in Ur ban D ev el opm ent P a o l a A l fa ro d ’ A l e n con

120

Mea su ri n g U rb a n In clusion. An Inter disciplinar y Appr oach for Ac hi ev i ng U rb a n In cl usi on - R o ber to M or is & Felipe Link

124

H K S tud y Tri p s b y F rancisca Zeger s & Felipe Valenzuela R E F L E C T ION S A N D C ONCLUSIONS L i s t o f Imag e s a n d Il l u strations

128- 141 142- 147 148


4

Introduction

Urban Lab+ Interdisciplinarity Cluster

* The Urban Lab+ network was funded by the European Union’s Erasmus Mundus Action 3 programme in the years 2012–2015. It includes Urban Laboratories from across the world at eight Higher Education Institutions: Technische Universität Berlin (Germany), University College London (United Kingdom), Università della Calabria (Italy), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (Chile), University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute (India), Chinese University of Hong Kong (China) (http://www.urbanlabplus.eu).

W it hin t he c o n t e x t o f a w o r l d e v e r m or e ur ban a n d a s e e m i n g l y e v e r gr owing num b e r a n d m a g n i t u d e o f ur ban c halle n g e s , s e v e r a l H i g h e r Educ at ion I n s t i t u t i o n s a l l o v e r t h e wor ld hav e i n r e c e n t y e a r s e s t a b l i s h e d s o- c alled “ U r b a n L a b o r a t o r i e s ” t o ex pand a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c om pet enc e s i n t h e r e a l m s o f ar c hit ec t ur e , u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d o t h e r built env ir on m e n t d i s c i p l i n e s . T h e s e unit s hav e i n c o m m o n , t h a t t h e y a r e dedic at ed t o i n t e r - o r t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y r es ear c h an d l e a r n i n g , e m p h a s i s e hands - on c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e s e a r c h and educ at i o n , a n d b r i n g t o g e t h e r t he dis c iplin a r y r e s o u r c e s o f t h e ac adem y wi t h t h e p r a c t i c a l s p h e r e s of ar c hit ec t u r e , u r b a n d e s i g n a n d planning. Funded by t h e E r a s m u s M u n d u s pr ogr am m e o f t h e E u r o p e a n U n i o n , t he I nt er nat i o n a l N e t w o r k o f U r b a n Labor at or ie s : U r b a n L a b +* w a s es t ablis hed i n 2 0 1 2 t o b r i n g U r b a n Labor at or ie s f r o m d i ff e r e n t p a r t s o f t he wor ld t o g e t h e r, c r e a t e a p l a t f o r m


5

for m u tua l exch an ge and lear ning, and re flect up on cri t ic al ques t ions conce rnin g to da y’s s t at us and f ut ur e prospe cts of b uilt e nv ir onm ent research a nd ed ucat ion. Foc us s ing on key the mes rela t ed t o built envir o nme nt e du ca t ion, t hr ee c lus t er s structu red the ne twor k ’s ac t iv it ies : inter discip lina rity, pr ac t ic e- or ient at ion, and in tern atio na liza t ion. Cr os s c ut t ing throu gh all clusters is t he is s ue of urba n in clu sio n a nd ex c lus ion whic h is consid ere d a formid able c hallenge and figur es pro mine ntly in c ur r ent debat es in th e re alms of a rc hit ec t ur e, ur ban plannin g a s we ll as public polic y. S evera l sta te a nd non- s t at e ac t or s at all levels of g overn anc e inc luding t he U nit ed Na tion s Hu m an Set t lem ent s P rog ramme (UN-Habit at ) and t he E uro pe an Commiss ion hav e em br ac ed the q ue stio n o f ho w t o ac hiev e m or e inclusive forms of u r ban dev elopm ent as a majo r ob jective and m any hav e called atte ntio n to t he need f or m or e innova tive thin kin g t owar ds t he v is ion of an inclusive city.

The Clu s t e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t opic of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y c o n s i s t s of t he U r b a n R e s e a r c h a n d D e s i g n Labor ato r y ( U - L a b ) a t t h e Te c h n i s c h e Univ er si t ä t B e r l i n , G e r m a n y, t h e Xlab: La b o r a t o r y o f A p p l i e d U r b a n Res ear c h a t t h e P o n t i f i c i a U n i v e r s i d a d Cat ólic a d e C h i l e i n S a n t i a g o , as well a s t h e U r b a n D e s i g n a n d Ur ban S t u d i e s p r o g r a m o r g a n i z e d by t he S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e & Depar t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y a n d Res our c e M a n a g e m e n t a t T h e C h i n e s e Univ er si t y o f H o n g K o n g . B r i n g i n g t oget he r s c h o l a r s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s a s well as d o c t o r a l a n d m a s t e r s t u d e n t s f r om a w i d e r a n g e o f d i s c i p l i n a r y a n d geogr ap h i c a l c o n t e x t s , t h e g r o u p inv olv es p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a b r o a d s pec t r um o f e x p e r t i s e a n d e x p e r i e n c e r egar din g i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a s w e l l a s t r ans dis c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h e s t o b u i l t env ir onm e n t e d u c a t i o n . T h e y w o r k i n diff er en t c o n t e x t s a n d w i t h d i ff e r e n t s t udent g r o u p s , b u t s h a r e a c o m m o n int er es t i n p r o d u c i n g i n n o v a t i v e t eac hing a n d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s


6

t hat exte nd be yo nd the c las s r oom and bring the rea l world int o ur ban educat ion . S tart ing p oin t for o ur C lus t er wor k was t he q ue stio n o f ho w we c ould use an inte rdiscip lina ry Ur ban Lab approach to ad dre ss ur ban inc lus ion. I n a sequen ce of th ree c ons ec ut iv e work mee ting s Urb an La b+ m em ber s and invited expe rts p resent ed and elaborat ed o n in tercon nec t ed t hem es related to inte r- an d tra ns dis c iplinar y t eaching a nd lea rnin g a s well as research – an d th eir signif ic anc e f or achievin g a more inc lus iv e c it y. T hese mee ting s we re n ot s o m uc h concerned with th e p rom ot ion of a part icular a pp roa ch to i nt er - and t ransdisc iplin arity, b ut r at her s ought t o i nvite dis cu ssion ab ou t t he pr os pec t s and prob lems asso cia ted wit h int er and transdiscip lina ry m et hodologies and pedago gie s a nd reflec t upon t he differ en ce s a nd sim ilar it ies in t he way in ter- a nd tran s dis c iplinar it y i s understo od an d a pp roac hed in different con texts.

This book let p r e s e n t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s as well as c r u c i a l f i n d i n g s f r o m t he net wor k . I t i n t e n d s t o g i v e s om e indic a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e way s t hr oug h w h i c h i n t e r - a n d t r ans dis c ipl i n a r i t y c a n e n r i c h b u i l t env ir onm en t p e d a g o g y a n d r e s e a r c h but als o s um m a r i z e s c h a l l e n g e s a n d bar r ier s iden t i f i e d b y U r b a n L a b + m em ber s an d i n v i t e d e x p e r t s .


7

URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER

URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER


URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER

2nd Symposium

Inaugural Symposium Berlin

Calabria

Santiago

2013

(The Babel Project) 1. T he I nte rdiscip lina rity C lus t er of the Urba n L ab + p roj ec t

2.

was launche d in the ina ugur al

Univ er s i t i e s f r o m t h e

symposiu m at th e Techn is c he

c lus t er p r e s e n t e d

Universitä t Berlin , in Ma r c h

t heir f ir s t f i n d i n g s a n d

2013. T he First cluster m eet ing

c ollabo r a t i o n r e s u l t s a t

happened in Decemb er 2013

t he s ec o n d U r b a n L a b +

at the P on tifica l Univers it y of

s y m pos i u m , h e l d a t t h e

Chile, in San tiag o.

Univ er s i t y o f C a l a b r i a i n Cos enz a , R e n d e , I t a l y i n t he s um m e r o f 2 0 1 4 .

URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER


URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER

Final Symposium London

Hong Kong

2015

3. T he se co nd clu ste r m eet ing w as ho ste d b y Scho ol of A rchitecture an d th e Fut ur e

4.

C ities In stitu e a t the The

The f inal p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e p r o j e c t

C hinese Un ive rsity of Hong

t ook plac e a t t h e s y m p o s i u m o r g a n i z e d

K ong in De ce mbe r 2014.

by t he UC L U r b a n L a b i n L o n d o n , i n Sept em be r 2 0 1 5 .

5. This book let gat her s a s am p l i n g o f w o r k a n d f i n d i n g s f r o m 2013- 2015, inc luding t ex t s , r e s e a r c h , p r o j e c t s a n d c a s e s t udies f r om t he global par t n e r u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h e v a r i o u s ac t iv it ies and c onc lus ions .

URBAN

LAB+

THE

INTERDISCIPLINARITY

CLUSTER


10

The Quest for (Urban) Inclusion and the Case for Intedisciplinarity

Johannes NOVY Ph.D., Urban Planner, Lecturer Technische Universität Berlin School of Planning and Geography Cardiff University

Fr equent ly e m p l o y e d b u t r a r e l y s at is f ac t or il y d e f i n e d , i n c l u s i o n a n d int er dis c ipli n a r i t y h a v e i n f i l t r a t e d t h e s c holar ly v o c a b u l a r y a s b u z z w o r d s t hat ar e f r eq u e n t l y t a k e n o n w i t h o u t ques t ioning w h y a n d h o w t h e y a r e us ed. They a r e n o t d e v o i d o f , b u t “ f uz z y “ in m e a n i n g w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t heir under s t a n d i n g a n d a p p l i c a t i o n c an v ar y c on s i d e r a b l y d e p e n d i n g o n wher e and b y w h o m t h e y a r e u s e d . O pening up t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m is under s t a n d i n g o r m i s u s e , f u z z y language is s o m e t h i n g t o b e w a r y about but at t h e s a m e t i m e c a n a l s o per f or m pos i t i v e f u n c t i o n s , e . g . b y opening up o f “ c o n c e p t u a l t e r r a i n s ” f o r dis c us s ion a n d d e l i b e r a t i o n ” ( G r a b h e r and Has s ink 2 0 0 3 ) . I n t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n an at t em pt w a s m a d e t o a) pr ov ide s o m e – f u z z y - i n s i g h t s c onc er ning t h e m u l t i p l e m e a n i n g s a n d c ont r ov er s ie s s u r r o u n d i n g ( u r b a n ) inc lus ion an d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y ; a n d b) elabor at e o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p bet ween int e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y a s a m e a n s


11

and (u rba n) in clu sio n as an objec t and objective o f urb an r es ear c h/ pr ac t ic e. It argu ed tha t the two t er m s ’ fuzzin ess is a fa ct b ut t hat t his fuzzin ess sho uld no t be us ed as an excuse n ot to en ga ge in r ef lec t ion and a im for g rea ter pr ec is ion and clarity. Sign ifica ntly, t he lat t er m us t not n ecessa rily me an t o agr ee on one sing le d efin ition but what is indisp en sa ble is •

an awa ren ess o f t he t er m s ’ multip le me an ings and inte rpre tatio ns and •

so me sort o f co m m on gr ound co ncern ing the ir c ont ent s and bo un da ries of a pplic at ion upon which sub se qu ent dis c us s ions c an be fruitfu lly b as ed. H ence , the co ntrib ut ion r ef r ained from a rgu ing the ca s e f or par t ic ular definition s, o r ad din g new def init ions to t he ple tho ra th at alr eady ex is t . Inst ead , it pre se nte d a c r it ic al overvie w of th e mo s t pr om inent

c ons t r uct i o n s o f - a n d a p p r o a c h e s t o - “ inc lusi o n “ a n d “ i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y “ in t er m s o f t h e i r o r i g i n s , r e c e p t i o n and r am i f i c a t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e r ec ur r in g e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e c o m m o n t o m os t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t h a v e been pu t f o r w a r d . I n r e g a r d t o s o c i a l inc lus io n , t h e l a t t e r i n v o l v e s f o r ex am ple t h e e m p h a s i s o n t h e n e e d f or a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , d y n a m i c , a n d c om plex u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ( u r b a n ) dev elop m e n t . To w h a t e x t e n t t h e c onc ept p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l f r a m e w o r k t o guide p o l i c y a n d r e s e a r c h i s m eanwh i l e – n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f i t s v aguene s s - c o n t e s t e d . Wh a t ’s n o t c ont es t e d i s t h a t t he m ult i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y of ur ban a n d s o c i a l c h a l l e n g e s , o l d and new, t h a t l e d t o t h e a s c e n d a n c y of “ inc lu s i o n ” a s a s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n and per s p e c t i v e a r e r e a l ; r e q u i r e our at t e n t i o n a n d d e m a n d f o r int er disc i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e s c ollabor a t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s dis c iplin e s - i f w e w a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d and add r e s s t h e m .


12

The Urban Lab Approach: Interdisciplinary Teaching in Built Environment Education

Daniela KONRAD Architect, Dr.-Ing. Urban Research and Design Laboratory Technische Universität Berlin

Interdisciplinary teaching in built environment education On the one hand, the interdisciplinary approach is considered a key concept for teaching curricula (Jones, 2009) and many higher education institutions have established a variety of interdisciplinary teaching set-ups to train a new generation of built environment professionals. On the other hand, disciplines have survived for so long in the academic world because they serve a very useful function of constraining what the academic has to think about (Bruce et al. 2004). While there is no consensus definition of interdisciplinary education, the basic understanding draws on the involvement of two or more disciplines. Furthermore, interdisciplinary insights are not gained by mere combination or supplement of disciplinary particularities (Frodeman 2010) but are achieved by integration, interlinking, as well as interaction of interdisciplinary knowledge. This said, discussions on interdisciplinarity


13

need to start with an understanding of what constitutes disciplinary insights: Disciplines provide a shared language and a set of tools for how to frame and solve a problem, but also for what counts as relevant and evident (Petts et al. 2004). Thus, disciplines specify and order knowledge but also, if necessary, disqualify and invalidate. Against this backdrop, first of all, interdisciplinary approaches in teaching need to make sure that students have or are provided with sufficient disciplinary knowledge. Only on that basis, interdisciplinary education is enabling students to draw on disciplinary perspectives and integrate insights into a more complex and comprehensive understanding to frame and solve a problem – without isolating them from the core of their field and therewith from inherent power structures. But it should also not be neglected that the academic understanding of disciplines is constituted on the basis of a, as Pierce (1991) puts it, „highly abstract phenomenon, excluding too large a number of people with interest in

the subject.” As a consequence, students are exposed to an exclusive system with specific norms and well-established boundaries, which has been defined by the academic landscape. However, science has to permit to generating knowledge that can contribute to solving current problems and therefore needs to involve know-how available across society (Nowotny, Scott, Gibbons 2001). Discussing interdisciplinary – or in that sense transdisciplinary (Frodeman 2010) – education today requires therefore also to reassess relevant actors in the disciplinary fields as well the inclusion of knowledge of non-academics. Looking at the built environment disciplines, it can be noted that they are synthetic disciplines engaging in the transformation of our living environment, encompassing all fields of our lived reality and therewith the entire realm of human activity. They comprise several disciplinary professions as urban planning, urban design, architecture, landscape architecture but also civil engineering and so forth. While each


14

of these disciplines is linked in multifaceted ways with each other, they focus on different aspects of the built environment, looking at different scales and time frames. Thus, it can be argued that the built environment disciplines do not base on a shared language or understanding of what is relevant or not. Neither do they base on the same ways of thinking and working. Therefore, scholars have pointed out already that the built environment disciplines are inherently cross-disciplinary fields, merging methods of research, education and expertise to tackle the complex tasks presented by contemporary urban and architectural conditions (Chapman 2009). The question if the crossdisciplinary potentials and opportunities have been exploited is therefore crucial to an interdisciplinary approach in built environment education (Youngblood 2007). While built environment disciplines are in that sense also considered „‚bridge‘-disciplines“ (Yocom et al. 2012), offering practice-oriented education to prepare students for their future tasks and diverse fields of action within the evolving nature of the profession, we might want to follow Chapman (2009) and ask: “Are these different disciplinary horizons and goals sufficiently and explicitly appreciated? Do they divide us as much as our institutional, disciplinary and professional structures do? How can education […] programmes be devised that help to bridge the complex borders and divisions that exist, in what should arguably be a more engaging and holistic process?“

theoretical and practical knowledge. This continues, as new educational concepts are adapting pedagogical frameworks to comply with the evolving nature of the profession.

Quintessentially, the first issue we should tackle when we talk about interdisciplinary work in the built environment disciplines is, if we have exploited cross-disciplinary potentials and opportunities. But it also true that built environment disciplines draw on the tradition to look at and learn from further disciplines. Theoretical knowledge as well as methods are derived or acquired from disciplines as geography, sociology, cultural sciences, or the arts (Frank 2006; Konrad 2012). In that sense, built environment education always offered different foci in equipping students with

(1) First of all, interdisciplinary approaches combine relevant knowledge(s) on urban spaces and future development needs from different disciplines. They can therefore be considered a relevant strategy to comprehensively tackle today‘s increasingly complex urban challenges and multilayered city development needs.

The Urban Laboratory approach Specifically, the question that is raised in the framework of Urban Lab+ is how an interdisciplinary teaching approach can facilitate or enhance a more comprehensive and inclusive engagement in urban developments. Departing from what has been stated in the Urban Lab+ project guidelines, Higher Education Institutions all over the world have in recent years established so-called Urban Laboratories to expand and strengthen their competences in the realms of built environment disciplines to respond to the complex challenges associated with today’s urban age. These units have in common that they are situated outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries of academic programs and are specifically dedicated to inter- or transdisciplinary research and learning, putting emphasis on collaborative research and education, and bringing together the disciplinary resources of the academy with the practical spheres of architecture, urban design and planning. In the framework of our Cluster’s focus, the question needs to be raised why the inter- or transdisciplinary approach is of interest for Urban Laboratories. The aspects that are of interest to consider are at least threefold:

(2) Actors in urban developments are becoming progressively manifold and multi-sectored, bringing in expectations from various fields and spheres of knowledge. Interdisciplinary


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approaches allow to understand different positions and to stimulate debate as response to the perspectives of others. Transdisciplinary approaches provide furthermore the possibility to enable local actors to partake in planning processes. (3) Demands for new problem-oriented ways of working are raised to provide feasible city development solutions. Interdisciplinary approaches provide a test-ground for innovative ways of working to combine multiple framings and methods for problem solving. Unsurprisingly, high expectations are imposed on interdisciplinary education to provide students with adequate knowledge to cope with and satisfy demands of future planning and building practice. However, as scholars point out (Chapman 2009; Yocom et al. 2012; Wood 1999), precisely the enabling of students to engage within prevailing urban tasks is a challenge that only few interdisciplinary approaches tackle until today. The endeavour of universities to establish interdisciplinary teaching and learning environments is in fact facing a series of challenges: (1) The extent to which communication and understanding is feasible depends as well on one’s own disciplinary skills and perception as on a common knowledge base. According to Rambow and Bromme (2003; 2000) the essential cognitive condition of interdisciplinary work lies in drawing a realistic picture of the possibilities and borders of the other discipline. On this basis we can estimate the value of this discipline for our own work, without being at the same time defeated by the illusion that our knowledge on the other discipline complies with expert knowledge and that external assessment is not necessary any more. As a consequence, everybody involved in interdisciplinary approaches is expert and layman at the same time. This does not only include students but also teachers and non-academic experts. (2) Established teaching formats need to be questioned or adapted and new formats needs to be incorporated in order to enable interdisciplinary competences and the preparation of

students to understand and work with complex urban issues. In fact, there are no substantive (or autonomous) methods for interdisciplinary education. Teaching formats range from interdisciplinary educational teams in lecture-based as well as studio-based approaches to multi-method approaches including partnerships with external multi-sectoral experts and communities. Furthermore, interdisciplinary education may comprise cross-disciplinary student teams. While the range of currently practiced teaching formats illustrate that comprehensive urban knowledge can only be generated in interdisciplinary teaching and learning alliances, it is however not agreed upon that these alliances operate on the basis of dialogue and cooperation. (3) Last but not least, educational goals need to be negotiated and maybe re-defined. Instead of equipping students with constraint knowledge and a well-defined set of tools for urban developments, interdisciplinary education rather enables students to understand complex urban dynamics and to debate solutions with actors from various fields. Therewith, the equipment of students not only with hard skills but also with soft skills – as empathy, relationship building, but often also negotiation, public speaking or conflict management – is becoming essential. At the same time, the actual testing and application of knowledge is useful to understand the operation of an interdisciplinary team along with the specialisation to accomplish specific goals. As well experimentation as evaluation of results with the interdisciplinary team is essential to learn for future teaching formats. Following the idea of Schön (1983), that “even when a problem has been constructed, it may escape the categories of applied science because it presents itself as unique or unstable” (see “wicked problems”, Rittel et al. 1969), it can be argued that the challenge for education is to develop curricula that enable students to develop comprehensive knowledge as well as acquire methods through active and case-based or problembased learning – or as Chapman (2009) has pointed out: “contextual appraisal


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could provide the basis for active interdisciplinary project work and more holistic and integrated learning”. In fact, it is necessary that students explore and understand actual issues of our built environment and practice problem framing because – borrowing again from Schön (1983) – “when ends are fixed and clear, then the decision to act can present itself as an instrumental problem. But when ends are confused and conflicting, there is as yet no ‘problem’ to solve”. Obviously, if we want to further discuss case-based learning, the local communities are taking a great stake; and additional questions need to be raised: How can local actors become an active part of transdisciplinary educational approaches? In that sense we need to reflect engagement strategies as well as assets. The questions need to be, who is collaborating on what and in what way is the curriculum really affected? And how can reliable cooperations with partners outside the universities be set-up and which modes of cooperation are suitable? However, the interest in opening up

academic disciplines to include local actors requires not only that universities become more pro-active and do outreach to local communities, but that institutional commitment is clearly defined and ensured (Robinson et al. 2012). Taking these reflections further, Urban Laboratories have the potential to not only be regarded as new pedagogical frameworks being set up to practice inter- or transdisciplinary education. As units situated outside the boundaries of academic programs they can operate as test-grounds for new teaching curricula, driving current knowledge and practice on interdisciplinary education further. The discussions raised amongst the partners of the Urban Lab+ project support this approach: While first insights on interdisciplinary teaching have been gained, the spectrum of questions on the challenges and potentials has not yet been answered.


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Bell, S. (2012). Educating Professionals for Practice in a Complex World. A Challenge for Engineering and Planning Schools. In: Planning Theory and Practice, 13(3), 475–479. Bromme, R. (2000). Beyond one’s own perspective: The psychology of cognitive interdisciplinarity. In: Weingart, P. & Stehr, N. (Eds.), Practising interdisciplinarity, Toronto, 115–133. Bruce, A., Lyall, C., Tait, J., & Williams, R. (2004). Interdisciplinary integration in Europe: The case of the Fifth Framework programme. In: Futures, 36 (4), 457–470. Chapman, David W. (2009): Knowing our Places? Contexts and Edges in Integrating Disciplines in Built Environment Education. Journal for Education in the Built Environment, 4 (2). 9–28. Frank, A. I. (2006). Three Decades of Thought on Planning Education. In: Journal of Planning Literature, 21, 15–67. Frodeman, R., Klein, J. T. and Mitcham, C. (Eds.) (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity, Oxford. Jones, C. (2009). Interdisciplinary Approach – Advantages, Disadvantages, and the Future Benefits of Interdisciplinary Studies. Konrad, D. (2012). Ortsspezifische Architektur. Untersuchungen zur theoretischen und methodischen Fundierung einer mehrdimensionalen Beziehung zwischen Ort und Gebäude. Berlin Nowotny, H.; Scott, P.; Gibbons, M. (2001). Re-thinking Science – Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty. London. Petts, J., Owens, S. and Bulkeley, H. (2004).

