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A descendant of Old Norse, Swedish belongs to the East Scandinavian group of languages, a subdivision of the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. There are two more Scandinavian languages that Swedish language interfere with, those are Norwegian and Danish. It is spoken by approximately nine million people worldwide, most of whom reside in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Estonia. Sweden and Finland are the two countries where Swedish is the official language, as well as the small region in Estonia Noarootsi. Chronologically speaking, we can distinguish three periods in the evolution of Swedish language: Old Swedish, New Swedish and Modern Swedish. - The first refers to the language spoken on the Swedish territory in the Middle Ages. The most relevant sample of this language was found in a law code, Västgötalagen, written around 1250. - Gustav Vasa's Bible is one of the first documents written in New (literary) Swedish and dates back to the 16th century. The language spoken by the Swedes today became Modern Swedish that has been influenced by various changes, industrial development and internalization. Nowadays "Rikssvenska" or Standard Swedish has becom the official language of Sweden. It is used in media, officialdom and administration and it was created in accordance with the dialects spoken around Stockholm. Swedish uses a 29 letters alphabet, 26 of Latin origin and three specific letters: ö, ä, å. The vocabulary mainly rooted in Germanic language traditions. It is very common to encounter German or English borrowings, as well as French, that rooted deeply in the language in the 18th century. Morphology and syntax of Swedish language resembles other Germanic languages. Swedish sentences tend to resemble the structure of other Germanic languages: verbs have five conjugations; nouns are inflected by numbers and divided into five declensions; the definite and indefinite cases are present as well; cardinal and ordinal numbers etc. Although apparently a difficult language, Swedish may prove easy to learn for a person who speaks a language of Germanic origin and it is sure to create no problems for someone speaking


another Scandinavian language. Swedish is a working language of the Nordic Council and one of the official languages of the European Union. Considered one of the countries with the highest living standard, Sweden is famous for its worldwide appreciated industry represented by companies like Volvo, IKEA, Tetra Pak etc.

Ioana Mihailas is a linguist for Lingo24 document translation companies, a top provider of technical translation services in London.

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