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American Conflict, Late 19th and Early 20th The backbreaking build: The true Century construction of the Panama Canal Pg. 8

Mexican Revolution: Wilson not thinking Imperialism in China and Japan: U.S. not kids anymore Pg. 6

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Hawaiian Annexation: Taking control of Hawaii 1 August 1917

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Interview with Liliuokalani The 18th century was a time where established countries were trying to obtain land, and make their country better. This is the same with the United States, in that we obtained Hawaii as our fiftieth state. But it really wasn’t all that simple, and I’m here today showing you a interview from 1912 with former Queen of Hawaii, Liliuokalani. She will be telling us all about how it happened, from the background of the Hawaiian people and how the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown to her reign as queen.

Q- “Liliuokalani, would you care to tell me about the history of your islands, and how American people came to Hawaii?” A- “I would be delighted. Chief Kamehameha united all 8 islands, and started a monarchy, that my brother and I became leader of. You Americans started to come in the early 1870’s, when missionaries from the United States came to Hawaii to commit us to Christianity. The missionaries settled down and started to farm the land, and became sugarcane farmers. My brother, Kalakaua, did not like them, as they brought diseases that we had no immunity Queen Liliuokalani; former queen of Hawaii. to, and killed many of our people. You dirty Americans also started to control our economy, and brought slaves in from Japan, China, and Philippines to work for you. My brother decided that it was time for the Hawaiian people to come back into power. He said, ‘Do not be led by foreigner; they had no part in our hardships, in gaining the country. Do not be led by their false teachings.’ He allied with the native landowners to strengthen the economy, and passed an act that sugar could enter the United States; tax free. The act greatly boosted our economy, and gained the sugarcane farmers a lot of money. The money gave them power triggered them to have a desire to take over our government.”

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Q- “How exactly did the US overthrow your monarchy?” A- “Well, it didn’t start off with the US just coming in and taking over, it started with a group of small business men, from Hawaii, who started a league called the Hawaiian League, with the sole purpose to overthrow the monarchy and start a democracy with the United States. They held my brother at gun point in the July of 1887, and forced him to pass a constitution that restricted the vote of the Hawaiian people. He called it the Bayonet Constitution. My brother was also forced to give up Pearl Harbor, giving US warships a permanent port. The Americans had obtained full control over Hawaii and revoked the sugar treaty so that sugarcane farmers in the United States could make more money. The sugarcane planters in Hawaii figured the only way that their businesses could continue to make money, was to annex with the US. They secretly started to talk with US officials about annexing Hawaii.” Q-“So, what did your rein as queen have to do with all of this?” A- “Well, I took over for my brother in 1891, when he died. My primary goal was to repeal the Bayonet Constitution. Also, to restore power back to the Hawaiian government. I revealed my plans to the public, and the same business men who overthrew my brother, plotted to overthrow me.” Sanford B. Dole president of the republic of Hawaii

Q- “How did the business men do that?”

A- “It wasn’t exactly the Hawaiian League that did it; it was the American minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens. Without authorization, he sent four boatloads of United States marines to my palace and made me surrender my power. The rebel sugar planters, who had secretly talked to the United States about annexing Hawaii, nominated a new president in place of me. His name was Sanford B. Dole, a sugarcane tycoon. I myself think that he is the scum of the earth for taking my place.”

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Q- “What did Sanford do in order to annex Hawaii?”

A- “I believe he claimed that Hawaii was under United States protection, and began to speak with the United States about annexation. The president at the time denied Sanford’s offer to annex, and ordered an investigation of how Sanford became the president of Hawaii. He found out about what had happened, and ordered him to step down and give me back my power, but he refused. Thus ending the possibility of annexation, until the next president, William McKinley, became president. He favored the annexation very much, and congress agreed to annex Hawaii. In 1898, Hawaii became a US territory.” The 18th century was a time where American acquired one of its most important assets. Hawaii provided a great military base, and a source of money for the Americans. Even if American did not acquire control over Hawaii in a righteous way, it still means a lot to us in the past and in the present day. -By Collin Zweifel and Josh Malik