Transdisciplinary Seminar Series. Knowledge and Power: Exploring the Science/Society Interface in the Urban Environment Context. Pierce, S. J. (1991). Subject Areas, Disciplines, and the Concept of Authority. Library and Information Science Research, 21–35. Rambow, R. (2003). Zur Rolle der Psychologie für Architektur und Stadtplanung – didaktische und konzeptionelle Überlegungen. In: Umweltpsychologie, 7 (1), 54–68. Robinson, F.; Zass-Ogilvie, I.; Hudson,R. (2012). How can universities support disadvantaged communities? Available online: http://www.jrf.org.uk/publications/ universities-support-disadvantaged-communities. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. How professionals think in action. New York. Yocom, K.; Proksch, G.; Born, B.; K. Tyman; S. K.: (2012). The Built Environments Laboratory: An Interdisciplinary Framework for Studio Education in the Planning and Design Disciplines. In: Journal for Education in the Built Environment, 7 (2), 8–25. Youngblood, D. (2007). Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and bridging disciplines: A matter of process. In: Journal of Research Practice, 3 (2), Article M17. Wood, G. (1999): Interdisciplinary working in built environment education. In: Education + Training, 41 (8), 373 – 380.


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9-13 December 2013 Santiago de Chile


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Interdisciplinarity Cluster Meeting 1

Integrated Public Spaces as Inclusion Strategy


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Introduction

Felipe LINK Ph.D. in Architecture and Urban Studies Assistant Professor Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

The Santiago International Workshop was the first from the interdisciplinarity cluster. It was held in Santiago de Chile during December 2013. The main goal of the workshop was to achieve some common understanding regarding urban social inclusion and interdisciplinarity in the context of the Urban Lab plus project. We focused the analysis in a few case studies distributed in Santiago de Chile, understood as a global city with main urban and social challenges for urban planners. Taken this context into account, the workshop combined different approaches from the traditional academic world, practitioners and policy makers. We focused on social inequalities, transport and housing policies, as main and currents problems in the city, but also as interlinked problems among cities. Also the focus was about interdisciplinarity approaches for inclusive public spaces, which could minimize the undesirable impacts of urban development. The workshop was divided into three areas:


21 Participants of the cluster meeting in Santiago de Chile in December 2013 at the PUC architecture campus.

a) Presentations of scholars and students projects (research and teaching) on the challenge of inclusive development of public space and the benefit of “interdisciplinarity�. b) Analysis and discussion of case studies and contextualizing ti with the experience from the local scientific and academic community as well as international Urban Lab + partners. c) Discussion regarding potential integrated research topics. We asked about the meaning of public space in terms of interdisciplinarity; about different approaches, disciplines, locations (Santiago- Hong Kong-Berlin) and scales of public space. About how can we use an interdisciplinary approach to address public space as an inclusion strategy in Santiago? And finally about how can we understand Interdisciplinarity in the context of Urban Lab. During the workshop we analyzed 3 cases, regarding social inclusion, urban transport and public spaces. The first one

was the new subway line in Santiago, which will connect different municipalities form the city center to the periphery. In addition to that line, we analyse the connections between the subway and different bikes lines that are proposed by the Municipality of Providencia, in order to manage new and sustainable forms of mobility in the city. The second case was the analysis of Barrio Huemul, a very central neighbourhood that is pressured by new inhabitants and by its patrimonial characteristics. The third case was the Juan Antonio RĂ­os neighbourhood, which is a social housing project included into the national housing recovery program called Quiero Mi Barrio. Regarding these three different urban realities, and with the presentation of different approaches from the public sector, NGO`s and from academic research, we tried to understand the importance of an integrated planning approach trying to achieve an urban social inclusion. In this context, an interdisciplinarity approach is mandatory in order to achieve urban complexity.


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What is the meaning of public space in terms of interdisciplinarity? Different approaches, disciplines, locations (Santiago - Hong Kong - Berlin) and scales of public space. •

How can we use an interdisciplinary approach to address public space as an inclusion strategy in Santiago? •

How can we understand Interdisciplinarity in the context of Urban Lab?


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9-13 December 2013 Santiago de Chile


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Interdisciplinarity Cluster Meeting 1

A G E N D A Cl us te r o f I nte rdi s c i pl i n a r i t y Integrated Public Spaces as Inclusion Strategy december 9th-13th 2013 Santiago • Chile


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Integrated Public Spaces as Inclusion Strategy: Topics and case study

Roberto MORIS Master in City Design and Social Science Assistant Professor Felipe LINK Ph.D. in Architecture and Urban Studies Assistant Professor Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

Sant iago de C h i l e i s a v e r y s e g r e g a t e d c it y. Des pit e o f s o m e t e n d e n c i e s o f m iddle c las s g r o w t h o r n e w p a t t e r n s of loc aliz at i o n o f t h e e l i t e , s u s t a i n e d ec onom ic gr o w t h , m o r e a n d b e t t e r educ at ion, r e d u c t i o n o f p o v e r t y f r o m 40% in t he´ 8 0 t o 1 5 % i n 2 0 0 9 , t h e c i t y s t ill c onc en t r a t e s i t s p o v e r t y a n d o p o r t unit ies . Thi s p r o c e s s e s a p p e a r s l i k e ur ban f r agm e n t a t i o n a n d s t r o n g s e g r egat ion at a m a c r o s c a l e o f a n a l y s i s . Spec if ic ally, t h e s o u t h a r e a o f t h e c i t y c onc ent r at e s a l l t h e r i s k s a n d d i s a d v ant ages , b e i n g i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e c i t y c ent r e and J o b s p l a c e s . C o n n e c t i v i t y, s er v ic es , pu b l i c s p a c e s , w o r k p l a c e s , inf r as t r uc t u r e , e t c . , a r e v e r y d i ff e r ent ac r os s S a n t i a g o . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t he ev er y da y l i f e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t his ar eas , i s s p a t i a l l y l i m i t e d a n d i t does n´ t pr om o t e s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y a n d s oc ial inc lus i o n . The t r adit ion a l w a y t o o b s e r v e a l l t hes e pheno m e n a i s t h r o u g h t h e analy s is and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e s i dent ial dis t r i b u t i o n o f s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s in t he t er r it o r y. A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h h a s


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been the qu alita tive s t udy of ur ban experie nces as da ily t r ans por t at ion or comm un ity p articipa t ion. We t r ied t o combine the se two appr oac hes in an integrative th eo retical and m et hodologica l ap pro ach. In t he co nte xt o f the new nat ional policy for u rba n d ev elopm ent , we need to achie ve the co mplex it y of ur ban lif e from a n in terd iscipl inar it y appr oac h, rega rdin g social a nd ur ban v ar iables in or de r to b ette r un der s t and t he ur ban challe ng es. Ta kin g t hat int o ac c ount , it is necessa ry to co m bine an ac adem ic point of view, with t he dis c our s es of practition ers, po licy m ak er s and t he comm un ity. Th ese a r t ic ulat ed k nowledge will be ne ed ed t o deal wit h new u rba n p rob lems s uc h as c lim at e chang e, u rba n vuln er abilit y, diff er ent fo rms o f se gre gat ion, et c . , t r y ing to imp rove th e q ua lit y of lif e of t he populatio n. In t his co nte xt, we f oc us on t hr ee m ain dime nsion s o f the ur ban pr oblem s in S antia go . Th at is the int egr at ed public

s pac es a s a n i n c l u s i o n s t r a t e g y. The im p o r t a n c e o f p u b l i c s p a c e s a s a link be t w e e n u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a n d neighbo u r h o o d s i s a m a i n o p p o r t u n i t y and c ha l l e n g e f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y and ur b a n p l a n n i n g . Tr o u g h t h e c a s e s of J uan A n t o n i o R Ă­ o s n e i g h b o u r h o o d , as well a s f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f B a r r i o Huem ul n e i g h b o u r h o o d a n d t h e n e w s ubway l i n e a n d b i k e l i n e s n e t w o r k , w e will t r y to u n d e r s t a n d t h e u r b a n a n d t he s oc i a l d y n a m i c i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t he ur ba n i n c l u s i o n .


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Public Spaces A Theoretical Approach

Elke SCHLACK Architect, Dr-Ing. Assistant Professor Faculty of Architecture Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

Ther e ar e s e v e r a l w a y s w h i c h c a n b e def ined t he c o n c e p t p u b l i c s p a c e f r o m t he t heor y a c c o r d i n g t o i t s d i ff e r e n t dim ens ions . T h e f i r s t o n e d e f i n i t i o n is f r om t he e x i s t i n g a n d c u r r e n t u r b a n r egulat ions a n d l a w s i n e a c h c o u n t r y. I n Chile, it i s d e f i n e d i n t h e G e n e r a l Ur banis m an d C o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h it es t ablis h t h a t p u b l i c s p a c e c o r r e s ponds t o a n a t i o n a l g o o d o f p u b l i c us e. This in t r o d u c e s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of t wo as pe c t s , t h e p r o p e r t y a n d u s e . The pr oper t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e d o m a i n of t he St at e f r o m t h e l e g a l p e r s p e c t iv e, whic h m e a n s t h a t i t s u s e i s gov er ned by t h e p r o v i s i o n s s e t b y t h e St at e t hr oug h p u b l i c l a w. O n t he ot he r h a n d , t h e u s e i s r e l a t e d t o pr oper t y d u e t o p u b l i c u s e i n o t h e r s pac es is es t a b l i s h e d . I n pr ac t ic e i s w e l l k n o w n , t h a t s p a c e does not ha v e a u s e a c c o r d i n g t o it s legal defi n i t i o n , t h e s p a c e i s n o t only t he pub l i c o r p r i v a t e , t h e r e i s als o ot her sp a c e , t h e c o l l e c t i v e o n e . Ther ef or e, t h e c o n c e p t t r a n s c e n d s t h e


33 POPS: El uso pĂşblico del espacio urbano (2015). Editor Elke Schlack.

pure ly le ga l dime ns ion. T he du al u nd erstan ding of s pac e, in function of p ub lic a nd pr iv at e, f r om one e xtre me to an ot her, ex c ludes what is in the se ga ps, sp ec if ic ally t he c ollectiv e. Many au tho rs re co gniz ed t hat es s entially tra nsition s b etween t hes e poles that con stitu te th e p ar t ic ular qualit y of space se qu en ce s o f t he c it ies ( Selle, 2001). F rom so cio log y, the def init ion of public space is d on e a ccor ding t o t heir us e, not b ased in its pro per t y. Ther ef or e, it is reco gn ize d a s o ne of it s par t ial integra tion fea ture s, open s oc ial s y s t em and th e in tera ctio n bet ween s t r anger s (B ah rdt, 1 96 9). In that s ens e, it is argu ed tha t on e o f t he dis t inguis hing characteristics of p ublic s pac e is it s degr ee of a ccessib ilit y and t he pos sibility of u nre stricted us e f or any one. R ealizin g th at th e p ublic s pac e is t he space for p ub lic u se ( Selle, 2001) . F ina lly, it is ne ce ssar y t o def ine and

c har ac t e r i z e t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t r e g u lat es t he p u b l i c s p a c e s a n d a l l t r a n s i t ions in o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e a c c u r a t e c ons t r uct i o n o f u r b a n p u b l i c s p a c e s . This wil l p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d s t o e n s u r e t he pub l i c n a t u r e a n d c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e public s p a c e s o f t h e c i t y. C o n s e q u e n t ly, will co n t r i b u t e t o h a v e m o r e o p p o r t unit ies o f s o c i a l a n d u r b a n i n c l u s i o n at diff er e n t s c a l e s .


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Neighbourhood Recovery Programme

Antonio FRITIS National Head of the Neighbourhood Recovery Program Ministry of Housing Santiago

The M inis t r y o f H o u s i n g a n d Ur ban Dev e l o p m e n t ( M I N V U ) h a s inc or por at ed i n t o i t s m i s s i o n a n d i t s s t r at egic de f i n i t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g neighbor hoo d s a s a n i n t e g r a l a n d f undam ent a l p a r t o f t h e h o u s i n g a n d ur ban polic y. I n t his c ont e x t , t h e R e c o v e r y P r o g r a m Bar r ios is cr e a t e d , w i t h t h e p u r p o s e t o im plem en t a n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y at t he neigh b o r h o o d l e v e l t h a t c ont r ibut es t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d r ev it aliz at io n o f p u b l i c s p a c e s b o t h c ollec t iv e a n d t h e s o c i a l n e t w o r k o f neighbor hoo d s f a c i n g p r o b l e m s o f ur ban dec ay, s u c h a s c o n n e c t i v i t y a n d int egr at ion w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c i t y, pav ing def ic i t , a b s e n c e o r p o o r q u a l i t y of c om m uni t y f a c i l i t i e s , l a n d s c a p i n g , light ing, and o t h e r w o r k s . The Pr ogr am b e g a n a s a p i l o t pr ogr am in 2 0 0 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , 80 m unic ipa l i t i e s a n d a l l a c r o s s t h e c ount r y, with u r b a n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t hr ough c om p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s t h a t inc lude c ons t r u c t i o n m a n a g e m e n t a n d


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socia l man ag eme nt plans . Today, th e re co ve ry of t he neighb orh oo ds is a per m anent line of t he Ministry o f Hous ing and Ur ban D evelo pme nt a nd aim s t o im pr ov e the con ditio ns un de r whic h lif e develo ps ne igh bo rhood. To do t his , it raises, firstly, a n int ens iv e plan of act ion s o n th e p hys ic al c ondit ions of t he en viro nme nt, and s ec ondly, contribu te to the so c ial c ohes ion of t he ne igh bo rho od t hr ough a plan to stre ng the n social or ganiz at ions and commu nity life. The pr ogr am focus o n re co ve ring his c onf idenc e and p articipa tion of r es ident s in t he process o f impro vin g t heir im m ediat e urba n e nviron men t. T here a re th ree actor s t hat collab ora tes, the Minis t r y of Hous ing and Urb an Develo pm ent ( M I NVU) , the Mu nicipa lity a nd t he m os t impo rtan t, the ne igh bor s . W it hout the commitme nt o f t hes e t hr ee par t s w ould n ot wo rk th e pr ogr am . That ’s w hy the ne igh bo rs s hould unit e and

elec t a c o u n c i l t h a t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e diff er en t v i e w s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d . Thus t h e C V D , N e i g h b o r h o o d Dev elop m e n t C o u n c i l , g r o u p i n g f o r m e d by t he in h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a i s c r eat ed . Func t ion s t h a t h a v e C V D , i s t o e n s u r e t he phy s i c a l a n d s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t he n e i g h b o r h o o d . P h y s i c a l dev elop m e n t i s t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of publi c s p a c e s s u c h a s s t r e e t s , s quar es, p a r k s , a n d o t h e r e q u i p m e n t and wor k s a s s o c i a l v e n u e s s p o r t s f ac ilit ies , a m o n g o t h e r s . F o r t h i s , t he Rec o v e r y P r o g r a m B a r r i o s c ont em p l a t e s a Wo r k s M a n a g e m e n t Plan, wh i c h r u n s f r o m t h e S o c i e t y o f Tr us t .


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The Challenges of Municipal Management: The Case of Independencia Commune

Gonzalo DURÁN Mayor of Independencia

I ndependen c i a i s a c o m m u n e o f C h i l e loc at ed in t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o f S a n t i a g o Pr ov inc e, S a n t i a g o . Cur r ent ly t h e d i s t r i c t h a s t h r e e m a i n pr oblem s .

Independencia commune Santiago •

The f ir st i s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t t er r it or i a l p l a n n i n g i n s t r u m e n t pr edat io n f a v o r s t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d neighbo r h o o d s r i s k i n g h e r i t a g e c ons er v a t i o n . •

Sec ond , i t h a s a l a r g e n u m b e r o f m igr ants w h o a r e u n d o c u m e n t e d able t o e n d u p l i v i n g i n ov er c r o w d e d , s p a r k i n g u r b a n pat holo g i e s a s m i c r o b a s u r a l e s , illegal t r a d e , d e r e g u l a t i o n o f hous ing , a m o n g o t h e r s . •

Thir d, th e r e i s n o p u b l i c inv es t m e n t a n d l o w c a p a c i t y of t he m u n i c i p a l i t y ( p r e v i o u s adm inis t r a t i o n s ) t o c a p t u r e r es our c e s f o r i n v e s t m e n t a n d im pr ov e m e n t s i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and nec e s s a r y s e r v i c e s .


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B ased on a d iag no s is m ade by a pu blic co nsulta tion in eac h neighb orh oo d u nit, t he m ain pr oblem s and p rog ram a rea s t hat s hould continu e to co ntrib ut e t o t he s olut ion w ere de termin ed : 1. A mo de rn to wnship, m ot or of develo pme nt 2. I nd ep en de ncia: Qualit y of lif e and identity 3. I nd ep en de ncia: C ult ur al, inc lus iv e and p articipa tory 4. I nd ep en de ncia: C lean, f r iendly and sust ain ab le 5. I nd ep en de ncia fo r all, oppor t unit ies and social p rote ctio n B ased on the ab ove, a s t r at egic plan tha t co mbin es t he ex is t enc e of a p ortfo lio o f pro jec t s , f unding source s, th e fo rmation of allianc es betwe en actors an d oppor t unit ies w as estab lish ed . Th e pr ojec t por t f olio includ es aro un d 8 5 pr ojec t s des ign and imp leme nta tion , t o be held in

diff er en t p a r t s o f t h e c o m m u n e . I n t er m s o f s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g , i t h a s t he m un i c i p a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g as well a s F N D R a n d t h e p r o g r a m s of t he M i n i s t r y o f H o u s i n g ; a l s o i t c ount ed w i t h t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f s o m e pr iv at e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Finally, t h e d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e s oppor t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t as t he su b w a y l i n e 3 , t h e m a l l o f I ndepen d e n c e , t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t he S a n t a L a u r a s t a d i u m a n d t h e t r ans an t i a g o c o r r i d o r. This r ai s e s t h e n e e d t o i m p r o v e t h e ins t r um e n t s o f t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g i n or der t o g e n e r a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t he im pl e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t r a t e g i c plan.


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Junto al Barrio Foundation

Carmen Gloria TRONCOSO Head of the Department of Habitability Junto Al Barrio Foundation Santiago

Junto al Barrio Foundation (JAB) promote the neighborhood and the prominence of its neighbors in the development of more inclusive cities, promoting the local organization, encouraging citizen participation and developing public-private collaboration for the realization of social and urban projects that will sustainably improve the quality of life of vulnerable neighborhood. The foundation has four strategic objectives, that synthesize their mission: 1.

Strengthen and promote neighborhood organizations

2.

Encourage the involvement and participation of neighbors

3.

Develop processes of social articulation

4.

Materialize social and urban projects prioritized by the community

The foundation is working actively with different neighborhoods. One of the


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most important intervations made is Los Nogales neighbourhood, located in Estación Central commune with 2.974 inhabitants. Los Nogales is the first district of intervention. Since in 2010 the foundation has been inserted in order to contribute to their social organizations for the implementation of social and urban projects for the community. Working with the Board of Northern and Southern Neighbors; Centro “Renacer”; the Union of the Model Fair Los Nogales; Move the group Seed and Digital Club. Thanks to the joint work with organizations and neighbors, the development of social, sporting and environmental program was achieved, as well as urban infrastructure projects such as the recovery of union headquarters Fair Los Nogales; Fair Platabanda improving Los Nogales; enabling space for meetings The Werkenes; intervention in the microbasural collector and improved passage Arturo Prat. The second neigbourhood is Costa Brava has 750 inhabitants and is

located in Valparaíso. The foundation has worked in this neighborhood with the community and social organizations since 2011. During these years of intervention, it has collaborated with the Association of Communal Force Neighborhood Union’s Progress, Neighborhood Costa Brava, the group of Environment and Sports Club, Social and Cultural Nuevo Amanecer Costa Brava-Ocean View With them, by planning work, objectives and project formulation, have developed social, sporting and environmental programs. In turn, urban projects have been implemented as the recovery of facades of buildings; the creation of community gardens; Costamar building the Community Center and the renovation of the Court’s lucumos. The articulation of residents and their organizations allowed to promote and strengthen neighborhood organization, which currently prompts them to continue working together to improve the quality of life and physical environment of the community.


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Planning Strategies and Sustainable Urban Management in the Commune of Providencia

Nicolás VALENZUELA SECPLA Director of Providencia Providencia commune Santiago

Pr ov idenc ia h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e a t t he m et r opo l i t a n l e v e l , f o r i t s l o c a t i o n in t he c ent e r o f S a n t i a g o a n d f o r b e i n g a c ent er of m e t r o p o l i t a n s e r v i c e s c ar r ing a lar g e n u m b e r o f f l o a t i n g populat ion ( 1 . 1 m i l l i o n p e o p l e a d a y ) . The m unic ip a l i t y h a s t w o p i l l a r s of ur ban f oc u s , t h e f i r s t r e l a t e s t o s us t ainable m a n a g e m e n t w h e r e dialogue v ia b l e , l i v a b l e a n d e q u i t a b l e int er v ent ion s . T h e s e c o n d p i l l a r i s wher e par t ic i p a t o r y m a n a g e m e n t t hr ough a m u n i c i p a l p r o g r a m . T h i s pr ogr am wa s c a l l e d “ P r o v i d e n c i a s om os t odos ” i n o r d e r t o s e e k , enc our age a n d s t r e n g t h e n t h e par t ic ipat ion i n m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n m ak ing as a f o c u s o f t h e C o m m u n a l Adm inis t r at i o n . I n 2013 t he p r o g r a m “ P i e n s a Pr ov idenc ia ” w a s s t a r t e d a n d t h e f i r s t s t eps wer e t a k e n t o i n i t i a t e p u b l i c par t ic ipat ion . F o r t h i s a n u m b e r o f ins t anc es o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t he c om m un i t y a n d t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l , as t hem at ic m e e t i n g s , c o m m u n i t y


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consu ltatio n, citize n boar ds and councils th ey were or ganiz ed. I n para llel with stro ng m unic ipal wor k w her e th e re su lts w er e s y s t em at iz ed. T he ch alle ng e fo r 2014 is t o conso lida te a nd stre ngt hen r elat ions betwe en the co mmunit y and t he municipa lity, bu ildin g adequat e coordin atio n for de c is ion- m ak ing, r ais e the b asic ru les for the im plem ent at ion of t he pa rticip ato ry pr oc es s and f inally est ablish a n a nn ua l s c hedule dat abas e instan ce s p articipa t or y ex ec ut ed by the mu nicipa l tea m. On issu es of u rba n m obilit y, whic h is one of th e ma in i nt er es t s of the commu nity, a n a genda pillar s of susta ina ble an d p ar t ic ipat or y mana ge men t ap pro ac h ar is es : P articipa tory go ve rnanc e of t he c it y, w her e th e in stru men t s of planning and ma na ge men t of t he c it y in s pac es practica l exercise of par t ic ipat or y demo cra cy to b e tra ns f or m ed. P romo ting su sta ina ble t r ans por t

wher e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s o f t r a n s p o r t t o t he ca r, b o t h l o c a l a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n pr om ot e d . I t als o h a s s p e c i f i c l i n e s o f a c t i o n as s oc iat e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f m obilit y. Pedes t r i a n s : A c h i e v e u n i v e r s a l ac c es s ib i l i t y Cy c lis t s : I n t e g r a t i o n o f c y c l e r o u t e s and ex p a n s i o n o f q u a n t i t y a n d a r e a o f inf luenc e o f p u b l i c b i c y c l e s . Bus es : P r i o r i t y o n t h e c a r i n m et r opo l i t a n c o m m u t i n g b y p u b l i c t r ans po r t c o r r i d o r s s u r f a c e . M et r o: S t r e n g t h e n c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h ot her m o d e s o f t r a n s p o r t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t he st a t i o n s . Car : Re d u c e s u r f a c e p a r k i n g l o t s and r ep l a c e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o s u p p o r t s us t aina b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Educ at i o n a n d c u l t u r e : P r o m o t i n g s us t aina b l e t r a n s p o r t a s p a r t o f t h e c om m un i t y v a l u e s .


