The American History Magazine Philipine Insurection: An Exclustive With Emilio Aguinaldo!
The Tenth Anniversary of the SpanishAmerican War
Panama Canal: A Monopoly in the Making?
Should the U.S. Abandon Itâ€™s February 1908 Isolationist Past?
The Philipine Insurrection An Interview with Emilio Aguinaldo By Chuck Klutho And Thomas Byrne Herb T. Katz: I'm here with Emilio Aguinaldo. How much would you say you have affected the way this confrontation in the Philippines has gone? Emilio Aguinaldo- Well considering I am the leader of the Philippines and I was fighting with you and now I've broken my bond with the U.S. and i am now fighting for the freedom of the Philippines. Herb T. Katz: That is a pretty great. What is your take on Commodore George Dewey? Emilio Aguinaldo- He was great at the Battle of Manila Bay and his strategies and other tactics have been in helping us to defeat the Spanish in the Spanish-American War Herb T. Katz: I cant disagree with that. How did you like the Treaty of Paris (1898)? Emilio Aguinaldo- Quite frankily the U.S. got a lot, such as they recieved Peuto Rico and Guam, but also Cuba got their independence. However, they got control of the Philippines who really just went from Spains power to the power of the U.S. Herb T. Katz: The U.S. did get a lot in that deal. How did you deal with your rebels being defeated? Emilio Aguinaldo- Well when I first declared war on the U.S. I was a little shaky on how well I was going to do against such a dominant force like the U.S. so at the end I wasn't as shocked and disorientated as one might think. Herb T. Katz: Well thank you Emilio. Even after all of this the Philippines still remain part of the U.S. territories
The Mexican Revelution By Julia Lampe and Alaina wallace When Mexico broke into a revolution, around the 1920s, the United States of America was pulled into the fight because of the economic and social ties with Mexico. There were also concerns that Mexico borderded the U.S. and the fighting might cross the border. Before the revolution began there was an extremely powerful Mexican president which many citizens wanted to see loose power. During the revolution many different regions of Mexico got involved which is what made this incident difficult for the United States to ignore. Before the Mexican Revolution began Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico from1877-1910. Diaz brought extreme power to Mexico and knew that he would have to pay the price because of this. He did not allow freedom of press, which angered many people, and he jailed his opponents. He was willing to use the army to keep peace. Despite these negative aspects there were many good things Diaz did to help Mexico. He helped to build up industry. Diaz also got money from America and other foreign investors. The investments that he made helped Mexico become more modern. The modernization of Mexico doubled the production of factory goods and cotton, and it also expanded the railroads. The citizens were unhappy about this because all of their wealth was in the hands of the foreign investors. Many Mexicans were living in poverty while Diaz was extremely wealthy. In the 1910 election Diaz ran for president and controlled the outcome. Diaz was scared that he might loose so he had his opponent, Francisco I. Madero, thrown in jail on election day, and Diaz won the election. When Madero was released from jail, in September of 1910, he headed toTexas. While he was there he named himself president and decalred a revolution against Mexico. In November 1910, Madero returned to Mexico to find bands of rebels.This was the beginning of the Mexican Revolution. Across the country many conflicts started. The south army, lead by Emiliano Zapata, was made up of Native Americans and peasants. They wanted the land to be returned to Native Americans so they used force to take back the land. There was also an uprising in nothern Mexico. Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Pascual Orozco led a revolt against Diaz. In May of 1911 Diaz resigned as the president and went into exile in France. In 1911 Francisco Madero became president and was attempting to establish a democratic government. Madero had many challenges including the disloality of Victoriano Huerta, the commander of the government troops. In 1913 he had Maderno sent to jail and executed. Huerta became president but armies fought him immediately. The United States did not recognize Huerta as the leader of Mexico. Woodrow Wilson, the president of the United States, had a negative view of Huerta and in 1914 sold arms to Huerta’s enemies. On April 9th, 1914 nine members of the U.S.S. Dolphin were arrested, by soldiers who supported Huerta, in Tampico, Mexico. The soldiers were released but U.S. Admiral Henry Mayo wanted a formal apology and he wanted the Mexicans to give the American flag a 21-gun salute. Huerta refused so on April 20th the President asked Congress to authorize the use of armed forces against Mexico. President Wilson learned that a German ship was headed to Veracruz, loaded with weapons for Huerta, while he was waiting to hear from Congress.
