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Changing life in the USA 1929-2000

For WJEC History Course 1


Contents Exam questions 2. Key Questions 3. The exam paper 4. Sample questions 8. Sample essay questions Summary timelines 9. Timeline of Presidents and Political events 10. Timeline of culture / Youth / Women’s liberation events Summary of Knowledge – Changing Life in the USA 1929-2000 11. Wall Street Crash 12. Hoovervilles 13. Roosevelt 14. Alphabet Agencies 15. Second New deal 16. Opposition to New Deal 17. USA and WWII 18. 1950s USA 19. Red Scare 20. McCarthyism 21. New Frontier 22. Great Society 23. Watergate 24. Reagan 25. Clinton 26. Popular Culture 27. Development of Technology 28. Youth Culture 29. Student Movement 30. Women’s movement 31. NOW movement Summary of Knowledge – The Race issue in the USA 1929-2000 32. 1930s racial inequality 33. NAACP 34. KKK 35. New Deal 36. World War II 37. Truman’s policies 38. Brown V Topeka case 39. Emmet Till 40. Little Rock 41. Bus Boycott 42. Freedom Riders 43. Birmingham Alabama Protests 44. Civil Rights Bill 45. Malcolm X 46. Black Power Movement 47. Black Panther 48. Importance Civil Rights Act 49. Race Riots 50. Progress for Blacks 51. Riots Los Angeles 52. Answering the essay questions 2


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Key questions Section A –Changing life in the USA WHAT WERE THE MAIN INFLUENCES ON AMERICAN LIFE BETWEEN 1929-1945 What was the impact of the Wall Street Crash? What were the Hoovervilles’? Who were the Bonus Marchers? How successfully did Hoover tackle the Depression? Why did Roosevelt win the 1923 presidential election? How successful was Roosevelt’s New Deal? Why was there opposition to the New Deal? What was the impact of the Second World War on the economy? WHAT WERE THE MAIN POLITICAL + ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USA AFTER 1945? How did life change in the 1950s? What was the Red Scare? What was McCarthyism and why did it fade away? What changes were introduced by the New Frontier (Kennedy) and the Great Society (Johnson) What were the key features of the Watergate Scandal? What were the effects of the Watergate Scandal? What domestic changes were brought in by Presidents Reagan, Bush Snr and Clinton? MAIN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USA FROM 1945-2000? What were the key developments in popular culture? How did Youth Culture change? What were the key features of the student movement? How did the role of women in the USA change in the years after 1945?

CHANGING ATTITUDES TO THE RACE ISSUE IN THE USA 19292000 RACIAL INEQUALITY IN THE USA BETWEEN 1929 AND 1945? What was the position of black people in the 1930s? What was the NAACP? What was the Klu Klux Klan? What impact did the Depression and the New Deal have on Black Americans? What was the impact of the Second World War upon the Black population? What was the impact of the war on the Civil Rights issue? WHY WAS IT DIFFICULT FOR BLACK AMERICANS TO GAIN EQUAL RIGHTS IN THE USA IN THE 1950s AND 1960s? What was the importance of Brown v Topeka? Why were Little Rock High School and James Meredith significant in the struggle for equal education? What were the causes of the Montgomery bus boycott? How were sit-ins used in the fight for equality? What was the importance of the freedom riders? What was the role and significance of Martin Luther King? What was the role and significance of Malcolm X? What was the role and significance of the Black Power Movement? What was the role and significance of the Black Panther Movement? HOW MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE BY BLACK AMERICANS SINCE THE 1960s? Why was the Civil Rights legislation of the 1960s important? Why were there race riots in the 1960s? What has been the extent of changes and progress for Black Americans since the 1960s? 3

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The USA Outline Exam Paper – 1 hour Section A 1. Changing life in the USA 1929-2000 - Answer all the questions a. What does Source A tell you about…(2) b. Describe ….. (4) c. Use sources B and C and your own knowledge to explain …. (6) d. Judgement. How important was….? Was… a turning point? How successful was…? (8)Total 20 marks 2. Changing attitudes to the race issue in the USA1929-2000 – Answer all questions a. What does Source A tell you about…. (2) b. Describe….. (4) c. Use sources B and C and your own knowledge to explain …. (6) d. Judgement. How important was….? Was… a turning point? How successful was…? (8)Total 20 marks 3. The USA and the wider world a. You do not study this topic Section B –THE ESSAY Answer 1 question only from this section (10)

Sample questions only

• E.g. What were the biggest Changes in American society 1929-2000? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer o effects of the depression o impact of WWII o changes in popular culture o presidential policies from the 1970s o any other relevant factors OR • E.g. How far had the lives of black Americans improved between 1929 and 2000? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer o the position of black Americans in 1930s o the impact of WWII o the civil rights movement o progress made by black Americans by 2000 o any other relevant factors OR A question on USA and world affairs – which we have not studied Total 10 marks Paper Total 50 marks -¼ of your GCSE 4


Sample Questions – Changing Life in the USA A. What does Source A show/tell you about … (2) Changing life in America o ….. the USA in the 1930s? o .… the depression in the cities? o …Hoovervilles? o ….Hoover’s policies towards the depression? o … the CCC? o …. the second New Deal? o ….Roosevelt’s relationship with the Supreme Court o …. government bonds? o … life in America after 1950? o …US society in the 1950s? o … McCarthyism? o … attitudes towards teenagers in the 1950s? o …youth counter culture? o … role of women in WWII? o … women’s liberation movement? Black American’s o ….the depression and black Americans? o …segregation? o …..the treatment of black Americans during the 1930s o …..the New Deal and black Americans? o ….Jim Crow laws? o ….the American legal system in the 1930s? o ….the intimidation of black Americans? o ….the NAACP? o …..integration? o …black American soldiers in WWII? o …President Truman’s attitude to civil rights? o ….Martin Luther King? o ….the Montgomery Bus Boycott? o ….race relations in 1963? o … the supreme court’s view on education? o …sit-ins? o ….police methods in Birmingham? o …..’Black Power’ o ….Malcolm X attitude to racism? o …Stokely Carmichael? o …voters in the USA after 1969? o …riot in Detroit? o … the involvement of black Americans in politics 1970-2000? o ….educational achievement for black Americans in the years 1970-2000? o …the changing quality of life for black Americans? o …the influence of black music on the USA? Hints o You are being asked to take information from the source 5


o Use any written information / caption as well as the picture o You should only comment on what is in the source o Pick out at least 2 relevant points

B. Describe ….. (4) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

……what happened in the Wall Street Crash …. Hoover’s policies towards the Depression …..how the depression affected the American people …. what happened during the Hundred days …. the New Deal measures put in place to help agriculture ….the work of the TVA …the opposition of individuals to the New Deal ….the impact of WWII on the American economy … the main features of suburbia in the 1950s … the events which led to the arrest of Hiss and Rosenberg … the impact of McCarthyism … the aims of Kennedy’s New Frontier … Kennedy’s New Frontier …. Johnson’s Great Society … youth counter culture … the work of women in WWII

o o o o o o o o o o o o o

….how the depression affected Black Americans …the activities of the KKK ….the problems black Americans faced if they moved North ….the progress made by black Americans during WWII ….the contribution of black Americans to the US armed forces in WWII? ….the work of the Montgomery Improvement Association …..the events of the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56 ….Martin Luther King’s career up to the early 1960s ….what happened on the freedom rides …..the progress made by Black Americans in the 1960s …. The work of Malcolm X in the 1950s …the Black Power movement …. the race riots of 1965-67 in America

Hints o o o o o

Be relevant – answer the question Write points in date order Start your answer by using the words in the question Add specific detail e.g. dates, events, names, policies Write a good sized paragraph- aim to write at least 5 points

C. Use sources B and C and your own knowledge to explain …. (6) o o o o o

….how the New Deal helped the American people ….how the Second World War affected the American people ….how America became more affluent during the 1950s and 60s ….how attitudes towards the threat of communism had changed by the mid-1950s ….the importance of JF Kennedy as American President 6


o …. how the Watergate Scandal affected America o …why President Nixon choose to resign in 1974

o …. how youth culture changed between the 1950s and 60s o … how the events at Kent State University in 1970 changed the student protest movement o … how attitudes towards the role and status of women had changed by the 1960s o ….why Reagan was such a popular president

Use sources B and C and your own knowledge to explain …. (6) o o o o o o o

…why the New Deal was a turning point for black Americans ….the treatment of black American soldiers had changed by the late 1940s …why public transport for black Americans had changed by late 1956 ……why Martin Luther King was so important in the 1950s and 60s …. the developments in the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s ….. how the lives of Black Americans have changed since the Civil Rights act ….how the lives of Black Americans improved after 1970

Hints o Describe what is in each source – use captions as well as pictures o Make it clear you are talking about the source – ‘Source A says…this contrasts with source B which says…’ o Point out what is the same and what is different about each source o Add detail from your own knowledge (names, dates, events, policies, people) o Make sure it is clear what has and has not changed in this period

D. Judgement. For example, How important was…. (8) o Was the Wall Street Crash a turning point in America’s economic development? o How successful was Hoover in dealing with the problems caused by the depression in the years 1929-32? o How successful was the New Deal? o How successful was opposition to the New Deal? o Why was Roosevelt such a popular president? o Was the Second World War a turning point in the recovery of the US economy? o How successful was the New Frontier Policy? o How successful was the Great Society in helping American people during the 1960s? o Was the era of the student movement a turning point in American social history? o Why was the Watergate scandal a turning point in the politics of the USA in the 1970s? o How successful were the economic policies of President Reagan? o How successful was President Clinton in reviving the US economy? o How important were the computer and the internet in bringing change to US society in the later twentieth century? o Was the 1960s a turning point in the women’s movement? o o o o o o o

How important were the Scottsboro trials? How successful was the NAACP in its campaigns against segregation? How important was the KKK in the Southern states of America? How important was WWII in the fight for civil rights? How important was education in the struggle for civil rights? How successful were the sit-ins protestors and the freedom riders? How important was Martin Luther King to the Civil Rights movement? 7


o o o o o

How important was Malcolm X in the campaign for Civil Rights? How important was Stokely Carmichael in the campaign for civil rights? How successful was the Black Panther movement? How important was the civil rights act of 1964? How successful were the Selma marches?