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Juan Antonio Rios Neighbourhood

Constanza ULRIKSEN PhD. (c) in Architecture and Urban Studies Faculty of Architecture Design and Urban Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

J uan Ant oni o R i o s p o p u l a t i o n i s i n t h e Com m une o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , w i t h i n a c ons olidat ed u r b a n s e c t o r S a n t i a g o , well loc at ed a n d p o o r. I t or iginat es i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e dec ade of 1 9 4 0 , a s w o r k e r s ’ h o u s i n g . I s one of t he l e a d i n g e x a m p l e s of ur ban f or m i n t h e p e r i p h e r y o f Sant iago. Th e y w e r e b u i l t m o r e t h a n 5, 000 hom e s a n d a p a r t m e n t s o n a n ar ea of 110 h e c t a r e s . The pas s age o f t i m e h a s g e n e r a t e d a s t r ong identi t y a n d c u l t u r e a s s o c i a t e d wit h t he inh a b i t a n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t hat has t r an s p i r e d . H o w e v e r, i t h a s als o br ough t a s h a r p d e t e r i o r a t i o n and v ar ious p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o inf r as t r uc t u r e , p u b l i c s p a c e , a m o n g ot her s . Som e of t he m a i n p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d wit h lac k of m a i n t e n a n c e a n d det er ior at ion o f b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c s pac es aban d o n e d b y n e i g h b o r s a n d lac k of c o- o w n e r s h i p , l a c k o f e x i s t e n c e of c om m uni t y f a c i l i t i e s a s v e n u e s . Soc ially, t he r e a r e l o w l e v e l s o f c i t i z e n


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participa tion in th e neighbor hood, there is n o jo b o pp or t unit ies in t he sect or, h igh levels of ins ec ur it y arising from th e le v el of v iolenc e and d rug traffickin g, t he ex is t enc e of microba su rale s, d is eas e out br eak s . S inc e 20 09 , the Nei ghbor hood R ecovery Prog ram o f t he M inis t r y of H ousin g (MINVU) th r ough “ Q uier o m i B arrio � is wo rkin g in t he s ec t or. F or th is, a multid isc iplinar y t eam was form e d to de ve lop a m anagem ent plan Works (PGO) a nd Soc ial Mana ge men t Plan (PG S) . The Wor k s Mana ge men t Plan is aim ed m ainly at imp roving ph ysic al s pac es and socia l man ag eme nt plan is aim ed at variou s social in it iat iv es wit hin variou s d imen sio ns s uc h as : ident it y and cultu re, h ea lth and env ir onm ent , participa tion an d sec ur it y. T he work was join tly and inc lus iv ely w ith n eig hb ors, whe r e t hey hav e gained pro mine nce in t he r ec ov er y of it s own h isto ry a nd t he s t r engt hening of ne igh bo rho od ide nt it y.


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Huemul Neighbourhood

Valentina SALGADO Master in Urban Development Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

The Huem ul n e i g h b o r h o o d e m e r g e s in 1914 in t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e c it y in Sant i a g o C o m m u n e b y t h e t im e of Pr es i d e n t B a r r o s L u c o . The neighbo u r h o o h i n t e n d e d t o b e a hous ing so l u t i o n s f o r w o r k e r s ( aff or dable h o u s i n g ) a n d s o l u t i o n f o r t he s anit ar y p r o b l e m s . I t was built i n 3 s t a g e s . T h e f i r s t o n e , t he Huem ul 1 c o m p l e x , w a s b u i l t i n 1914 wit h a s u r f a c e o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 m 2 . I t i s not able f or i t s q u a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d num er ous e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s b a n k s , plaz a, libr ar y, t h e a t e r, c o n f e r e n c e r oom , c hur c h , s c h o o l s a n d a c h a r i t a b l e ins t it ut ion. I n 1943 t he H u e m u l 2 c o m p l e x w a s built , wit h 1 8 6 h o u s e s , 1 6 s h o p s , gaz ebo and a s w i m m i n g p o o l i n a a r e a of 25, 000 m 2 Finally in 19 4 5 t h e H u e m u l 3 w a s b u i l t in s iz e t o t h e a b o v e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12, 500 m 2 ) , w i t h 8 1 a p a r t m e n t s a n d 9 s hops . The neighbo r h o o d w i t h t h e p a s s a g e


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of t ime was co nsoli dat ed, but t he 80’s a rriva l be ga n a pr oc es s of dete riora tion an d o bs oles c enc e of it s accomp an ied by s ignif ic ant aging populatio n structure s . But what more h as be en thre at ened is t heir envir o nme nt. The c om m er c ial hub of the n eig hb orh oo d h as s uff er ed gr eat dama ge by ea rthq ua k es and t r ade has be en clo sin g b ec aus e t hey c an not comp ete with th e big c om m er c ial stores. Wh ile th e subur bs of t he edges h ave b ee n tr ans f or m ed int o w are ho uses an d wo r k s hops or lar ge est ate to wers. Today, we are on the v er ge of a new transforma tion for this s ec t or. His stat emen t as histor ic pr es er v at ion area , the sta teme nt of t he slaugh terh ou se an d t y pic al ar ea, t he constru ctio n o f a n ew highway t o t he east, mod ifica tion s t o t he m as t er plan and th e a rriva l of a new m et r o s t at ion w ill ce rtain ly h ave i t s eff ec t s on t his urba n p iece.

I s pos s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t u r b a n r egener a t i o n a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t he c it y a r e n o t a n e w p h e n o m e n o n . The c it y i s c o n s t a n t l y r e t h i n k i n g and r eco n s t i t u t i n g i n t e r m s o f p o l i c y appr oach e s , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c dem and s i m p o s e d b y t h e c i t y. The c ha l l e n g e n o w i s h o w d o w e m a k e t hes e c h a n g e s r e m a i n g e n e r a t i n g oppor t u n i t i e s a n d i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e c it y wit h o u t l o s i n g f o c u s o n i m p r o v i n g t he qua l i t y o f l i f e o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and pr e s e r v e t h e v a l u e s t h a t h a s b e e n dev elop e d .


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The Urban Laboratory Approach

Paola ALFARO D’ALENÇON Dr.-Ing. Daniela KONRAD Dr.-Ing. Urban Research and Design Laboratory Technische Universität Berlin

W it h c ur r ent d e v e l o p m e n t s a r o u n d t he wor ld ex h i b i t i n g i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n and env ir on m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e s a s well as bein g a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f s oc iet al c on c e r n s a n d d e b a t e s , t h e ex pec t at ion s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r es t ing upon b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t dis c iplines h a v e a r g u a b l y n e v e r been gr eat e r. T h e a c a d e m i c w o r l d appear s ine r t w h i l e s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g t o dis ent ang l e d i s c i p l i n a r y epis t em olog i e s a n d t o o v e r c o m e t h e ex c lus iv it y o f e s t a b l i s h e d f r a m e w o r k s of k nowledg e p r o d u c t i o n . Ref lec t ing o n t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u s of ur ban c ha l l e n g e s i n t e a c h i n g appr oac hes , n e w p e d a g o g i c a l f r am ewor k s a r e r e q u e s t e d f o r engaging wi t h c u r r e n t d e m a n d s der iv ing f r om t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t dis c iplines . A g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d t he Ur ban R e s e a r c h a n d D e s i g n Labor at or y ( U - L a b ) h a s b e e n i n i t i a t e d in 2010 as a c u r r i c u l a r e f o r m p r o j e c t at t he Tec hn i s c h e U n i v e r s i t ä t B e r l i n . The U- Lab o p e r a t e s o u t s i d e t h e boundar ies o f a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s ,


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wit h it s principa l go al is t o dev elop and test a ltern ative p ed agogic al f ramewo rks in the bu ilt env ir onm ent disciplines. I n this con text, the over all appr oac h of the U r b an Resea rch and Des ign Laborato ry is ba se d o n t he as s um pt ion t hat knowled ge in u rba n s pac e is highly co nte xtu alized an d being produced in inn ume rou s c om m unit ies each w ith its own trad itions , languages and objectives (Sch ön enber g, 2013) . T herefor e, in urb an pla nning as well as in u rba n d esign , int er - and t ransdisc iplin ary co llab or at ions are indisp en sa ble . Based on t he model of d ialo gu e fo rmat s t he U- Lab encourage s e xcha ng es bet ween t eaching, re se arch a nd pr ac t ic e, responding to d ema nd s of int er and transdiscip lina ry p r ojec t wor k as w ell as ca se stu dy-bas ed and activity-o rien ted ed ucation of f ut ur e city plann ers, urb an de s igner s and architects. The se co llab or at ions enhance th e re co gn ition as well as mutual un de rsta nd ing and r es pec t of diff ere nt b od ies of knowledge( s ) i nvolved in th e p rod uctions of ur ban space. To respon d to the se aim s t he Ur ban Research a nd Design Labor at or y i s in particu lar con ce rne d wit h t he developm e nt o f sp ecific lear ning approache s with emp ha s is on t he f ollowing a sp ects: 1) U nderstan din g comp os it ions of knowledge A cademic kno wled ge is of t en div ided among diffe ren t discip lines in t he built environmen t ed ucatio n. The s am e is t rue f or pra ctical kno wledge, whic h is being produ ce d a nd arc hiv ed in t he cont ext of p olitical, a dm inis t r at iv e or cult ural institutio ns as well as in t he daily lives a nd rou tine s of inhabit ant s . A s a conseq ue nce, id en t if y ing c ur r ent expertise in urb an de ve lopm ent as w ell as un de rsta nd ing diff er ent methods of kno wled ge pr oduc t ion has become a key ch all enge. I n order to co nside r diffe rent s t r ands of knowledge the Urba n R es ear c h and Design La bo rato ry sets up t eac hing

and r es ear c h a p p r o a c h e s i n c l o s e c ooper at ion w i t h a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s t ak eholder s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g pr oc es s es . T h i s a p p r o a c h s e e k s t o s hed ligh t o n h o w e x p e r t s f r o m diff er ent dis c i p l i n e s a s w e l l a s c i v i l s oc iet y und e r s t a n d u r b a n s p a c e and what ex p e r t i s e e x i s t s a m o n g s t diff er ent ac to r s i n u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t pr oc es s es . 2) Fac ilit at in g s y n t h e s i s o f k n o w l e d g e Sc r ut inis ing a n d b u n d l i n g d i ff e r e n t bodies of k n o w l e d g e a v a i l a b l e a c r o s s s oc iet y is en a b l i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s ev er al– p a r t l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l – needs and i n t e r e s t s i n u r b a n s p a c e ( Nowot ny, S c o t t , G i b b o n s 2 0 0 1 ) . Cent r al t o t h e t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h of t he Ur ban R e s e a r c h a n d D e s i g n Labor at or y i s t h e r e f o r e t h e i n i t i a t i o n of c om m uni c a t i o n a n d c o n t i n g e n t l y als o dec is io n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s bet ween ac a d e m i a , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , loc al ac t or s a n d c i v i l s o c i e t y. Spec if ic ally, t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y appr oac hes a c k n o w l e d g e t h e f a c t t hat k nowled g e i s p r o d u c e d w i t h i n a s well as out s i d e a c a d e m i a , a n d t h a t t he c ons olid a t i o n o f t h e s e b o d i e s o f k nowledge i s n o t o n l y m e a n i n g f u l b u t als o indis pe n s a b l e . 3) Enabling c o o p e r a t i v e t e a c h i n g f or m at s The Ur ban R e s e a r c h a n d D e s i g n Labor at or y a p p l i e s t e a c h i n g f o r m a t s as lear ning d i a l o g u e s , r o u n d t a b l e dis c us s ions , a n d a c t i o n s i n - s i t u i n or der t o pr o v i d e t h e g r o u n d t o m e r g e t heor y and p r a c t i c e a n d t o u n d e r t a k e „ t es t - r uns “ i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s t u d i e s . O n t he one h a n d , t h r o u g h c a s e s t u d y bas ed c ollab o r a t i v e p r o j e c t w o r k s t udent s ge t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o d e a l wit h t he c om p l e x i t y o f t h e i r f u t u r e t as k s and f i e l d s o f a c t i o n a n d l e a r n about an inte r - a n d t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y way of wor k i n g . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t eac hing f or m a t s i n c l u d i n g a c t i v i t i e s in- s it u – as c o m m u n i t y w o r k s h o p s o r ev ent s – all o w i n g f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f t r ans dis c ipl i n a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r m a t s as well as a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n and enhanc e m e n t o f m o r e i n c l u s i v e ur ban r es ea r c h a n d p r a c t i c e m o d e l s .


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Verkeh

r

LÄRM

Aufenthaltsmöglichkeiten le Bänke

Spie

n

Actions in-situ in the framework of the case study StadtspreeKiezspree, Oberbaumbrücke and Rudolphkiez, Berlin, 2012.

S evera l test run s a t t he Ur ban R esea rch an d De sig n Labor at or y highligh t po ten tials and s hor t c om ings of in ter- a nd tran sd is c iplinar y educa tion al a pp roa c hes . Ex plic it ly the a sp ect of le aving t he c las s r oom for t he field as well as t he ex pos ur e to “rea l” urb an sp ace and pr es s ing develo pme nt issu es of s ev er al stakeh old ers, offe r highly v aluable learning situ atio ns t hat dem and the syn the sis an d th e applic at ion of knowle dg e ra the r t han t he m er e acquisition of d isciplinar y f ac t s . In ad ditio n, th e case s t udy bas ed collab ora tive pro jec t wor k is deem ed to be of critica l va lue not only f or studen ts b ut a lso for all s t ak eholder s involved . Th ese te ac hing and lear ning sit uatio ns ind ica te a nec es s ar y shift towa rds an ed uc at ional m odel based on sh are d knowledge and collab ora tive working ex per ienc e, in or de r to p rep are s t udent s f or t he increa sin gly co mple x is s ues in ur ban space pro du ctio n. D es pit e t hat our test ru ns ha ve sh ow n t hat t hey c an

only be a b e g i n n i n g w h e n s u i t a b l e m odes o f s t a k e h o l d e r c o o p e r a t i o n ar e t ar g e t e d , a l o n g w i t h a h i g h degr ee o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t in c oope r a t i v e p r o j e c t w o r k b e t w e e n ac adem i a , p r a c t i c e a n d t h e c i v i l s oc iet y. Nowotny, H .; S c o t t , P.; Gi bbo n s , M. ( 2 001 ) . R eth inking Sc i en c e – K n o wledg e a n d t he Pu bli c i n a n Age of Uncer t a i n t y . Lo n do n . Sc h önenber g , R . ( 2 01 3) . Lec t u r e a t t he U r ba n La b + Symp osiu m “ T he la bo r a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o bu i lt environme n t edu c a t i o n ,“ B er li n .


54

Hong Kong Case Study: Re-envisioning Community Spaces in Sai Ying Pun

Hendrik Tieben Associate Professor Director MSc in Urban Design Program School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The meeting in Chile provided us with the opportunity to learn from case studies of our Urban Lab+ partners in Santiago, and Berlin. All three laboratories presented public space interventions related to new transport infrastructure projects as strategies to increase urban inclusion. Similar to the case study of the Metro Line 3 in Santiago, the team of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) investigates the transformation of an old district - Sai Ying Pun - in context of the construction of a new metro line. Before construction of the MTR West Island Line, housing conditions and public spaces in this district were relatively dilapidated. However, the lower rents allowed grassroots residents and shopkeepers to remain in the area, while nearby real estate prices were skyrocketing. Once the construction of the new line was announced, property prices and rents in the study area also quickly started to climb. For our Hong Kong case study we identified two goals: Measuring the impact of the new metro line during the time of its construction and developing alternative approaches,


55 T h e Magi c Car pe t s e t o n C entre Street in S a i Y ing P un, Ho ng Ko ng Island .

spreading benefits of the metro line more just over the different members of the community. To achieve these goals we launched the project “Magic Carpet – Re-envisioning Community Space”. In this project we experimented with a combination of community filming and public space interventions. Similar to our partners of the Urban Lab+ project, we created an interdisciplinary team, which included architects, journalists, planners and videographers. To build stronger links to the community we asked the local Secondary School King’s College and the heritage center CACHe to become our partners. Secondary school students of King’s College took the role of community ambassadors and produced over 30 video interviews, which captured fears and aspirations of residents and shopkeepers regarding the ongoing changes of the district. The videos were screened in a public space event at Centre Street during the Moon Festival. Centre Street had been the pulsing heart of the district, until the here located street market was removed in the 1980s. Next to the street one of the exits of the MTR West Island Line was planned. In addition, a public escalator was built along the street as

to increase the metro line’s catchment area. However, despite the heavy investments there was no strategy to use this unique opportunity to improve generally the quality of public spaces in the area or help residents to cope with the sharply increasing rents. In this context, our Magic Carpet project aimed to address the growing social polarization and push local aspirations by creating an alternative public space experience. After comparison with the Berlin and Santiago case studies during the cluster meeting, we identified the following questions for the next step of the Urban Lab+ project: How can the inter- or trans-disciplinary approach of Urban Lab+ be refined to better evaluate success and failure of large planning projects in regards to urban inclusion? And, How can the Urban Lab+ approach be further developed to increase the impact on ongoing urban transformation processes?


56

New Towns and Communities – Experiences from Urban Design Workshops in Hong Kong

Mika SAVELA Architect, Ph.D. MO Kar Him Ph.D. candidate School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong

While urban design workshops are often sites of a vast amount of presentations and work, much of the material they produce are not directly usable as potential contributions to later educational or disciplinary discourses. What are the potentials for workshop pre- and post-production for addressing these issues? The presentation reviews methods and experiences in past two urban design workshop cases affiliated with the urban design program at the School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The workshops in question represent different scales, timespans and production potential. But both examples have offered similar insights into some of the possibilities and edge conditions of the workshops as intensive formats of urban education and over what the method may allow, what it could be developed into, and what possible products and forms of dissemination may arise from these endeavors. The first case, International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU) Winter School


57

preproduction

>

workshops

held between 19 January - 2 Feb 2013 gathered over 120 students and teachers from nine universities. Over a course of two weeks investigations, including talks, groupwork, and fieldtrips, structured by tutored sessions, mid-reviews and final-reviews, the workshop represented an example of an extremely large-scale workshop. As a second case, we presented two installments of an introductory course in visualizing urbanism and urban design held in August 2013. Organized as two full week segments for urban studies students, as well as urban design students, the workshop focused on unconventional forms of mapping urban environments in small groups, with individual final products. Whereas the former workshop would span from multidisciplinary themes of sustainability, new towns to strategic regional planning on both sides of the Shenzhen Bay area, the latter would instead focus on small-scale experience-led forms of investigation in an older urban district of Sai Ying

>

postproduction

>

future practices

Pun on Hong Kong Island. While utterly different in their tasks, group sizes and working dynamics, our central questions in both workshop formats have been related to the purposeful and premeditated modes of production. What should workshops ultimately deliver to their participants, for the institutions involved or for the outside audiences? What kind of products can best be distributed later and serve as evidence of work done, offering documentation but also basis for further dissemination, development or even practices. In both cases we prepared for a tentative end-product that could be partly planned also beforehand. In our experience, the streamlining and efforts in integrating the workshop production into a more holistic plan of publishing or exhibiting, for instance, has proved to be a viable way of trying to “curate� the workshop process and divert the instensity of the format into results that remain available also for further work, building also the institutional and pedegocial capacity for such projects.


58 Digital sketch by Roberto Moris (11 Dec 2013)


59


h ttps ://si tes .g o o g l e . c o m / s it e / t h e b a b e l pr oj e c t s it e h ttps ://in sta g r a m. c o m / t he ba be lp r o j ec t h ttps ://twi tte r. co m/ b b lp r jc t # ba be l pr oj e ct I N h ttp://b ab e lp r o j e c t in . t u m b l r. co m # ba be l pr oj e ct E X h ttp://b ab e lp r o j e c t e x . t u m b lr. c om

THE BABEL PROJECT

The Babel Project has been a series of interdisciplinary experiments and dialogues on urban space conducted on various online platforms with an open-ended result. Started in December 2013, it has been run by participants in various global urban laboratories within the URBAN LAB+ network. This special SUPPLEMENT is issued (for now) as a final report on the project’s activites, results, learnings and modes of production.

E d i t e d by M i k a S a v el a ( C U H K )

C o n t ri b ut ors M i k a S a v el a ( C U H K ) Mo Kar Him (CUHK) D i e g o A s enj o ( P U C ) F r a n c i s c a Zeger s ( P U C ) F e l i p e Val enz uel a ( P U C ) M a n d y H el d ( TU B )

2013 - 2015


SUPPLEMENT

THE BABEL PROJECT 巴別塔計劃 EL PROYECTO BABEL DAS BABEL PROJEKT 1-2


December 2013 Santiago Clustr Meeting THE BABEL PROJECT

A Pr obl em a s a M e t h o d Though f oc u s i n g o n o n l i n e c o l l a b o r a t iv e ac t iv it ie s , t h e B a b e l P r o j e c t s t e m s f r om a phy s i c a l m e e t i n g i n S a n t i a g o d e Chile in Dec e m b e r 2 0 1 3 a m o n g p a r t i c ipant s f r om T h e C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, t h e P o n t i f i c i a U n i v e r s i d a d Cat ólic a de C h i l e a n d t h e Te c h n i s c h e Univ er s it ät B e r l i n . E q u i p p e d w i t h a br ief t o r ec a p t h e m e e t i n g ’s g e n e r al dis c us s io n s o n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y appr oac hes i n t e a c h i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g f ac t or s of in c l u s i o n i n p u b l i c s p a c e , s har ing t he b r i e f w o r k s h o p m o m e n t bet ween Ph D a n d M a s t e r ’s s t u d e n t s link ed int o th e U R B A N L A B + n e t wor k ’s m eet i n g s , t h e r e w a s a s h a r e d s ent im ent t h a t p r o d u c i n g m e a n i n g f u l long- s t andin g c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n c o l labor at ion w o u l d b e d i ff i c u l t b o t h i n pr ac t ic al an d c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l s . F i r s t ly, t he c y c le o f s t u d e n t s ’ p a r t i c i p a t i o n would endle s s l y v a r y i n t h e n e t w o r k and t he wind o w o f o p p o r t u n i t y o f a n int er nat iona l w o r k s h o p i s a s h o r t o n e , f ur t her lim ite d b y t h e v a s t d i s t a n c e s bet ween t he n e t w o r k ’s c i t i e s . S e c o n d ly, t he c onc e p t o f i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s ’ c ont r ibut ion s w o u l d h a v e d i ff i c u l t i e s in ac c um ula t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t d i r e c t ly c ont r ibut e s t o t h e g i v e n s u b j e c t o f int er dis c ipli n a r i t y i n t e a c h i n g . T h e oppor t unit y t o w o r k t o g e t h e r s e e m e d m et hodolog i c a l l y c h a l l e n g e d : E x a c t ly how and w h a t c o u l d t h e c h a n g i n g r os t er of s t u d e n t s o r p a r t i c i p a n t s c ont r ibut e, e v a l u a t e ? H o w t o m a k e t h e under t ak ing l a s t l o n g e r t h a n a s i n g l e wor k s hop s e s s i o n ? H o w t o m a i n t a i n t he init ial en e r g y o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l wor k s hop pl a t f o r m a f t e r t h e p a r t i c i pant s ar e on c e a g a i n s p r e a d a r o u n d t he wor ld? I nit ially, agr e e m e n t s w e r e m a d e t h a t a c ollabor at i v e o n l i n e p l a t f o r m f o r c onduc t ing e x p e r i m e n t s a n d e x c h a n g e would be c r e a t e d a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m eac h univ er s i t y w o u l d t a k e r e s p o n s i bilit y f or t he p l a n n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d t he pr oduc t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e e n d - p r o d uc t ( be t hat i n a f o r m o f p a p e r, p u b lic at ion or e x h i b i t i o n ) t o b e p r o d u c e d wit hin t he t i m e f r a m e o f t h e U R B A N LAB+ pr ojec t . I n t h e f u r t h e r e x c h a n g e


Out from th ese p rob lem s , t he dis c us s ion t ur ned b a c k i n t o t h e i d e a of la bo rato ries as a t es t ing gr ound. W hat s eem ed l i k e a n i n t e r e s t i n g conce pt, wa s th at e v en wit hout appar ent pr ac t ic a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l solution at h an d to our ques t ions , f ollowing a lab o r a t o r y - l i k e a p p r o a c h migh t still e na ble the gr oup t o pr oc eed int o t he de s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . P a r ticipan ts sh are d inter es t in oper at ing wit hin t he p o t e n t i a l o f t h e U R B A N LA B + a s a pla tform f or pus hing f or war d pur ely exp e r i m e n t a l i n t e r d i s c i plinary ‘sta rt-up s’ that m ight at s om e lat er point in c u b a t e i n t o f o r m s o f research a nd pra cti c e, bum p int o unk nown c halle n g e s o r u n d e r - l o o k e d topics, alo ng sid e th e wor k and s t udies nor m ally c o n d u c t e d a n d d e velope d with in e ach par t ic ipat ing labor at or y. Fr om t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f studen ts a s th ose o f t en par t ic ipat ing in t he des ign a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e conce rn wa s h ow th e ‘int er dis c iplinar it y ’ of t he wo r k s h o p d i s c u s s i o n s could tra nsfer in to the ac t ual doing.