Wilson ordered that the city of Verzcruz be taken over by the U.S Navy. Mexican soldiers shot at Americans and during the Battle of Verzcruz 17 American and 300 Mexicans died. For 6 months U.S. troops remained in Veracruz and the occupation almost caused a war. With help from Argentina, Brazil and Chile the crisis was avoided. In July Huerta resigned and left for Spain. In my opinion, Wilson initally overreacted when U.S. soldiers were arrested in Tampico. The soldiers were released without incident and the situation may have been resolved. Americas involvement during this time might be one of the reasons that there are strained feelings between Mexico and the United States today. I do believe that Wilson was right to get involved when he got news that the Germans were sending weapons to Veracruz. Since the Germans did not have a bonding relationship with the Americans they were most likely sending weapons to Mexico to help fight the Americans. When Huerta resigned Woodrow Wilson got what he ultimately wanted though it cost American lives. The cost could have been much higher if the Germans were successful in transporting weapons to Mexico. I also believe that Wilson was smart to involve other countries to help mediate a solution. America became involved in the Mexican Revolution because of their economic and social relationships with Mexico. At the time President Porfirio Diaz was very powerful but the people wanted him to resign. Diaz did good things and hurtful things for Mexico, but because of his investments with foreign countries people in Mexico were very poor. Diaz fixed an election and his opponent, Maderno, was jailed. After Madernosâ€™ release he moved to the U.S.and declared war on Mexico. Madero was able to force Diaz out of power but Victoriano Huerta, the leader of the government troops, was fighting against Madero. Madero was executed and Huerta took control. The U.S. did not trust Huerta and Woodrow Wilson attempted to fight him by selling weapons to his enemies. The situation between the U.S and Mexico got worse with the Tampico Incident. On April 20th, 1914, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to approve the use of force against Mexico. For 6 months U.S. soldiers occupied Veracruz, Mexico, where U.S. and Mexican lives were lost. With the help of other coutries Mexico and the U.S. reached a settlement and Huerta resigned.
Porfirio Diaz, the ruler of Mexico, from 1877-1910
Pictured from left to right: Admiral Henry T. Mayo, Commander of U.S. forces during the Tampico Incident; Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, who commanded the landing to seize Veracruz; Vice Admiral Charles J. Badger, Commander of U.S. Atlantic Fleet in 1914
The Panama Canal: Honest Expansion or Monopoly in Disguise? By Christine Vincent and julia lampe Construction on what is soon to be the most important canal in the world is taking place right now. The United States has taken on the project, buying the rights from France after their failed attempt. The canal is portrayed to the public as a great expansion that will benefit the entire world. But there is more to the story than that. The Panama Canal is France's previous attempt and our current plan at monopolizing the most important canal in the world. Work on the Panama Canal began on February 1, 1881 under the direction of Ferdinand de Lessemps. Laborers were primarily black and Indian, and were unaware of what they were getting into. De Lessemps had previously constructed a canal in Egypt, had taken on this new task and assumed the same concept would apply here. He was not an architect but was leading the project based on opinion. When local Panamanians and men who knew the land well became aware of the plans for the canal, they warned de Lessemps and the other leaders. De Lessemps quickly disregarded warnings and his crew would soon pay the price. Because the locals were not taken seriously, the crew suffered from deadly diseases. Small pox, malaria, and yellow fever grew rapidly in the camps. During construction they faced dangerous swamps and miles of impassable jungle. Torrential rains delayed progress and erased previous work. Mudslides buried men, machinery, and already cleared land. To save money, the company fired sick and injured workers, sending them home without a second thought. 3 out of every 4 men died when hospitalized. In 1888, Companie Universelle du Canal InterocĂŠanique, the main investor, filed for bankruptcy. With $287 million spent, 50 million cubic meters of land moved, and 20 thousand dead, the project was abandoned. Teddy Roosevelt, seeing this as an incredible opportunity, proposed to Congress that our nation should take on the project. In 1902, the United States paid France $40 million for the rights of the canal. A treaty was made with the newly independent country of Panama, which included a initial payment of $10 million along with an anual payment of $250 thousand, beginning on the tenth anniversary. But that was not all that the treaty said. The first and foremost article of the Hay- Bunau- Varilla Treaty contains these exact words: "The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama." With this one sentence, our government could be forced to send thousands of military members to protect territory that is not ours. It legally ties us to any war Panama engages in. In Article 5, the treaty states "The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity a monopoly for the construction, maintenance and operation of any system of communication by means of canal or railroad across its territory between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean." So after we have just begun fighting all of the