Hints

o Focus on change / importance – answer the question o Add detail (names, dates, people, events, policies) o Make sure you reach a judgement E. THE ESSAY – you will get 2 essay questions – You will have to write 1 essay So you could answer 1 question on how US society changed for example; o How much did American society change between 1929 and 2000? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer  effects of the depression / impact of WWII / changes in popular culture Presidential policies from the 1970s / any other relevant factors o What was the most important factor in bringing about change to the US economy in the years 1929-45? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer  the depression / the Hoover administration / the New Deal The Second World War / any other relevant factors o What were the biggest Changes in American society 1929-2000?You may wish to discuss the following in your answer  effects of the depression / impact of WWII / changes in popular culture Presidential policies from the 1970s / any other relevant factors o In what ways did the lives of American people change 1929-2000? o In what ways did the lives of American women change 1929-2000? o In what ways did the lives of young people change 1929-2000? o Did life improve for all Americans 1929-2000? Or you could answer 1 question on blacks in America which you can answer. For example; o How did the lives of black Americans change between 1929 and 2000? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer  The position of blacks in the 1930s / the impact of WWII the civil rights movement / progress made by black Americans by 2000 / any other relevant factors o What were the most important factors in bringing about improved civil rights for black Americans between 1950 and 1963?  Campaign for equality in education / campaign for equality in transport / the role of Martin Luther King / the role of Malcolm X / any other relevant factors o What have been the most important factors in changing the lives of black Americans since 1960?  Civil rights act 1964 / voting rights act 1965 / involvement in politics / sporting and cultural achievements / any other relevant factors o How far had the lives of black Americans improved between 1929 and 2000? You may wish to discuss the following in your answer  the position of black Americans in 1930s / the impact of WWII The civil rights movement / progress made by black Americans by 2000 Any other relevant factors  Did life for Black Americans improve between 1929-2000?  In what ways did the lives of Black Americans change 1929-2000? 8


Hints o Make points about / use information on the whole period o Take notice of the scaffold points provided – ensure you cover all these points o Show that the speed of change has varied (some periods changed has happened fast, in other periods little has altered) o Note changes might not affect everyone the same way (think about different groups, black/whites, south/north, rich/poor, farmers/city folk, women/men, young/old) o Don’t spend too long on any one period o Write a good essay (introduction, paragraphs, conclusion) o You will be assessed on the quality of your writing (grammar, formal English, capital letters, spelling etc)

Overview Timeline –Presidents 19291932 1932 1934

1941 1945 1950s

1960s

1968 -1974 1981-89

Wall Street Crash – Start of the Depression- high unemployment – Republican President Hoover – ‘rugged individualism’/laissez faire – Hoovervilles –hobos - Bonus Marchers –dust storms /farmers suffer Democrat, Roosevelt –The New Deal - Relief, recovery, reform – first 100 days – Alphabet Agencies (e.g. AAA, CCC, TVA) – create jobs - fireside chats- minimum wages 2nd New Deal – aimed to make a fairer society (Wagner Act, Social Security Act) Not end the depression, Opposition - Roosevelt doing too much or not doing enough? Supreme Court against Second World War, Roosevelt still president – ends depression – creates jobs – wartime production – conscription - women work Affluent (rich) society, suburbia, cars, TV, fridges – Blacks still poor – women at home, The Red Scare -cold war fear communism- 1947 –The Hollywood Ten 1948, Hiss and Rosenburg Cases (Spies) 1950-1954 McCarthyism – The Witch Hunt for Communists 1960 Kennedy elected – The New Frontier – Aimed for a more equal fairer society – not really achieved – assassinated 1963 1963 Johnson – The Great Society – war on poverty – 1964 Johnson passes the Civil Rights Act Nixon – Watergate scandal – CREEP, burglary, bugs forced to resign- distrust politicians or the system works Reagan – Reaganomics – tax cuts – cuts welfare - star wars – national debt rose 9


1989-93 19932001

Bush – Americans disability act –race riots Los Angeles Clinton – increased government spending and reduced debt – economic growth – affair scandal

Overview Timeline – Popular culture 1930s 1940s 1950s

Cinema popular

1960s

Arrival Multiplex cinema (Marilyn Monroe) Blockbusters (Jaws, Star Wars) ET, Indiana Jones, VCR video recorder Mega Paid Movie Stars, Julia Roberts, Jim Carrey, first DVD

1970s 1980s 1990s

Drive-Ins, AntiHero (James Dean)

Dramatic increase car ownership Highways built Disneyland / MacDonalds opened 1960 1 car every 3 people 1970 1 car for every 2 people

Few TVs TV take off Whites on TV Milton Berle show Westerns popular Game Shows Doctors soap 1970 -96% homes TV Satellite TV Dallas /Dynasty soaps Jerry Springer Beverly Hills soap Oprah

1985 Windows by Microsoft, Nintendo 1998 internet browser Email, text, game consuls

Overview Youth Culture 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990

Teenagers arrive, beatniks, generation gap, James Dean, Elvis, Rock n Roll Hippies, drugs, pill, long hair, counterculture, flowers, make peace not war, Woodstock Swinging sixties, protest singers, student protest, Civil Rights Movement, Anti Vietnam 1970 Kent State University protest 4 people killed Disco, Bee Gees, Jacksons, Saturday Night Fever Rap, Hip Hop, Jaz Z

Overview women 1940s 1950s

WWII meant more women worked Traditional role, wives, mothers, housewife 10


1960s

1970s 1980s 1990s

Numbers women working increasing, 1963 Betty Freidan, Feminine Mystique, NOW, National Organisation for Women, challenge sex discrimination, demonstrations, challenge in courts 1963 equal pay act 1964 Civil Rights Act Women’s Liberation Movement, feminists, anti-male supremacy, 1968 against Miss America, burn bras Equality in education, men and women equal rights, anti-pregnancy discrimination 1st woman in supreme court, 1st vice president nomination, Woman in space More women work, but traditional female jobs and lower pay still

What was the impact of the Wall Street Crash? The 1920swas a ‘BOOM TIME’ for America… The ECONOMY was doing well so there were lots of jobs and people were well off. Life in the '20s became more fun and more free and easy.

Crash - Panic selling of shares began on 29th October 1929 known as ‘Black Thursday’ as 13 million shares were sold. o People lost millions. o Unemployment – By the end of 1929 there was 2.5 million unemployed in USA. This increased dramatically 1929-1932. By 1933 1/3 of workforce was unemployed. • Black workers were the first to be sacked – 1/2 were unemployed by 1933 • Many businesses and factories closed as people stopped spending • About 2 million people drifted around as ‘Hobos’ • Farmers went bankrupt made worse by a drought in 1931 o In places like Kansas, Oklahoma and New Mexico there were dust storms due to poor farming methods and drought 11


• • • •

o 20 million hectares became a ‘dust bowl’ o Families packed up and moved to the West and worked for very low wages Impact on family life - Fewer people got married Suicides – 1,000 in 1932 In some states schools closed due to lack of money 25% of people had no income and as there were no benefits they relied on charities like the Red Cross.

Was the Wall Street Crash a turning point in America’s development?

Hoovervilles o o o o o

Unemployed moved to edges of towns and cities Built homes out of tin, wood and cardboard Even a Hooverville in Central Park New York Estimated several hundred thousand people lived in them Called ‘Hoovervilles’ as people felt President Hoover was to blame for them due to a lack of support o Hoover blankets = newspapers

Bonus Marchers o Bonus marchers were soldiers who had fought in World War I o They had been promised a bonus for fighting o In 1932 12,000 ex-soldiers who were unemployed and homeless marched on Washington to try and get the government to pay them the bonus money sooner o They built a Hooverville outside the capital o When the last 5,000 refused to leave the government called them communists o Government sent in Police to remove them and 2 ex-soldiers were killed o Hoover then called in the army 100 were injured and a baby died of tear gas poisoning o Made people angry and they felt Hoover did not care.

How did Hoover try and tackle the depression o Hoover was president 1928 to 1932 and was attacked for doing too little to help people affected by the depression. o He was determined to balance the budget and refused to borrow money o He believed in laissez faire (a belief that people should help themselves rather than be helped by the government) and ‘rugged individualism’(people are responsible for their own lives without the help of anyone else) o He did; o Ask business men not to cut wages o Increase import duties on foreign goods (Hawely-Smooth tariff act) o Try and help farmers with Agricultural Marketing Act, the government lent money to farmers 12


o Set up some relief agencies e.g. the Presidents organisation o Cut taxes by $130 million o Plan to improve some roads and dams o But policies did not work, so in 1932; o Reconstruction of Finance Act – gave money to banks o Emergency relief Act – gave some aid to unemployed o Home Loan Bank Act – to try and increase house building

o But failed to pull USA out of the depression o Slogan ‘In Hoover we trusted now we are busted’ o However, not a total failure o Did increase public works schemes eg dams, bridges o Roosevelt later developed a lot of these policies o Government spent more in his 4 years than in previous 30 years

Why did Roosevelt win the 1932 Presidential election? o Roosevelt had a huge victory only 6 out of 48 States voted for Hoover o Roosevelt is known as FDR o The Republicans were defeated by the Democrats Hoover was unpopular Blamed for depression Blamed for not helping people Harsh treatment of Bonus Marchers No new policies Government schemes too small to help Banks and businesses still failing

Roosevelt’s appeal Had overcome Polio Created mood of hope Simple bold messages ‘I pledge myself to a New Deal for the American people’ Offered to create jobs Government would help farmers and industry

What was Roosevelt’s New Deal? Relief

o o o Recovery o Reform o

Aims of the New Deal – the 3 Rs Help remove poverty Give food to hungry Help stop people losing their homes and farms Help boost economy and create jobs Ensure the government helped the unemployed, sick, old, disabled by giving them benefits

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o In Roosevelt’s first hundred days in office he introduced a large number of government programs to help the economy. BANKS o o o o o o

More than 2000 banks had closed in the year before he became President Had to make people feel confident in their banks again. He closed all banks for 10 days In a ‘fireside chat’ on the radio he explained his plans He only let banks with enough money re open Made people feel banks were a safe place for their money again

Set up the ALPHABET AGENCIES Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

o o o o

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) o o o

Aim to increase farmers income Paid farmers to produce less By 1936 wages 1 ½ times higher than in 1933 Create jobs for men aged 18-25 who lived in Hoovervilles Worked on conservation projects e.g. tree planting They got food, clothes and a dollar a day By 1941 2 million men had been given some work with CCC To create public jobs Built roads, scared pigeons, sweep leaves By 1934 employed 4 million

The Civil Works Administration (CWA) – replaced by (WPA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Emergency Banking Act

o o o

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

o Started to help depressed Tennessee area o Grew and spread to 7 states o created dams to produce cheap electricity and stop floods o Built health and welfare facilities, recreation areas Some opposition to this from o Farmers whose land was flooded o Big business who felt it was a move towards communism o Provided $500 million emergency grants o gave money to unemployed

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (NRA) National Recovery Administration (NRA)

o spent $3,300 on huge scale public works Part of act said that banks not allowed to invest saving in the stock market

o Set fair prices, wages and working conditions o Set minimum wages o Eagle symbol and encouraged people to buy from 14


businesses that displayed it

Second New Deal By 1934 there was still 10 million unemployed Americans So second New Deal to help farmers, workers, the poor and unemployed more Aimed to make America a fairer place Works Progress Administration o Brought together agencies whose aim was to create jobs o Even created jobs for unemployed artists, writers and actors Wagner Act o Forced companies to allow trade unions to operate o Illegal to sack workers for being in a union o Union membership increased as a result Social Security Act o Government accepted full responsibility for meeting basic needs of people o Benefits for elderly and orphaned o Unemployment benefits

Was the New Deal a success? • • • • • •

YES Restored faith in government People’s ideas about role of government had changed. Kept America a democracy People trusted businesses again and so started investing again. There was less business failures Improved USA with new roads, schools, power stations etc.