SUPPLEMENT

amon g stud en ts a nd r es ear c her s , howev er, t he ag r e e d s e t - u p p r o v e d prob lema tic. In ste ad of m eet ing or dis c us s ing, t he q u e s t i o n b e c a m e more a bo ut h ow to ‘pr oduc e’ c ollabor at ion or pr oj e c t s w i t h l o w o r n o resources? Ho w to c r eat e m eaningf ul ac t iv it ies w i t h i n t h e U R B A N LA B +’s cu rren t du rat ion?

T here wa s a lso a fu r t her r ealiz at ion, t hat t he par a d o x i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n of resou rce scarcity wit h ‘net wor k ing abundanc e’ w a s a l s o a c o n d i t i o n that mu ch of th e u rban wor ld was c ur r ent ly f ac ing . F o r g l o b a l c i t i z e n s toda y, the pro ble m is not about being unable t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n o r w ork tog eth er in ter m s of t ec hnology. W hile, obv i o u s l y, s o c i a l m e d i a and mo bile de vices hav e bec om e innat ely par t of c i t i e s a n d d i s t r i bution o f urb an info r m at ion, at t he s am e t im e, t he o u t p u t i s o f t e n

3-4


December 2013 Santiago Clustr Meeting

c ons ider ed f u n c t i o n a l o n l y o n t h e non- pr oduc t i v e l e v e l . Ye t , s m a r t p h o n e owner s hip a m o n g u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s ( f or ins t ance i n c i t i e s l i k e H o n g K o n g ) , is alm os t s t a g g e r i n g l y h i g h a m o n g a l l s oc ial gr oup s ( t h e r e f o r e b e i n g a r e l at iv ely inc lu s i v e ‘ s p a c e ’ ) . T h i s s p a c e has alr eady p r o v e d i t s s t r o n g i m p a c t wit hin m any u r b a n m o v e m e n t s , a s well as v ar io u s f o r m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n analy s is ( e. g . l o c a t i o n - b a s e d s e r v ic es ) . How e v e r, b u i l d i n g n e w a p p s or any elabo r a t e w e b d e v e l o p i n g w a s bey ond t he r e a c h o f w h a t c o u l d m o s t lik ely be acc o m p l i s h e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . For t hes e r e a s o n s , e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t he av ailabl e , l o w t h r e s h o l d t e c h n o l ogy t hat alr e a d y i n t e r s e c t s i n t o t h e public s pher e , s e e m e d i n t h e c o n t e x t of URBAN L A B + a n d t h e p l a n n e d c ollabor at io n t o b e t h e m o s t p r o m i s i n g dir ec t ion.

THE BABEL PROJECT

La biblioteca de Babel (1941) / The Library of Babel (1962) by Jorge Luis Borges. The story imagines a universe as massive library containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format and character set, resulting in at least at least 1.956 x 10 1,834,097 books.

Pr oj ect – A n t i - P ro j e c t Count er ing t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s t h u s r equir ed a th o r o u g h r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t he init ial s e t u p . I n s t e a d o f b u i l d i n g a new plat f or m , o r s t a r t i n g a c o l l a b o r a t iv e blog, on l i n e m a g a z i n e o r w e b s it e, t he dec i s i o n w a s m a d e t o u t i l i z e ins t ead t he u b i q u i t o u s ( a n d o f t e n a l s o inc lus iv e) e x i s t i n g p o p u l a r f r e e d i g i t a l t ools , s t udy t h e i r p u r p o s e f u l u s e a s a m et hod of c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d t o t r y and benef it f r o m t h e e v e r y d a y a c c u m ulat ion of c o n t e n t i n e x i s t i n g s o c i a l net wor k s an d c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o o l s . To f ur t her eas e t h e p l a n n e d w o r k f l o w, t h e pr ojec t was g e a r e d t o w a r d s a c o - a u t hor ed c ur at o r i a l s e t t i n g s o t h a t e a c h ac t iv it y r un i n d i ff e r e n t l o c a t i o n s o r c ont ex t s wo u l d p r o d u c e t h e m a t i c a l ly f it t ing m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d d i r e c t l y be us ed or e x h i b i t e d . T h i s p r o d u c t ion t hr ough a c c u m u l a t i o n b e c a m e a c ent r al idea f o r t h e p r o j e c t , w h i c h a l s o s par k ed a d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e n a m i n g o f t he under t ak i n g . Today ’s wor l d h a s b e c o m e ‘ p r o j e c t i f ied’ in t he se n s e t h a t a l m o s t a n y u n der t ak ing is c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h e g e n er al idea of a p r o j e c t , w h i c h a l s o l e a d s t o t he c onc e p t s o f m a n a g i n g , f u n d i n g , t im elines , se t t i n g g o a l s a n d w r i t i n g


SUPPLEMENT

repo rts. Na ming the c ollabor at ion as B abel Proje ct (e ve n t hough plent y of similarly na med pr ojec t s c ur r ent ly exist) served the pu r pos e of r ef lec t ing the id ea of a n u ncer t ain and globally dispersed na ture of c ollabor at ion, but also the ide a o f run ning under t ak ings w ith a ltern ative g oa ls wit hin t he ‘pr oject Bab el’ of con tem por ar y wor k and practice . Claimin g p r oc es s es and t he experime nts as pro jec t s , des pit e lac k of resou rce s, n ever t heles s c r eat es mom e ntu m for g rou p wor k at leas t in the sen se of in itiati ng a pos s ibly new form o f urb an pra ctic e.

The white board as the starting point, at Santiago Cluster Meeting.

5-6


January 2014 Manifesto / Planning Dialogues

THE MANIFESTO WE WILL PRODUCE EXPERIMENTS OF INTERDISCIPLINARY EVALUATION WE WILL STUDY ISSUES RELATED TO PUBLIC SPACE IN OUR CITIES WE WILL RUN THESE EXPERIMENTS ON DIFFERENT ONLINE PLATFORMS

宣言

我們會組織跨學科的 評估實驗 我們會研究與城市公 共空間相關的課題

WE WILL CREATE SIMPLE BUT STRICT RULES AND ROLES FOR OUR COLLABORATION WE WILL FREELY PUBLISH AND EXHIBIT THE COLLABORATIONS AS THEY ARE WHEN THE EXPERIMENTS END WE WILL LATER CONSIDER AND EVALUATE THE RESULTS IN A JOINT PAPER OR PRESENTATION

我們會在不同的網絡 平台上進行研究 我們會設立一套簡單 但嚴格的規則及為我 們的合作伙伴尋求合 適的角色 我們會將研究內容按 照完結時的狀態對外 自由發布及展覽

THE BABEL PROJECT

我們會發表一份聯合 編寫的實驗研究報告 作為項目的結尾

EL MANIFIESTO PRODUCIREMOS EXPERIMENTOS DE EVALUACIÓN INTERDISCIPLINARIA ESTUDIAREMOS ASUNTOS RELACIONADOS CON EL ESPACIO PÚBLICO EN NUESTRAS CIUDADES HAREMOS NUESTROS EXPERIMENTOS UTILIZANDO DIFERENTES PLATAFORMAS EN LÍNEA CREAREMOS ROLES Y REGLAS SIMPLES PERO ESTRICTOS PARA NUESTRA COLABORACIÓN PUBLICAREMOS Y EXHIBIREMOS LIBREMENTE LAS COLABORACIONES AL TERMINAR LOS EXPERIMENTOS CONSIDERAREMOS Y EVALUAREMOS LOS RESULTADOS EN UN ARTICULO O PRESENTACIÓN CONJUNTA


Introduction MIKA (15 Jan 2014) So, just to clarify, I’m going to write in ‘cornflower blue’ for this planning dialogue. We’re starting this Google Document discussion with Mo, with the aim of ultimately producing together with you, a small project by the time of the URBAN LAB+ symposium in Italy next June. The project doesn’t have a name yet, so let’s also try to replace the question mark in the title. As we discussed in the workshop in Santiago – writing and drawing at first in the PUC Master students’ beautiful backyard garden and later in the meeting room with everyone – we thought it would be interesting to produce a kind of a lab experiment in the context of the network. Especially, as we’re now talking about laboratories. Thus, we reasoned that one aim of the cluster, as well as the whole network, should be also true experimenting with interdisciplinary approaches in the work of urban laboratories and especially in the context of inclusivity in public spaces. We agreed that as we cannot instantly transfer the ‘interdisciplinarity’ of our workshop discussions into our respective laboratories or their teaching and studying, it would still be an interesting idea to “just do it” as Uwe-Jens Walther aptly put it. So it was agreed that this kind of parallel experiment would be run by the PhD and Master students. And if I remember correctly, myself with Mo and Diego, were listed among those to be in charge of developing this experiment and the subsequent outcome. (Correct me if I’m wrong.) And this document, is meant to be a discussion about that.

SUPPLEMENT

THE ? BABEL PROJECT / URBAN LAB+ / A planning dialogue

Project Manifesto MIKA (15 Jan 2014) It might seem a grand gesture, but it could be a good idea to make a certain manifesto for the project. This is simply to answer the questions of why would this be a good idea, and what these experiments are supposed to test. Also, in this context, I think we should maintain an element of radicality, preparedness for unexpected happenings and even failures. Not only for the sake of experimenting and raising general interest, but also because we are dispersed on three continents and our collaboration is anyway a fairly unusual scenario. We should therefore produce also something that is unusual and experimental. For me the manifesto could look something like this: We will produce durational cycles of interdisciplinary evaluation We will study issues related to public space in our three cities We will run these three experiments in three different online platforms We will create simple but strict rules and roles for our collaboration We will freely publish and exhibit the collaborations as they are when the experiments end We will later consider and evaluate the results in a joint paper or presentation I think the manifesto should be short and pointy enough, but we can see about the practical stuff further down in this document.

7-8

We are already a highly multidisciplinary group of people. As far as I know, we come from architecture, art, design, urbanism, planning, anthropology, tourism, politics, sociology, and what else? This is why I think the outcome of this project should be also interdisciplinary. Ideally, I would like to see that the end results of our production form some kind of dialectic research in our education, as well as functioning as creative and even artistic outputs, or perhaps just as an interesting read to other urbanists. Anyway, it all seems quite fresh and new to me, which is exciting.


January 2014 Manifesto / Planning Dialogues

DIEGO (14 Feb 2014) As I said by mail, I totally agree with what has been said, especially with the idea of the manifesto. I think it would be more manifesto-like if we are redundant about the experimental condition of the work, so I suggest these modifications: We will produce experiments of interdisciplinary evaluation. MIKA (5 Mar 2014) Agree with the note on the first point of the manifesto by Diego. So, that actually gives us the final manifesto. Platforms MIKA (15 Jan 2014) We were pondering with Mo already about how to possibly pull this off and what would be interesting to actually do as a project. And it quickly comes back to the platforms. In the workshop we already discussed ideas of using online tools, programming a project website, a blog, etc. But I’m thinking that we should simply use existing online platforms, tools and social media, because they are ultimately representing the contemporary public realm and are in the reach of billions, for free. This is also an experiment in using collaborative tools for writing and content production, which are becoming more and more usable and popular in many fields. But, I feel also that we need to be very careful with this part of the project. I think in order for these kind of online undertakings to work, they need to be extremely accessible, low-threshold, low maintenance. Also, the end-result of the collaborative work should be accessible and viewable easily and in a format that is simple enough to make its point. We should already get something as a product directly from our collaboration activity, rather than producing the product afterwards. On the other hand, we should also push the envelope, so that we might really find out something new about the possibilities of online collaborative tools, or lack thereof. And by doing that we may produce something that even on its own right will be actually interesting for evaluating urban processes, phenomena and space. Prior to writing this, with Mo we thought about having three different project platforms which I’m now proposing here. The idea is to focus on one of them with each experiment, and cover the possibilities of different formats. - Facebook (IMAGE) - Google Drive (TEXT) - Instagram (VIDEO)

THE BABEL PROJECT

These are all easy to use, super popular and probably stuff we are already using. I think we all have noticed that it feels easy to chat with friends in social media, and to comment their status updates. But then it’s much more difficult to produce a paragraph of text in a research collaboration. So what if we could combine these two. And I think this is why these platforms are even more interesting than any specially built online research platforms for this project. But we would still want to try and use them in a more ‘curated’ way. While Facebook by itself is already a network of people, it doesn’t automatically turn into a collaboration. We only want to benefit from the accessibility and popularity (and inclusivity) of these tools, not their banality. For Facebook, I’m suggesting doing something similar to the Unface Book by Vibokworks described in detail here: http://vibokworks.com/en/works/unface-book/ The idea builds around images with captions that are posted in a Facebook page photo album. The end results, is the image gallery https://www.facebook.com/UNFACEB/photos_ stream that can be visited on its own. It’s not a continuous project, but it has an end and beginning, thus making it an experiment that can be discussed later. (This is a very good example of what i was thinking - Diego_14 feb) As for Google Drive, it could work best for a more text-based project. As you can see from reading this document, we are able to write and share these ideas using


Video is naturally an interesting format. But while most of us can today record video with our smartphone, the problem is that we rarely would take the time and effort to edit and send videos to each other as a means of communicating. This is why we are suggesting Instagram’s 15-second long micro videos as a format that can be shared and even edited with very low threshold. You know, to just do it. If, for instance, a shared Instagram account would be set up, all collaborators could submit their videos with it and later add comments with their own Instagram or Facebook accounts. The gallery of videos along with comments would be then also publicly accessible. MIKA (5 Feb 2014) Just to add to this part, is that these are already existing platforms that I know of and that could work in being low-threshold, easy, popular and still would produce an outcome without too much post-production. They also don't leave too much stuff hanging on the internet such as abandoned blogs etc. tend to do. They already have functions that also make them "sharable" online maybe even in some way direcly usable on the ULAB+ website. But other forums and platforms could be chosen of course. I just saying that for Hong Kong, we would probably choose one of these.

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different visual cues (such as the color blue here). I’m thinking it would be an interesting and a fairly nice looking way to communicate with stories, and then also to exhibit the dialogue to the public. Anyone with a Google account (or even without) can collaborate on the documents, and Google Sites can be used to make them publicly viewable in the end, creating also an online exhibition.

Timeframe MIKA (16 Jan 2014) We would be running three experiments. One in Hong Kong, one in Santiago and one in Berlin. In my opinion, the collaboration cycles of each case should be quite short. I’m thinking maximum two weeks. In order to produce a paper, or whatever it would eventually be called by June, I think we should be ready with the experiments by latest somewhere in May 2014. I’m suggesting that the first collaboration would run in February, the second in March and the last in April. This would probably be feasible, since were focusing on a single case at a time. MIKA (04 Feb 2014) Maybe even a few days of experiment could work, make it more intense. Limitations MIKA (16 Jan 2014) I think in order for this to work, we need some limitations and rules. We should make it very concise what we’re going after with each experiment – and then do only that. As I mentioned already, one good limitation is time. Others are related to the platform and the individual experiments. While I think the results should be open access for anyone, for some of these experiments it may be hard to get real public participation. And that might also go off our scope, which is to have interdisciplinary reactions and evaluations, based on our roles in the experiments. For instance, I would probably stick to my discipline as a designer and architect, if I’m sending a reply video related to a certain case in another city. DIEGO (14 Feb 2014)

MIKA (5 Mar 2014) Yes, I think we should (and I guess do) acknowledge that it’s not a universal application – as is not the URBAN LAB+ network either. So, the setting is already curated one as you mention.

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About the participants of the experiments, we should think of it as a curatorial practice. Like in the scientific’s lab, where there are few participants, the design of the experiments should consider the participants that could perform in such context. (i.e.: do not invite someone who can´t open a web browser, or his/her interests are too different from ours).


January 2014 Manifesto / Planning Dialogues

Responsibilities MIKA (16 Jan 2014) We need each city to organize a case for their experiment. We also need to decide who will use each media platform. Like, if Santiago is a Facebook project, Berlin takes stories and HK takes video? We also need someone in charge of each city. I’m willing to take the responsibility for the Hong Kong part of the project (Or I can work together with you Mo?) As for Santiago, would that be Diego? And we would need someone in Berlin, Karoline? The people in charge of each experiment should then define the experiment rules and duration. And see that it runs its course. (I’m really thinking these could also be very short periods of time.) DIEGO (14 Feb 2014) I could handle the experiment at Santiago, by March. MIKA (5 Mar 2014) Still have no confirmation from anyone Berlin, but of course this is something we could run anyway in Hong Kong and Santiago regardless. Topics of Study MO (28 Jan 2014) The choice of topics shall be clear, short, and simple. This collaborative writing experiment (interdisciplines, cross-culture, cross time-difference, and internet base) is complex enough and does not need a second layer of complexity to complicate it. The goal of this experiment is simple. It tries to understand the possibility and limitation of such method in the case of urban studies. Therefore, unlike other researches focusing on the urban issues and topics, we focus on the exploration of method. The simplicity of the topics will allow us to comprehend and evaluate the experiment result. To start with something, I suggest that we shall have: 1. 2. 3.

One Keyword One Image One Short Text (less than 50 words, English) - describing the relationship between the keyword and the image for each city.

The person, who is the representative, shall initiate the experiment by posting these (3) requirements. This will set the tone for the discussion and everyone will either (i) comment on the post; or (ii) respond it with a new post consisting of either 2 elements from the set. For example,

THE BABEL PROJECT

Representation MO (28 Jan 2014) How does different internet-based map tools, like Google Earth, Edu-shi, change our understanding of the city and the way of approaching a new place? This is just an example of one entry. The method and rule of posting shall vary according to the platforms chosen for each run. It is anticipated that contributions from the three teams (Berlin, Chile, and Hong Kong) shall expand the meaning of the first keyword and on the whole, the process will create a mosaic of images, words, and short paragraphs interrelated to each other to form an “impression” of an urban issue. With this simple experiment, we can test this methodology in terms of its ability of communication, productivity of generating discussion, feasibility of organizing ideas, and effectiveness of displaying contributions from different individuals as a comprehensible and meaningful work.


MIKA (16 Jan 2014) As the final result, we are hoping to construct a ‘paper’ out of all this. So that would be a joint effort. We could also turn these dialogues into a set of essays, a digital pamphlet? In Italy, we should have a presentation about the experience, explaining the process, the experiments, using these methods, evaluating them. Is this kind of collaboration useful, fun, purposeful, or suitable for long-distance (or any) collaboration. How perhaps limitatitons in time or themes work to its advantage? And, how does the shift of a platform (exhibiting, publishing or viewing and displaying our work) affect the process? Does this relate to the fast cycle of current online media, quick content, quick posting, etc. Evaluation MO (16 Jan 2014) I guess it’s very important for us to think in the early stage (like now?) on how to evaluate such experiment. I intentionally put this topic right after the “Result” and in front of “What’s Next?” to stress the importance of evaluation.

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Results

“Evaluation” could be somehow different from the section of “Result”. From my point of view, Result can be merely the “Display of What it is” in a chronological manner without any further interpretation. Especially for this so-called experiment, it is crucial to record and document everything happened, both failure and success.

more participants (future?) to understand what we have tried and avoid failures we encounter; or others can take advantage on the success we have achieved; or they can simply apply the same process directly in a different context to test the validity and limitation of this RESEARCH. •

This “Result” will allow:

For Evaluation, it could refer to Interpretation, Performance checking, Reflection on different levels (personal, institutional, national), Relevance (in terms of trend and styles), Applicability, etc. This Experiment would not need to cover everything (due to the limitation of our responsibilities to our own institutions and workload); therefore, we shall decide how we use the “Result” to generate meaningful reading out of it, as well as further questions (“What’s Next?). My personal preference will be Relevance: > Relevance to “us” 1. How do different platforms fit into our daily practice and facilitate (instead of adding more workloads) our own research interest? > Relevance to “the people” 2. How do different platforms fit into different cultures and urban conditions? 3. How inclusive can different platforms and such working approach be? > Relevance to “the subject” 4. How far we can push such method and to what extend it enables us to discuss things in a meaningful manner?

DIEGO (14 Feb 2014) I would add to the Relevance proposed by Mo, maybe expanding the “to us” part, by considering the Replicability and Scalability of the experiments. Can be repeated? Can be done bigger (as something open to general public)?

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What else?


January 2014 Manifesto / Planning Dialogues

MIKA (5 Mar 2014) I think for this exercise we can not definitively develop something that is replicable in scale of the general public. But we can of course address the possibility in disseminating our end results. Maybe we see this phase also as test in thinking also if is it worth pursuing a universal method, or in what ways is the inclusion always limited if we optimize towards useful seeming results. What’s Next? MIKA (16 Jan 2014) I’ve basically written everything I could think of for now and I’m sharing this file with Mo next. And after that we will share this with everyone, and hopefully the people in charge of the experiments in each city could also add their comments and we could come to a conclusion. This we could hopefully accomplish by early February and so that the first experiment could run. DIEGO (14 Feb 2014) I´m thinking about a name for the project, that I think makes sense with the colaborative, transdisciplinar, transcultural (and so on) vein we are aiming for. So maybe replace the question mark with “BABEL”. MIKA (5 Mar 2014) The Babel Project (or Project Babel?) sounds good to me. It is about a multitude of voices and something that looks into dealing with that.

THE BABEL PROJECT

So, I will still try and contact Berlin to see if they have the chance to take part in this, but could we already for our part agree that we’re talking about Project Babel, defined by a manifesto that we have created. And for that purpose we should maybe create a Manifesto document - already one form of output out of this project. And then really, the next part is for us all to come up with our own cases and devise a plan on how to execute them. Me and Mo will try to work on our experiment plan soon. We might be interested in trying the video format experiment for the HK case, if ok for others?

The Confusion of Tongues (1865) by Gustave Doré. Development keywords.