monopolies in our country, our goverment wants to own one? Not only this, but Article 13 gives our government free reign on the land Panama is allowing us to use. This reign includes, but is not limited to, the right to impose taxes. Our government included in their treaty that they wanted to impose taxes on foreign soil and people. Does the American government have hidden motives? Are we bribing Panama, offering to protect them in order to have a monopoly on the canal? Because none of these articles would be necessary if we were solely just trying to expand. As the Panama Canal continues to be built, we need to inform people on the possible risks it may cause. Yes, since America has taken control doctors have begun to improve physical conditions and lessen the mass of smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever victims. But our government is making political condition worse. Our nation as a whole needs to step back and ask ourselves "Is this truly just another try at expansion or is it something bigger?" Is the Panama Canal the Congress' attempt to monopolize what is soon to be the most important canal in the world?
Construction on the canal
Teddy Roosevelt builds the canalâ€Ś and shovels the dirt on Columbia
Thousands of construction workers arrive in Panama
Debate Imperialism in China and Japan By Alaina Wallace and christine vincent
Pros America's part in China's imperialistic market has its ups and downs. Our taking part in China's market allowed us to have a large amount of power in other countries, instead of just our own. In addition to power we also had a large new market to partake in. Being over in other countries gives America a chance to expand our nation's territories. Being in China gave us a chance to show off and scare other countries. These are a handful of pros caused by American colonies in China. It is important to remain equal or ahead of the other countries in both power and wealth. Alongside with additional power, we also have a greater influence in that country. We are now a part of that country and get a say in many of its matters. The United States was late in arriving in China, because we didn't want to sacrifice our isolation from the rest of the world. It was especially important because many other European countries had already owned large parts of China, and we were missing out. Since we were missing out on the Chinese market and share of power John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy. This suggested that all foreign powers in China had equal power instead of first come first serve as it was. This was a large benefit for America, because we were late arriving in China, we had a small share of power compared to other European nations. Finally, it allowed us to show off and scare other nations into respecting us. When President Fillmore sent Matthew Perry to Japan with a large naval fleet, Japan felt threatened. They thought that we were not a force to be reckoned with and thought it would be a good idea to either team up or leave us alone. Japan knew that they did not have the military or the navy to stand a chance up against us. Our part in China's market not only gave us power and wealth, but it allowed us to expand our country overseas. Without this, we wouldn't have had a chance to begin the Open Door Policy. And finally it let us show off and scare other countries into respecting us. But, in addition to these pros there were also cons that come along with our imperialistic America.
Cons America's imperialistic attitude leading us into taking part in China's market not only had pros, but also several cons. Our arriving late did hinder us before the Open Door Policy was passed. The Chinese community did not react well to foreign countries influencing and overtaking their country. It also forced us to sacrifice our isolation and become more involved in the world. Since we arrived late into the Chinese market, much of our share of the power was lost. Up until the Open Door Policy was passed other countries, mainly in Europe, had huge amounts of Chinese power and land. This cost America money and even publicity in ways. Since we were just out of the picture, European powers did not even give us a second thought. The United States and other countries' power and influence in China angered the citizens greatly. They were not pleased that other countries just showed up and now were taking over their market and country. This cause many rebellions in China, a large one being the Boxer Rebellion. There [q] were a group of peasants who wanted to get rid of all foreign influence in China, which they thought was a threat to their culture. They killed many Christian missionaries, and eventually brought their violent efforts to Beijing. Eventually many countries, including America, sent over soldiers to calm the rebellion. The last con of our new found interest in imperialism in China is that we had to sacrifice our isolation. But now that we are involved in the Chinese market, we suddenly don't seem far away. Now that we are a part of the world's affairs, and it is more dangerous for our country. We could potentially be expected to take part in war and be allies with other countries. So, clearly there are many pros and cons to America's imperialistic attitude. We gained power, but at what price? Sacrificing our isolation and being uninvolved in wars and foreign affairs. We got to show off our power and threaten other countries with our navy. And we also gained much more room to expand our country. But we cause a terrible reaction in the Chinese population. We can't be completely sure if it was a good idea or not, but we can be sure it did have its gains and repercussions.