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Imperialism Good or Bad? How would you feel if a foreign power came into your country and forced you to live how they tell you? This is an example of imperialism. Imperialism is expanding a nation into an unwilling territory, sometimes by force. The are different kinds of imperialism: cultural imperialism, where something such as a religion or lifestyle is forced upon a country, political imperialism, where laws are forced upon a country, and economic imperialism, where a country will set up trade routes or by force take natural resources from an unwilling country in order to get resources needed. Economic imperialism was most apparent in the imperialism of China and Japan. In the late 1800's, the U.S. wanted Japan to open their docks to American Ships and set up trade routes. Japan, being isolated for almost two centuries by this time, was hesitant and somewhat resisting. So in July, 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry led four large black ships into Tokyo Bay and anchored there. The Japanese had never seen steam powered boats before and realized that they were in no position to defend themselves. In March, the same year, Japan and America signed a treaty allowing American boats to dock and buy supplies from Japanese port, as well as bring peace and friendship between the U.S. and Japan. The U.S. also played a part in the imperialism in China. China was strict about trading with others until around the 1840's when America and other countries were allowed more access to trade into China. Eventually, European powers had set up their own sphere of influence, an area where another country controls trade and resources, in China. America was late and unable to set up a sphere of influence in China, so secretary of state, John Hay, proposed the Open Door Policy in 1899, which would allow all countries equal access to trade with China. This act was approved in March, 1900. Also in 1900, a group of antiforeigner Chinese, known as the boxers, attacked the capital city of Beijing. Western countries, including the U.S., sent in troops to resolve the situation. This act by the Chinese was known as the Boxer Rebellion.

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Pros of imperialism in Japan and China Treaty- Pro for America- The treaty that the U.S. and Japan signed opened two docks for American ships so buy supplies and trade. The treaty also provided help by the Japanese to those shipwrecked along the Japanese coast. Industrialization- Pro for Japan- Japan's army was weak and this new correspondence with America allowed them to modernize their cities along with their army. Peace and Friendship- Pro for U.S. and Japan- With this new treaty and the trade that had been set up, the U.S. and Japan were seemingly allied and the relations between them were friendly. Trade and Resources- Pro for U.S.- Thanks to the Open Door Policy, America was trading with China and benefiting from its naturally resources.

Cons of imperialism in Japan and China Power struggle- Con for China- With the U.S. and other western countries all having access to trade with China now, China struggled to keep power over the other, more powerful countries. Antiforeigner- Con for China- The Boxers were outraged with the new trade with other countries which led to the Boxer Rebellion. Competition- Con for U.S.- The U.S. was constantly competing with foreign countries for trade routes and natural resources in China. -By Josh Malik and Collin Zweifel

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What Lies Beneath the Surface of the Panama Canal? Transportation by way of water is a necessity in today's time. Goods used everyday would not be attainable and naval ships would have difficulty protecting America without the Panama Canal. This project all began with France in the 1880s. France's first attempt to build a passageway connecting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans failed, and the French also left the Colombian area untouched. President Roosevelt learned of the open land and planned to do everything in his power to build the canal under the American name. The United States used their resources to aid Panamanians in their revolution. With a newly independent country, a treaty finally signed in 1903, and a fresh area to use, building could proceed. As simple as it sounds, the actual construction of the canal was anything but sweet. Working conditions and pay were rough, but nothing could compare to the general living state workmen were forced to withstand. The technological advances made possible by the Panama Canal came at a high cost. France had previously constructed a canal in Egypt in 1869, and had their sights set on the Panama area. Another canal was to be built, and work began in the 1880s. However, disease, Cartoon of Teddy Roosevelt earthquakes, and loss of money took their toll, leaving the French no choice. They ceased construction, and the Colombian area was left untouched for fifteen years. This land still belonged to France, and the country was intending to keep it that way. When President Roosevelt was elected in 1901, he saw the opportunity at hand. Expecting the Colombians to agree, Secretary of State John Hay compiled the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty that gave the United States the area to permanently use the land needed to build the canal. When the senate in Colombia did not accept the treaty, Roosevelt decided to support Panama’s planned revolution to gain their independence. This "support” included funding from our country and a naval ship was sent to patrol the area. With no surprise, Panama was able to declare their independence just a short time after this bloodless revolution began. In order for America to begin construction, a deal was to be made with the Republic of Panama. The hopeful canal zone cost 10 million dollars upfront, along with 250,000 dollars annually. French territory was also to be overtaken, so France was paid 40 million dollars. Roosevelt was able to obtain the land he needed by getting the treaty signed, but the canal itself was not so easily built. Canal construction was a long, and grueling process. Worker’s hardships were far too great, especially if you were of West Indian descent. These men were in charge of handling, testing, and launching dynamite used to blast away unneeded soil and rock layers. Accidents were frequent and these innocent yet daring souls were common victims. seems harsh, those who were able to survive faced constant struggles. 8