NO There was a lot of opposition to the New Deal: o some people said it gave it gave Roosevelt too much power o New Deal gave a lot of short term solutions o Even at its best there was still 14 million 15


• • • • • • • •

Old people and disabled people got pensions. Workers had better wages and more rights. Millions of jobs were created. Industry and Agriculture began to recover. FDR won the 1936 election easily. Roosevelt was very popular. CCC and other agencies did benefit some Black People Some women got good government jobs

out of work Americans – It was WWII that ended the depression o Some people said benefits encouraged people to ‘sponge’ off the state o Many agencies discriminated against black people o Women paid less than men o Agencies employed few women

Why was there opposition to the New Deal? Some people felt he was not doing enough o Huey Long wanted Roosevelt to ‘share our wealth’ more fairly between rich and poor o Father Charles Coughlin said Roosevelt was ‘anti-God’ and not helping the needy o Dr Francis Townsend felt the old did not benefit enough from the New Deal Politicians against the New Deal o Republicans believed he was doing too much to help people and making government too powerful o American Liberty League felt the New Deal threatened individual freedom o Some Conservative Democrats were especially against the Wagner act and felt it gave trade unions too much power. Supreme Court o Was against some of Roosevelt’s measures o They ruled some of the Alphabet Agencies were not legal o US v Butler – ruled states not central government should help farmers o Sick Chickens case – NRA could no inferred in state rules and fine a company for selling sick chickens o Roosevelt unsuccessful tried to threaten the Supreme Court with replacing the judges

What Impact did World War II have on the US? 16


1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbour and America entered World War II. . They fought alongside Britain against Nazi Germany and her allies. Although many American soldiers were injured and killed in the war, the impact on Americans back home was generally positive, as the US was too far away from Europe to suffer from bombing etc The US government got money to fight the war by selling bonds to people. People were guaranteed their money back plus interest at the end of the war. These were very popular. o Fighting WWII further increased the role of Government o Asked people to ‘give an hour a day to the USA’ to support the war effort o War Production Board organised USA to meet needs or army o General Motors made heavy machine guns o Big Industrialists got lots of war contracts o More coal, iron and steel was needed to be produced o USA was producing half the weapons in the world by 1944 o Conscription meant 16 million men and women served in the armed forces o More black Americans moved from the South to the North for industrial jobs o A lot more women worked doing ‘male jobs’ o New businesses were set up o American farmers could export food and got money

o WWII ended unemployment and the depression

America after the War

America was richer than before the war

America was a SUPERPOWER

America led the world in technology

US films & music were everywhere. People all over the world tried to copy the US way of life

Only USA had the atomic bomb

People like Elvis were international stars

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What were the main political and economic developments in the USA after 1945? How did Life Change in the 1950s? In 1945 Roosevelt died and Truman became president. He and Eisenhower introduced the Fair Deal programme.

This lead to a time of prosperity (wealth) Suburbia • • • • • • • • •

People moved to new homes on the edge of towns, the suburbs Living here with your family was the ‘American Dream’ Couples could afford a house here due to cheap loans Most families had a least 1 car so no longer had to live near where they worked The post war ‘baby boom’ increased the population and demand for new homes These homes had all the ‘mod-cons’ (televisions, washing machines and fridges) By 1960 90% of homes had televisions, which changed daily life May even have swimming pools as a status symbol But many women were unable to go out to work, and felt bored and lonely. They had Tupperware parties.

There was a religious Revival in the 1950s i.e. more people went to Church…….Why? •

The government encouraged religion as a defence against Communism

People who had moved to the suburbs went to Church to meet new friends. It gave them a sense of Community and belonging.

Religion

The 1950s saw the growth of a separate ‘Youth Culture’…. The teenager was invented!!! • • • •

For the first time teenagers had fashions of their own. More money than ever before..more freedom. Rock & Roll Music. Parents disapproved. They believed the new ways encouraged sex, drugs and crime.

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Women in the 50s were not as independent and equal as women in the 40s. • After the war most women lost their jobs. • •

Wages went down again. The 50s image of the ideal woman was the good little housewife who cooked and cleaned, looked after children and always looked pretty for her husband.

Reasons for an affluent (rich) society in the 1950s • • • • •

People spent the money they had saved during WWII Hire purchase and credit was available More efficient workforce kept prices down The Baby Boom – growing population – increased demand for goods The Cold War against communist Russia meant government paid industries to make new weapons, which created demand for iron, steel, coal and electronics

1950s America is often called the Affluent (rich) Society, but was it really? Yes

• •

Economy

No… • •

In 1960 the standard of living of the average American was 3 times higher than in Britain. American’s were envied around the world. There were more jobs available with higher wages. The average wage of factory workers went up from $55 in 1950 to $80 in 1959 Lots of people enjoyed a higher standard of living than ever before, with big houses in the suburbs and lots of ‘luxury’ Consumer Goods (Washing machines, cars, TVs etc). 29% of the population still lived in poverty, particularly Black Americans, old people and Southerners. There was no national health care and medical care was expensive. Less pensions and benefits than in many European countries

What was the Red Scare? In the late 1940s and 1950s there was a growing fear of communism which was known as the Red Scare. • This fear started after the Russian Communist revolution during WWI • Russia and America were on the same side in WWII but distrusted each other • After 1945 a cold war (they did not like each other and were hostile, but did not actually fight a war against each other) developed between Russia and America • Fear increased as China became a communist country in 1949, American’s felt communism was a worldwide threat. • ‘Better dead than red’ was a popular slogan 19


• There was anti-communist hysteria in America • President Truman disliked communism and talked of the ‘enemy within’ –

meaning communists inside America • FELP – Federal Employee Loyalty Programme – investigated government employees to check they were not communists. • The FBI has a strong anti-communist director J Edgar Hoover

The Hollywood Ten

• HUAC – House Un-American Activities Committee • • • • • • • • • • • •

Investigate communists in the film industry There was a fear of films being used to put across a communist message Ten writers and directors were asked by HUAC if they were communists They refused to answer questions They were sacked and spent a year in prison

The Hiss and Rosenberg cases Increased fear of communism Fear Hiss a US state department member was a spy A microfilm was found inside a pumpkin Microfilm showed government documents, some had been copied on Hiss’s typewriter They became known as the ‘Pumpkin Papers’ In 1950 Hiss got 5 years in jail. Richard Nixon had prosecuted him and became known an anti-communist

• Russia (Soviet Union) exploded a nuclear bomb in 1949 sooner than America expected. • They felt this was due to spying • Rosenberg and his wife were arrested for spying • Found guilty of giving away atomic secrets and sentenced to death

What was McCarthyism? • Joseph McCarthy was a senator who created an even greater fear of communism • He was a ‘red hating crusader’ • In 1950 he claimed to have the names of 205 communists who worked for the state department which dealt with foreign affairs • McCarthy was made Chairman of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate • He interviewed hundreds of people about whether they were communists • His hearings and public statements destroyed the lives of many 20


• Little evidence was produced by McCarthy • It was enough to be accused by him • He won massive support across America The reasons for McCarthy’s fall • He started to say that there were communists in the army • His investigations were put on television and people saw what he was actually like • TV showed the lack of hard evidence – it was all rumour and bluff • McCarthy was seen to be very aggressive • Joseph Welch the army legal attorney challenged him in a calm manner • The claims against the army were seen to be untrue • TV journalist Ed Murrow made a television programme attacking McCarthy • Other journalists started to attack McCarthy • In 1954 he lost his job on the Senate Committee of Operations The effects of McCarthyism • The words ‘red’ ‘commie’ and ‘lefty’ were used against people who were felt to be un-American • McCarthy had created fear in America • There was spying on neighbours • Government films encouraged people to report possible communists • Anyone who tried to change America for example by bringing in black civil rights were seen as communists • Hatred of communism stayed even after McCarthy lost power

What changes were introduced by the New Frontier and the Great Society? Kennedy and the New Frontier

• Kennedy was president from 1960 until he was shot in 1963 • He had charm and charisma • New Frontier – was a programme of reform to make US a fairer place. Wanted to give equal rights to blacks (reduce inequality and poverty) • Called it New Frontier to get people on side and make it seem exciting

Opposition to the New Frontier 21


• Congress (the US parliament) was against it, and many of his ideas were rejected because; o He had only just won the election o Older members felt he was too young and inexperienced o Some saw it as too much change, too radical and communist like o He was the first Catholic president and some protestants were against him o Southerners were against giving blacks rights • His early death meant he was unable to complete his programme of reform

The New Frontier – key measures Civil rights • 1 black American made a federal judge • Kennedy threatened legal action against Louisiana state when it would not fund schools which were not segregated • Used troops to let James Meredith go to university of Mississippi • He tried to pass a civil rights bill but was defeated The economy • Spent government money to help growth • Introduced tax cuts • Public works schemes e.g. building roads • Spent money to get a man on the moon • Spent money on defence Social reform • Increased the minimum wage • Increased social security / number of benefits • Set up training schemes for unemployed • Gave cheap loans to develop inner city areas • Wanted to introduce health reform (Medicare)

President Johnson and the Great society Lyndon Johnson was president 1963 to 1968 Achievements have often been overlooked due to impact of Kennedy and Vietnam War. Wanted to continue work of Kennedy and his ‘New Frontier’ he called it the ‘Great Society’ He wanted to • End poverty • Improve the health of the poor and old by improving living conditions and diet • Provide medical care to the poor • End racial discrimination – give blacks equal rights 22


He was very successful in getting Congress (US parliament) to support his measures As a southerner himself he knew how to deal with people from the South Opposition the ‘Great Society’ • Republicans said he wasted money and wanted more ‘rugged individualism’ • Some said he did too little to help inner cities where there were riots • Biggest Problem – Vietnam war – very expensive

The Great Society – Key Measures Civil rights

• Civil Rights Act of 1964 – banned discrimination in public places and in employment • Equal opportunities Commission set up to make sure people followed Civil rights law

• Voting Rights Act of 1965 to make it easier for blacks to vote • 1967 all laws banning mixed race marriages were removed The economy • Cut taxes • Improved roads and railways • Shops had to label goods fairly Social reform

• The Medical Care Act 1965 – provided health care for the old and poor • • • •

Gave money to schools Gave money to help inner city areas and got slums removed Increased minimum wage Gave money to help educated very poor very young children

What were the key features of the Watergate scandal? Richard Nixon a Republican won the Presidential election in 1968 and again in 1972 but was forced to resign because of Watergate in 1972. o Nixon was concerned he might not be re-elected President in 1972 so set up CREEP (Committee to Re-Election the President) o CREEP was encouraged to use dirty tricks to ensure Nixon got re-elected o In June 1972, five members of CREEP were arrested for breaking into the Watergate offices of the Democratic party 23


o It was clear they were planting bugging devices in the Watergate offices o Reporters Bernstein and Woodward discovered that the burglars worked for CREEP o Nixon denied any involvement in the burglary and got re-elected o Jan 1973 the burglars went on trial. One of them James Cord claimed there had been a White House cover-up. o Again Nixon denied any knowledge o However, did admit two of his advisors had known and they resigned o Senate Committee was set up to investigate. o A White House aide told the committee Nixon had tape-recording system in the White House and that all Nixon’s conversations had been taped o Nixon at first refused to hand over the tapes o Then handed over 7 of the 9 which had been edited, 1 had 18 minutes missing o Nixon was made to hand over all the tapes in full o The tapes showed he had been involved in dirty tricks and burglary and had lied o They also shocked people due to foul language

Effects of the Watergate Scandal People lost confidence in politicians They elected Jimmy Carter as President as they felt they could trust him most Now use the nickname ‘gate’ after a big scandal Destroyed Nixon’s reputation – he was called ‘Tricky Dicky’ o 31 of Nixon’s advisors went to prison o Damaged reputation of USA abroad o Reduced American self confidence o o o o

o Showed American legal system worked well as Nixon was found out o US President was not too powerful Supreme Court had kept a check on his power o Powers of government were reduced o President had to consult Congress before sending troops to war o People had right to see government files on them o President could not use government money for his own purpose o Limits on election contributions to prevent corruption

Ronald Reagan A Republican President from 1980 to 1989 Used to be a film star Reaganomics 24


o When he came to power there was a recession and rising unemployment o The government was in debt and inflation was rising o Reagan believed tax cuts would help business, and business would provide jobs and help everyone by money trickling down to the poor from the rich o Reagan cut welfare spending (cut benefits) by over $20 billion o Reagan cut taxes by £33 billion – the largest tax cut in US history Effects of Reaganomics o Government had hardly any income and money. Government deficit – the government was spending more than it was making each year o Especially as Reagan increased government spending on defence o Government had to borrow money each year and national debt rose to its highest ever level $1 trillion. o Lots of people lost their jobs and inflation increased o Stock market crash in 1987 industry moved into recession The space programme o Space shuttle Challenger exploded in 1986 killing 7 crew members o Star Wars defence programme proved very expensive

George Bush Snr A Republican President from 1988 to 1992 o He had promised tax cuts but had to increase taxes due to the amount Reagan had spent o Increased taxes on wealthy and luxury goods o But deficit got bigger and a recession started o Unemployment increased o 14% of Americans were living in poverty o He introduced Disabilities Act – banning discrimination of the disabled in employment and transport. o The most important anti-discrimination law since the Civil rights act in the 1960s o The Clean Air Act – to reduce smog in cities, acid rain and toxic chemicals from industries o He tried to reduce drug use but was unsuccessful o There were race riots in Los Angeles, Chicago and other big cities in 1992 following arrest and beating of a black man Rodney King by 4 white police men which was filmed on home video.

