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Al Saud SAYS

Second Gulf War

An overview of the

Dec, 21 2003 3.21



OUR Involvement: Jake Hayles Saudi Arabia was a centerpiece in the Gulf War of 1991. It served as a base for the coalition forces and helped turn the morale from bad to good towards their chances of victory in Iraq. Saudi Arabia knew it held oil that would serve valuable for both Iraq and the United States, but the United States was using legal means such as buying the oil, instead of the threat of invading. The threat against Saudi Arabia from Iraq caused the United States and United Nations to take action. Saudi Arabia provided somewhere around 200,000 troops in the 900,000 troop strong coalition army, along with serving as a central base for the coalition forces and was defended so well because of her vast wealth of oil. Many would argue that this war would not have been won if it had not been for Saudi Arabia's strategic military location, contribution directly to the fighting, and the vast amounts of oil that it held. Our country would not have been involved with the war if it did not border Kuwait, but the buildup of the Iraqi army in Kuwait made the United States and the United Nations nervous. The strategic and economic importance of Saudi Arabia meant that we had to be protected, so the U.S. sent in 200,000 troops. The United States and Saudi Arabia had a long history of trading and buying oil, so the U.S. was more inclined to defend us right off the bat. Our leaders and people were concerned or even outraged because women serving in the U.S. armed forces wore shorts and t-shirts, which goes against the laws of modesty. After looking at the situation, it was decided that we had to accept their assistance because the Iraqi army did not look like it was going to stop any removing a force that could have destroyed the world as we know it. time soon, and the Americans along with the rest of the coalition formed the most powerful fighting

force in the world. Secondly, Saudi Arabia contributed a large amount of supplies, troops, and time to the fight to defend its sovereignty and to liberate Kuwait from the puppet regime Iraq had installed. Of the 900,000 troops or so of the coalition army, Saudi Arabia contributed over 200,000 of them. They also provided over 500 tanks and 100 aircraft. Besides the material things, Saudi Arabia had great use for the coalition army, because of it closeness to the war and the fact the country served basically as a base for them throughout the entire war. Saudi Arabia also contributed to the morale of the coalition troops; after coming over seas, they saw that they were ready to fight by contributing over 200,000 men and other material things to help fight the war. If the coalition troops had come over and seen a country that did not want to fight for its own safety, the troops would not have been nearly as inspired to fight. Lastly, Saudi Arabia had and has a huge share of the oil industry. If the Iraqi army had succeeded in their supposed invasion of Saudi Arabia, along with Kuwaiti oil, Iraq would have been holding over 60 percent of the much needed commodity. This would have allowed them to essentially control the entire industry, increasing or decreasing supply at whim. They also would have become a world superpower overnight. World leaders realized this, and were quick to act to the aggression asserted on Kuwait and the aggression that was being threatened upon Saudi Arabia. The vast oil reserves, gave world leaders more of a reason to defend Saudi Arabia and to stop the Iraqi regime from doing any more damage. Many would argue that this war would not have been won if it had not been for Saudi Arabia's strategic military location, contribution directly to the fighting, and the vast amounts of oil that it held. The United States and other countries realized that if Iraq did get a hold of both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, the world would be at its mercy. Saudi Arabia served as a military base, along with boosting the morale of coalition troops and providing 200,000 soldiers. By supporting and housing the coalition, Saudi Arabia was essential in removing a force that could have destroyed the world as we know it. Left: A tank in the desert


Push and Pull: Zach Mouw

Kuwait and the Gulf Saudi Arabia was not only a major worldwide topic but a major economical participant in the Persian Gulf War. Kuwait, the Middle Eastern country that is stuck in between Iraq, our north-east border, and the Persian Gulf, was occupied by Iraq's military forces led by Saddam Hussein on August second, 1991. This unjustified move by Hussein instantly caught the eye of the whole world. America, Britain, and other UN and Middle Eastern Countries formed an anti-Iraq coalition, all were offering to protect Saudi Arabia and use its land for a counter invasion. Saudi Arabia was pushed into involvement in an affair to stop the advance of Iraq's territory and economy, and keep the Saudi people free. The first reason that Saudi Arabia was pulled into the Gulf War was to stop the aggression of Iraq from a military standpoint. All of the countries that offered to help the our military had been involved in World War Two, such as Britain and the United States, and realized that the situation was very similar to pre-WWII politics. Saddam Hussein's Iraq was being compared to Adolf Hitler's Germany because both had a large military and both were land and power hungry. The aggressive acts of Hitler were allowed to happen by other superpowers, giving him more reason to start a huge war. In the Gulf War, Iraq's aggression was dealt with the opposite actions, instantly seeing international opposition because of the knowledge other world leaders had of the situation. Saudi Arabia was vital to the world because of its ability t o be the stage for a possible World War Three. The American led coalition put Saudi Arabia into the action of the war to contain the violence