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March-April 2014 The Hong Kong Experiment THE BABEL PROJECT

#babelprojecthongkong Mika (24 Mar 2014) In planning the HK experiment, it’s an interesting process to try and really “do it”, as many challenges basically arise from the very act of moving past the manifesto. Firstly, I was inclined to try and work with videos because it is challenging and usually requires a lot of skill and resources. But, here it could also provide more experimental results. And also, because for Hong Kong many things are related to the parallel flows and movements of people in all kinds of spaces. We’ve chosen Instagram as a social media platform for this experiment because it’s a low threshold user experience, it’s fairly limited in possibilities, and has a simple curated look. These things quite perfectly match what we were looking for because the idea really is to find working methods that require no budget, no staff, and little post-production, in other words, collaborations that can happen ‘lightly’ alongside the existing work and projects. We’d want to stress results that arise straight from the collaboration. We are trying to chart the limits of what can be achieved in such a setting. Technically, however, all this will not be entirely straightforward because the existing popular media platforms don’t allow exactly this kind of collaboration. Another whole aspect to this, is the question of personal privacy and immaterial rights. But this truly is today’s world: EULAs and legal agreements categorize our e-mail, files, photos and online activities. In social media, like Facebook, one is basically operating and sharing openly under one’s own name, yet all posted material on Facebook


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March-April 2014 The Hong Kong Experiment THE BABEL PROJECT

will become available to the company’s use. Instagram, though owned by Facebook, however offers nicknames for posting images and videos, and retains the user’s complete rights to the material. But this also means that no posted content can be shared and it presents a hurdle in running the experiment. Ideally we would have wanted to create a “collection” where our experiment participants would have posted their videos, and others could have commented them. This is not, however, possible on Instagram because posts belong to only one account. We have thus settled on a model, where posting to an account is shared. The good side is that all content will become available under one web address, open to everyone and it automatically looks like a simple enough readable and viewable content. The downside is that individuals are not posting under their own name. This question, can also be an experiment itself. Will something posted anonymously, or under a title of the project differ from personal posting? However, afterwards the posts can be freely commented with poster own accounts. We also try to play with hashtags in this experiment. This will later enable some visualizations or analysis for sure, but we don’t know yet how to take advantage of them. This also links the experiment into the cultural popularization of hashtags. What is today found online under the tags #urban, #publicspace, #planning or #inclusion? Can we use this “itemization” usefully and easily. In Hong Kong, smartphones are utterly and completely ubiquitous. They penetrate almost every social structure, regardless of income or education. Yet, this


I understand that we are building the methodology of this activity a little backwards, but then there’s also no way to test something like this without just trying to do it. Diego (25 Mar 2014) First, I´m glad you liked BABEL as the name for the project. Speaking of translations, I attach the spanish version of the manifesto. (And of the poster, just in case you need it. I will share it with possible participants here in Santiago). A few comments about your work (as I write, it is not possible to edit the documents online)(this should go to the “internal discussion” part, I guess): Really loved the yellow background! It gave me headache, but loved it. Maybe that could be a way of identifying the experiments? (Santiago takes the blue)

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high potential is not really utilized – a scenario that could for instance include evaluation of urban planning. What would happen if everyone who technically could participate in an experiment similar to this, would?

I’ve been thinking the mechanics of the experiment, and even we are dealing with different platforms, Mika makes a lot of points. (First, the obvious curatorial side of the experiments: at least here in Chile that kind of practice in planning may sound like sanskrit). Thinking about making the experiments as “collections”, like the facebook page that Mika shared in January, makes sense because it is like an open-ended selfcontained and collaborative effort. As Santiago is going to work with facebook, I guess that condition is better achieved (I will give more details on our experiment soon). I haven’t thought of the property of the collaboration, I thought about the mechanics, but never about who is appropriating the work. We should totally get back to this in the last phase. Same with hashtags: they are such a powerful way to knit everyone, and of getting information from that (I know a few programmers...), that I think is a must have of our experiments (facebook too have hashtag, even though they are not that powerful). Last but not least important: great idea to incorporate your students. Mika (9 April 2014)

One observation we’ve already made in this phase, has been the mixture of signals created by trying to both conduct our experiment as a project among our teams (as part of something

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The Hong Kong experiment starts tomorrow, and we’ve been doing some testing with the Instagram platform. The videos seem to be working, and the page is up and running. We’ve contacted students in a few urban programs and some colleagues here at CUHK have also expressed interest in contributing. So let’s see what happens.


THE BABEL PROJECT

January 2014 The Hong Kong Experiment


So I think we’ve already uncovered a challenge in operating on social media platforms with your own agenda. What is the best way to utilize the ease of sharing etc. found on these platforms, while still maintaining the control and focus of your collaboration? Somehow the experiment also becomes a study in this. Mika (24 April 2014) The HK experiment has now concluded, and as a result, we have about 30 videos neatly displayed on the Instagram page. I think we can further continue to discuss the whole project in our shared paper/presentation, but even now, some thoughts about the video experiment come to mind.

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related to the URBAN LAB+ network) and as a possibly more public event. While including more people and promoting the “event” might produce more results, it also takes us away slightly from the actual manifesto of doing this as an experiment in the “laboratory” sense.

Firstly, I have to say that while video certainly is quite captivating as a medium, its use definitely requires some premeditation and setting up this experiment purely in order to have an Instagram page to talk about, did show that working in this manner requires some form of commitment. I think that the method itself is workable, but this kind of work especially with students would function best if it was part of coursework. In short, our chosen posting method of using a shared account was successful in producing a clear end-result: a clean-cut video gallery where posts can be commented by other users. However, it also required complicated instructions, which took time to read and process, and probably proved discouraging to some outside participants. Also, like I said earlier, setting up something on a social media platform makes it automatically an object of measured popularity as those tools have been geared towards getting followers or to display “likes” and comments. And of course, here, it was not the primary intention. This is why I chose to add some explanatory texts among the posts, to address the publicly visible side of the project. In other words, the project we set up was just for us to try it, yet it is inescapable that it becomes a project in the public sense as well.

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April-May 2014 The Santiago Experiment

#babelprojectsantiago Diego (08 Abr 2014) Diego (20 May 2014) Con el objetivo de incorporar de manera más fluida participantes locales, abro aca una discusión en español. Los aportes serán considerados y eventualmente incorporados a la discusión principal, que pueden encontrar EN ESTE LINK. De más está decir que es necesario ver primero los avances para el experimento realizado en Hong Kong EN ESTE OTRO LINK. No es por apurarlos, pero la idea es correr nuestro experimento la proxima semana, entre el 27 de mayo y el 3 de junio, para poder sintetizar el trabajo y presentarlo en el 2º Simposio URBAN LAB+.

THE BABEL PROJECT

Diego (08 Abr 2014) Mientras escribo esto, el #babelprojecthongkong ha estado desarrollándose por un par de días, en una fase previa al experimento. Y se esta viendo bien. Así que voy a empezar esta parte del proyecto intentando construir sobre lo que hemos estado hablando para el #babelprojecthongkong, para luego pasar al experimento de Santiago. (Si no lo hicieron, deben ir a leer el post de Mika AQUÍ). Sobre experimentos urbanos (o por qué laboratorio urbano): a diferencia de las ciencias naturales, los laboratorios urbanos deben enfrentar un fenómeno heterogéneo y por tanto, deben ser lo más diversos posible, manteniendo el ambiente controlado (del exterior), para dar al laboratorista (planificador-urbanista) el control sobre el mayor número posible de variables . El microcontexto aislado y controlado del laboratorio debe a su vez encontrar la manera de resonar fuera de él, siendo la heterogeneidad disciplinaria cierta garantía de la variedad de los modos de difusión del conocimiento (como datos, metodologías y prácticas) construido en el laboratorio. Por supuesto que no es posible poner la ciudad en una placa de Petri. Así que hacer experimentos en la ciudad significa enmarcar al laboratorista, dándole una ventana, a través de la que mire la ciudad. (Sí, el ‘plato de Lefebvre’ para ciudades). Sobre múltiples lenguajes (o por qué en tiempo real y multimedia): algo que en cierto sentido se desprende de la búsqueda por la transdisciplinariedad, es que si el

As I write this, the #babelprojecthongkong has being going on for a couple of days, on a pre-experiment phase. And it’s looking good. So I will start this part of the project trying to build on what we´ve been talking for the #babelprojecthongkong, and then move on to the Santiago experiment. On urban experiments (or why urban lab): unlike the natural sciences, urban laboratories must face an heterogeneous phenomenon and must therefore be as diverse as possible, while keeping the environment controlled (somewhat outside) so as to give the laboratorist (urban plannerdesigner) the control over as many variables as possible. The isolated and controlled microcontext of the laboratory must in turn find ways to resonate out of it, being the disciplinary heterogeneity certain guarantee of the variety of modes of dissemination of knowledge (as data, methodologies and practices) constructed within the laboratory. Of course it isn’t possible to put the city into a Petri dish. So making experiments in the city means framing the laboratorist, giving him a window, so he will look the city from it. (Yes, the Lefebvre dish for cities). On multiple languages (or why realtime and multimedia): something that in a sense follows from the search for transdisciplinarity, is that if knowledge cannot be produced or managed by one person or discipline, and therefore requires a collaborative effort, then we are facing an eminently political activity. Certainly not in a partisan political sense, but as an activity of human's government by humans as


conocimiento no puede ser producido o manejado por una sola persona o disciplina, y por lo tanto requiere de un esfuerzo de colaboración, entonces estamos frente a una actividad eminentemente política. Ciertamente no en un sentido político partidista, sino como una actividad del gobierno de humanos por humanos como seres humanos. Transdisciplinariedad significa comunicación, tanto como deliberación. Quizás la planificación y el diseño urbano en esta perspectiva trans-(disciplinar, lingüística, continental) es, ante todo, una cuestión de preocupación por el la conversación. ¿Podemos hacer la comunicación mejor, más rápida y más fuerte? (lastima que, al traducir, se pierde el chiste musical). La mecánica de #babelprojectsantiago: una vez más, los chicos de CUHK lo han dicho con mucha claridad: hay un montón de herramientas para comunicarse de manera significativa. (significativa = no sólo palabras). Incluso hay herramientas en línea que son bonitas, fáciles de usar y gratuitas. Entonces, ¿podemos hacer de las conversaciones virtuales cotidianas (chats, posts y sharing por sus más comunes nombres en inglés) una ventana a través de la cual mirar la ciudad? Facebook es muy popular, pero hace significa muy popular inmediatamente algo bueno?. Sí cuando, además de una facilidad de uso, existen severas restricciones que tipo de catalizan el diálogo. Así que las restricciones que queremos construir una conversación sobre la ciudad en facebook son: de tiempo, de los modos de diálogo, de tipos de participantes.

The mechanics of #babelprojectsantiago: then again, the guys at CUHK have put it very clear: there are plenty of tools to communicate in meaningful ways. (Meaningful = not just words). And there are even free, easy to use and good looking online tools. So can we make of everyday chatting, posting and sharing a window through which look at the city? Facebook is very popular, but does extremely popular means immediately a good thing?. It does when, besides an ease of use, there are severe constraints that sort of catalyze the dialogue. So the constraints that we want to build a conversation about the city in facebook are: of time, of dialog modes,of kinds of participants. The experiment will be an event on facebook, that will only be accessible by invitation, whose administrators will be the designers of the experiment (CUHK + PUC), and that will start on tuesday 27 of may ending on tuesday 3 of june of 2014. The participants will share photos and comments about how does waste affects (occupy, is transported far, it is separated or accumulated, is recycled, is burned or buried, contaminate, makes space fetid, and so on) the city.

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El experimento será un evento en facebook, que sólo será accesible por invitación, cuyos administradores serán los diseñadores del experimento (CUHK + PUC), que comenzará el martes 27 de mayo, finalizando el Martes 3 de junio de 2014. Los participantes compartirán fotos y comentarios acerca de cómo afecta la basura (ocupando, siendo transportada lejos, siendo separada o acumulada, siendo reciclada, quemada o enterrada, contaminando, volviendo fétido el espacio, y así sucesivamente) a la ciudad.

Maybe urban planning-designing in these trans- (disciplinar, continental, linguistic) perspective is, first of all, a matter of concern about chat. Can we make communicating better, faster and stronger?

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humans. Transdisciplinarity means communication, as much as means deliberation.


April-May 2014 The Santiago Experiment

Diego (15 May 2014) WASTE(D) CITY (or making our s**t visible):

Diego (15 May 2014)

DESPERDICIUDAD (o hacer visible nuestra mierda):

“(…) una vez desechadas las cosas nadie quiere tener que pensar más en ellas. Dónde llevan cada día su carga los basureros nadie se lo pregunta: fuera de la ciudad, claro; pero de año en año la ciudad se expande, y los basurales deben retroceder mis lejos; la importancia de los desperdicios aumenta y las pilas se levantan, se estratifican, se despliegan en un perímetro cada vez más vasto.” Italo Calvino, Leonia, Ciudades Invisibles

THE BABEL PROJECT

La primera parte de este proyecto, el experimento de Hong Kong, trataba sobre espacios en disputa, y he estado pensando que hay algunas cosas que disputan el espacio más intensamente que los humanos. Si nosotros los humanos tenemos que manifestarnos y protestar varias veces para conseguir un poco de atención por parte del resto de nosotros (o la sociedad) (recuerden, el caso para la educación y las reformas políticas aquí en Chile), la basura sólo tiene que permanecer inmóvil durante un día o dos y toda nuestro esfuerzo civilizatorio se desmorona. Cualquier sofisticación sobre urbanismo, planificación, gestión o política (policy), simplemente pierden toda utilidad y significado si nuestra basura no es manejada. Así que esta etapa del Proyecto Babel tratará de explicitar, visualmente y escribiendo sobre, cómo conseguimos ensuciar nuestras ciudades (o cómo conseguimos limpiarlas). ¿Somos como los animales que andan dejando su orina y excrementos para apropiarse del territorio? Diego (28 de mayo de 2014)

He tenido algunos problemas para correr el experimento a tiempo, por lo que se ha retrasado dos días. Así, #babelprojectsantiago se desarrollará entre el 29 de mayo (jueves) y el 05 de junio (jueves) como un evento en Facebook, tal como se describe más arriba. Al igual que el #babelprojecthongkong desde hoy esta disponible en modo de prueba.

“Nobody wonders where, each day, they carry their load of refuse. Outside the city, surely; but each year the city expands, and the street cleaners have to fall farther back. The bulk of the outflow increases and the piles rise higher, become stratified, extend over a wider perimeter” - Italo Calvino, Leonia, Invisible Cities. The first part of this project, the Hong Kong experiment, was about ‘contestedness’, and so I have been thinking that there are some things that can contest space harder than humans. If us humans need to demonstrate and protest several times to get some attention from the rest of us (or society) (i.e. that has been the case for education and political reforms here in Chile), garbage just need to stay still for one day or two and all our civilizatory enterprise falls apart. Any sophistication about urban design, planning, governance or policy, just lose every meaning and use if our refuse are not handled. So this leg of the Babel Project will aim to make explicit, visually and by writing about, how we get our cities wasted (or how we get them cleaned). Are we like animals that go around leaving their urine and excrement to appropriate the territory? About collaborators: because the reception among other students here at Santiago has not been precisely warm, I have talked/ worked/invited two other professors. I hope you are ok with that, and if you do not mind, I would like to invite them to participate as administrators of the Santiago Experiment.


Some short mid-thoughts. I think including basically anyone is great. From our experience with the HK experiment, it was not actually easy simply get student participation by simply inviting them. While using these methods is easy and universal, they seem still to work with the preconditions of the social media mindset. But in the end, our project is not really about that, and what we see already is that while we’re not testing popularity, anyone trying something similar has the burden of having test subjects. In the end, it’s best to have a team. So maybe “invitation only” will be a fruitful approach. And I think it reinforces the original thought of doing this as some form of a curatorial project. Because regardless of whatever goals and topics we set, the “Babel experiments” are about producing something together from these different angles, places and disciplines and then seeing if it works. In the end it doesn’t hurt to see something nice as a result, but the real content is the project.

SUPPLEMENT

Mika (18 May 2014)

WASTE as the topic is superbly interesting. At least for HK, a city that I think produces most waste per capita, while still being the most energy efficient, because of the high density and low car ownership. Waste is carried away every day by hand, separated by a whole group of workers “invisibilly” taking care of the city. And where does it all disappear, who can say. (Actually this would be a great topic for a whole another project in HK)

The poster for the experiment is available HERE. I have also started a discussion in spanish, to make things more fluid here at Santiago, and also because I love writing things twice.

22-23

Diego (19-20 May 2014)


April-May 2014 The Santiago Experiment

I have formally invited two professors: Phd Martin Tironi, and Phd(c) Jorge Vergara Vidal. Both sociologists involved in Studies of Technology and Science (STS), perspective that I think can shed light on the issue of waste as something more than a problem of engineering. I have also invited Phd(c) Constanza Ulriksen who will participate at the symposium as part of the PUC delegation. Lastly I have been sharing the idea with master’s classmates here at PUC, and with fellow-friends architects, musicians, artist and other kinds of freaks. Thanks Mika for your short midthoughts. I am very concerned about getting feedback from more people than ourselves, which have been very fruitful for me, but as you said, the content is the experiment so I thought that maybe inviting people interested (professionally and academically, like ourselves) could guarantee more and better participation. Promisingly thus far I have had a good reception, so I am optimistic.

THE BABEL PROJECT

Diego (28 May 2014) I have had some problems to get the experiment going on time, delaying it for two days. So #babelprojectsantiago will run from May 29 (Thursday) to June 5 (Thursday) as a Facebook Event, as described above. Like the #babelprojecthongkong a test mode is running from today.


SUPPLEMENT

24-25


Workshop Experiment FLUID AGORA Hong Kong Cluster Meeting, December 2014

FL UID AG O RA was t he f our t h ex per im e n t o f t h e B a b e l P r o j e c t focusing on t he “ wor k s hop” as an int e r d i s c i p l i n a r y w o r k f l o w a n d a me tho d of c ollabor at iv e pr oduc t ion. Tr o u g h o u t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the 2n d c lus t er m eet ing ( t alk s , pr es en t a t i o n s , s t u d y t r i p s , w o r k se ssion s et c . ) , par t ic ipant s wer e inv it e d t o p o s t t o v a r i o u s o n l i n e fee ds their obs er v at ions , quot es or t ho u g h t s o n i n c l u s i o n a n d exclu sio n. Thr ough a s et of aut om at ed s c r i p t s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t ga the red and v is ualiz ed par t ic ipant s ’ p o s t s f r o m t h e m e e t i n g ’s activitie s m edia ont o online plat f or m s . T h e d e s i g n w a s c r e a t e d as a coll ec t ing and r ec or ding dev ic e f o r t h e m e e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I t displa ye d digit ally par t ic ipant s ’ pos t s c a t e g o r i z e d a s - I N ( c l u s i o n ) or -EX(clus ion) .

FLUID AGORA

#babelprojectIN #babelprojectEX

I

N

E

X

THE BABEL PROJECT

#babelprojectIN

#babelprojectEX

LASER

A4 COPY

A4 COPY

A4 COPY

A4 COPY

Th e ske t c h f or t he FLUI D AG O RA pr ese n t e d a l s o a p h y s i c a l installa tion, a “ wor k s hop m ac hine” des i g n e d t o c o n t a i n a n d displa y the pr oduc t ion of a wor k s hop, a s w e l l a s f u n c t i o n i n g a s a sp ace its elf f or t he ac t iv it ies planned.


SUPPLEMENT The wo rkflo w o f t he plat f or m pr oduc ed out put f r o m v a r i o u s o n l i n e fe ed s in to two m ain s c r eens t hat would pr ov id e c o n t i u o u s l y upd ate d strea ms of t ex t and im ages , c ur at ed b y t h e u s e o f simp le IN/EX key wor ds and t he des ign of out p u t c h a n n e l s .

26-27


September 2015 Babel Space and Beyond THE BABEL PROJECT

A Babel Sp a c e & B e y o n d W hile t he pr o j e c t h a s b e e n a s m a l l under t ak ing , i t h a s n e v e r t h e l e s s b e e n r ev ealing as a f o r a y i n t o t h e i d e a o f ‘Babel Spac e ’ — a w o r d i n g s t e m m i n g f r om t he des c r i p t i o n o f ‘ J u n k S p a c e ’ b y ar c hit ec t Re m K o o l h a a s i n 2 0 0 1 . E v e r s inc e, af t er o v e r a d e c a d e o f p h y s i c a l ur baniz at ion a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g r e s i d u a l or ex t r em ely c o m m o d i f i e d s p a c e s , t h e digit al wor ld i n v a r i e t y o f m e d i a a n d int er f ac es h a s b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a l par t of m any e s t a b l i s h e d a s w e l l a s m oder niz ing c i t i e s . T h e r e a r e m a n y ques t ions a s t o w h a t r o l e d o u r b a n pr of es s iona l s h a v e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t he new t y p e o f ‘ p u b l i c s p a c e ’ , a n d t o what ex t ent i t w i l l c h a n g e t h e n a t u r e of f ut ur e wo r k i n v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s . Alr eady s om e p a r t s o f t h e d i s c o u r s e or ev en c r uc i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n c i t i e s ar e t r ans m itt e d p u r e l y t h r o u g h v a r i o u s apps and ar e v i r a l l y s p r e a d i n g a s s har ing of n e w s . I n m a n y e m e r g i n g r egions , t he d i g i t a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e h a s been m uc h f a s t e r t o d e v e l o p i n s t e a d of f ully f unc t i o n a l u r b a n p r o c e s s e s , phy s ic al pr o j e c t s o r p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . I n m any way s , t h e g l o b a l ‘ e v e r y d a y nes s ’ of t he B a b e l S p a c e i s t h u s a newly nor m a l c o n d i t i o n , i n s t e a d o f a c ur ios it y wit h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o u r b a n r ealit ies . I n t h e s e a s p e c t s , n a v i g a t i n g t hes e new te r r i t o r i e s f o r p r o j e c t s a l s o r es onat es w i t h a t t e m p t s i n b u i l d i n g new and glo b a l l y m o r e i n c l u s i v e u r b a n t heor ies .


A s its fin al o utcome wit hin t he Ur ban Lab+ p roje ct, th e te am pr oduc ed an essay de scribin g th e Babel Pr ojec t as a po ten tial te stin g gr ound f or an educa tion sta rtup , env is ioned as a pote ntia l pe da go gy in t he c ur r ent age o f Post-Inte rne t , digit al c r eat ion and p ub lish ing , available f or global teachin g a nd lea rni ng in t he ur ban laborato ry a pp roa ch .

SUPPLEMENT

“T h e Babel Pr ojec t : Tow ar ds an U rb a n Educ ation S t ar t up” in Ur ban P amp hle tee r #5 - G lobal Educ at ion f or U rba n Futu res by Mi ka Savela & M o Kar Him

U r b an P amphl e t e e r #5 G l oba l Ed u c a tion f or Ur ba n Fu tu r es. Gu est Edi t o r s : Pa o la Alf a r o d’Alen ç o n , B en C a m pk i n, Rupal i G upte , S olam Mkh abela, Joh annes Novy and Mik a S a vela .

29-30


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16-20 December 2014 Hong Kong


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Interdisciplinarity Cluster Meeting 2

IN / EX Interdisciplinary Approaches to Urban Inclusion


92

16-20 December 2014 Hong Kong


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Interdisciplinarity Cluster Meeting 2


94

IN/EX in HK Introduction

Hendrik TIEBEN Associate Professor Director of M.Sc. in Urban Design Programme School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The s ec ond c l u s t e r m e e t i n g I N / E X was hos t ed i n D e c e m b e r 2 0 1 4 b y t h e Sc hool of Ar c h i t e c t u r e a n d I n s t i t u t e o f Fut ur e Cit ie s o f t h e C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kon g ( C U H K ) a n d f o c u s e d on I nt er - an d Tr a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y Appr oac hes t o U r b a n I n c l u s i o n . Again, t he u r b a n l a b o r a t o r i e s f r o m Pont if ic al C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f Chile, Tec hn i c a l U n i v e r s i t y B e r l i n and The Ch i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f H o n g Kong par t ic i p a t e d a n d w e r e j o i n e d her e als o by t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n Ur ban Lab+ p a r t n e r U n i v e r s i t y o f t he W it wat e r s r a n d . T h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t his ur ba n l a b o r a t o r y f o r m J ohannes bu r g w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y v aluable due t o S o u t h A f r i c a ’s l o n g ex per ienc es w i t h u r b a n e x c l u s i o n under t he ap a r t h e i d p o l i c y a n d w i t h at t em pt s t o o v e r c o m e t h i s e x c l u s i o n af t er t he en d o f t h i s p o l i c y i n 1 9 9 4 . The f iv e- days e v e n t i n H o n g K o n g c om pr is ed a p u b l i c i n t r o d u c t o r y s y m pos ium a n d f o l l o w i n g w o r k s h o p s at CUHK as w e l l a s t w o c o m m u n i t y


95

The

TO URBAN INCLUSION URBAN LAB+

IIN N // EEXX

Workshop

IN / EX INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES

Reader

2nd Cluster Meeting

School of Architecture

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

16 - 20 December 2014

The Workshop Reader (2014).


