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March 2003 Issue 3 Volume 5

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Why Kuwait?

the small area of Kuwait was valuable, and Iraq needed this value. This was Melanie Duffin the main cause of the war, because Iraq's annexation of without this action, there would be Kuwait, stirred the world into a frenzy. no war. The reasons behind this action by Iraq Money problems, issues answer the question of why they with oil with Kuwait, and bringing the were involved. Iraqis had a feeling of original Iraq back together, were why desperation with the overall issues Iraq became involved in the Persian that arose in their country. Debt Gulf War. Iraq had a lot of debt with issues with Kuwait, oil conflicts, and Kuwait, that caused desperation. The reuniting the original Iraq helped give leaders of Iraq felt that Kuwait had Iraq a reason to annex the country of stole oil from them. The land of Kuwait. Without these reasons there Kuwait was valuable and Iraq needed would not have been the Persian Gulf this value and its original land. The War. world was frightened by the First, previous issues with annexation of Kuwait which resulted debt provoked Iraq's reasoning to in action and the start of the Persian annex Kuwait. Prior to the Persian Gulf War. Gulf War, Iraq's relations with Kuwait became sour with debt issues that arose after Iraq-Iran War. During the Iraq-Iran War, Iraq borrowed 14 billion dollars from Kuwait. Then, after the war ended Kuwait refused to forgive the debt. With Iraq's debt totaling about 80 billion dollars , Iraq developed the feeling of desperation. Secondly, oil conflicts resulted in the taking over of Kuwait. Iraq felt cheated by Kuwait, claiming the country took more oil than agreed under Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) quotas. Iraq also felt Kuwait had stole oil from their shared oil source. These claims led to Iraq's greed and overall need to take Kuwait. Thirdly, the country of Kuwait had been under Iraqi law before World War I. Iraq felt they deserved the nation again. Without Kuwait, Iraq would be unable to achieve goals they had. The land in 2


The Iraqi Influence By: Megan Fleming Iraq was not only heavily involved in the Persian Gulf War, but they were the starting factor. Their involvement in Middle Eastern affairs helped this war to become one that effected many countries. They started the war by invading Kuwait, during the war they attacked Israel, and they were influential by getting other countries concerned about what was occurring in the Middle East. The gravity of this war is quite evident when remembering all the countries which were involved. Without Iraq there would not have been a Persian Gulf War involving the United States and the coalition forces. The first move of the Persian Gulf War happened on August 2, 1991 when Iraq invaded Kuwait. There are many reasons for this act including, Iraq’s debt from the Iraq- Iran war and oil conflicts with Kuwait. This action was one that propelled the world into a great rage. Countries of the United Nations found this political problem to be one that engaged all. With this in mind the coalition forces were considering entering the war, when Iraq decided to make their next move. Attacking Israel was the major catalyst which motivated the United States to enter the war. Iraq bombed Israel to provoke the United States into battle. This provocation worked for Iraq. The United State and the coalition forces decided to officially join the war. Assaulting Israel was a main reason of why Iraq was a significant threat in the war.

To end the Persian Gulf War, the United Nations set forth a deadline which stated that if Iraq did not fully evacuate from Kuwait by February 23, 1991, they would attack. This attack helped put many countries into the war. Once Iraq disobeyed the deadline, the coalition attacked. This attack lasted for 4 days until there was no hope for Iraq. With this, the United Nations and government leaders of Iraq ordered a ceasefire. Iraq began the Persian Gulf War by invading Kuwait, in the midst of the war they bombed Israel, and helped get other countries get involved. First, Iraq invaded Kuwait to gain back land and gain oil resources, starting the war. Next, to arouse other countries into the war they attacked Israel. Finally, in order to end the war other countries set a deadline for Iraq to evacuate themselves from Kuwait. This war may have been short but it had a primary cause on the world’s future.

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The Future Beyond Belief By Melissa Duffin Iraq and the world were forever changed from the Persian Gulf War and the affects that proceeded . Following the limited war, only devastation arose from Iraq and the fallen country. Within the War, battles such as Operation Desert Storm, Air strikes, and the cease fire, inevitably caused Iraq to became rubble. Only trouble would follow Iraq and the countries future in the aftermath. Through the conflicts of Iraq's people, Saddam's response to these conflicts, and the Iraq war ;Iraq's future would never be the same. Following the Persian Gulf War, Iraq experienced numerous conflicts among the people and the environment. After a devastating War, the prevention of the Kuwait situation resulted in uprisings and conflict for Saddam and Iraq. Although the attempt to control Kuwait failed, Saddam remained the leader. Uprisings against Saddam included the Shi'ite and Kurds people of the south and north regions of Iraq. Previous conflict between Saddam and the Shi'ite people included Iraqis use of chemical weapons to enforce Saddam's power against their defiance before the Persian Gulf War years earlier. Along with such included the Kurds in which they resulted in damage by Saddam's power as well. Marsh Arabs were also a targeted group along with anyone who opposed Saddam's dictatorship methods. Along with such conflicts, much environmental damage resulted from