If a mistake was made, the blacks were punished severely, whether their fault or not. Railroads were built to transport supplies and new workers. The transportation convenience was vital, but railroad accidents were numerous and often fatal. Death was taken so lightly that funerary trains passed through to collect lifeless bodies. Though dying Workmen at Panama Canal were faced with obstacles that threatened their happiness, progress, and in some cases their lives. Rain and other weather setbacks slowed construction. The lack of materials and people to work did not make building quicker either. Fighting off diseases was a major task. Yellow fever and malaria were running high. Hiring doctors to try and eliminate these outbreaks of sicknesses was not an easy task. Sanitary living quarters were nearly impossible to come by due to the immense number of workers. Conditions were so intolerable that within the first year of construction nearly all of the skilled laborers quit. The years of building to follow, were just as atrocious. The building of the canal itself lasted nearly ten years, and the waterway was opened to the public in 1914. France had previously owned land, and Roosevelt’s selfish reasons for building the canal cost Colombia the Panama area. Their independence was gained, but Roosevelt issued Panamanians money and a group of U.S. soldiers patrolled the area. Colombia had no chance to win. That was only the beginning of the United State’s problems. When America was given the right to permanently use the isthmus to build on, the workmen hired faced immense hardships such as disease, lack of food, unsanitary living conditions, and racial discrimination. These horrid times are often buried underneath the convenience of the Panama Canal, though without the hard work, this waterway would be non-existent. -By Melissa Weinstein and Mackenzie Carlson

Ships going through Panama Canal

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The Spanish American War The Spanish American War was a simple and easy victory for the United States of America. The war was fought mainly in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines all which were owned by Spain. It officially lasted seven months and was a very easy victory for the U.S. Thousands of brave soldiers fought for our country in this war including the Rough Riders who were led by Theodore Roosevelt. The Wilson Gorman Tariff, Cuban revolts, the USS Maine, The Enrique De Lome Letter, The Rough Riders, The Battle of Manila Bay, and The Battle of San Juan Hill were all important factors in the Spanish American War. In 1894, the Wilson Gorman Tariff was passed. This tariff put restrictions on sugar imports to the U.S. This tariff hurt Cuba’s economy and was the beginning of an up rise. A Spanish colony called the insurrectors started to revolt against Spanish regime. This was later called the Cuban Insurrection. To control these up rises Spain sent the cruel General “Butch” Weyler to stop revolts. Weyler than proceeded to put lots of the Cuban population in concentration camps. This uproar scared the American people but president McKinley trying to maintain peace, promised he would not go to war. In light of the events the U.S. sent a friendly ship the USS Maine to Cuba. The ship’s purpose was to rescue any Americans that were put at risk by this horrible conflict that was inflicted by the Spanish.On February 15, 1898 the Spanish blew up the USS Maine killing 260 American sailors. This enraged many more Americans but President McKinley still tried to maintain the peace but hope for peace seemed lost at this point. Remember the Maine was a popular phrase among supporters to go to war against Spain. Despite McKinley's relentless efforts to maintain peace the Spanish finally pushed him overboard. A letter written on February 9th, 1898 by Enruque de Lome Spain’s minister to the U.S., finally pushed McKinley overboard. The letter fell into the hands of a Cuban spy and it documented President McKinley as weak and catering to the rabble. This was maybe the worst insult thrown at the United States in its history. President McKinley demanded that Spain grant Cuba its independence, and when Cuba refused, the US reluctantly declared war on Spain. One of the most famous and best group of soldiers in the war were the Rough Riders. The Rough Riders were a volunteer cavalry under the command of Theodore Roosevelt. These men were a mixed group of soldiers that included Ivy League athletes, Texas Rangers, and Native Americans. The Rough Riders had a very instrumental role in the Battle of San Juan Hill. Theodore Roosevelt received the Medal of Honor for his efforts during the war.