Bill Clinton Became President 1992, he was a Democrat 25


Had very different views than Reagan and Bush The economic downturn under Bush was a big reason for his election victory. By 1992 the gap between the richest and poorest people in America had grown even bigger Moved away from Reaganomics Wanted to reduce government deficit and at the same time increase government spending on education and welfare o Clinton reduced government deficit from Reagan time Budget was balanced for the 1st time since 1969 o Longest period of economic growth in the history of America o Low unemployment o Highest level of home ownership in US history o Value of stock market tripled o Free trade with Mexico, Canada which increased US exports o Introduced a minimum wage of $4.75 and increased this to $5.15 o Failed to introduce health care for everyone. As rejected by Congress Scandals o Whitewater scandal when his business associates were convicted of Fraud over a housing development in the Whitewater area. No proof ever found that Clinton did anything illegal – but it dragged on for 7 years o Had an affair with Monica Lewinsky a young female member of the White House Staff. Bill Clinton was forced to give a public apology to the American people.

What were the Key developments in Popular Culture? Cinema Cinema was popular after 1939, but less than it had been 1918-39 due to the impact of television. Average weekly cinema attendance fell from 90 million in 1946 to 47 million in 1956 1930s Drive-in-cinema first opened 1945- Anti –hero popular – symbols of rebellion, the main character lacked courage and 1959 ideals. E.g. James Dean, Paul Newman, Marlon Brando Drive-ins became very popular – couples could take babies, teenagers could make out – called ‘passion pits’ in the media and seen as immoral 1960s Marilyn Monroe – an exciting sexy film star 1963 First ever multiplex movie theatre opened 1970s Blockbuster films, Jaws directed by Steven Spielberg and Star Wars by George Lucas. These films used special effects and cost a lot of money 26


1980s

1990s

Blockbuster films continued ET Spielberg, Indiana Jones (Spielberg and Lucas) Raiders of the lost Ark – Harrison Ford famous VCR – video recorder encouraged film hire Method actors included Jack Nicholson, Al Pacino and Robert De Niro Mega paid movie stars, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Tom Cruise, Mel Gibson, Eddie Murphy, Sylvester Stallone, Kevin Costner, Harrison Ford, Robin Williams, Jim Carrey, Demi Moore and Julia Roberts Videos still popular 1997 first DVD Films like Star Wars the Phantom Menace and Jurassic Park used more advanced special effects

The Motor car o o o o o o o o

Motor car ownership was key to the growth of the suburbs Car ownership increased from 25 million in 1945 to 60 million by 1960 The number of 2 car families doubled in the 1950s 1956 Interstate highway Act largest ever American public works scheme built highways across America 41,000 miles of them 1955 first MacDonalds opened the car made US society more uniform Disney Land opened in 1955 and people from all over America could go there Made America a more uniformed society In 1960 there was 1 car for every 3 people by 1970 1 car for every 2 people

Television o o o o

During the 1940s few TV sets in America 50 million TV sets by 1960 By 1970 90% of homes had a TV Subscription TV like capable and satellite became popular in the 1980s

o American’s especially like game shows with comedians like Milton Berle and Lucille Ball o Liked variety shows with a mix of entertainment e.g. Ed Sullivan o Westerns like Lone Ranger and Bonanza popular o 1950s TV was white and Christian, showed traditional American values for example ‘I love Lucy’ and ‘the Honeymooners’ showed suburban life. What was shown on TV began to be seen as normal. o Soap Opera’s very popular and long running eg Dallas, Dynasty, Beverly Hills o Chat shows like Jerry Springer popular, most successful Oprah Winfrey show

27


Developments in information technology o 1990s saw a massive growth in personal commuters o 1985 windows first launched by Bill Gates and Microsoft, and they dominated computer market o Main rival to Microsoft was Apple o 1991 first user friendly interface to the internet was developed o 1998 Microsoft internet browser integrated into desktop computer o Computer gaming became popular for young people o First computer game 1971 ‘Computer Space’ o 1980s Nintendo launched first modern computer console NES followed by Sony Playstation, Sega mega drive and in 2001 Xbox o o o o o

Technology has transformed US society Email means near instant communication, as does text E-commerce has developed and people can shop on line Young people use more and more social network sites and games consoles Linked to lack of exercise and obesity

How did Youth Culture change? o Probably biggest social change in the 1950s and 1960s was the arrival of Youth culture

1950s o Before the 1950s young adults had simply copied their parents tastes and fashions and had been kept firmly in their place o The arrival of the teenage and teenage rebellion against everything especially parents o They formed gangs, cruised in cars, drank and attacked property o Had their own clothes and music o Some young people ‘dropped out’ and became beatniks This happened because o Young people had far more money than ever before due to affluence of the 1950s o Therefore companies started to make products just for teenagers o In 1957 a teenager on average had $10-15 in 1940s they only had $1-2 o They were first generation to live under the threat of nuclear war – the world could end any day so they wanted to enjoy and live for ‘today’ o Teenagers were influenced by youth films like ‘rebel without a cause’. Showed the generation gap between parents and their children, as Dean fights with his father and gets in trouble for drinking. The film made a cult hero of James Dean who died in a car crash only 24 o Books like Catcher in the Rye influenced teenagers as well

28


o Rock and Roll Music was key – it was teenagers music - Elvis Presley sang Heartbreak Hotel and Hound Dog was a huge success- adults did not like his sexual dancing – wore tight jeans and a sneer – He was the first Rock and Roll star

1960s o o o o

Beatles, The Rolling Stones and other British groups took America by storm Hard Rock grew popular and Protest Songs like Bob Dylan Beach Boys were an American rock band sang about cars, surfing and romance It was claimed rock and roll music encouraged teenage crime

Youth Counter Culture o o o o

Grew hair long and beards Wore blue jeans, t-shirts not jackets and ties Used illegal drugs more like marijuana and LSD The introduction of the pill seemed to encourage sexual freedom

Hippy movement o Some young people decided to ‘drop out’ of society o Lived an ‘alternative life style’ o Travelled around in buses and vans and wore flowers o Slogan was ‘make love not war’ o Called ‘flower children’ o Often lived in communes o San Francisco became hippy capital of America o Use of drugs often led to clashes with police who they called pigs o Influenced by music by the Doors and Grateful Dead o Woodstock concert high point of hippy movement, a 3 day hippy festival in New York attended by ½ million people o Hippies often refused to work o Hippies rejected values of their white privileged backgrounds often Popular Music 1970-2000 o 1970s Disco music was popular o Donna Summer, Bee Gees and the Sunshine Band, Jacksons o As shown in film Saturday Night Fever disco was a teenage hangout o Hip Hop developed in 1980s o Came out of poor black city neighbourhoods o However, bought by white young Americans o Jay Z, ice T, Will Smith and Fugees popular The importance of the Student Movement • By end of 1960s there were big changes in whole lifestyle of young people • Mini skirt reflected this freedom and sexual freedom • Teenagers more aware of individuality and had a greater say in what they did and wore 29


• Protests against Vietnam war made withdraw from Vietnam more likely • Protests influenced Johnson’s decision to resign • White student support for black civil rights movement helped end discrimination and segregation • To white middle class teenagers to rebel like this against government and parents had been unheard of before

Key Features of the Student Movement Swinging Sixties o Gap between young and old increased o Young people demanded freedom in their music, clothes, social life Protest Singers o E.g. Bob Dylan was against nuclear war, racism, and Vietnam war o Jimi Hendrix also sang about drugs, sex and was AntiVietnam war Universities o Students wanted a greater say in running the university o A end to college rules and restrictions o The SDS - Students for a Democratic society (SDS) o Helped organise the ‘free speech’ movement o Played a key role in protest movement against Vietnam war Martin Luther King o Many white students took part in freedom marches, sit-ins and freedom rides for black civil rights o More black students than white students were called up to fight in Vietnam o Martin Luther King was against the Vietnam war Vietnam o Many students were called up to fight in Vietnam (drafted) o As war casualties increased so did opposition to the war o Some students questions if it was right for America to be fighting in Vietnam o Use of chemical weapons like Napalm and killing innocent people at My Lai 1968 caused more opposition o Anti Vietnam protests reached their peak in 1968-70 o In 1969 7000,000 marched on Washington against the war 30


o Students often burnt draft cards or US flag o Kent State university clashes with police and use of tear gas in 1970 when students refused to move led to death of 4 people and 11 injured. As a result 2 million students went on strike in protest

How did the role of women change in the years after 1945? • Before WWII most women had traditional roles as wives and mothers few women had careers • There were very few career opportunities, except in female jobs like teaching, nursing and being a secretary. Impact of World War II • • • • •

Women made a contribution to the war effort and this gave them new job opportunities Women especially worked making munitions and got higher pay than before the war The number of women increased from 12 million in 1940 to 18 m 1946 Women worked in ‘male’ jobs like aircraft factories and shipyards Women joined the armed forces

But at the end of the war • Most women willing gave up their war time work • Most women went back to being wives and mothers • Women got on average ½ the pay as men for doing the same job • Women could be sacked when they got married 1950s • The media encouraged women to stay at home and look after the family • In 1950s women started to get frustrated as housewives • The contraceptive pill gave women more freedom about when and if to have children • Women were better educated so they could have a professional career o By 1960 1.3 million women went to university • Labour saving devices and convenience food gave women more time 1960s • Number of women working started to increase as employers liked cheap part time labour o In 1950 women made up 29% workforce by 1960 this was 50% • Eleanor Roosevelt (with for the former president) was a keen supporter of women’s rights 31


