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Performance task for end of unit • • • • • •

Create a picture or model of the world distribution of water, and the distribution of water in Saskatchewan, including watersheds, lakes, rivers, streams, river systems, wetlands, ground water, saline lakes, and riparian areas. . c. Examine the significance of water to First Nations and Métis people of Saskatchewan, including water as an essential element of life, transportation, water quality, fishing practices, and treaty rights regarding fishing. d. Apply the concept of systems as a tool for interpreting the structure and interactions of water systems by constructing representations of systems such as the water cycle, watersheds, and continental drainage basins and showing interrelationships between parts of the system. e. Construct a written, visual, or dramatic representation of the water cycle, including showing or explaining how a single particle of water can travel through the cycle over extended periods of time. f. Identify possible personal, societal, economic, and environmental consequences of natural changes and human practices and technologies that pose threats to surface and/or ground water systems in Saskatchewan (e.g., vegetation removal, water and sewage treatment plants, timber harvesting, over application of fertilizers, agricultural and urban irrigation, impervious ground cover, land alterations, mining, introduction of invasive species, shoreline erosion, fluctuating lake levels, flooding, draining and/or channelling of surface water features, and damming of rivers). g. Research a specific human practice or technology that may pose a threat to surface and/or ground water systems in Saskatchewan and explain how different groups in society (e.g., landowner, consumer, business owner, recreational user, fisherman, government official, and farmer) may have conflicting needs and desires in relation to the practice or technology and how those decisions or actions of different stakeholders may or may not be addressed by scientific or technological knowledge. h. Evaluate individual and group processes used in planning, problem solving, decision making, and completing a task related to studying threats to water systems, such as accepting various roles in a group, sharing responsibility for carrying out decisions, and seeking consensus before making decisions

Whole class discussion topics From a global perspective, the world's supply of water is stored mainly in oceans (97.2%), while 2.15% is frozen water (ice caps) and 0.65% is fresh water on land. Of this fresh water component, only 2.5% can be found in air, soil, lakes, and rivers. The rest of the fresh water is groundwater, most of which is unavailable for human use. The hydrologic cycle is fundamental for purification. Water evaporates from lakes, oceans and land surfaces; is carried over the earth as water vapour; precipitates as rain or snow; is intercepted by trees and other vegetation; infiltrates into soils; percolates and recharges groundwater systems; generates runoff over the earth’s surface; discharges from groundwater into streams or rivers; and ultimately flows back into lakes and streams. The hydrologic cycle includes all pathways connected with the storage and movement of water in its three states: liquid, gas and solid.

Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water, e.g., salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, and some gases – especially oxygen, carbon dioxide ( carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances, while those that do not mix well with water (e.g., fats and oils), are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances.

Indicator: Compare physical characteristics of surface water features, such as lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, and riparian areas.

What does each picture tell us about Riparian Areas and why are they necessary? A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a stream. Riparian zones are significant in ecology , environmental management, and civil engineering because of their role in soil conservation, their biodiversity, and the influence they have on aquatic ecosystems. The word "riparian" is derived from Latin ripa, meaning river bank.

• What does each picture tell us about Wetlands and why are they necessary? A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Such areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of water.[2] Wetlands include swamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater and freshwater,. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems.

• What does each picture tell us about streams and why are they necessary?

A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. Streams are important as paths between areas in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone.

• What does each picture tell us about rivers and why are they necessary? • A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. • Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers).

What does each picture tell us about lakes and why are they necessary? •



A lake is a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river. They serve as reservoirs of water and a home for fish when streams and rivers freeze.

What does each picture tell us about watersheds or drainage basins and why are they necessary? • What is a watershed? • A watershed is an area from which water drains toward a common watercourse (such as a lake, stream, and ocean) in a natural basin. • When thinking of a watershed do not just think of water, include land use and geology etc. All of these components affect watersheds. • Within each major watershed lie sub-watersheds or tributaries that drain into these larger watersheds.