96

workshops at th e two Hong Kong case st ud y sites: (1) Sa i Ying Pun, a gent rifying inn er-city dis t r ic t and (2) Tin Sh ui Wai, a ne w t own at t he urban pe riph ery. Thr ough t he workshops, the pa rtne rs f r om Chile, G ermany a nd Sou th Afr ic a had t he oppo rtun ity to expe r ienc e t he condit ions at th ese sites and dis c us s wit h diff eren t sta ke ho lder s and community memb ers. Th us bas ed on t he mobility pro vid ed by t he Er as m us Mundus p roje ct a ll pa rtner s c ould get f irst-han d e xp erie nces of t he diff er ent cont exts in which e ach of t he ur ban l aborator ies worked . T he disc ussio ns on urb an in- and exclusion d urin g th e Ho ng Kong clust er mee ting ga ine d a s pec if ic relevance an d p erspe ctiv e due it s t iming, as on ly two da ys bef or e t he occupat io n o f ke y u rba n s it es by t he Umbrella Moveme nt h ad ended and t he event of th e o ccup at ion s t ill was t he main to pic of p ub lic debat es . A t the ope nin g symp osium of t he

c lus t er m ee t i n g , t h e i n v i t e d l o c a l s peak er s f r o m C U H K i n t r o d u c e d as pec t s of u r b a n i n - a n d e x c l u s i o n s in Hong Kon g w h i l e t h e v i s i t i n g U r b a n Lab+ par t ne r s s h a r e d r e s u l t s o f t h e i r c as e s t udie s o n I n t e g r a t e d P u b l i c Spac e Pr oje c t s , a n d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s wit h I nt er - a n d Tr a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y t eac hing ap p r o a c h e s i n t h e i r o w n labor at or ies . For Hong Ko n g , u r b a n p l a n n e r M e e Kam Ng ( CU H K ) a d d r e s s e d h o w l a c k of inc lus ion i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was a m ain r e a s o n f o r i n j u s t i c e i n Hong Kong’s u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t ; w h i l e ur ban ec ono m i s t E d w a r d Yi u ’s ( C U H K ) pr es ent ed r e a s o n s f o r t h e r e s t r i c t e d ac c es s t o la n d a n d a ff o r d a b l e hous ing. Bo t h , t h e l a c k o f a c c e s s t o polit ic al dec i s i o n s a n d t o a ff o r d a b l e hous ing had b e e n k e y f a c t o r s f o r t h e Um br ella M o v e m e n t . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t Paul O ’Conn o r ( C U H K ) d r e w a t t e n t i o n t o f ur t her as p e c t s o f e x c l u s i o n b y por t r ay ing th e d i ff i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d in Hong Kon g b y i t s d i ff e r e n t M u s l i m c om m unit ies .


97

E ssy Ban iassa d (CU HK) , J ohannes N ovy, Pao la Alfa ro D ’Alenç on, Daniela K onr ad (TUB) a nd Solam M k habela (W ITS) p resen ted in t heir dis c us s ion of case stu die s, th e s uc c es s and failures of p ub lic in f r as t r uc t ur e projects in a ch ieving ur ban inc lus ion, continu ing thu s th e dis c us s ions of t he S antia go clu ste r meet ing. On t he follo wing da y s of t he m eet ing, discu ssion s shifte d t hen t o t he questio n h ow in terd is c iplinar y and transdiscip lina ry a ppr oac hes t o teachin g cou ld con t r ibut e t o ur ban inclusion an d such inc lus ion c ould be me asure d h olistic ally by us ing a set of ind ica tors de v eloped f r om t he combina tion of d iffer ent dis c iplinar y perspe ctives. Importa nt o bservati ons dur ing t he H ong Kon g cluster m eet ing wer e, t hat (1) t he pa rticip atin g labor at or ies f r om A f rica, Ame rica , Asi a and Eur ope had made su bstan tial e x per ienc es wit h inter discip lina ry a nd t r ans dis c iplinar y teachin g a pp roa ch es but ident if ied

als o diffi c u l t i e s o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s , ( 2) t hat t h e p u b l i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e pr ojec t s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e c a s e s t udies , o ff e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r ur ban in c l u s i o n , b u t a l s o c o u l d h a v e am biguo u s s i d e e ff e c t s ( s u c h a s gent r if ic a t i o n a n d p r i v a t i z a t i o n ) , w h i c h s hould b e m e a s u r e d h o l i s t i c a l l y b y a c om pr eh e n s i v e s e t o f i n d i c a t o r s , a n d ( 3) t hat a l l p a r t n e r s w e r e w i t n e s s i n g in t heir c i t i e s n e w p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t s addr es si n g c u r r e n t i s s u e s o f u r b a n ex c lus io n .


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99


100

33°27′0″S 70°40′0″W Elevation: 520 m (1,706 ft) Area: 641 km2 (247.6 sq mi) Density: 8,470/km2 (21,925/sq mi)

“San Diego”

CLT (UTC−4) GDP (per capita): € 12,890 (2008) Gini coefficient: 0.550 (2010)


101 52°31′N 13°23′E

CET (UTC+1)

Elevation: 34 m (112 ft)

GDP (per capita): € 24,700 (2008) € 33,253 (2012)

Area: 891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi) Density: 3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi) “Cypress Forest”

Gini coefficient: 0.290 (2010)

“Fragrant Harbour”

HKT (UTC+8)

約翰內斯堡

22.267°N 114.188°E Elevation: approx. 0-550 m (urban) Area: 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) Density: 6,544/km2 (17,024/sq mi)

GDP (per capita): € 24,778 (2009) € 30,790 (2013) Gini coefficient: 0.537 (2011)


104

Land Injustice and the Umbrella Movement

Edward YIU Chung-yim Associate Professor Department of Geography and Resources Management Associate Director Institute of Future Cities The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Um br el l a M o v e m e n t i n H o n g K o n g 2014/ 15 is st r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o l a n d injus t ic e, eve n t h o u g h i t i s r e q u e s t i n g univ er s al s u ff r a g e a n d t r u e d e m o c r a c y. I t is bec aus e o f t h e l e a s e h o l d s y s t e m in Hong Kon g , a l m o s t a l l l a n d i n H o n g Kong is own e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , and t he gov e r n m e n t r e l i e s a l o t o n t he inc om e o f l a n d s a l e . T h u s , t h e land polic y, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e h o u s i n g polic y and m o n e t a r y p o l i c y, a r e c om m only r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h l a n d a n d hous ing pr ic e s i t u a t i o n . T h e h o u s i n g pr ic e t o inc o m e r a t i o h a s b e e n o n e of t he highe s t i n t h e w o r l d f o r 5 y ear s , and i s c a t e g o r i s e d a s s e v e r e l y unaff or dable . I t a l s o a g g r a v a t e s t h e inc om e ineq u a l i t y p r o b l e m a n d t h e G ini c oeff ic i e n t h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g and ex c eeds 0 . 5 n o w, w h i c h i s o n e o f t he highes t i n O E C D . T h e g o v e r n m e n t als o m ak es a n e x t e n s i v e u s e o f P P P ( pr iv at e pub l i c p a r t n e r s h i p ) t o b u i l d inf r as t r uc t u r e s , w h i c h c a u s e s h i g h e r and higher fe e s a n d t o l l s . U r b a n dens it y is al s o o n e o f t h e h i g h e s t i n t he wor ld w i t h t h e p e r c a p i t a h o u s i n g


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Behi nd t h e U mb re l l a M o v e me n t

floor are a very sma ll of about 14 s qm each. Gre en field s a r e c onv er t ed int o develo pme nt sites, but br ownf ields ar e expan din g fo r pro vi ding c heaper land for t he ind ustry. Soc ial unr es t c an be reason ab ly e xp ected in t he light of t he continu ou s d ete rior at ion of t he qualit y of life , an d th e e xtre m ely unaff or dable housin g p rice an d r ent . •

The C h i e f E x e c u t i v e , i s c u r r e n t l y s ele c t e d b y a 1 , 2 0 0 - m e m b e r Elec t i o n C o m m i t t e e , m o s t o f t h e m ar e b u s i n e s s m e n . •

Ar t i c l e 4 5 o f t h e B a s i c L a w s t a t e s t hat “ t h e u l t i m a t e a i m i s t h e s e l e c t ion o f t h e C h i e f E x e c u t i v e b y u n i v er s a l s u ff r a g e u p o n n o m i n a t i o n by a b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n o m i nat i n g c o m m i t t e e i n a c c o r d a n c e wit h d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s . B u t i t has b e e n w a i t i n g f o r 1 7 y e a r s . •

On 31 August 2014, the National Peo p l e ’s C o n g r e s s s e t l i m i t s f o r t he e l e c t i o n . T h e d e c i s i o n s t a t e s t hat f o r t h e 2 0 1 7 C h i e f E x e c u t i v e elec t i o n , a n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e , m ir r o r i n g t h e p r e s e n t 1 2 0 0 - m e m ber E l e c t i o n C o m m i t t e e b e f o r m e d to nominate two to three candida t e , a n d A n e l e c t i o n w i t h o u t nom i n a t i o n r i g h t s •

The f i r s t p r o t e s t w a s t h e n h e l d a t t he G o v t H Q s a t A d m i r a l t y


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Admiralty, Hong Kong Island, October 2014.


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108

The Rise 0f Community Activism

Essy BANIASSAD Architect, Adjunct Professor School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Pr of . Banias s a d ’s t a l k d i s c u s s e d ur ban inc lus i o n i n t h e i n t e r f a c e bet ween f or m a l a n d i n f o r m a l s e c t o r s , and pr es ent e d c a s e s t u d i e s i n p u b l i c t r ans por t an d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e his t or y and m e a n i n g o f a r a i l w a y a s a m oder n s y s t e m , c o n n e c t o r, u r b a n l i n k and net wor ke d s p a c e t i e s i t a l s o t o c om m unit ies . I n Hong Kon g , s e v e r a l s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s hav e been u n d e r t a k e n r e c e n t l y, s u c h as in Ts uen Wa n , w h e r e t h e s t a t i o n ar ea is ult im a t e l y a l s o a n u r b a n d e s i g n pr ojec t . I n H o n g K o n g i n g e n e r a l , t h e M TR s y s t em i s a n i n t e r g r a l p u b l i c lay er of t he c i t y.


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The InclusionImperative in the Interface between Formal and Informal Sectors Case studies in Public Transport & Urban Development


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Integrated’ But Contested: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Rail Station Area Redevelopment Project Stuttgart 21, Germany Johannes NOVY Ph.D., Urban Planner, Lecturer Technische Universität Berlin School of Planning and Geography Cardiff University

G er m any ’s l a r g e s t a n d m o s t c o n t e s t e d m egapr oject i n d e c a d e s , S t u t t g a r t 21 is a joint p r o j e c t o f t h e G e r m a n Railway ( DB ) , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , t he s t at e of B a d e n Wü r t t e m b e r g and t he c it y o f S t u t t g a r t . I t i s p a r t of t he new a n d u p g r a d e d t r a i n l i n k pr ojec t St ut t g a r t - U l m . C u r r e n t l y under c ons t r u c t i o n a n d h a i l e d a s a J ahr hunder t p r o j e k t ( “ o n c e i n a c e n t u r y pr ojec t ” ) by p r o j e c t s u p p o r t e r s , St ut t gar t 21 i n v o l v e s a m a j o r ov er haul of t h e c i t y ’s r a i l w a y n o d e , a c onv er s io n o f S t u t t g a r t ’s h i s t o r i c c ent r al s t at i o n f r o m a r a i l h e a d t o a under gr ound t h r o u g h - s t a t i o n , a s w e l l as t he r edev e l o p m e n t o f a b o u t 1 0 0 ha of r ailwa y l a n d t h a t i s f r e e d u p by t he r em o v a l o f t h e s t a t i o n a b o v e gr ound and i t s a p p r o a c h t r a c k s . Fur t her, t he p l a n s i n c l u d e s u r f a c e and under gr o u n d l i n e s c o n n e c t i n g t he s t at ion i n S t u t t g a r t ’s e n c l o s e d c ent r al v alle y w i t h e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y a n d under gr ound l i n e s t o a l l o w r e g i o n a l t r ains t o t r a v e l t h r o u g h S t u t t g a r t wit hout endi n g t h e i r j o u r n e y. T h e


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Stuttgart 21’s new underground station by Ingenhoven and Partner (Aldinger & Wolf)

project n ot o nly rep r es ent s one of t he largest a nd most am bit ious m egaprojects cu rren tly p lanned in all of E uro pe bu t ha s a lso s par k ed one of the b igg est an d mo s t m em or able loc al prote st mo ve men ts G er m any has seen in de ca de s; a pr ot es t m ov em ent that d urin g its he yd ay s r egular ly galvan ize d te ns of thous ands of reside nts to ra lly a gains t t he pr ojec t , for a time se riou sly t hr eat ened t he project’s futu re a nd t hat is als o s een as having ha d, a nd is c ont inuing t o have, a pro fou nd im pac t on G er m any ’s politica l clima te a nd planning c ult ur e. It is viewe d a s h aving play ed a m ajor role in the historic 2011 elec t ion in B aden-Wü rttemb erg , t he s t at e of w hic h Stuttg art is the c apit al, whic h made Winfrie d Kre ts c hm ann, an oppone nt o f Stuttg ar t 21, G er m any ’s first - ever Gre en Par t y s t at e pr em ier. A nd it h as sp arked an ongoing debat e about de cision -making in m egaproject p lan nin g a nd im plem ent at ion, the issu e o f citizen par t ic ipat ion in govern men t de cision- m ak ing, as well

as t he st a t e o f d e m o c r a c y w r i t l a r g e . Cr it ic s o f t h e p r o j e c t n o t o n l y a r g u e t hat t he p r o j e c t i s t o o e x p e n s i v e , env ir onm e n t a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e , and inv o l v e s l e s s t r a n s p o r t im pr ov e m e n t s t h a n s u g g e s t e d . Rat her, t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e s of t oday’s m o d e s o f u r b a n a n d t r ans po r t d e v e l o p m e n t a r e c r i t i c i z e d , dec ons tr u c t e d , a n d r e f u s e d . T h e s t r uggle s u r r o u n d i n g S t u t t g a r t 2 1 h a s s ev er al l e s s o n s f o r u r b a n r e s e a r c h in gener a l a n d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t r ans po r t a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a s a m eans to f o s t e r “ i n c l u s i o n “ t h a t t h e Ur banLa b + c l u s t e r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n i n par t ic ul a r. I t i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t c o m i n g t o t er m s w i t h t h e l a t t e r r e q u i r e s b o t h : at t ent ion t o t h e d e t a i l s o f i n v e s t m e n t s int o t r an s p o r t ( a n d u r b a n ) d e v e l o p m e n t and t he l a r g e r p i c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g i n par t ic ul a r t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t , i . e . t h e int er es t s , v a l u e s , a n d r a t i o n a l i t i e s t h a t dr iv e po l i c y s u p p o s e d l y c o m m i t t e d t o “ s us t ain a b i l i t y “ , “ c o h e s i o n “ , “ i n c l u s i o n “ and t he l i k e . T h e s e a n d r e l a t e d p o l i c y buz z wor d s a r e a n y t h i n g b u t c l e a r


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“Creative Destruction“ – Demolition of the north wing of the main station in Stuttgart, Germany.

and unam big uo us bu t c an r at her be t wist ed and man ipu late d t o ot her ends. T he ab ility to recogniz e how discours es co mprising what ‘good’ planning is su pp osed to ent ail c an be mis- and ab used is h en c e, as planning t heorist Micha el Gu nd er ( 2006) reminds u s, ju st a s in str um ent al as an underst and ing of th e mo r e t ec hnic al aspects o f urb an /tran sp or t at ion planning/p olicy. And thi s , I f any t hing, may be see n a s yet a no t her r eas on why int erdiscip lina ry e x per t is e is not an op tion , bu t a mu s t , in ur ban planning p ractice , resea r c h, and educat ion .


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the EdgeCondition + the [vulnerable] – the Case of [Johannesburg] + [Pretoria]

Solam Mkhabela Architect, Lecturer School of Architecture and Planning Wits University, Johannesburg

The G aut en g C i t y h a s t o b e f u n d a m ent ally abo u t p e o p l e . T h i s i n c l u d e s ev er y one be t w e e n t h e M a y o r a n d t h e ic e c r eam se l l e r a t E m m a r e n t i a D a m , t he boom ga t e c o n t r o l l e r a t a n i l l e g a l l y f ended off s t r e e t i n a n o r t h e r n l e a f y J obur g s ubu r b . I t i s a b o u t w h e r e t h e y go and whe r e t h e y m e e t . I t i s a b o u t t he people a n d t h e p u b l i c s p a c e . I t i s about t he s e r e n d i p i t o u s s p a c e s p e o p l e oc c upy. Pla c e s w h e r e s t r a n g e r s m e e t t o s ay s om e t h i n g a n d t h e n s a y s o m e t hing els e. T h i s s p a c e i n c l u d e s t h e s t r eet and m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y, t h e s i d e walk – t he s p a c e f r o m t h e k e r b t o t h e building’s ed g e – t h e e d g e c o n d i t i o n .


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T he en tran ce to Wits Univ er s it y, wit h it s extra -lon g BRT s t at ion t hat has recently be en pu t to us e. Hor des of people, a nd the nu m ber inc r eas es daily, use th e e mpir e c or r idor and a flux of p eo ple ge t on and off at t he w its sta tion – h en ce t he longer s t ation p latfo rm. Th e i s s ue is , onc e t hey alight fro m the bu s, t he c onnec t ion betwe en sta tion an d c am pus , on Yale R oad is p oo r. the s pat ial c onnec tion is an ina pp rop r iat e public r ealm , leavin g p eo ple to u s e t he r oad r es er v e margin for mo bility. The pr ec inc t bounda ry is a fe nce wit h boom gat es for c ars an d a sin gl e t ur ns t ile ent r y point for p eo ple . W hy ?

St r onge r p o l i c y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n has t o b e a w a y f o r w a r d t o b r i n g t h e c it y bac k t o a p e d e s t r i a n s p e e d . T h e s peed o f a t r o l l e y p u l l e r. T h e s p e e d of a per s o n o n c r u t c h e s t r y i n g t o k e e p up wit h t h e p e r s o n i n a w h e e l c h a i r. The m om w i t h a c h i l d i n a p r a m . T h e gr andm o t h e r a t t h e m o b i l e s h o p . T h e t eenage r s e x t i n g o n Wh a t s A p p . T h e bus ines s w o m a n w e a r i n g a n A r m a n i s uit t alki n g o n h e r i P h o n e . T h e s p e e d of our ch i l d r e n . We a r e a l l v u l n e r a b l e at t im es , e v e n i f , l u c k i l y f o r u s , i t i s only f or f e w m i n u t e s .


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The Understanding of Space by South Asian Youth in Hong Kong

Paul O’CONNOR Adjunct Assistant Professor The Chinese University of Hong Kong Visiting Assistant Professor Lingnan University, Hong Kong

Sout h As ian s h a v e b e e n a l o n g s t a n d ing par t of H o n g K o n g ’s e t h n i c d i v e r s it y. M any f a m i l i e s h a v e a h e r i t a g e i n t he t er r it or y t h a t e x t e n d s g e n e r a t i o n s , whils t new a r r i v a l s a r e d r a w n t o t h e f r eedom and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e in Hong Kon g . Yo u n g S o u t h A s i a n s who gr ow up i n H o n g K o n g e x p e r i enc e v ar y in g f o r m s o f i n c l u s i o n a n d ex c lus ion. I n r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d w i t h M us lim y out h , t h i s t a l k p r e s e n t s a n ins ight int o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d nav igat ion o f s p a c e b y m i n o r i t y y o u t h in t he t er r it o r y. I t r e f l e c t s o n f r e e d o m , danger, and p l a y c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e m or e pr os ai c d i ff i c u l t i e s o f l i v i n g i n a c om pr es s ed u r b a n s p a c e .


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MULTICULTURAL HONG KONG ? 7 % of population EM 93 % of population of Chinese Descent HK Population 60 % locally born / 33 % born in China / 7 % born elsewhere South Asians Nepalese Indians Pakistanis

Conclusions Strong Sense of Freedom Cultural Practices Oftern Present Obstacles Gendered Issues Tactics Are Employed

Religions Sikhism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam


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Absence of Community Planning and People’s Right to the City: Case Studies in Hong Kong

Mee Kam NG

What are People’s Rights to the City? Jeremy Waldron (1993, pp.4-5):

Professor •

First generation rights: traditional liberties and privileges of citizenship •

Second generation rights: socio-economic rights such as those specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948. •

Third generation rights: solidarity rights of communities and whole peoples rather than individuals such as people’s right to the integrity of their culture and ethnicity and healthy economic development

Department of Geography and Resources Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Governance in Hong Kong New Territories Indigenous villagers who own the land and the male has the right to build their ‘small house’ (3-storey of 700m2 for each floor)—this policy was set up in the 1970s when the Government built new towns Non-indigenous villagers: •

Tenants •

May buy the land from the non-indigenous villagers •

Squatters


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Multi-generation residents

Conclusions •

First generation rights: NO DEMOCRATIC political rights •

Second generation rights: NO community planning - needs seeing through the state/government… •

Third generation rights: HK New Territories—by the indigenous population but not the nonindigenous villagers; Urban areas— no such ‘natural rights’ •

Social movements and protests have tried to exert people’s rights to the city and redefine inclusion or exclusion in the planning process •

Planners’ defeated efforts in transforming the Town Planning Ordinance… •

We need a reframing, a refocusing and a rebalancing in the planning process - to foster the USE values of places and to BUILD not break families and communities… that will be more INCLUSIVE and PARTICIPATORY.

Planning Governance Deprives People’s Right to the City •

Indigenous vs. non-indigenous villagers— threatened second generation rights •

Community ‘breaking’—no third generation rights •

The existence of a group of people who are willing to ‘make’ a community •

No planning and standards for community building •

No rights to public amenities such as sewerage or road access Community Planning and the Right to the City •

A place for use values to flourish? Whose use values? •

How to engage the new residents in the gentrifying district? •

How to reconcile the potentially conflicting use of the space as a residential site and multi-functional services complex?