• Betty Friedan wrote the Feminine Mystique and said there was more to life than being a wife and mother • In 1966 she set up National Organisation for Women (NOW) • This was made up of richer white women to attack discrimination • They wanted equal rights for women • Organised demonstrations in many American cities • In courts members challenged discrimination and got back pay for not being paid equally to men Women’s Liberation Movement • This group was more radical than NOW • Known as feminists • More active in challenging discrimination • Some really extreme feminists wanted nothing at all to do with men • All signs of male supremacy were to be removed • Believed in not wearing make-up • They burnt their bras for publicity • They picketed the Miss America contest they argued it degraded women • Their activities did more harm than good • Burning bras and the like made it hard for them to be taken seriously • They were a distraction from key issues of equal pay and better job opportunities Achievements of the women’s Movement 1963 1964 1972 1973 1978 1981 1984 • • • • • • • •

Equal pay act Civil Rights Act illegal to discriminate based on sex Sex discrimination in education outlawed – so girls taught the same as boys Supreme court defended women’s right to have abortions Pregnancy Discrimination Act – banned discrimination in employment 1st women to be a supreme court judge 1st woman vice-president candidate

Women have been into space Hilary Clinton ran to be president of the USA and ended up as Secretary of State Sarah Palin is an important female politician Over 70% of women of working age had employment in 1995 compared to 38% in 1955 But Only 305 of managers are female Women still tend to be secretaries and receptionists 2/3 of part time work is done by women Women on average earn 2/3 the pay of men in 1998

32


Section B Black Americans Why was there so much racial inequality in the USA between 1929 and 1945? Summary

• • • • •

During this period there was a great deal of hatred towards Black People The Ku Klux Klan grew in size Many black Americans moved from the South to the Northern states for jobs. Faced discrimination still in North. By the end WWII blacks’ position had improved little. Blacks in the 1930s

JIM CROW LAWS • • • •

More blacks than whites in the South by 1860 – Whites feared this Many white people thought blacks were inferior, and should be kept separate Whites introduced JIM CROW laws to reduced blacks’ freedom and keep them separate. (Jim Crow was a comedian whose act laughed at black people.) Supreme Court ruled SEGREGATION was CONSTITUTIONAL (legal) if equal. o Separate but equal doctrine

o There were no black police men in most southern states.

Literacy tests •

Blacks were treated as inferior

• • •

People had to pass a literacy test to vote Blacks were often asked impossible questions This stopped many blacks from voting till 1960

MIGRATION To escape Segregation and find better paid work many moved North 33


but there was still discrimination. Living conditions • In south blacks had a poor education and no good jobs. Whites used terror and fear to control blacks • Life was not much better for blacks in the north • Blacks had the lowest paid jobs and were first to be sacked when economy declined • Generally lived in very poor conditions – ghettos • In New York and Chicago often paid higher rents than whites for worse housing • Blacks had poorer schools and hospitals than whites • Most blacks did not benefit from the economic boom

Some improvements • • • • • •

In New York and Chicago growing black middle class (growing number of better off blacks) In Chicago blacks boycotted department stores until they employed black sales assistants Louis Armstrong and other black Jazz artists became famous Harlem in New York became the centre to the Harlem renaissance for singers, musicians, artists, writers and poets. Black singers, comedians and dancers were popular in clubs. Black theatre got big audiences

The Scottsboro Trial • • • • • • •

Highlights how badly blacks were treated in 1930s 1931 2 white women claimed to have been raped by black boys on a train to Memphis 1 girl later admitted she had not been attacked – but boys found guilty 8 out of 9 boys charged were found guilty and got sentenced to death but actually got 75 yrs in prison There were re trials and the last of the Scottsboro 8 was found innocent in 1950 President Roosevelt was told that the case against them was based on a ‘mass of contradictions and improbabilities.’ The jury was made up of all white males

What was the NAACP?  • •

William Du Bois and other blacks formed the ‘National

Association for

the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) in 1909 It had its own magazine which William edited to 1934 Aims o Make 100,000 Americans free from peonage (a system where someone in debt had to work for the creditor until the debt is paid off) o Free from ignorance (get blacks educated) o Politically free from disenfranchisement (get blacks the vote) o Socially free from insult During WWI they wanted blacks to join the military o Successfully campaigned for blacks to be made officers in army

• Challenge white supremacy (the idea that whites were in control) • Challenge segregation laws •

Campaigned against lynching (illegal executions usually of a black person by a hanging mob). o It investigated and publicised lynching o Eventually helped to reduce the number of lynchings 34


o Campaigned against the film ‘Birth of a Nation’ 1915 which reinforced the idea of white supremacy and got huge audiences and seemed to encourage lynching However • Was unable to get a president to introduce civil rights legislation • Membership was never large – as main aim of blacks was to have and keep a job and no history of black involvement in politics In 1930 Walter White became president o He encouraged blacks to challenge discrimination in the law courts o NAACP employed a black lawyer Thurgood Marshall to fight against segregation in education and he got equal salaries for black teachers in many states o Supreme court also said blacks had right to the same quality of graduate education as whites.

What was the Ku Klux Klan? • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

KKK was set up in the 1860s (by soldiers who fought in civil war) Aim was to terrorise black people after they were freed from slavery (emancipated) Film ‘Birth of a Nation’ 1915 increased KKK membership After WWI membership of KKK increased due to more foreign immigrants KKK members were WASPS (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) Saw them selves as being superior / better than other races Also anti communists, Jews, Catholics and all foreigners Klansmen dressed in white sheets and wore white hoods o To hide who they were o White colour showed white supremacy o Members carried the American flag o Lit burning crosses at night meetings o Leader is called ‘Imperial Wizard’ o Officers called Kaliffs, Kluds and Klabees Many politicians in the South knew if they stood against the KKK they might not get elected Membership declined in the 1920s when its leader D.C. Stephenson was imprisoned, However, still powerful when in 1946 15,000 people marched to Washington to demand the KKK be made illegal Activities included threats, intimidation, burning crosses, and lynchings (an illegal execution by a mob usually of a black person and often by hanging) They got away with it because policemen and judges were often members and white people were to frightened to speak out against them

What impact did the depression have on Black Americans • •

The depression had a big impact on Black Americans 2 million black farmers and sharecroppers (landed owned by whites, blacks can farm the land if they give the owner a share of the crop) were

forced off their land

In Northern cities Unemployment among blacks as high as 60% 35


• • •

White vigilante groups set up to stop blacks getting work When unemployment got worse whites took over the bad jobs blacks used to do and made things even worse for blacks. In towns parks at night were full of homeless and unemployed (Hoovervilles). People scavenged for food on rubbish tips and queued at charity soup kitchens

Impact of the New Deal • •

• • o o o o o

New deal did not bring huge improvements for black people. But some progress o Some black Americans in government. 50 blacks in Roosevelt’s government ‘black cabinet’ most famous Mary McLeod Bethune who was head of Negro Affairs Division of the National Youth Administration. o Eleanor Roosevelt helped raise awareness of black problems o Number of blacks employed by the government increases from 50,000 in 1933 to 200,000 in 1945 o New Deal provided 1 million jobs for black Americans and training for 500,000 o Public Works Administration (PWA) gave money to build black hospitals, universities and housing. Also required that some blacks be used to build the projects o Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) gave aid to 30% of all black American families Many blacks now stopped supporting the Republicans and started to support Roosevelt’s Democrats BUT Roosevelt did little to stop unfair hiring practices (people employing whites over blacks) and worse job conditions for blacks Roosevelt did not support anti-lynching bill Some government agencies like the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) refused to hire blacks The CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps paid blacks less and forced them to live in segregated camps The AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act) paid farmers to grow fewer crops this meant many blacks who rented land were kicked off it, and it was called sarcastically the ‘Negro removal act’

What was the impact of the Second World War upon the black population? • Many black Americans - over 1 million enlisted (joined the army) and formed the Jim Crow Army to fight the Nazis 36


• But war showed how much racism there was in the USA too! • • • • • • • • • •

They had to serve in segregated units – black only units with a white officer Only towards end of war did black service men saw much fighting Blacks stationed in GB treated much better than they had been in USA Black soldiers before 1944 were not allowed into combat in the Marines Blacks employed as cooks, labourers and to transport goods Black nurses only allowed to treat black service men US air force not accept black pilots Blacks found it hard to get promoted in the services – hard to become an officer When injured only black blood could be used, many whites felt that to mix blood would ‘mongrelise’ the USA Discrimination worst in the Navy - blacks had the most dangerous job of loading ammunition onto ships. E.g. in1944 an accident killed 323 most black

But • Tuskegee airmen (black fighter group) won praise acting as escorts for US bombers

761 tank Battalion ‘Black Panthers’ won praise in Battle of the Bulge for bravery

Eisenhower, supported integration of troops

Progress made during World War II • • • • •

There were hundreds of black officers in army and marines by the end of the war There was a fighter squadron of black pilots by end of war 58 black sailors were officers De-segregation of Navy in 1946 and other service 1948 By 1955 army had gone from being one of the most segregated organisations to being one of the most successfully integrated.

Black Americans and employment during the Second World War • Over 400,000 Black Americans moved from south to industrial towns of the North – doubling their wages ($1,000 a year) • They were often treated poorly • •

• • •

One newspaper the Pittsburgh Courier’ created the ‘Double V’ campaign – meant victory at home as well in term of civil rights as well as against Nazis 1941 Philip Randolph a leading black American organised a March on Washington to remove discrimination in Armed forces and jobs. Roosevelt feared the march and met with him. o Roosevelt issued an executive order 8802 which stopped discrimination in industrial and government jobs. o Set up Employment Practices Commission which could not force companies to employ blacks but used threat of withdrawing government contracts to encourage them to do so o But in 1942 3000 white workers walked out of Packard electronics company because 3 blacks had their jobs upgraded

Number of blacks employed in government services rose from 50,000 to 200,000 By end of war 2 million blacks involved in industry War gave more opportunities for black women. Many became nurses – only able to help blacks

What was the impact of the war on the civil rights issue? •

WWII had seen some progress made by Black Americans in employment and forces

• Many blacks became more involved in campaigning for civil rights

• However, discrimination and segregation was a way of life in southern states •

Migration (movement) of Blacks to Northern Industrial cities had created greater racial tension 37


• • • •

There were race riots in 47 cities.

Worst Detroit 1943 when 25 black people and 9 white people were killed and 700 injured and $2 million worth of damage to property. Also in 1943 9 black Americans killed in race riots in Harlem, New York There were riots in 9 black army training camps due to resentment of their unequal treatment Growing awareness of discrimination and injustice led to increasing membership of National Association for the Advancement of Coloured people during the war from 50,000 to 450,000. Many new professional members and industrial workers

• • •

New organisation Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded by James Farmer in 1942 Inspired by non violent tactics of Gandhi in India Used the idea of sit-ins at cinemas and restaurants. This did lead to the end of segregation in some Northern cities. • In south more interest in politics – number of registered voters up from 3% to 12% 1940-47 • Civil rights issue split the democrat party in 1948 election. Truman wanted to introduce a civil rights bill (which would ban poll tax – this tax had to be paid before you could vote in certain states) and an anti-lynching bill. This was opposed by the Dixiecrats (Southern Democratic Party members who were against Civil Rights) SO RACISM WAS STILL ACTIVE BUT SOME WERE LOOKING TO FIGHT FOR EQUALITY

Truman’s Policies:  

END LYNCHING and ABOLISH POLL TAXES THAT STOPPED BLACK PEOPLE VOTING END SEGREGATION IN THE ARMY. The US Congress (Parliament) refused to pass the first two, but he did not need their permission to desegregate the army, which he did. It might not seem much, but it was! It was the FIRST TIME THE US PRESIDENT HAD DECLARED SEGREGATION WAS WRONG. THE DOOR HAD BEEN OPENED.