BIG QUESTION • You are asked to build a large Earth-like natural park on another planet with water. – Draw a map or create a model of the area with a key. – Put in all surface water types feeding from a Glacier. – Explain why you need them and why you placed them where you did.

Indicator2 : The water cycle is a system that shows interactions in an environment. • The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. • Since the water cycle is truly a "cycle," there is no beginning or end. • Water can change states among liquid, vapor, and ice at various places in the water cycle.



Precipitation Condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet.[1] As it flows, the water may infiltrate into the ground, evaporate into the air, become stored in lakes or reservoirs

Infiltration The flow of water from the ground surface into the ground.

Evaporation The transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere. [4] The source of energy for evaporation is primarily from the sun.

Condensation The transformation of water vapor to liquid water droplets in the air, producing clouds and fog.[7]

Transpiration The release of water vapor from plants into the air.

Urination The release of water from animals

BIG QUESTION • Imagine you are a single drop of water...... • Write a letter to your mommy, in the clouds, about your journey through the cycle. • You must include 4 parts of the cycle and how it makes you feel as a small drop of water ( be creative!!!)

Computer Research e h t e e s s e r u t l u c nt . e r y l e t f f n i e D r e : f r f i o d t a s c e i c d r n u I o • s e r f o t n e m e g a n ma

Examine the significance of water to First Nations and MĂŠtis people of Saskatchewan, including water as an essential element of life, transportation, water quality, fishing practices, and treaty rights regarding fishing.

WS8.1 Analyze the impact of natural and human-induced changes to the characteristics and distribution of water in local, regional, and national ecosystems. WS8.3 Analyze natural and human practices that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and Fresh water environments.

Discussion Topics…… No notes needed….. •

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Waterborne Infectious Diseases- Polluted beach water can cause rashes, ear aches, pink eye, respiratory infections, hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach aches. 1.2 trillion gallons of untreated sewage, stormwater, and industrial waste are discharged into US waters annually. Each year, plastic waste in water and coastal areas kills up to: – – –

100,000 marine mammals, 1 million sea birds, and countless fish.

Pesticides that get applied to farm fields and roadsides—and homeowners' lawns—run off into local streams and rivers or drain down into groundwater, contaminating the fresh water that fish swim in and the water we humans drink.

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Oil spills like the Exxon Valdez spill off the coast of Alaska or the more recent Prestige spill off the coast of Spain get lots of news coverage, and indeed they do cause major water pollution and problems for local wildlife, fishermen, and coastal businesses Sediment When forests are "clear cut," the root systems that previously held soil in place die and sediment is free to run off into nearby streams, rivers, and lakes. Thus, not only does clearcutting have serious effects on plant and animal biodiversity in the forest, the increased amount of sediment running off the land into nearby bodies of water seriously affects fish and other aquatic life. Chemical and Industrial Processes Almost all bodies of water in the world have some level of pollution from chemicals and industrial waste. In the United States, 34 billion liters per year (60%) of the most hazardous liquid waste—solvents, heavy metals, and radioactive materials—is injected directly into deep groundwater via thousands of "injection wells.“

d….. e d e e n notes o N … opics… T n o i s s Discu • •

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Personal Care Products, Household Cleaning Products, and Pharmaceuticals Whenever we use personal-care products and household cleaning products—whether they be laundry detergent, bleach, or fabric softener; window cleaner, dusting spray, or stain remover; hair dye, shampoo, conditioner, or Rogaine; cologne or perfume; toothpaste or mouthwash; antibacterial soap or hand lotion—we should realize that almost all of it goes down the drain when we do laundry, wash our hands, brush our teeth, bathe, or do any of the other myriad things that incidentally use household water. Similarly, when we take medications, we eventually excrete the drugs in altered or unaltered form, sending the compounds into the waterways. Studies have shown that up to 90% of your original prescription passes out of you unaltered Noise Pollution "Noise pollution" from ship engines and sonar systems make it difficult for marine mammals like whales, dolphins, and porpoises to communicate, find food, and avoid hazards. Steel: Producing one ton of steel takes about 62,600 gallons of water. Automobiles: Manufacturing a new car takes about 39,090 gallons of water. Soft Drinks: The U.S. soft drink industry uses 12 million gallons of water annually