The United States 10th anniversary of the Spanish American War! By Thomas Byrne and chuck klutho For the Spanish American Wars tenth anniversary, we at the New York Update have put together a summary of events of this short war between the United States and Spain for land in southern North America. The de Lome Letter The Spanish minister Enrique Dupuy de Lome was not happy with the way the president of the US was running his country, so he decided to write a letter about it expressing his anger. Unfortunately for him, the letter fell into the hands of a Cuban spy. The spy read the letter and agreed to sell it the William Hearst to publish in the New York Journal. This letter angered many Americans and was just one of the reasons for the Spanish American War. Cuban Unrest Jose Marti, as well as other people in Cuba, were unhappy with Spains rule over their country. Since 1868, Cuba had tried to free itself from Spains rule. Jose Marti was one of the leaders of the revolts. He was banned from his country and moved to New York City. There he spoke to crowds and wrote in newspapers and magazines supporting the Cuban revolts. He founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1892 and made plans to go back to Cuba. Cuba started a revolt in February 1895 and Marti joined his fellow countrymen. He was killed, but he will be remembered as one of Cuba's greatest war heroes. The Maine Tensions were already high between Spain and the US after the De Lome letter. But the US declared war on Spain after this incident in February 1898. The battleship Maine was waiting in Havana Harbor when the ship suddenly blew up. No one to the day knows the real cause, but the US assumed at the time it was Spains doing so they declared war on them April 25, 1898. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders In the Battle of San Juan Hill, Teddy Roosevelt's regiment, the Rough Riders fought hard in battle and were willing to die for victory. This regiment was made up of Cowboys, Ranchers, miners, and college athletes. Even though they were called Rough Riders most of their soldiers fought on foot because the horses did not get to them from America in time. These men were vital to taking over Puerto Rico.
Dewey and the Philippines
Before the war even started, Teddy Roosevelt told Commander George Dewey to attack the Spanish Naval fleet in the Philippines. When he got word of war, he rushed over the Philippines in Manila Bay. The Spaniards fired hopelessly at the out of range Americans on May 1, 1898. The Americans would hold their fire so they did not waste ammunition. They waited hours until Dewey gave the orders to fire. The US inflicted much damage on the wooden Spaniard ships. But in the middle of the battle, they received a report that they were running low on ammunition and they needed to turn around and head back quickly. Then, when they were just about to head back home, there was another report that they were fine on ammunition and that they should keep attacking. They did attack, and the battle was over within hours. Zero Americans were killed but 400 Spaniards lay dead or wounded. Dewey then planned and attack on the capital city Manila, where he teamed up with the rebel leader of Filipino Patriots Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo attacked the city while Dewey waited on the bay to make sure there was no escape. The Filipino Patriots captured the city. Surrounded and out manned, the Spanish surrendered. Battle of San Juan Hill The US had already captured a hill in El Caney on July 1st, 1898. They then had to take over San Juan and Kettle Hill. Ninth and Tenth calvaries made up of African American soldiers fought in this battle. They were also accompanied by Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders regiment. 8,000 US soldiers fought in this battle Together the Americans took over San Juan Hill. Teddy Roosevelt described his men in battle, â€œWe were still under a heavy fire and I got together a mixed lot of men and pushed on... driving the Spaniards through a line of palm-trees and over the crest of a chain of hills. When we reached these crests we found ourselves overlooking Santiago.â€?Two days later, after the US Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba, the Spanish surrendered Cuba.