The situation by the end of the 1940s • •

President Truman’s Fair Deal programme had offered hope, but by the end of the 1940s only very small gains had been made to improve Civil Rights Republicans and South Democrats (Dixiecrats) were against Civil Rights reform

• However, because of their contribution during the war black Americans were now better placed to demand their full rights as American citizens. • • •

President Truman may not have introduced Civil Rights laws but did make a lot of speeches and raised the Nation’s awareness of the problem of Civil Rights. Confidence of NAACP was high enough to challenge some states about the education of black students. o NAACP showed more was money was spent educating white children than black ones o Led to ‘Brown V Board of Education of Topeka case in 1954 (see later Civil Rights) Was some improvement in voter registration for black Americans in the 1940s o In 1940 2% of black Americans were registered to vote by 1947 this had risen to 12%

Now - Check you can answer these questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What was the nature and status of black people in America in 1929? What is was segregation? How important was the KKK? What was the work of the NAACP? What impact did the depression have on black people? How important was the New Deal for Black Americans? What impact did World War II and the Jim Crow army have on American? 38


8. What were the origins of the Civil Rights Movement?

Why was it difficult for black Americans to gain equal rights in the 1950s and 60s? •

• • • •

There was a lot of progress in Black Civil Rights in the 50s and 60s

In education o Landmark cases like ‘Brown v Board of Education of Topeka’ o Little RockHigh School o James Meridith o Removed segregation but many states not happy about changes In transport o Montgomery bus boycott o Freedom Riders o Made progress in desegregating transport Sit ins were organised Martin Luther King became an important figure However, no new laws were introduced to ban racial discrimination until the mid 1960s. Many politicians and people were against racial change.

The Brown v Topeka Case Kansas 1954 •

In the 1930’s and 1940’s the NAACP had increasingly begun to use the legal system/courts to fight against discrimination, particularly segregation. • In 1954, 20 US states, including Washington D.C. had segregated schools. • LINDA BROWN, a 7 year old black girl in Topeka a town in Kansas had to walk 20 blocks to school even though there was a school for white people just two blocks away. • With the help of the NAACP,(the Lawyers from the NAACP were led by Thurgood Marshall) the Topeka Board of Education was taken to court and the case ended up in the US SUPREME COURT, the most important court in the land. • The lawyers said that separate education created low self-esteem and was harmful and the educational achievement was restricted because of this policy Verdict: in a LANDMARK decision, the court under Chief Justice EARL WARREN declared: 39


The decision of the Supreme Court of 1896, that said ‘separate, but equal facilities’ were fine as long as they were equal was to be changed becauseSeparate facilities usually weren’t equal.

 Therefore, all schools were to be DESEGREGATED NB 1. This was a huge breakthrough and gave a huge boost in the fight for civil rights, because the highest, most respected court in the land, whose job it was to decide what the constitution said, had decided that segregation in schools was UNCONSTITUTIONAL / ILLEGAL. NB 2.This case only meant that schools should be desegregated, but the NAACP knew that if it took cases about segregation in cafes, buses etc to the Supreme Court it was likely to win.

Problems after Brown V Topeka • •

Brown V Topeka case did not say how integration should be carried out and only said it should take place at the ‘earliest possible speed’ Some areas began to de segregate

• •

Many states in the South took measures to keep schools segregated Southern states passed 450 laws to stop de-segregation of schools happening

• But in 1957 2.4 black southern children still went to segregated Jim Crow schools

Southern White Resistance & the murder of Emmet Till • • • • •

• • •

Southern states just refused to desegregate their schools. They argued, as they had done over slavery, that the STATES HAD THE RIGHT TO DECIDE the matter themselves. By 1956, in six southern states, not one black child was attending a school with white children. Violence, lynchings and beatings of black people, which had declined since the 1920s increased again. There were riots and bombings and even murders of NACCP supporters. This was to teach black people and their supporters that things were not going to change. In 1955, 14 year old Emmett Till, from Chicago in the North was brutally murdered, while staying with relatives in Mississippi. He was not used to southern ways and the extent of racism against black people. Unwisely he was cheeky to a young white woman and was murdered as a punishment. An ‘all white’ jury acquitted/found innocent those who were accused of the murder. NB However some good did come out of it. The effect of the murder, and the failure to punish those accused, focused the attention of the US and the world on the terrible injustice and violence that black people faced in the South. Emmet’s badly beaten body. His mother insisted he should have an open coffin so the world could see what the two men had done to her little boy. Pictured above before his beating.

Little Rock High school • Little Rock High school in Arkansas decided to allow 9 black students in

40


• In Sept 1957 led by Elizabeth Eckford the 9 students tried to enter the school but were stopped by the State Governor, Orval Faubus who ordered the National Guard to block their entry •

Faubus said there would be public ‘disorder’ if blacks tried to go to the school

I walked up to the guard who had let the white students in. When I tried to squeeze past him, he raised his bayonet and then the other guards closed in and they raised their bayonets. Somebody started yelling ‘Lynch her!’ I tried to see a friendly face somewhere in the mob. I looked into the face of an old woman and it seemed a kind face, but when I looked at her again she spat on me. They came closer, shouting, ‘No nigger bitch is going to get in our school! Get out of here!’ Elizabeth Eckford, aged 13

The next day Faubus removed the National Guard and the black students had to try and get past a vicious white crowd. They had to go home under police protection

• TV showed the events and embarrassed the USA around the world • President Eisenhower had to act. He sent in federal troops, the 101st Airborne division, to Little Rock to protect the black students for the rest of the school year • • •

Each of the 9 students had a personal guard from the 101st to follow them around school to protect them from the white students The next year Faubus closed down all schools in Arkansas just to prevent integration Many black and white students in Arkansas had no school for a year

• The schools in Arkansas opened in 1959 again after the Supreme Court ruled that schools must integrate. Significance • It involved the President –Civil Rights –could no longer be ignored • Federal (central) government would overrule the states if necessary • TV made US look bad, and oppressive like communist countries • Many Americans saw for the 1st time the racial hatred in the South • Blacks saw the courts alone were not enough to change America • It moderated some views held by white Americans at the time Little Rock was a victory for peaceful and very brave protest, although by 1960, only 2,600 black children, out of a total of 2 million went to mixed/integrated schools.

James Meredith Case • • • • • •

In 1962 the Supreme court forced Mississippi University to accept black student James Meredith The university did not want black students and stopped him from going to the university President Kennedy sent 320 federal marshals to escort Meredith to the campus There were riots, 2 people were killed, 166 marshals and 210 demonstrators were wounded Black activists called this ‘The Battle of Oxford’ 300 soldiers had to stay at the University till Meredith got his degree 3 years later

Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 41


Segregation on public transport had long been a problem for black Americans

She was sitting in the black seats, but when all the seats became full she was required by law to give up her seat to a white person and stand at the rear of the bus. She was arrested and fined $10. She was the local secretary of the NAACP which is why she was willing to stand up for herself. The local black community supported her by staging a 24 hour boycott of the buses (refusing to use them). This was so successful that they carried on until the bus company agreed to seat all passengers on a first come, first served basis. • It was in this struggle that a young black minister (religious preacher), MARTIN LUTHER KING (MLK), first made his name. He led the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) to keep the boycott going and improve race relations. • About 7,000 attended a rally where MLK made an inspirational speech • Black taxi companies helped people boycotting the buses, churches brought cars. Many drivers were harassed by the police. • Many blacks had to walk to work every day for 13 months. • The Montgomery White Citizens Council led the opposition it had 12,000 members including leading city officials. The bus company, backed by the mayor and most of the white community, refused to give in and things got nasty. The homes of leading black people were destroyed by fire bombs in 1956, including King’s home, where his wife and seven week year old baby narrowly escaped injury. In Feb 1956 90 people including Rosa Parks and MLK, but were arrested for leading an illegal boycott but were found guilty, but appealed successfully. The National press reported events and showed racial hatred in the South MIA took the issue of segregation to court.

• In December 1955, in MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, a 41 year old black woman, ROSA PARKS, refused the order of the driver to give up her seat to a white man. • • •

• • •

• In Nov 1956, the SUPREME COURT ruled that SEGREGATION ON BUSES was UNCONSTITUTIONAL / ILLEGAL. • •

In the end, 13 months after the boycott began, the bus company gave in. The boycott had been successful for 3 key reasons:  The peaceful protest was led by inspirational Martin Luther King.  Black people made up 75% of the bus company’s business.  The supreme court ruled segregation on buses was illegal in Nov 1956

What was the importance of the bus boycott? • • • • • • •

Showed if black people were united they could win Victory offered hope to those fighting for civil rights Showed NAACP was right to bring Brown v Topeka case Showed benefits of peaceful approach Showed blacks were able to organise themselves Brought King to the front of the movement and he gave the movement a clear moral stand Encouraged King to think about further action to get equality. 42


How were sit-ins used in the fight for equality? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The civil right movement gained attention because of Little Rock and Montgomery Bus Boycott Sit-in protests started in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960 In Feb 1960 4 black students walked into Woolworth store and demanded to be served at the whites only counter They were not served They remained seated at the counter till the shop closed The next day they went back with 27 more students The following day they went back with 80 students By the 5th day there was 300 students Some were arrested for trespass The students then boycotted shops in Greenboro which had segregated lunch counters Sales in these shops fell Eventually segregation was ended By Aug 1961 sit-ins had attracted out 70,000 people 3,000 people had been arrested. This was direct action

Freedom Riders

The supreme court decided in 1960 that bus stations should be integrated not segregated The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) wanted to test that decision and show how racist the South still was 1961 1st ‘Freedom ride’ when James Farmer the Director of CORE and 12 volunteers let Washington by bus to travel to New Orleans. The blacks used whites only facilities to make sure integration was taking place There was little trouble at the start of the ride But in Alabama, the bus was attacked and burnt, white racist beat up some of the freedom riders • In Montgomery white racists beat up Freedom riders • In Mississippi 27 Freedom riders from the Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) were jailed for 67 days for sitting in the whites-only section of the bus station • Birmingham, Alabama they were attacked by an angry mob, the police chief (‘Bull’ Conner) had given most of the police a day off. • More than 300 freedom riders were arrested in Jackson alone for using whites only facilities They were attacked by the KKK

• •

Violence was avoided in Mississippi when it was clear that President Kennedy would use marshals In September 1961 segregation was finally ended in bus stations / terminals

• • • • •

Martin Luther King’s contribution to the Civil Rights Movement • •

Dr Martin Luther King was a pastor/minister of a Baptist Church (a vicar) in Montgomery Alabama. His religious beliefs and unquestioning faith won him lots of support. He was never scared.