Political Cartoon of Teddy Roosevelt

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A notorious battle in the war was Dewey and his fleet attacking the Manila Bay in the Philippines. General Dewey was ordered to attack the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay if war was to breack out between the Spanish and the Americans. When war did indeed breack out that is just what he did. On May 1st, 1898, Dewey’s fleet attacked the Spanish fleet harbored in the bay. The battle went about 2 hours and the Americans then took a break because of reports of low ammunition. When they learned the report was false they went back into battle and were soon able to sink the old fashioned fleet of wooden ships by noon. In the end around 400 Spaniards died but not one American life was lost. Another famous battle was the Battle of San Juan Hill. The goal of the U.S. was to capture the port city of Santiago. On June 1st, US soldiers marched up the hill at El Caney and took the hill within four hours. On the very same day 8,000 very brave US soldiers were able to take control of the ridge above Santiago by nightfall. The Rough Riders were involved in this battle and six Buffalo Soldiers and two Rough Riders including Roosevelt received the Medal of Honor for their actions in this battle. Two days later the, U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba. Then two weeks after the sinking Spanish troops in Cuba surrendered. Soon after Cuba surrendered U.S. forces defeated the Spanish military in Puerto Rico. Soon after on December tenth 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed and the war was over. In the aftermath of the war Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the pacific island of Guam to America. The U.S. also bought the Philippines from Spain for 20 million dollars. The U.S. allowed all of these nations to become their own independent colonies. From the blowing up of the USS Maine to The Battle of San Juan Hill that is how the United States of America achieved victory in The Spanish American War. -By Thomas Parker and Melissa Weinstein

Battle in Spanish American War

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That wasn’t very intelligent At this moment in time, there are soldiers in Mexico. For a reason that isn't a good one. A reason that is selfish and criminal. The United States of America has had involvement with the country of Mexico for awhile. With it's vast resources and wealthy people, having Mexico as an ally and friend has helped America. President Wilson's reaction to the attack on Columbus, New Mexico, is a terrible mistake for many reasons including the economic help from the country of Mexico, the instability of the Mexican government, and the way it will affect the American people. Negativity is the only way to look at an invasion of a country. Nothing good can come out of something so poor thought out and planned. Mexico has many things America wants and needs. One of the biggest things is land. America wants to expand it's borders. Giving the United States more power in the world and even more natural resources. The land Mexico is in possession of is full of riches that have yet to be found and are already giving wealth to the Mexican government, wealth we could have. There are also many plantations that have wealthy people and farming included. With these rich people, American's can form trusts and bonds with them. Expanding American companies and getting the American name into foreign country in a correct and respectful way. Starting in 1910, Mexico has been going through a revolution. First, when the dictator said Mexico was ready for a democracy. This caused the first "real election" with Diaz, the dictator, and Madero, a constitutionalist. Diaz having the power and, not wanting to lose it, rigged the election. To the dismay of Diaz, Madero's words had already been spoken throughout Mexico, and a revolution had been called. Declaring himself president. At this point in time the Mexican people thought life would be alright. They were wrong. The worst had not even started. Madero's reign came to an end when his comrade Huerta fought for the rebels. The rebels, who were commanded by Diaz, won a 10 day battle, which captured and eventually killed Madero. After the battle, Huerta became the president. Yet, someone else wanted the seat of power, Carranza, leader of the Constitutional Army, who had more allies in the nation for support. In August 1915, Carranza became president. All of these things, do not give much hope for Americans in Mexico. Anything could happen to them keeping them there for a longer period of time. Pancho Villa, invaded Columbus, New Mexico. This raid killed 16 American people. This stopped the United States from sending our exports to the Mexican government. Stopping these exports, loses American dollars, for American companies. Not only does this lose our money, it loses our people. President Wilson has sent troops into Mexico. This move, will lose American lives, bringing trouble to a fledgling friendship. Because of these loses, different groups of people have started to send help across the border. 13