Outcome of the War The Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898. This treaty forced the Spanish to give up Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and for a 20 million dollar payment, the Philippines to the United States. The US spent about 250 million dollars on this war and lost about 2000 American soldiers. But in the eyes of many, the price of victory was worth the cost.
In This Issue Mexican Revolution Julia: http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexicanrevolution-1910 http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-davi.htm http://www.mexonline.com/revolution.htm Alaina (Co-author): http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-davi.htm http://www2.ups.edu/faculty/jlago/fl380/source3_02.htm Pictures: http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih =642&tbm=isch&tbnid=UNlg_cn3kUYQM:&imgrefurl=http://www.emersonkent.com/histor y_notes/porfirio_diaz.htm&docid=iUyB_I2Il_ETyM&imgurl= http://www.emersonkent.com/images/pres_p_diaz.jpg&w=550 &h=380&ei=gxweT6iZNcTs2QWyrtipDw&zoom=1&iact=hc &vpx=180&vpy=156&dur=1541&hovh=187&hovw=270&tx= 81&ty=113&sig=114215601674535033788&page=1&tbnh=14 5&tbnw=193&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih =642&tbm=isch&tbnid=hM95qNxOTDxsFM:&imgrefurl=http ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tampico_Affair&docid=GKdTyaqDg UhhpM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thu mb/c/cb/Tampico_Incident.jpg/220pxTampico_Incident.jpg&w=220&h=155&ei=6DoeT6tygrTaBfqi 6JAP&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=229&vpy=188&dur=262&hovh =124&hovw=176&tx=144&ty=71&sig=114215601674535033 788&page=1&tbnh=124&tbnw=176&start=0&ndsp=18&ved= 1t:429,r:0,s:0
Panama Canal Christine: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/generalarticle/tr-panama/ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/pan001.asp Julia (Co-author): http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm#History http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/ Pictures: http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/panamacanalphoto016.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/images/gal_pana ma_construction_tabemilla.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panam2.JPG
Philippine Insurrection. Chuck: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/naval/p/dewey.htm http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/aguinaldo.htm http://www.military.com/Resources/HistorySubmittedFileVie w?file=history_philippineinsurrection.htm
Spanish-American War Thomas: Introduction - The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War (Hispanic Division, Library of Congress)." Library of Congress Home. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intrChronology." Spanish American War. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. <http://www.spanamwar.com/timeline.htm>.o.html>. Chuck(Co-Author): LERNER, ADRIENNE WILMOTH. "Spanish-American War." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jan. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. Pictures: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rough_Riders http://www.dipity.com/Hinata796/Unit-7-Timeline/
Imperialism in China and Japan Alaina: http://my.hrw.com/tabnav/controller.jsp?isbn=0030779596 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-imperialism.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperialism_in_Asia Christine (Co-author): http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/18711914/section7.rhtml http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/kpct/kp_imperial Pictures: http://www.google.com/search?q=chinese+imperialism&hl=e n&client=tablet-android-asus&tbo=u&source=androidbrowsertype&v=132203673&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=FbId T_KoFJGl2AXRm4WZDg&ved=0CE8QsAQ&biw=1280&bi h=800 http://www.google.com/#hl=en&qe=Y2hpbmVzZSBpbXBlc mlhbGlzbSBj&qesig=AJrqxJmc60cnNNIPzqnXYg&pkc=AF gZ2tkOJZ6bHuyEOBYADVKp_jCfYyg46nimZ7XGwpAXS N7m-8qVCGlicrMA3nUxA3i9IdoQpv73fkpt_XMii7Z23Hg25O5Sw&cp=21&gs_id=3w&xhr= t&q=chinese+imperialism+cartoon&pf=p&sclient=tabletgws&tbo=d&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=chinese+imperialism+c &aq=0&aqi=g1gv2&aql=&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb& fp=67e2292c2589d91b&biw=1280&bih=800 Editor: Christine Vincent Co-Editor: Alaina Wallace Research Editor: Julia Lampe Production Manager: Thomas Byrne Art Directer: Chuck Klutho