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Exploring and Learning from Conflictive Rationalities in Urban Development

Paola ALFARO D’ALENÇON Dr.-Ing. Senior Researcher and Lecturer Chair of International Urbanism and Design Urban Research and Design Laboratory Technische Universität Berlin Visiting Professor Università degli Studi di Genova, Department of Architectural Science

This s hor t e s s a y a i m s t o f o s t e r a c r it ic al r e f l e c t i o n a b o u t w h y lar ge ur ba n i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f t e n f ail t o ac hi e v e t h e i r e n v i s i o n e d im pr ov em e n t s , i n s t e a d r e s u l t i n g i n c onf lic t an d u n i n t e n d e d n e g a t i v e c ons equen c e s . I n t h i s e x a m p l e O s t k r euz i s p l a n n e d t o e n h a n c e t r ans por t at i o n s e r v i c e s a n d t h e qualit y of u r b a n s p a c e . S u c h pr ojec t s - in t h e n a m e o f t h e g r e a t e r public goo d - m a y b e r e j e c t e d by loc al c i t i z e n s b e c a u s e t h e y ar e im m ed i a t e l y a ff e c t e d b y t h e dev elopm e n t o f t h e a r e a w i t h n o i s e or dem olit i o n s , o r s i m p l y t h r o u g h NI M BY at ti t u d e s . F o r p l a n n e r s , t h i s i s a f r equent d i l e m m a ! As t he s ec o n d l a r g e s t t r a i n s t a t i o n in Ber lin, a m o s a i c o f d i ff e r e n t pr ot agonist s h a v e a l r e a d y e m e r g e d along wit h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , c u r r e n t l y under t ak in g d i v e r s e a c t i o n s a n d u s e s of t he s ur r o u n d i n g a r e a . T h e s e a c t o r s s har e c om m o n c o n c e r n s f o r t h e negat iv e e ff e c t s t h a t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n of O s t k r eu z m i g h t b r i n g f o r t h e


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fut ure d evelo pme nt of t he adjac ent com mu nitie s, b ut a ls o agr ee t hat t he sit ua tion co uld ha v e pot ent ial t o be mor e th an local re s is t anc e agains t a large -scale de ve lopm ent pr ojec t . But w hy is it so co mpl ic at ed t o im pr ov e the situ atio n fo r a m or e inc lus iv e deve lop men t? A big p roje ct ra ise s big ex pec t at ions In r ecen t ye ars urb an pr ac t ic e has b ee n re late d w it h lar ge ur ban renewa l pro jects in c luding t r ans por t infrastructure pro jec t s or r iv er bank redevelo pme nts (e. g. G r and Par is in P aris o r the Med ias pr ee in Ber lin) . T hese p roje cts are s t r ong pr om ot er s of a city an d re pre s ent f lags hip projects fo r urb an c hanges ( Her z , Jac ob , Pau ly 2 00 5) . As lar ge- s c ale urban ren ewa l pro jec t s , t hey play sign ifica nt ro les and c ar r y s ignif ic ant expe cta tion s in local phy s ic al and econ omic de ve lop m ent s , des pit e the fact tha t the ir eff ec t s depend on the sp ecific con t ex t . Henc e these pro jects a re r elat ed t o public

polic ie s , m a s s i v e s p a t i a l d y n a m i c s , and em e r g i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s . This m e a n s t h e r e s u l t s c a n b e v e r y diff er e n t i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l - s p a t i a l dev elo p m e n t , w i t h i m p a c t s i n c l u d i n g s t r ong s p a t i a l a n d e c o n o m i c dev elo p m e n t f o r t h e c i t i e s , a n d t he s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f s o c i a l b o n d s , but als o t h e m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n a n d c om m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f u r b a n s p a c e ( Bis ho p , Wi l l i a m s 2 0 1 2 ) . Plans v s . P r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t dilem m a Agains t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d t h e r e v i e w of t he p r o j e c t s t r u c t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e s addit io n a l d i ff i c u l t i e s t o f o r e c a s t it s dev e l o p m e n t . O n t h e o n e h a n d , due t o t h e h i g h - c o s t , s u c h l a r g e pr ojec t s h a v e c l e a r t e m p o r a l lim it at i o n s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Bas ed o n t h e s e f a c t s , t h e r e i s a s pec if i c f o c u s o n t a r g e t s a n d b u d g e t , whic h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h an anti c i p a t o r y l o g i c e a r l y o n i n t he pr o j e c t a n d a p o i n t o f n o r e t u r n is pas s e d ( Ve s e l y 2 0 0 6 ; I l b e r t


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2007). Re flection s o n t hes e f r am es reveal tha t pro jects str uc t ur es , procedure s a nd rule s pr im ar ily s er v e the orga nizatio n a nd m anagem ent of t he urb an de ve lop m ent - and follow th e a pp roa ch of linear bas ed rat iona lities, ch ara cte r iz ed by know ledg e con stru cte d pr edom inant ly through techn o-scie nti f ic analy s is and deductive log ic (Il ber t 2007; Woiwode 2 01 3). The ref or e t he planning of such p roje c t s t hat need to work with d iffere nt a ppr oac hes in reality, de mon stra tes how t hey are mov ing in a field of t ens ion. O n the ot he r ha nd , du e to t he div er gent interests a nd cla sh of r at ionalit ies among th e in vo lve d a c t or s , t he practical imp leme nta tions of t he project pla ns are hig hly c om plex and t ypica lly fra ug ht w it h m y r iad difficultie s. F rom diverse a nd ofte n c onc ur r ing know ledg e p rod uction s T hese m u ltifacete d str uggles w ithin and be twee n a c t or s in t he impleme nta tion of th e pr ojec t highlight th e con flictiv e point s and reversals of p owe r in pr ojec t encounte rs, o ften with div er s e and concurr e nt claims on s pac e and place (Ban ai 2 01 2). Ad m inis t r at ion and policy-makers act wit hin t heir own logic a nd sche du les , and develope rs a nd pla nn er s hav e their in tern al a ge nd as, s c opes and w orking me tho ds. Obv ious ly, all these se cto rs p rod uce s ignif ic ant know ledg e o n u rba n d ev elopm ent ; how ever th eir kno wled ge and act ion is o ften disco nn ec t ed f r om each othe r. In a ssessi ng t hes e endeavo urs the refle ction on how know ledg e is pro du ce d and dec is ions are cre ate d in urb an pr ojec t s is essent ia l, bo th a mon g div er s e ac t or s and in th e p lan nin g p roc es s es ( de S ousa San tos, Arriscado Nunes , Meneses, 2 00 6). In evit ably t his also provokes qu estions in r elat ion to: How d o kno wled ge ex c hange function in urb an pro jec t s , and if not professio na ls simply rem ain in t heir own ‘body of kno wled ge’ c om pr is ed of a single do main , ex c luding ot her

t y pes of k n o w l e d g e a n d v a l u e s y s t em s ( Wo i w o d e 2 0 1 3 ) . Q ues t ionin g e v o l v e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and epis t e m o l o g i c a l i s s u e s Rais ing t h e q u e s t i o n o n d i a l o g u e a n d int er ac t ion a m o n g d i ff e r e n t a c t o r s f or a m or e i n c l u s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t als o r equir e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g who is par t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e u r b a n dev elopm e n t a n d h o w, a s w e l l a s w h o is not and w h y. T h e r e f o r e q u e s t i o n s r egar ding a c t o r c o n s t e l l a t i o n s a n d t heir int er e s t s , a s w e l l a s f o r m s o f gov er nanc e , n e e d t o b e r a i s e d i n or der t o un d e r s t a n d t h a t p a r t i e s ar e v er y di ff e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r, not only in t e r m s o f t h e i r a i m s b u t als o t heir f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p l a n n i n g ( Bedf or d, C l a r k , H a r r i s o n 2 0 0 2 ; For es t er 1 9 8 7 ) . D e v e l o p e r s s p e a k wit h one v o i c e ; n e i g h b o u r s d o not . I n add i t i o n p l a n n e r s m a y n o t be indepen d e n t t h i r d p a r t i e s w h o as s is t deve l o p e r s a n d n e i g h b o u r s i n f ac e- t o- f ac e m e e t i n g s t o n e g o t i a t e dev elopm e n t a g r e e m e n t s - b u t t h e y m ight s t ill m e d i a t e s u c h c o n f l i c t s a s “ s hut t le” d i p l o m a t s ( F o r e s t e r 1 9 8 7 ) . Fr om t he p o l i t i c s o f k n o w l e d g e a n d pr iv ileged a c t o r s This s it uat i o n i s a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y c om plex in t e r m s o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n of public in t e r e s t s i n c e t h e s t a t e i n t he las t f e w y e a r s h a s m o v e d f r o m a pr ov ider t o “ c o - o p e r a t i v e s t a t e ” , wit h pr iv ile g e d a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and par t ic i p a t i n g i n t h e p r o j e c t . This leads t o d i ff e r e n t f o r m s o f pr iv at iz at io n o f f o r m e r p u b l i c u r b a n land and d e v e l o p m e n t i n w h i c h t he pur s uit o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s handed ov e r t o p r i v a t e o r p r i v a t i z e d pr ofi t - s eek i n g a c t o r s ( D o h n k e 2013) . A cr i t i c a l r e v i e w o f d i ff e r e n t c onc ept ion s o f e t h i c s a n d j u s t i c e c an c ont r ib u t e t o a m o r e r e fl e c t i v e planning o r p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h pr ac t ic e t o w o r k w i t h t h e g r o w i n g dom inat ion o f u r b a n s p a c e s b y s o m e s t ak eholde r s ’ i n t e r e s t s a n d c a p i t a l ( Har v ey 20 0 5 ) .


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F rom d iffere nt ra tionalit ies and the impo rtan t diffe r enc e bet ween anticip ato ry u rba n planning and social le arn ing pr oc es s … . H ence, th ere is a need t o unde rsta nd the co m plex dy nam ic s of conte mpo rary urb an s oc io- phy s ic al chan ge s cau se d b y ( lar ge- s c ale) interven tion s a nd s t r at egies in term s o f co nflicts, power r elat ions and p articipa tion in ur ban s pac e deve lop men ts. Thi s c ont ex t m ay argue for a more c aut ious appr oac h that ackn owle dg es t hat t he ur ban cann ot b e u nd erstood only t hr ough linea r-qu an titative analy s es and sing le a pp roa ch es . Finally, if we unde rsta nd pla ns and dev elopm ent s as a p art o f a social lear ning proce ss, pro po sa ls c an bec om e produ ctive in bo th c om m unit y base d d evelo pme nt s and polit ic al nego tiatio n p roces s es . This open fos te ring pro ce ss allows ev aluat ion of differe nt d evelo pm ent appr oac hes and ma y le ad to a c om m on gr ound for th e p roje ct. B e t we e n 20 1 4-20 1 5 O s t kreu z in BerlinF r iedr i chshai n and -Li ch tenberg in th e c ity’s E a s t, has be e n par t o f an engagement at th e P l a nungsl abo r o f t he Te ch nisc h e Universität in B e r l i n w i t h di ffe r e nt stakeh old ers and civil s o ci e t y fo r r e s e ar ch ing th e c h allenges a n d de ve l o pme nt o ppo r tu nities of inner-c ity b r o wnfi e l d ar e as i n Be r lin. Th e c oalition of u rban pl a nne r s, ar chi te ct s, university and c ommu nity in it i at i ve s sho w case d fo r managing c ommons w it h s pati al i nt e r ve nt i o ns th at trigger th e loc al l e a r ni ng pr o ce s s and w hic h serve ad d itionally t o u nde r st and t he po te ntial bu t also th e s h o rtco mi ngs o f tr ansfo rmations f rom f ragmented de v e l o pme nt appr o ache s to c ollaborative ac tions. B a n a i , R. (20 1 2). P l an v /s Pr ojec t Dilemma r e v i si t e d: A pro gre s s review of u r ba n a nd r e gi o nal st udi e s l i t e rat u r e. Lond on; New York: Ro utl e dge B e d fo r d, T., Cl ar k , J., Harrison, C. (2002). Limits t o n ew publ i c par t i ci pation p rac tic es in loc al l a n d us e pl anni ng. T o wn Pla nning R eview , 73(3), 311-331. B is ho p, P ., W i l l i ams , L. (2012) The Temp or a r y C i t y . Lo ndo n; Ne w Y o r k : R ou tled ge de So usa Santo s , B., A r risc ad o Nu nes, J., M ene se s,P . (20 0 6) A no ther K now led g e Is P o s si b l e : Be yo nd No rt her n Ep istemolog ies. Lo n do n; Ne w Y o r k : Ne w Lef t Books D o h nk e , J. (20 1 3 ) Spr e e R iverbanks f or All! – W h at r e mai ns o f „ Si nk Med iasp ree! “?; In: Bernt, M . , G r e l l , B., Ho l m, A . (Hg.): Th e Ber lin R ea d er –

A c omp end i u m o n U rba n c ha ng e a nd a c t i vi sm , S . 26 1-274 , T r a n s c r i p t Ver la g , Forester , J . ( 1 987 ) Pl a nni ng i n t he F a c e o f Conf lic t. B er keley ; Lo n do n : U n i ver s i t y o f Calif ornia Pr es s . H arvey, D. ( 2 005) A B ri e f H i st o ry o f Neoliber a l i sm . O x f o r d: O x f o r d U n i ver s i t y Pr es s . H erz , P., Ja c o b, A., Pa u ly , M. ( 2 005) Ef f i z i en t er e Stad tentwi c klu n g du r c h K o o p er a t i o n ? Absc h lu s s ber i c ht z u m Ex W o S t -F o r s c hu n g s f eld „3stad t2“ – N eu e K o o p er a t i o n s f o r m en i n der Stad tentwi c klu n g Ibert, O. ( 2 007 ) Me g a pro j e kt e u nd Pa rt i z i pa t i o n. d isP 171, 4 /2 007 : Zü r i c h. 50- 63. Vesely, D. ( 2 004 ) T he Ag e o f d i vi d e d R ep r esent a t i o n, C a m br i dg e, MI T Pr es s Woiwod e, C . ( 2 01 3) T r a n s di s c i p li n a r i t y f o r S o c i a l Transf orm a t i o n ( a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f t he WBGU’s 2 01 1 R ep o r t ) ; I n : I N T EGR AL R EVI EW , Vol. 9 , N o . 2


124

Measuring Urban Inclusion. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Achieving Urban Inclusion

Roberto MORIS Assitant Professor Felipe LINK Assitant Professor Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

I nt er dis c ipli n a r i t y i n u r b a n s t u d ies r equir es a i n n o v a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l and m et hod o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t h a t ac hiev e t he i n t e g r a t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e s in or der t o u n d e r s t a n d c o m p l e x p h e nom ena. I n t h i s s e n s e , o u r a p p r o a c h of int er dis c i p l i n a r y c l u s t e r c o m b i n e s t wo c las s ic a l a p p r o a c h e s . T h e f i r s t has t o do w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f obs er v at ion o f t h e c i t y “ f r o m f a r a n d away ” whic h r e f e r s t o a s t r u c t u r a l v i e w of t he s oc io - t e r r i t o r i a l p r o c e s s e s i n u r ban s pac e. T h e s e c o n d r e l a t e s t o t h e pos s ibilit y o f o b s e r v a t i o n “ f r o m w i t h i n and c los e” i n r e l a t i o n t o a q u a l i t a t i v e appr oac h an d d e p t h o f t h e s p a c e s a n d ur ban pr ac t i c e s ( M a g n a n i , 2 0 0 9 ) . T h i s dual c ondit i o n t h e o r e t i c a l - m e t h o d o l o g ic al of ur ban s t u d i e s , i n e v i t a b l y r e f e r t o t he pr obl e m o f s c a l e , u n d e r s t o o d as a par t ic u l a r k i n d o f a m b i v a l e n c e i n c ont em por a r y m o d e r n i t y ( S o j a , 2 0 1 3 ; Baum an, 19 9 9 ) . Def ining a c o m p l e x c o n c e p t l i k e “ ur ban inc lu s i o n ” i n a m e a s u r a b l e way is not e a s y. F r o m t h e u r b a n geogr aphy t r a d i t i o n i t c o u l d b e d e f i n e d


125

Case Study: La Reina Commune

using th e con ce pt o f “ ur ban jus t ic e” (Mar cuse e t al., 2 01 2) or t he “ jus t c it y ” appr oa ch (Fa instein , 2010) , but it is necessa ry to tran sla t e t hes e abs t r ac t notions in me asura ble indic at or s . I n this reg ard , we b ase our pr opos al in the wo rk b y Un ited Nat ions Hum an S ettle men ts Pro gra m m e, whic h has develo pe d severa l s t udies about ur ban inequa lities ba se d o n a hum an r ight s visio n. The de finitio n c ons ider s f our dime nsion s: social, polit ic al, ec onom ic and cultu ral in clu sio n. But f r om our p oin t of view, it is nec es s ar y t o consid er two ad ditio nal dim ens ions .

Sant iag o , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e appr oach e s t o t h e s t u d y o f u r b a n lif e, f or a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he c aus e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t he ong o i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f u r b a n c ondit io n ( M o n g i n , 2 0 0 7 ) . We a n a l y z e d t he ur ba n i n c l u s i o n o f t h e L a R e i n a c as e ( C h i l e ) . L a R e i n a i s a r e s i d e n t i a l c om m un e i n t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f Sant iago , i n h a b i t e d b y m o s t l y m i d d l e or upper m i d d l e i n c o m e g r o u p s , b u t it als o h a s c e r t a i n a r e a s i n h a b i t e d b y m id- low a n d h i g h - i n c o m e g r o u p s .

T he sp atia l dime nsion is im por t ant in th e con text of u rban s egr egat ion, since de pe nd ing on t he pos it ion in to wn, a ccessib ilit y t o s er v ic es , transpo rt syste m, public s pac es , is mark ed ly d iffere nt. I n addit ion, t he envir o nme nta l dime ns ion is nowaday s crucia l espe cia lly cons ider ing t he reality o f clima te change.

Ac c or din g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f ur ban in c l u s i o n , i t h a s m o r e s u i t a b l e c ondit io n s t h a n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c it y. For e x a m p l e , r e s p e c t i n g t o t h e s oc ial in c l u s i o n , w e c h o s e e d u c a t i o n a l and hea l t h c o v e r a g e a s a v a r i a b l e . We obs e r v e d t h a t m o s t p a r t o f t h e c om m un e h a s a h i g h c o v e r a g e , t hough t h e r e a r e a l s o a r e a s w i t h bet t er c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l inc lus io n .

In t his co nte xt, we analy z ed a particula r ca se of m et r opolit an

For t he s p a t i a l i n c l u s i o n d i m e n s i o n w e analy z e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n


126

Measuring urban inclusion case study: La Reina, Santiago de Chile

Population (projected to 2014) : 93.306 inhabitants (1,37% of regional population) Housing units (2011): 27.659 (1,35% of regional housing units) Urban surface | total surface (2012): 1.800 ha | 2.300 ha Average monetary income ($US): 2.860 (Regional average monetary income: 1.645) Quality of Urban Life Index (2014):

pat t erns b ased on incom e lev els . I n this case th e p atte rn is quit e homogen eo us; with wid e ar eas of high and high up pe r income and wit h a small area o f low in term ediat e and low i ncome. F or measurin g th e e co nom ic inc lus ion we used the un plo yme nt r at e as a variable. We o bserved t hat m os t par t of comm u ne is h ete rog eneous ex c ept t he east side , which h as a m ajor lev el of homoge ne ity. In spite of t his , is i mportant to red uce th e r at e t o at t ain economic in clu sio n. F or the p olitical in clu sio n we c ons ider t he part icipa tion in lo ca l elec t ions of 2012. The pa rticip ati on had a low t urnout r e achin g o f 42 ,6% . I n t his dimension is re levan t to wor k t o guarante e p eo ple ’s e mpower m ent in f uture ele cto ral. Regarding th e e nviron m ent al inc lus ion dimension , we u se d g reen ar eas coverage. Ob tain ing tha t m os t par t of the co mmun e h as acc es s t o gr een areas; however, we fou nd loc al

dis par it ies w h i c h m u s t b e r e d u c e wit h polic ies t h a t g u a r a n t e e t h e env ir onm en t a l e q u i t y. Finally, we a n a l y z e d t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o loc al c ultu r a l f a c i l i t i e s . A s a r e s u l t we obt ained t h a t t h e f a c i l i t i e s a r e c onc ent r at e d i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f t he c om m un e , t h i s c a u s e t h a t t h e m os t par t of t h e c o m m u n e h a s n o t ac c es s t o t h i s t y p e o f f a c i l i t i e s . I n t his dim ens i o n , i s r e l e v a n t t o r e d u c e inequit y and t o p r o m o t e c u l t u r a l inc lus ion.


127

Social inclusion

Political

Participation in municipal elections (2012) Female enrollment: 47.155

Male

Participation: 16.596

Pa

(35,1% of the total women enrolled) Censal district (equipment per 1000 inhabitants)

Accebility to equipment (N°)

Playgroups

1-3

Pre-school

4-6 7-9 10 - 14

Primary school

Spacial inclusion

(51.5% of th

Type of equipment

0

Total enrollment | total participation (both genders): 86.906 electo

Secondary school

Health Public services

Environme inclusio

Censal district (sq meters per inhabitants)

Economic inclusion

Acceb

Cultural inc

Censal distr (equipment p 1000 inhabit

Equipment t

Cultural facilit Heritage


128

Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

Lau Fau Shan

Shenzhen Bay

Tin Shui Wai Hung Shui Kiu

New

Field Day 2

Tsing Yi

Airport

Lantau Island

Victori

Field Day 1

L

SOUTH CHINA SEA


129

HK SAR Boundary Line

Tolo Harbour

w Territories CUHK

Ma On Shan

Sha Tin

Kowloon

Mong Kok

Kai Tak East Kowloon

ia Harbour

Tsim Sha Tsui

Sheung North Point Sai Wan Admiralty Ying Central Pun Hong Kong Island

Lamma Island

Day 1 ( 1 7 D e c 2 0 1 4 ) The f ir s t f i e l d d a y c o n c e n t r a t e d o n older, ex i s t i n g u r b a n d i s t r i c t s . S o m e , s uc h as S a i Yi n g P u n h a v e b e e n u n der going d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s o v e r t h e pas t y ea r s , a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g e t t r ans f or m e d a s a n e w m a s s t r a n s i t line s oo n o p e n s i n t h e a r e a . A f t e r a m eet ing a n d w o r k s h o p a t C A C H e ( T h e Cons er v a n c y A s s o c i a t i o n C e n t r e f o r Her it age ) t h e t o u r c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h Cent r al a n d A d m i r a l t y, b u s i n e s s a n d adm inis tr a t i v e a r e a s , w h e r e a l s o t he O c c u p y m o v e m e n t h a d i t s m a j o r s t r ongho l d . Day 2 ( 1 8 D e c 2 0 1 4 ) The s eco n d f i e l d d a y f o c u s e d o n t h e diff er ent u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s o n N e w Te r r ior ies . T h e d a y s t a r t e d i n t h e v i l l a g es of Hu n g S h u i K i u , a d i s t r i c t w h e r e lar ge- s c a l e f u t u r e u r b a n d e v e l o p m ent s w i l l b e t a k i n g p l a c e a l o n g s i d e old and n e w t y p e s o f v i l l a g e h o u s i n g . A s t op at L a u F a u S h a n o ff e r e d a n o p por t unit y t o o b s e r v e t h e p r o x i m i t y o f Shenz he n , s e e n o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t he Shen z h e n B a y, a s w e l l a s t h e f u t ur e of t h i s b o r d e r c o n d i t i o n . T h e t o u r ended a t t h e s u b u r b a n Ti n S h u i Wa i new t ow n , w i t h w o r k s h o p m e e t i n g a t a r ec entl y o p e n e d c o m m u n i t y m a r k e t in Tin Sa u .