43


• •

He first got notices when he helped lead (MIA) and the MONTGOMERY bus boycott in 1955, after a black woman, Rosa Parks, had refused to give up her seat to a white man on the segregated bus system. During this fight the Supreme Court declared segregation on buses illegal. He had lots of energy and enthusiasm and inspired people

• King believed in the NON –VIOLENT, DIRECT ACTION, methods used by Gandhi in the 1940s to demand the British give India its independence. • He was one of the leaders of the SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIPCONFERENCE (SCLC), which was formed to co-ordinate protests against discrimination after the bus boycott. • Although there were several large Civil Rights groups that supported peaceful protest, King became the most well-known and the spokesperson of the

peaceful Civil Rights protest. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. MLK – 1951 Graduated with a degree in theology (religion) 1955 Led the bus boycott in Montgomery 1957 Formed and led the Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1963 ‘I have a Dream’ speech during March on Washington 1964 Winner of the Nobel Peace Price 1968 Assassinated in Memphis

In 1963 King led protests against discrimination in BIRMINGHAM ALABAMA. • The white population was violently resisting desegregation. • The city was nicknamed ‘BOMBINGHAM’ because of the violence used by the whites against the Civil Rights protestors. • In order to not to integrate parks, playgrounds, swimming pools Alabama simply closed them all led by police chief ‘Bull’ Conner • King and the SCLC led sit-ins and marches to argue for de-segregation . Nearly half the population of Birmingham was black. • King said at a rally it was better to accept jail than segregation

• King was arrested and jailed for his part in the protests.

• In Prison he wrote ‘a letter from Birmingham jail’ arguing for direction action and not waiting for desegregation • When King was released from prison students and children went on a protest

• Police used dogs and water hoses against the protestors • • • •

‘Bull’ Connor arrested 2,000 demonstrators and children TV showed these events across America and the world King got the publicity he wanted It showed violent authorities in the South attacking peaceful protestors

• •

President Kennedy got involved. Talks between King and City officials took place. On 9th May It was agreed that de-segregation of the city would take place in 90 days

• As a result of this violence Kennedy decided to bring in the Civil Rights bill •

Leader of the NAACP in Jackson, Mississippi was shot dead by a white sniper 44


MARCH ON WASHINGTON D.C 1963 • In 1963 he led the enormous Civil Rights MARCH ON WASHINGTON D.C., • Aim to keep Civil Rights in the media, and high profile he was worried that slow progress might lead to violence • NAACP, CORE, SCLC, SNCC all took part • Kennedy fearing violence asked them to call off the march • The march had about 250,000 people • The wanted to make sure the Civil Rights bill became law • The march took place on 28 Aug 1963 and was a great success • King gave his famous ‘I HAVE A DREAM’ SPEECH, predicting that one day equality for black people would become a reality. • •

In Sept 1963 4 blacks girls were killed in a bomb attack in Birmingham Kennedy was assassinated in 1963

The new president Johnson pushed

Civil

Rights Bill through congress and it became law in 1964 • •

However, civil rights bill did not guarantee blacks the vote. King held a non-violent campaign in Selma, Alabama

It was called ‘bloody Sunday’

• He organised a march from Selma to Birmingham Alabama • Marchers were attacked by the police As a result President Johnson called for a ‘Voting was passed in 1965 • Kings policy of non-violence had worked •

rights act’

this

• In 1964 he was awarded the NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.

• Martin Luther King was ASSASSINATED in 1968 on a visit to Memphis Tennessee. He was probably killed by a white racist. He was there supporting black rubbish collectors who were striking for equal treatment, the gap between blacks and whites was great in the North and the South. King wanted to help poor black American’s in the North

King’s non- violent methods were so important in helping getting black people Civil Rights for several reasons: • If they had used violence white racists could say that black people did not deserve to be given the rights that white citizens had.

45


• King’s peaceful methods made the white racists who attacked the peaceful black protesters look even worse. • His peaceful methods won him respect and support from abroad (international support) for rights for black people. The Nobel peace prize was recognition of this support. This INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT was CRUCIAL in putting pressure on the US government to do something about the inequality. • • •

After his death there was rioting across the country 3,000 were injured in violent clashes This was not what King would have wanted, seemed as if his work had been for nothing

What was the role and significance of Malcolm X? His Father was killed by white supremacists 1942 involved in drug dealing and pimping in New York 1946 sent to prison for burglary 1952 released from prison and became a follower of the Nation of Islam 1964 left Nation of Islam and formed Muslim Inc and the Organisation of Afro-American 1965 shot by 3 members of the Nation of Islam ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Unity

• For some in the civil rights movement progress had been too slow • They felt MLK methods would never bring real equality

• The Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) never accepted MLK ideas • They wanted ‘seperatism’ a separate black state • The black community should be separate from the white community and should not beg the white man for equality.

• The black community should educate itself, develop its own businesses, and build up its own community without the white man’s help. • Members did not want to use their ‘slave names’ so called themselves X • Malcolm X was their most famous member and a great speaker • • • •

He helped to increase membership to about 1000, 000 in the years 1952-64. He was a great organiser He travelled around the USA to gain more supporters He set up educational programmes aimed at black youths living in ghettos By 1960 70% of Nation of Islam members were aged 17-35

• He connected black Americans with their African roots • He got blacks to become Muslims, and spread Islam, he influenced Stokely Carmichael • Some members of the main civil rights movement did not like the Nation of Islam

• They felt Muslims had ‘white hating’ beliefs. A NAACP lawyer said they were a ‘bunch of thugs organised from prisons and financed by Arabs’

• Malcolm X criticised Martin Luther King. He called the march on Washington the ‘farce on Washington’ 46


• Malcolm X had a big impact on young black Americans in the cities

• He appealed more to the urban Black people of the Northern cities who could vote and were not segregated, but still were very poor and discriminated against

• He felt violence could be used in self-defence and to get a black nation • That black protestors should defend themselves and fight back when they were attacked. He believed in Black Power • However, after a visit to Mecca he changed his views and left the Black Muslims and set up Muslim Mosque Inc and the Organisation of Afro-American Unity to get closer links between black Americans and Africans • He saw Islam as the only way to solve racial problems • He pushed to end racial discrimination in the USA • He was assassinated by 3 black muslims in 1965

• Malcolm X views were taken up by more radical civil rights movements like Black Power and the Black Panthers • Some say he helped to raise blacks self-confidence and self-esteem more than anyone else However the successes achieved in the fight for Civil Rights can be as much attributed to people like Malcolm X as Martin Luther King. The peaceful approach showed how respectable black people were. The more aggressive approach showed black people would no longer put up with violence against them and this no doubt scared some white people / politicians in to action.

What was the role and significance of the Black Power Movement? • Despite the progress of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s many young blacks were frustrated • They lived in ghettos with high unemployment and poverty and they still faced discrimination • This frustration led to the Black Power movement • It aimed to increase the power of black people in American life • Black power movements believed in a different APPROACH to the peaceful Civil Rights movement. • The BLACK POWER movement rejected peaceful protest. Some black people, many of whom started in the peaceful civil rights movement, began to feel the peaceful approach would get black people nowhere. • They were also not prepared to let white policemen or white racists attack them and do nothing, and were prepared to use violence if violence was used against them. • Black power movements had different AIMS to the peaceful Civil Rights movement. • They saw King as begging the white man to be equal. • They emphasised pride in being black (“BLACK IS BEAUTIFUL”), • The building up of black institutions/organisations (schools, hospitals, newspapers, books, leisure activities) • In the end they wanted a separate black country within the USA i.e. they wanted to be totally SEGREGATED. They were going to do this on their own, not beg the white man for equality. • They were in favour of African dress and appearance

Stokely Carmichael

• Stokely Carmichael and others wanted blacks to reject white help and take responsibility for their own lives • Carmichael had an aggressive attitude • He had a degree • Took place in freedom rides

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• • • •

In 1966 was chairman of SNCC (student non-violent coordinating committee) 1966 got arrested for the 27th time and made a ‘Black Power’ speech 1968 joined Black Panthers 1969 left the USA and moved to Guinea

• The Black power movement got lots of publicity in the 1968 Mexico Olympics. o The winners of the 200 metres and the 400 metres relay wore part of the movements uniform – a single black glove and black beret – and also gave a clench fist salute when the US national anthem was played. o o o o o

Tommie Smith gave a right hand salute to show black power. He wore a black scarf to show black pride and black socks and no shoes to show black poverty in racist America John Carlos did a left hand salute to show black unity They got sent home for bringing politics into sport On their return to the USA they both got death threats An Australian Peter Norman wore a badge in support of them and did not get selected again for the Olympics

• As a result of the athletes’ actions the whole world was aware of the Black Power Movement

What was the role and significance of the Black Panther Movement? • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

At the same time as ‘Black Power’ the ‘Black Panthers’ arrived This party was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in 1966 Both men were influenced a lot by Malcolm X They wanted o Freedom – blacks to be in control of their own lives o Full employment for blacks o Decent housing o A good education which taught black history o Black men not to have to join the army o An end to police violence towards black people o To free blacks from prison o More backs to be on juries o Land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace They wanted a revolution They would join with radical white groups to remove those in power They wanted a more communist society They felt their fight was more about money and class than race They had uniforms and were prepared to use weapons Members got some military training By 1968 they had 5,000 members But due to splits in the movement and 27 Panthers being killed, 700 injured by the police in 1969 their support decreased They were constantly targeted by the FBI and the movement fell apart.

48


By the end of 1960 the civil rights movement had changed from a peaceful non-violent organisation to one dominated by gun carrying socialists (like communists) who had shoot outs with the police. King had been assassinated and there were nationwide riots

How Much Progress has been made by Blacks since 1960? • • • • • •

After 1963 several bits of law which aimed to ensure black equality Since 1960 there have been huge changes Increase in the number of black officials Increase in black politicians In 2008 the USA elected its first black president Black Americans have achieved success in sport, entertainment, media and writing

Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 important? Following the death of Kennedy, President Johnson passed the Civil Rights bill • • • • • •

Johnson needed a lot of political skill to pass the law There was shock following the death of Kennedy and this won sympathy for the bill Johnson also was able to win more support because he was a Southerner The civil rights act was seen by many as Johnson’s great achievement Others said it did not do enough and came too late Many whites in the south hated it and wanted to make it fail

The Civil Rights Act 1. Banned segregation in hotels, restaurants, lunch counters and theatres 2. States had to bring cases to court where there was still discrimination 3. Black students given equal rights to enter all public places and get the same government money (including schools) 4. Fair Employment Practices Committee was permanently established 5. The Act created the Equal employment Opportunity Commission to ensure the law was followed

Voting Rights •

In 1870 black men were given the right to vote but some states used things like unfair taxes and literacy tests to make sure they could not vote. The literacy tests were not a test of reading and writing but asked difficult maths and cultural questions most people would have found hard.

