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Estuary Zane Homa Morgan Pfabe Pd. 2

Estuary • Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and river influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment.

Effecting Marine Life • Many species of fish and invertebrates have various methods to control or conform to the shifts in salt concentrations and are termed osmoconformers and osmoregulators. Many animals also burrow to avoid predation and to live in the more stable sedimental environment

Human Impacts • Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are located on estuaries.For example, New York City is located at the orifice of the Hudson River estuary.

Four Main Forms of Estuaries • 1. Drowned river valleys- Delaware Bay • 2. Lagoon- Myrtle Beach • 3. Fjord- Bering Sea • 4. Tectonically- Amazon River

Temperature varying depth and latitude • Temperature varies depth because the lower in the water you go the less sun it receives so therefore it is colder. • Temperature varies latitude because the further you are from the sun the less sun you receive therefore the water would be cold varying distance from the equator.

Oxygen and Still Water • Oxygen varies for an estuary by is location, latitude, and longitude on the map. • Still water- A flat or level section of a stream where no flow or motion of the current is discernible and the water is still. EX:Pond • Running Water- Water that moves EX:river

Total fresh water and Sunlight • The total amount of fresh water on the earth is 8-10 cubic miles or 3% of the worlds water • Water is effected by sunlight and animals living there be temperature some animals like cold water some like hot therefore some animals live in different areas.

Ground Water • Ground Water- Water beneath the earth's surface, often between saturated soil and rock, that supplies wells and springs. Ground water is important to Missouri because there is only a small amount of useable water in Missouri and only about 12 percent of Missouri's potable groundwater is found north of the Missouri River.

Estuarys • Estuary- The part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides. • Examples • 1. Amazon River- South America • 2. San Francisco Bay- San Francisco, CA • 3. Ob River- Russia

Ground Water and Water Table • Ground Water- Water beneath the earth's surface, often between saturated soil and rock, that supplies wells and springs. • Water table- A projecting ledge, molding, or stringcourse along the side of a building, designed to throw off rainwater.

Glaciers created by Rivers • The most famous part of America created a by a glacier and river is Yosemite park

3 major rivers around the world • 1. Amazon River- located in many South American countries • 2. Nile River- located in egypt • 3.Mississippi River- located in the u.s.a flows through man states.

TYPES OF POLLUTION • Water pollution effects the Estuary biome. But, the marshy land and plants in estuaries filter these pollutants out of the water. • Growing intensity of human activity in the world's coastal regions are causing growing demands on the plant's limited supplies on water. This is causing the flow into the estuaries to become polluted, reduced, or stopped all together.

ORGANIZATIONS • The Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) is a private, nonprofit organization that was created in 1971. • CERF has been trying to clean up estuaries around the world.


Birds: American Coot, American Wigeon, Bald Eagle, Canada Goose, Great-Blue Heron, Western Sandpiper, & more.

Mammals: Harbor Seal, River Otter

Sea Creatures: Blood Star, Bubble Shell, Lug-worm, Sunflower Star, Mud Shrimp, Orange Striped Jellyfish, Hermit Crab, & more.

Fish: Bay Pipe fish, Pacific Sculpin Shiner Perch Starry Flounder

Insects: Damsel Fly, Green Darner

-These different animals may differ from area to area.

PLANTS • Eelgrass- most important plant in the estuary • Douglas Aster • Lyngby's Sedge- found in low marsh areas of the estuary • Red Algae • Tufted Hairgrass • Pickleweed


Estuary zane and p-fabe