130

Study Trip 1: Hong Kong Island

Francisca ZEGERS Felipe VALENZUELA Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies Pontifical University of Chile Santiago

Sai Ying Pu n i s a t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e neighbour ho o d l o c a t e d i n t h e We s t e r n Dis t r ic t of t h e I s l a n d . T h e B r i t i s h oc c upied t h i s t e r r i t o r y i n t h e l a t e 1840’s as a m i l i t a r y b a s e , b u t t h e y abandoned t h e a r e a b e c a u s e o f t h e inadequat e s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . F r o m t hat m om en t o n , t h e d i s t r i c t s t a r t e d t o be oc c up i e d b y C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n dedic at ed m o s t l y t o t r a d i t i o n a l ac t iv it ies , d e v e l o p i n g a b u s t l i n g s t r e e t lif e in public s p a c e s i n c l u d i n g s m a l l s c ale bus ine s s . T h e r e f o r e , e v e n t o d a y m os t par t of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s d o n ´ t n e e d t o c om m ut e, t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e is low and th e y a r e g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d wit h t heir life q u a l i t y. Howev er, t h e a r e a h a s e x p e r i e n c e d s ev er al c ha n g e s o v e r t h e p a s t y e a r s as a c ons eq u e n c e o f t h e u r b a n r enewal pr o c e s s a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of m ajor t r a n s p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e pr ojec t s . I n t h e p a s t d e c a d e s , a c ons ider able a m o u n t o f u r b a n r e n e w a l pr ojec t s hav e r e p l a c e d o l d t r a d i t i o n a l buildings an d b u s i n e s s e s f o r l a r g e


131

Sai Ying Pun Central Admiralty

towe rs o f “Elite Ne ighbour hood” , morph olo gically ch ar ac t er iz ed by t heir isolatio n with the su r r oundings . In ad ditio n, th e n ew M TR line has increa se d th e p rop er t y pr ic es , causin g a pro gre ssiv e c hange in the socioe co no mic c om pos it ion of the in ha bita nts an d in t he t y pe of econo mic a ctivities dev eloping in t he area , p assin g from t r adit ional bus ines s to cafe s, ba rs, restaur ant s , and hot els . T he tran sfo rmatio n ex per ienc ed by this are a symb olized m uc h of t he urba n g en trifica tion pr oc es s in Hong K ong. C hile is no t exemp t of t his pr oc es s . In t he pa st two de ca des t he c ent r al comm un es [1] o f Sant iago hav e been expe rien cin g s im ilar dy nam ic s , relate d a lso to th e c ons t r uc t ion of transpo rt infra stru c t ur e ( m ainly m et r o lines e xte nsion an d highway s ) and the rising lan d a nd pr oper t y pr ic es , leading to a pro gre s s iv e gent r if ic at ion of t he ce ntra l are as.

I n par t ic u l a r, t h e c a s e o f S a n t i a g o Com m un e [ 2 ] i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h i s pr oc es s. H i s t o r i c a l l y t h e c o m m u n e was inh a b i t e d b y t h e u p p e r c l a s s , but t he f a s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i n t h e ear ly 19 0 0 ’s i m p l i e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s as ov er cr o w d i n g , u r b a n p o v e r t y and inad e q u a t e s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . For t his r e a s o n , t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s m igr at ed t o t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e c i t y leav ing t h e c e n t r a l a r e a t o t h e l o w e r c las s , in a d d i t i o n t o i t s s t a t u s a s t h e adm inis t r a t i v e a n d c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e . Due t o t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , t he c om m u n e s l o w l y b e c a m e a n unat t r ac t i v e p l a c e t o l i v e . I n t h e p a s t dec ades, h o w e v e r, t h e e c o n o m i c gr owt h h a s e n a b l e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new inf r a s t r u c t u r e – b u s i n e s s , h o u s i n g and t r an s p o r t – w h i c h h a s m a d e t h e Notes: 1. A commune is an administrative division of Chile, comparing to Hong Kong case could be equivalent to the “district” 2. The most central and oldest commune of Santiago founded in 1542.


132 “The new city v/s the old city, who will survive?”

“The decay of the old and the rise of the modern? – Importance of conservation of heritage and urban regeneration.”

dist rict on ce ag ain more at t r ac t iv e as a living are a fo r the middle and upper classes. Th is p rocess, i n t ur n, has i ncreased the lan d a nd pr oper t y pr ic es and cause d th e e xp ulsion of t he lower class t o th e p oo rer p eri pher y of t he city.

gener at ions t o c o n t i n u e t o l i v i n g t h e r e , f or c ing t hem t o m i g r a t e t o o t h e r a r e a s of t he c it y.

I n compa riso n, Sa ntia go ´ s c om m une case see ms to be more ex t r em e t han S ai Ying Pun be ca us e t he developm e nt in Chile ha s been advancin g o ve r almo st t wo dec ades . S till, if th e g en trifica tion pr oc es s cont inues to in ten sify in Sai Ying Pun, i t is poss ible tha t in th e f ut ur e t he situation ma y u ltimate ly bec om e v er y similar in b oth ca se s. As we obs er v ed during our the visit, the r epr es ent at iv e of the local commu nity we m et at CA CH e (The Con se rva nc y As s oc iat ion Centre f or He ritag e – an NG O bas ed i n t he district), info rmed us t hat gentrif icatio n is also th r eat ening t heir heritage a nd the co mmunit y, bec aus e t he rise o n th e p rop erty pr ic es make it mo re d ifficu lt to t he y ounger

The s ec ond p o i n t s o f o u r v i s i t d u r i n g our s t udy t r i p d a y w e r e C e n t r a l and Adm ir al t y, w h i c h a r e t h e m a j o r bus ines s , f in a n c i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e dis t r ic t s of t h e c i t y. T h e v i s i t m a i n l y t ouc hed upo n A d m i r a l t y, t h e e a s t e r n s ide of t he c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . M os t buildin g s o n t h i s s i d e o f t h e is land hous e o ff i c e s a n d h e a d q u a r t e r s of m ult inat io n a l f i n a n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , gov er nm ent o ff i c e s , h o t e l s a n d s hopping m a l l s . T h o u g h , s e v e r a l public par k s o f t h i s a r e a l s o f o u n d i n t he dis t r ic t s . Rec ent ly, t h e a r e a b e c o m e k n o w n wor ldwide f o r b e i n g t h e s i t e o f t h e O c c upy Cen t r a l , a l s o k n o w n a s t he Um br ell a M o v e m e n t , t h e p r o dem oc r ac y m o v e m e n t f o r m e d b y univ er s it y s t u d e n t s . T h e m o v e m e n t has it s par a l l e l i n C h i l e , c a l l e d t h e Penguins R e v o l u t i o n ( o r T h e M a r c h


133 “Petrification? – Traditional businesses are being progressively replace for secondary needs businesses.”

of t he Pen gu ins), founded by high schoo l stu de nts who dem anded t he abolition of th e Org anic Cons t it ut ional Law o f Te achin g (L O CE) [ 3] and f r ee educa tion , amo ng ot her c aus es . A lthoug h b oth movem ent s hav e diff eren t de man ds and or igins , it is impo rtan t to re co gn iz e in bot h c as es , a pro gre ssive increas e of c it iz en empo werme nt a nd t he us e of public space (an d city) a s a s c enar io f or vindicatio n o f the ir dem ands . Cer t ainly this pro ve s th e p oli t ic al r ole of t he cit ies an d mo st imp or t ant ly, t he significan ce of th e p ublic s pac e as a place o f citizen sh ip- building, r et ur ning to t he gre ek de finiti on of c it y as “P olis”. To su mmarize, u rba n is s ues hav e become an impo rtan t par t of t he agenda s a rou nd the wor ld. Alt hough there se em to be di s s im ilar it ies betwe en the sta ge s of dev elopm ent in cities, it is a lso pos s ible t o f ind shared pro ble ms a nd c hallenges t o be

r es olv ed a s w e o b s e r v e d c o m p a r i n g t he Hon g K o n g a n d S a n t i a g o c a s e s . That is a l s o w h y i t i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o unde r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e “ ur ban” w i t h m o r e h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h e s , bas ed in u r b a n i n c l u s i o n c o n s i d e r i n g t he s oc i a l , s p a t i a l , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , env ir onm e n t a l a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s .

3. This Constitutional Law was enacted during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. He was the dictator over 16 years. The law reduces the state's participation in education to a regulatory and protective role, while the private sector acquires more control and responsibilities.


134 “Hong-Konglobatization – The global impacts the local.”


135 The few remaining tents from the Occupy Movement at Tamar Government Complex. “A City for and by the citizens? Claiming for civil rights peacefully using the public space.�


136

Study Trip 2: New Territories Hung Shui Kiu Villages Tin Shui Wai New Town

I n our se co nd Fie ld Trip we v is it ed t wo location s in New Ter r it or ies : Hung S hui K iu Villag es an d Tin Shui Wai New Town . Both ca se s r ef lec t t he part icularitie s o f urb an dev elopm ent i n Hong Ko ng , an d a llow us t o m ak e some refle ctio ns from o ur own perspective , ba se d o n the Chilean experience.

but ov er t im e h a v e b e e n c o n s o l i d a t e d as a neighb o r h o o d w i t h b a s i c p u b l i c s er v ic es , ev e n t h o u g h t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s r em ain poor.

F irst, in the visit to Hu ng Shui Kiu Villages we ob se rve d a s ignif ic ant cont rast be twee n th e lo w dens it y lev el of these villag es an d th e high dens it y l evel t hat e xists in Kow loon and Hong K ong I slan d. The most c om m on im age of H ong Ko ng is its hig h s k y line, s o it i s strikin g to se e th is d iff er ent r ealit y.

Lat er, we v i s i t e d H a Vi l l a g e , w h i c h i s c ons ider ed a r i c h v i l l a g e , l i n k e d t o a n old f am ily cl a n . T h i s v i l l a g e i s s p a r s e l y inhabit ed, s i n c e m a n y o f t h e m e m b e r s of t he f am ili e s t h a t c o m e f r o m i t h a v e m ov ed t o wo r k a t H o n g K o n g c i t y c ent r e. I t is p o s s i b l e t o d r a w a p a r a l l e l bet ween t he s e a n c i e n t f a m i l y c l a n s - whic h ar e t h e o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t his t er r it or y - , a n d i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s in Chile. Ho w e v e r, i n o u r c a s e t h e c laim f or lan d r i g h t s r e m a i n s a n a c t i v e c onf lic t .

T he f irst villa ge we visi t ed was Yik Yuen, wh ich hig hlig hts bec aus e of it s precarious infra stru ctu r e and s elf - built spaces, very diffe ren t to ot her near by places wh ich exhib it "m ega- planning", l ike Tin Sh ui Wai. This v illage m ay resemble the atmo sp he r e of s om e places in Chile , which w er e illegally i nhabit ed b y p eo ple in their or igin,

Finally, we v i s i t e d t h e L a u F a u S h a n Seam ar k et , l o c a t e d n e a r t h e s e v illages . Th e S e a m a r k e t s e e m s a r elic of a t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , c l o s e l y as s oc iat ed t o s e a a n d a r t i s a n a l f is her ies , bu t t o d a y t h i s l o c a t i o n m a y be in dange r o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n . To w h a t ex t ent a pla c e l i k e t h i s s h o u l d r e c e i v e s om e pr ot ec t i o n f r o m t h e s t a t e t o


137 Yik Yuen Village.

main tain a re levan t t r adit ion in Hong K ong’s cultu re? T he se co nd pa rt of t he Field Tr ip w as a to ur in sid e th e Tin Shui Wai N ew Town , includ ing a wor k ing sess ion at th e Tin Sau Baz ar. Tin S hui Wa i is p erh ap s one of t he m os t ast onishin g p laces in Hong Kong: a very h omo ge ne ou s ar ea of high density de ve lop men t s ur r ounded by low den sity or e ve n undev eloped area s, bu ilt a s pa rt of a m as s iv e public housin g p lan . In o ther wor ds , it is a hu ge se gre ga ted neighbour hood, w ith a bo ut 3 00 ,00 0 per s ons of s im ilar socio econ omic sta tus liv ing in a place a way from th e c it y c ent r e and jobs, de vo id o f co m m er c e ac t iv it ies , amen ities an d o the r k ind of ur ban equipme nt th at such am ount of inhabita nts ne ed . Ev en t hough t her e are some evide nce about higher lev els of do mestic viole nce and ot her s oc ial prob lems in th is p lac e, t hey ar e not compara ble with th e lev el of v iolenc e and crime th at a de v elopm ent of t his type co uld ge ne rate in a c ount r y lik e

Chile. The is s u e o f h o u s i n g a n d t h e r elat ion s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e a l - e s t a t e m ar k et d e v e l o p e r s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t is a r ele v a n t p r o b l e m i n H o n g K o n g . Ac c es s t o h o u s i n g i n K o w l o o n o r H o n g Kong I s l a n d m a y b e t o o e x p e n s i v e f or s om e f a m i l i e s , w h o h a v e n o ot her c h o i c e b u t t o l i v e f a r f r o m t h e oppor t u n i t i e s . T h i s i s a r e a l i t y t h a t als o ex i s t s i n C h i l e , a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y is gr adu a l l y s t a r t i n g t o t a k e c h a r g e o f t hat . To w h a t e x t e n t c a n t h i s h a p p e n in Hong K o n g w i t h o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of a dem o c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e aff ec t ed p o p u l a t i o n ? I n Tin S h u i Wa i w e a l s o v i s i t e d a m ar k e t c a l l e d Ti n S a u B a z a a r, c or r es p o n d i n g t o a s p a c e f o r l o c a l ent r epr e n e u r s h i p . T h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t his s ec t o r c a n s e t u p t h e i r b u s i n e s s in t he m a r k e t , w h o s e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was bui l t t h r o u g h a s o c i a l p r o g r a m . This ex p e r i e n c e a l l o w s g r e a t e r dy nam is m t o t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , and r esp o n d s b o t h t o t h e n e e d


138

Seafood markets at the Lau Fau Shan village.

f or greater o pp ortu nitie s f or t r ade and to pro vid e in co me g ener at ion opport un ities to th e lo c als . Her e we perf orm a wo rk sessio n in c onjunc t ion wit h the ma na ge r of th e plac e, who commente d o n th e d iffic ult ies of cont inuing this un de rtaking af t er external su pp ort is rem ov ed. This is a w idespre ad pro ble m in t his t y pe of program, as also h ap pe ns in Chile wit h the “Pro gra ma d e R ec uper ac iĂłn de B arrio sâ€? p rog ram, wh ic h af t er it s i nt ervention in th e n eig hbor hood during a fe w ye ars, it is r em ov ed f r om t he site. I n conclusion , de sp ite the undeniable geographica l, cu ltura l and his t or ic al dist ances be twee n Ho ng Kong and Chile, it is po ssible to find c er t ain similarities an d comp ar is ons r egar ding urban dyna mics in b oth c ont ex t s . T he proce sses of in clu s ion and urban exclu sio n, a nd the im pac t of progressive u rba n d ev elopm ent on t hem, ca n b e re flected t hr ough different sce na rios.

Tin Shui Wai development.


139

Community workshop meeting at the Tin Sau Bazaar, in Tin Shui Wai.


140


141

Posters drafted during the community workshops at IN/EX Cluster Meeting in Hong Kong.


Urban Lab + / The Interdisciplinarity Cluster

Reflections & Conclusions


144

Our Conclusions

Urban Lab+ Interdisciplinarity Cluster

The interdisciplinary cluster reflection started with the question “How can we use an interdisciplinary Urban Lab approach to address urban inclusion?“ It is evident that current tasks in urban planning and design, and specifically the search for inclusive forms of urban development, embrace a series of aspects of ‚real life phenomena‘ beyond a relatively narrow understanding of disciplinary knowledge, often focusing on physical space. Therefore, it seems inevitable to transcend the confines of individual built environment disciplines and integrate interdisciplinary theories and methods. However, the contributions, discussions as well as empirical observations and experimentations in the course of the Urban Lab+ activities have clearly indicated, that the vision of an inclusive city cannot only be achieved by the interlinking of different academic bodies of knowledge. In order to advance urban inclusion, and specifically to address pressing societal problems in urban planning


145

and design, knowledge available across society as well as cooperation possibilities with civil society needs to be considered. This brought us to reflect on our current research and teaching approaches in the three laboratories and develop test cases with particular focus on interdisciplinarity. The case studies in each city focused on the question how public space can be planed and designed to become more inclusive. In Berlin, the Planungslabor of the Technical University of Berlin selected in 2014-15, the site Ostkreuz in Berlin-Friedrichshain and -Lichtenberg as project site engaging different stakeholders and civil society. Here we investigated the challenges and development opportunities of innercity brownfield areas in Berlin. The coalition of urban planners, architects, university and community initiatives undertook several testruns for managing commons with spatial interventions and trigger more inclusion in a large-scale urban project. Research and actions in-situ with the communities in the adjacent areas have been undertaken to understand the local learning process and the potential as well as the shortcomings of transformations from fragmented development approaches to collaborative actions. In Santiago, this new approach was tested in four communes where social inclusion processes were studied. The working model was based on the integration of teaching courses with multidisciplinary research projects that put focus on the involvement of various public and private actors in urban development. The aim was to induce undergraduate and graduate students to recognize the role played by different urban actors in the creation of public spaces as areas for social integration. The first phase was developed from the Applied Research Laboratory XLAB with graduate students from the course on urban planning in

2014 - 2015. Here strategies were explored for public spaces associated with public transport infrastructure in the municipalities of Independencia, Providencia and Santiago. The main aim was to determine how to plot a Subway line was addressed in different ways in these three communes. Students organized in multidisciplinary teams, identified the interests of the various stakeholders. Workshops were held with the participation of municipal officials, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, and community based NGOs. In the second phase we worked from the Cities Observatory (OCUC) with undergraduate architecture students in the municipality of La Reina. In two semesters in 2015 we studied urban district attributes related to Subway lines and proposals for the improvement of public spaces and how to accommodate increased population density. The experience was very interesting because the community wanted to improve public spaces, but did not want to get new population to the area, although now even their own children can find living space in the commune. The multidisciplinary approach explored the implementation of the “Principles of Coexistence� in these territories. These principles established the need to understand public space as a territory to be shared, but identifying and respecting the interests and necessities of different groups in Society. In Hong Kong, the case study of the Chinese University of Hong Kong focused on the district Sai Ying Pun, which was integrated in 2015 into the city’s metro network with the completion of the MTR West Island Line while experiencing at the same time increased social exclusion through sharply increasing rents and substitution of old tenement houses with new high-rise towers. Our different teaching experiments involved secondary school, bachelor and master students. The teaching team included


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architects, urban designers, planners, journalists and videographers. Students were asked to analyze the case study area by drawings and mappings as well as producing video interviews with residents, constructing street furniture and organizing public events. Thus they could learn from own transformations of public space and discussions with different stakeholders, government authorities, residents, shopkeepers and visitors. In addition, our public screening events “Magic Carpet” and “Magic Tables” were organized to help empowering local residents to improve the community space of their neighborhood. The Hong Kong’s lack of genuine participation in planning and politics, a public District Council Election Forum was organized with our partner Caritas Hong Kong, in which residents and students could discuss their concerns and ideas with the different candidates. These experiments aimed to foster students’ and residents’ interest in urban issues and to provide them with important

skills and knowledge to address them. Another important experience was the Babel Project, an initiative run by PhD students participating in the Urban Lab+ project. The project proposed its own way of capturing urban conditions and processes by using popular and available digital media tools and conceptual design thinking for exploring the opportunities for reflections about self-initiated learning at the university. Today, the ways we are able to visualize and record observations of our urban environment are combined with the means to share these findings and we are already seeing social media, for instance, routinely utilized by different interest groups and urban activists. Undoubtedly, the global capacity for producing knowledge, managing and curating it for urban laboratory learning in these processes and networks, has much more potential to be uncovered. Based on our test cases, we can observe many similarities despite the


147

institutional differences of our urban laboratories and the different urban conditions in West Europe, South America and East Asia. In all three cities we could experience tendencies of socio-spatial polarization as well as new movements demanding more political participation and rights to the city. Experimental and reflective inter- and transdisciplinary approaches in urban planning and design education are needed to address this polarization, better integrate different voices and generate new aspirations.


148

Images and Illustrations


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Publication contributors, participating institutions, students and experts Essy Baniassad 109 Solam Mkhabela 115 Roberto Moris 58 (illustration) Paul O’Connor 116-117 Mika Savela 18-19, 26-27, 28, 29, 43-45, 48-49, 57, 58-59 (photo), 90-91, 92, 95 (illustration), 98-99, 100-101 (illustration), 106-107, 128-129 (illustration), 140-141, 142-143 Felipe Valenzuela & Francisca Zegers 132-133, 134-135, 137, 138, 139 (top) The Babel Project 66, 78, 74 (Mika Savela), 75, 83, 84 (Diego Asenjo), 85, 103 (poster) Pontifical University of Chile Institute of Urban and Terriotorial Studies 21, 25, 63, 65, 102 (poster), 126-127 (poster) Urban Research and Design Laboratory Technische Universität Berlin 51, 53, 102 (poster)

M.Sc. in Urban Design Programme School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong 55, 103 (poster), 105, 139 (bottom) Outside sources Page 24, Open Street Maps (http://www.openstreetmap.org/) Page 33 Ediciones ARQ Tumblr page, 7 August 2015 (http:// edicionesarq.tumblr.com/post/126102331556/pops-eluso-p%C3%BAblico-del-espacio-urbano-editora) Page 73 Gustave Doré, Confusion of Tongues, ca. 1865-1868. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confusion_of_tongues#/ media/File:Confusion_of_Tongues.png) Page 89 Urban Pamphleteer #5 Global Education for Urban Futures, 2015. (https://www.ucl.ac.uk/urbanlab/research/urbanpamphleteer/UrbanPamphleteer-5) Page 93, Open Street Maps (http://www.openstreetmap.org/) Page 111, ALDINGER+WOLF 3D ArchitekturVisualisierung Pages 112-113, Photo by JuergenG in Wikimedia Commons (http://www.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/e/e8/Stuttgart_Hbf_Nordflügel_Abriss2.jpg)


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www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/urbandesign

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN URBAN DESIGN CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG Urban design plays a key role in creating livable, sustainable and socially just cities. As one of the most dynamic and fascinating laboratories for contemporary urbanism, Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta offer a wide range of challenges and opportunities. Launched in 2012, the M.Sc. in Urban Design programme of the School of Architecture at The Chinese University of Hong Kong aims to prepare committed designers to engage with these challenges. Through a multidisciplinary combination of design studios and focused modules, students develop design skills while integrating new knowledge about essential areas for urban design, such as community participation, ecosystems and transport networks. Courses in urban history, transportation and environmental economy provide a deeper understanding of the forces of urbanism and the impact of urban design on the environment and society. The programme’s international and Asian networks and dedicated faculty offer students an intensive and high-impact addition to their professional education. For more information see the programme website (www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/urbandesign), or contact: Ms. Phoenix Chung General Clerk Tel. +852 3943 1310 Fax. +852 3942 0982 phoenixchung@cuhk.edu.hk www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong Room 106, AIT Building Shatin, New Territories Hong Kong SAR, China


MScUD at CUHK M.Sc. in Urban Design Programme, School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong | U-LAB Urban Research and Design Laboratory, Technische Universität Berlin | XLAB Laboratory Of Applied Urban Research, Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Contributors P aola Alfa ro d ’Alen ço n / Diego As enjo / Es s y Bania s s a d / G o n z a l o D u r á n / A nt onio Fritis / Man dy Held / Daniela Konr ad / Felip e L i n k / S o l a m M k h a b e l a / K ar Him Mo / Rob erto M or is / M ee Kam Ng / J ohann e s N o v y / P a u l O ’ C o n n o r / Valen tina Salg ad o / M ik a Sav ela / Elk e Sc hlac k / H e n d r i k Ti e b e n / C a r m e n G loria Tron co so / Con s t anz a Ulr ik s en / Felipe Valen z u e l a / N i c o l á s Va l e n z u e l a / E dward Yiu / Fran cisc a Zeger s

ISSN 2227-8044 (PAPERBACK) ISSN 2304-1625 (PDF)

Profile for MSc in UD x CUHK

REFLECTIONS Vol. 3 / Issue 1 / May 2016  

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Urban Inclusion: Berlin, Santiago, Hong Kong. The fourth issue of REFLECTIONS, a publication series of the M...

REFLECTIONS Vol. 3 / Issue 1 / May 2016  

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Urban Inclusion: Berlin, Santiago, Hong Kong. The fourth issue of REFLECTIONS, a publication series of the M...

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