In 1962 the SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) staffed a government votes education project which helped increased the number of blacks who could pass the tests and vote. But many were still refused the right to vote. SNCC workers were harassed (beaten up, shot, churches bombed)

49


Blacks who did vote often got evicted and sacked

In 1965 MLK decided to organise a non-violent campaign in Selma to get blacks the vote. In Selma, Alabama only 383 blacks out of a possible 15,000 could vote

• •

There were 2 months of trying to register black voters, and being rejected King was arrested and beaten. 1 demonstrator was murdered

• King decided to hold a march from Selma to Birmingham to present a petition to Governor Wallace •

Governor Wallace banned the march

King went ahead with the march any case on March 7th

• The March was stopped on Edmund Pettus Bridge where marchers were stopped by Sheriff Clark’s police men and state troopers. The marchers faced tear gas, horses and clubs and were forced to turn back • This became known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ • This forced president Johnson’s hand • A second march took place 2 days later but there was no violence MLK turned the marchers back • Public opinion fully supported the marchers • President Johnson promised to pass a law to give all blacks the vote • On 21 March King led more than 25,000 people on the march – the biggest event ever seen in the South

The Voting Rights Act 1. Ended literacy tests 2. Central government could step in if less than 50% of voters were registered as it was assumed there was discrimination

The number of black voters increased rapidly (750,000 more had registered by 1968) The number of black politicians increased

• King’s policies of non-violence appeared to have worked • The law had been changed to end discrimination and ensure blacks could vote • There was widespread support from white Americans for civil rights In 1968 state laws banning inter-racial marriages were removed and 1968 Fair Housing Act banned discrimination in housing

However some groups (Black Power, Black Panthers, Nation of Islam were against MLK non-violent methods)

Why were there race riots in the 1960s? • Many young blacks were frustrated living in ghettos • Were angry at high unemployment, poverty and discrimination • There was still racism in US society •

The police were often racist 50


In Aug 1965 there was a race riot in Los Angeles involving 30,000 people o 34 were killed and 1,072 injured o 4,000 arrested o Caused $40,000 of damage There was riots across America in the following years

• In 1967 there were riots in 125 US cities o Newark 26 dead, 1,000 injured o Detroit 40 dead and 7,000 arrested

During 3 summers of riots more than 130 people were killed and damage cost more than $700 million

What was the extent of change and progress for black Americans? Politics • 2008 Barrack Obama elected president • In 1967 CARL STOKES became the first black mayor of a major city. Now across the country there are many black mayors • But there has been limited success in national politics • Colin Powell was the first black secretary of state Economics • Many black Americans live below the poverty line • They live in the poorest areas of cities • Go to the poorest schools • Many blacks find it hard to get a mortgage • In 1990 50% of all black children live in poverty • Blacks still earn about 80% of what whites earn Education • • • •

• • •

There was still opposition to integration after the Civil Rights Act Some states tried to make it happen by bussing students across racial divides But Nixon was against ‘bussing’ In 1978 in some cities there was hardly any racial mix in some schools

Many black Americans drop out of school Only 10% of black males have a degree compared to 20% of white males in 2000 But the situation is improving

Sport • Since 1960 there have been lots of black sporting heroes • Muhammad Ali – was world heavy weight champion- and possible the best boxer of all time • Carl Lewis, athlete, won 9 Olympic gold medals • Michael Johnson holds the record for the highest number of medals won by an athlete • Venus and Serena Williams have been successful in tennis • Tiger Woods became the 1st black American to win the Masters golf tournament Television • Bill Cosby was a popular star in the 1960s 51


• • •

1990s Will Smith was famous in the ‘Fresh Prince of Bel-Air’ Roots was a very popular TV series Oprah Winfrey had her own chat show and became one of the richest people in America

Cinema • Stars include Eddie Murphy, Samuel L Jackson, Morgan Freeman, Whoopi Goldberg, Denzil Washington, Music • 1960s Jackson Five, Supremes, the Four Tops, Stevie Wonder, Smokey Robinson • 1980s Michael Jackson – Thriller the biggest selling album of all time • Rappers like Ice T (accused of being violent in his lyrics with a ‘gangsta’ image – drug dealing, pimping, gang war – but some see it being linked to black lives) In the USA today there are some very successful and high profile black people. There are huge film stars like Will Smith who earn millions of dollars each year There are many successful black business men, lawyers and doctors i.e. a successful black middle class.

The Riots of Los Angeles 1992 • • • • • • • • • • • •

Rodney King a black man was caught for speeding by white police men He was beaten by the police and it was filmed on a home video camera The police were eventually put on trial but found innocent of any crime This caused riots across Los Angeles as blacks felt the legal system was unfair The army was needed to restore order 53 people were killed, 2,383 injured and 9,000 arrested 7,000 fires started in the city Damages cost $1 billion Under Reagan and Bush there had been cuts in black job training and black housing They felt presidents did not want to tax white Americans to help black Americans In 1990 50% of all black children live in poverty Black infant mortality is 19% higher than in some developing countries

How Successful has the Civil Rights movement been for black people? Successes: 1. Supreme Court Success: After the Brown case of 1954 in which the Supreme Court ordered desegregation of schools, the Court supported desegregation 52


2. Laws passed to make black people LEGALLY EQUAL to white people. In the Presidency of Lyndon Johnson, Crucial laws/legislation was passed to protect black civil rights. a) Civil Rights Act 1964: banned segregation in public places e.g. bus stations. b) Voting Rights Act 1965: black people’s right to vote was protected, c) Civil Rights Act 1968: made it illegal to discriminate in jobs, housing etc.

Failures Of the Civil Rights Movement: •

Despite the huge success of some black people who have become stars and the many more successful members of the black middle class; despite the fact that the Supreme Court and Civil Rights Laws make black people equal;

• MOST BLACK PEOPLE ARE STILL IN THE POOREST THIRD OF US SOCIETY. • IN 1990 THE AVERAGE INCOME OF A BLACK FAMILY WAS LESS THAN HALF THAT OF THE AVERAGE WHITE FAMILY • THE GOVERNMENT CANNOT STOP PRIVATE DISCRIMINATION e.g. a white person finding an excuse not to give a black person a job. • DESPITE THE LAWS TO PROTECT THEM, BLACK PEOPLE STILL FACE DISCRIMINATION WHEN TRYING TO RENT OR BUY A HOUSE AND EDUCATION STANDARDS ARE NOT EQUAL.

Answering the Essay question In many ways, black people’s lives did change significantly by 1990. Perhaps the biggest change was With questions which carry the most marks, there are usually “two sides to the story.” By this, I mean there the move away from segregation. President Eisenhower used soldiers to protect black schoolchildren at are usually the good side and the bad side. Little Rock Arkansas in 1957. In 1962, James Meredith was protected by troops sent by President Kennedy. Montgomery bus boycott which ended with a ruling that segregation on Alabama buses was The best way to tackle these questions is to write two paragraphs. Do the “good” side first. Then cover the illegal in 1956. In 1961, CORE organised the “freedom rides” which ended all segregation on buses, “bad” side. rail stations and airports. Martin Luther King led non violent protests, sit ins and marches 1962-1965 against segregation in public places. The 1964 Civil Rights Act banned racial discrimination in Here is a typical question: employment and black people received equal rights to enter all public places. The 1965 Voting Rights Did for discrimination black peopleover change between and 1990? Actlife stopped votingsignificantly and an Act of 1968 made 1929 discrimination in housing illegal. (10 marks) By 1990, there were many black mayors in major towns, the Rev. Jesse Jackson even stood for President in 1984 and Colin Powell was in the highest military job in 1989. The 1970s “black is Sample answer beautiful” movement made many people proud to be black. Black actors (Sidney Poitier, Eddie Murphy, Will Smith), sportspeople, (Carl Lewis, Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods and entertainers First sentence linksAretha to wording in title. paragraphs deals with the good side. (Michael Jackson, Franklin) haveFirst achieved world recognition. Howeverpoints by 1990, people still faced unfairness. Some areas did not have schools with a balance Different areblack backed up with detail. of black and white pupils and equal standards in education had not been achieved. Most black people Final paragraph deals with the bad side. or rent houses still found discrimination. The average income of black families was less Atrying rangetoofbuy different points is given. than half that of white people. Black people felt more likely to be treated unfairly by the police. Ends with brief sum up. So, a great deal of progress had been made but even today there is still some way to go before there is true equality.

53


How did the lives of black Americans change between 1929 and 2000? You may wish to discuss the following • The position of blacks in the 1930s • The impact of WWIII • The civil rights movement • Progress made by black Americans by 2000 • Any other relevant factors

Grade D During the 1930s the position of black Americans was not good. They were segregated from the white Americans in almost everything they did, they were hated by the KKK and any other white activists and many were unemployed. African-American children were not allowed to attend the same schools as white children, many went to schools which had no heating, their windows were smashed in and buildings were in disrepair. Things started to look up for black Americans during WWII when the first black American airmen called the Tuskegee Airmen were praised for never losing a plane. 54


Another turning point was the Civil Rights Movement in which the likes of Martin Luther King demonstrated using sit-ins, marches and bus boycotts in order for black Americans to gain more civil rights. The civil rights movement was successful in helping the lives of black Americans improve because schools were integrated, buses were de-segregated and more and more black American people were getting jobs. Life for black Americans were improving and many black Americans were becoming famous like Vanessa Williams who became the first African-American Miss America in 1983. More African-American famous people who came into the spotlight are Michael Jackson and the Jackson Five, and actors such as Denzel Washington and Samuel L Jackson and today Barrack Obama is a black president of America. • • • • • • •

The essay lacks depth The essay does not cover the whole period There is no introduction or conclusion The is a reasonable sense of change over time It touches on all the key points in the scaffold provided There is no sense of big changes and small changes Written communication is reasonable

Grade A* Under the constitution of the USA, all Americans are equal but a loophole in the law allowed the southern states to segregate black from whites on the basis that separate was equal. The Jim Crow laws segregated black Americans in public life. The KKK was still active and the Depression in the 1930s hit black Americans hardest because they were poor, not because they were black. Some migrated north in search of a better life where there was no segregation. When the USA entered the war in 1941, many blacks enlisted in the armed forces while others worked in factories but racism continued on the fighting and home fronts. Membership of the NAACP increased. In the 1950s the issue of education highlighted the problem. The Brown v Topeka case was a victory and made segregation illegal but by the end of 1956 there were no black children attending integrated schools. Black students were admitted to Little Rock School after the President got involved, yet by 1960 only 2,500 out of 2 million black children were attending integrated schools in the state of Arkansas. When Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery in 1955, the Civil Rights Movement took a dramatic turn. Martin Luther King’s leadership in the boycott led to a historic victory as segregation was made illegal on buses. Martin Luther King’s programme of peaceful protest culminated in the famous ‘I have a dream’ speech in front of 250,000 black and white supporters in Washington in 1963. However, some black Americans became frustrated at the slow pace of change and rejected King’s passive, Christian approach and turned to the Nation of Islam, advocating violence and a separate black state with the USA. Led by Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael, many black youths turned to the Black Panthers. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 together with subsequent changes to the law should have ended discrimination – but did it? Change has come about but the pace of change has been uneven for different groups of society. There have been gains and losses. In 1984 the Rev Jesse Jackson stood for president and throughout the 70s and 80s blacks made steady gains in academic achievement greatly increasing the size of the black middle class. In 1983 President Reagan set up a national holiday on 20 Jan as Martin Luther King Day. In the armed 55


forces Colin Powell became chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and played an important role in the Gulf War. On TV Bill Cosby made a massive success with the Cosby show, which was the first programme to show a well off middle class black family. In music Michael Jackson album ‘Thriller’ became a best seller of all time. However, the Reagan presidency did see a reversal in the fortunes of many black Americans. In 1990 the average wage of a black family was less than half of the average of a white family. By 1999 the average income of African American families was $33,000 compared with $55,000 for European Americans. Change has occurred for black Americans but its pace has varied and its impact has not been universal. • • • • • • • • • • •

Informed paragraph about the lack of progress in the 1930s Shows major changes in the 1950s and 60s There is an attempt to differentiate the degree of success Goes beyond 1960 with clear reference to success / lack of success in the 1980s /1990s The answer is structured and paragraphed Provides an overview of the main developments Clear attempt to address the issue of change Recognition of the varying impact of change The last paragraph attempts a judgement Good quality of written communication Good factual detail is added

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USA 1929-2000