Church groups and Women's groups have been sent to help the American and Mexican armies. This sends our supplies, resources, and people to a dangerous place when they could be helping a true American cause. In conclusion, many things make President Wilson's decision a bad one, including the United States interest in Mexico, the bad state of the Mexican government, and how it will affect the people of the United States. President's Wilson made a rash decision that was not thought out enough for the good of America. -By Mackenzie Carlson and Thomas Parker

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Bibliography Panama Canal -Melissa http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5 http://primarysourcenexus.org/2011/09/today-in-history-0907/ http://panamacanalmuseum.org/index.php/timeline/detail/the_american_era__roosevelt_and_the_panama_canal_treaty/ -Mackenzie http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/trpanama/ http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/american.html Pictures http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=tablet-androidasus&action=devloc&q=panama+canal+buliding+political+cartoon&v=132203673 &um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=NaEdT4uxL8jK2AX44f GhCw&biw=1280&bih=800&sei=OKEdT5nHMeGr2AX60PX_Cw http://www.google.com/search?pq=panama+canal+buliding+conditons&hl=en&q e=cGFuYW1hIGNhbmFsIGdyYW5kIG9wZW5p&qesig=fgq0u5MLZ4F_1YFZDxsEmQ &pkc=AFgZ2tlGqJVKjX7eB4-Y1pjWglxOZbwXooPm8r_jEj5JyJgKK6bouzQCAp21SjOxUIw8XI8HQOORGItl0X1790cOO9skANKcQ&cp=24 &gs_id=63&xhr=t&q=panama+canal+grand+opening&client=tablet-androidasus&v=132203673&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=PGwfT_2yBsLW2AW159GuDw&biw=1 280&bih=800&sei=QWwfT8GqO8bg2QWR0pmyDw Mexican Revolution -Mackenzie http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexican-revolution-1910 http://www.emersonkent.com/wars_and_battles_in_history/mexican_revolution. htm -Tom http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexican-revolution-1910 http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/20thcentury/articles/mexicanrevolution.as px Pictures http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexican-revolution-1910 http://www. militaryhistoryonline.com/20thcentury/articles/mexicanrevolution.aspx 15 http://www.calnative.com/blog/pancho-villa-his-name-was-dorothy/ http://www.gottahaverockandroll.com/LotImages/4/3775a_lg.jpeg


Spanish American War -Tom http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/spanishamerican/summary.html http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/roughriders.html http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-battle-of-san-juan-hill -Melissa http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html http://www.pbs.org/crucible/Sources for the images Pictures http://espanoliv5.pbworks.com/f/21785_000.jpg http://www.cityofart.net/bship/tr_bigstick_cartoon.jpg Imperialism in China and Japan -Josh http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/teach/ends/opening.htm http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/kpct/kp_imperialism.htm -Collin http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/imperialism.html Pictures http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Commodore_Perry%27s_second_fleet.jpg http://www.google.com/search?um=1&hl=en&client=tablet-androidasus&tbo=d&v=132203673&biw=1280&bih=800&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Chinease+Box ers&oq=Chinease+Boxers&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=5271l9532l0l10137l2 0l1 5l0l0l0l0l478l2602l0.3.3.1.2l10l0

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Hawaiian Annexation -Collin http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=189 http://www.freehawaii.org/timeline.html -Josh http://www.hawaii-nation.org/betrayal.html http://www.ushistory.org/us/44b.asp Pictures http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1280&bih =800&q=queen+liliuokalani&gbv=2&aq=0&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=Queen+Li http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1280&bih =800&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g1g-S1g-sS1g-S4g-sS1gS2&oq=&q=sanford%20b%20dole&tbo=d

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American Conflict