the oil well fires that were pursued during the Persian Gulf War. Hundreds of oil wells were burned in the process, resulting in irreversible damage to the land and the people. Through these uprisings for basic rights, an improved leader, and environmental issues, much turmoil became the result and affect of the Persian Gulf War. Due to revolts following the War, much damage, destruction, and weakness resulted from the Iraq country by Saddam. In response to the numerous revolts upon Saddam Hussein, Saddam suppressed the uprisings through exiles, tortures, and overall damage to his own Iraqis people and their way of life. With the previous history of the Shi'ite people, numerous casualties resulted, many became refugees fleeing their villages that had been attacked. Along with such were also the Kurds people, who also faced the chemical weapons opposed upon the Shi'ite people. Many fleeing as refugees toward bordering countries. Along with these main targets, the Marsh Arabs of the Marshland regions of southern Iraq had their land bulldozed, and replaced with canals, dykes, and dams in order to take away the water supply. As well as ruin their way of life, because the Marsh Arabs had lived on the Marshlands for thousands of years previously. Through the conflicts of the people, and Saddam Hussein's response, only complications remained.

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As conflicts continued, various countries became involved in the issues following the Persian Gulf War that ended in disaster for Iraq and it's future. After the conflict between Hussein and his people continued, U.S., Britain, and other countries became variously engaged. Due to the extreme suppression upon the people following the revolts, no-fly zones were adapted, although were violated by Saddam and the Iraq country. Along with this, after the cease fire following the Persian Gulf War, United Nations weapon's inspectors were assigned to confirm that Iraq had destroyed all nuclear, and chemical weapons following the War. As a result of these actions, Saddam and his government targeted the United States saying America only wanted to overthrow Iraq's regime, not disarm it. The Iraq government and Saddam also believed that the inspections should be lifted due to such accusations, causing tensions and international disputes following. Saddam agreed later in 1998 to continue the inspections, but later blocked them once more causing America and Britain's four day air strikes on Iraq that made Saddam outraged along with demands for Saddam to step down power. Through

the early two thousands such an invasion caused the United Nations inspections to continue, and led to the struggles Iraq faces today, following what is now known as the Iraq war previous to the Persian Gulf War. Through such a miniscule War, only chaos became of Iraq and the people. Revolts from the Iraqis people, Saddam's violent response, and the conflicts and Iraq War that followed substantially changed Iraq's future forever. Through the uprisings of the people of Iraq, such as the Shi'ite, Kurds, and Marsh Arabs, struggle for power and peace were established. Following such damages resulted in harsh punishments by Saddam Hussein in his struggle for dictatorship, and the complications that remained. Involvement by the U.S., Britain, and other numerous countries into the Iraq War and conflict caused tensions and outburst from Iraq, and struggles still faced today. The Persian Gulf War changed Iraq and the world forever resulting in the affects that proceeded.

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• Bibliography Pictures • http://greenmuseum.org/generic_content.php?ct_id=280 • http://www.hanscomfamily.com/2009/02/26/1991-us-victory-declared-in-persiangulf-war/ • http://www.militarymuseum.org/PGWCAARNG.html • http://www.post184.com/web1/html/gulfwar.htm • http://octobelly.com/westside/desertstorm.html Megan’s • http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War • http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/sse/wq/huddy/introduction.html • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001293.html Melissa’s • http://www.mofamission.gov.iq/usan/en/pagedisplay.aspz?sm=305 • http://knowKurdistan.com/about/history/ • http://berklycenter.gerorgetown.edu/resouces/countries/iraq • http://admin.iraupdates.net/p_articles.php/article/85613 • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3294143/ns/world-news/mideast_n_africa/ • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-sru/inatl/daily/feb99/kurdprofile.html Melanie’s • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3294143/ns/world_news-mideast_n_africa/ • http://m.youtube.com/index?desktop_uri=%2F&gl=US#/watch?v=phExw0diq7g • http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Kuwait

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Arabian Gulf  

Iraq before, during, and after the Persian Gulf War.

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