in the Middle East. Also, Saudi Arabia had to be involved in the conflict is to prevent its oil from falling into Saddam Hussein's hands. If Hussein gained control of the Saudi Arabian oil fields he would have a world-wide monopoly on the oil industry, having around 65 percent of the known oil on earth. With this advantage, there are several possibilities for Iraq to become a dominant world power. Every other country in the world's economy and military depends on oil production and use, therefore Hussein could make any power's economy suffer by refusing to sell them oil. If another worldwide war started, Iraq would be put at a huge advantage due to their seemingly unlimited oil supply. Other unstable Middle Eastern countries would be eager to spark a conflict against Iraq that could eventually develop into a full fledged war. If Saddam Hussein was responsible for that much oil, it could affect every corner of the world in a negative way. The final reason that we became involved in the Persian Gulf War was simply for the safety of its people and government. If the Saudi leaders had not chosen to let the coalition, but Al-Queda, who had also contacted the government, protect the country then Iraq would almost certainly continue from Kuwait into Saudi Arabia. If that were to happen, the much undersized Saudi military would have no chance against the million plus personnel in the army that Saddam Hussein had built from the first Persian Gulf War against Iran. Our freedom, the threat of Iraq's expanding territory, and Iraq's quest to control massive amounts of oil all pushed or pulled Saudi Arabia into the second Persian Gulf War. Saudi Arabia helped to defeat Iraq by exerting some of its economic power and supporting and being supported by the coalition forces. It is due to this that we now enjoy our oil driven wealth and our strong standing in Middle Eastern and international affairs.


Progress in the Face of Adversity: Ryan Berg The Second Gulf War, or Persian Gulf War, as it is known to western civilization, began in 1990 and sent shock waves through the world. Twelve years after the birth of this conflict repercussions are still manifested into the societies of countless nations. Saudi Arabia knows well the cost of war, as we are still trying to recover from our involvement in the previously mentioned campaign against Iraq. Overcoming the obstacles left in the wake of the Gulf War, such as the Gulf Oil Spill and our dependence on oil sales as a main source of revenue, a limit on the industrialization of our nation, and adapting to the presence of United States forces are all being faced by the population of Saudi Arabia as we speak. The nation’s oil dependence was not material until the start of the war. From 1991 to 1997 our economy was under great stress, and consequently we were forced to exploit the most valuable natural resource at our disposal, oil. While oil may have helped to generate a steady flow of revenue in our nation, it also led to a biological catastrophe of epic proportions. The Gulf Oil Spill was the main cause of a large loss of marine life. This loss of life led to a decrease in the gross domestic product of seafood, caught by local fisherman and imported and exported across the Middle East. The result was an even weaker economy that was more dependent on oil than it had previously been. Prior to 1991, our country was in the process of growth and development. Major cities were sprouting up or being renovated. These oases became a very important step in moving higher into the ranks of industrialized nations across the globe. When the Second Gulf War began our nation became hard pressed for money and our involvement in the conflict slowed the expansion

of our cities. Even now we are just barely beginning to grow at the rate that we had before the war began. The development programs put into effect now will help to boost the economy and provide jobs for numerous citizens of our nation. One of the largest transitions for our people was adapting to the presence of United States servicemen and women. Our bilateral diplomatic relationship with the United States has had its share of issues, but it appears that with every conflict that passes we only grow stronger. The U.S. showed great support during the Second Gulf War by allowing us to purchase large stockpiles of weapons such as F-16 fighter jets and tanks. The large amount of troops sent to protect against invasion at the beginning of the war was a large step in the right direction as far as growing relations, although many suspect the United States was only looking to move into the oil fields and protect their place in the oil market. We were also assisted by the United States when they constructed a large training center to prepare troops for conflict. Since the ending of the Second Gulf War in 1991 our nation has faced unspeakable hardships and has struggled to revive itself to its former glory. In the years after the war our country has been forced to take on the repercussions left by the Gulf Oil Spill, our oil dependency, a limit on the growth in the industrial sector, and growing accustomed to the presence of United States forces. Thankfully the strength of the people and the determination of our leaders has enabled our country to better itself and retain the glory and strength of its former self .

A jet over Saudi Arabia


Bibliography Zach •

Jake •

Ryan •

Saudi Arabia