Human Threats to the Watershed Ok, now take notes •

Human Threats From Near and Far

Land alterations: When we alter land, the earth can no longer absorb water easily., and it flows directly into surface waters and carry many pollutants with it that can harm both wildlife and humans. Impervious cover: It includes such things as parking lots, roads, sidewalks, driveways and other surfaces that limit the ability of rainfall to be filtered through soil to groundwater. Urbanization: Channelizing small streams and using storm sewers to transport water quickly can increase flow rates and flood areas downstream, affecting aquatic and human communities. Land-based water pollution: Litter, pesticides and herbicides, fertilizers and sewage are among the pollutants that find their way into water.

Human Threats to the Watershed Ok, now take notes •

Vegetation removal: Removing vegetation along river banks destroys habitat for wildlife on the land, and increase sediments and nutrients to the detriment of aquatic life. Altering water flow: When water flow is diverted by a dam, natural flow regimes and amounts of dissolved oxygen are among the elements that change and can harm wildlife. Agricultural practices: Removing streamside vegetation for pastures, applying fertilizers and pesticides that run off into water, allowing livestock to contaminate water systems and withdrawing water for irrigation in ways that dewater streams can all harm aquatic communities. Timber harvesting: Timber harvesting can alter stream flow, habitat for forest wildlife and the age of stands.

Human Threats to the Watershed Ok, now take notes •

Mining operations: Mining activities basically remove soil and rock from the earth, which are then processed in plants. Tailings can contain toxic chemicals and and increasing the potential for heavy metal contamination in aquatic communities. Invasive species: Alien invasive species introduced from different parts of the planet can overwhelm the land and water. These invaders that compete with native wildlife and speed up the loss of their habitats. Accelerated climate change: The Earth’s climate supports life thanks to the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases — carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane — trap solar heat in the atmosphere.

WS8.2 Examine how wind, water, and ice have shaped and continue to shape the Canadian landscape. •

A glacier is a large, body of ice, snow, rock, sediment and water originating on land and moving down slope under the influence of its own weight and gravity. Glacier ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth, and is second only to oceans as the largest reservoir of total water. Glaciers cover vast areas of the polar regions and are found in mountain ranges of every continent except Australia. How do glaciers affect the land? Glaciers not only transport material as they move, but they also sculpt and carve away the land beneath them. A glacier's weight, combined with its gradual movement, can drastically reshape the landscape. The ice erodes the land surface and carries the broken rocks and soil debris far from their original places, resulting in some interesting glacial landforms.

Glacier made landforms •

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As they melt, this burden of rock, gravel, and dirt is dropped in place. This material is termed glacial till. Moraines. A moraine is a landform composed of sediments deposited by or from a GLACIER. They are made of till, an unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, pebbles, cobbles and boulders, deposited directly from a glacier. Chunks of ice buried in this till create large depressions that later become lakes called "kettle lakes." Material deposited by Glacier melt-water is called outwash. Esker is a winding ridge of sand and gravel left by a retreating glacier. Huge rocks left behind by glaciers as they retreat are called erratics.

Wind and landforms •

Effects of Wind Erosion

Erosion by wind is known as aeolian (or eolian) erosion (named after Aeolus, the Greek god of winds) and occurs almost always in deserts. Aeolian erosion of sand in the desert is partially responsible for the formation of sand dunes. The power of the wind erodes rock and sand. Wind erosion is the detachment, transportation and redeposition of soil particles by wind. The most familiar result of wind erosion is the loss of topsoil and nutrients which reduces the soil's ability to produce crops Wind erosion damaged an estimated 900,000 hectares (two million acres) of agricultural soils in Alberta during the 1980s. Strong and sustained winds along with dry, bare soils contributed to serious soil loss. Field shelterbelts reduce the wind velocity for distances up to 30 times the height of the trees. They also trap snow, increasing soil moisture for increased crop yields.

Water and erosion • Water is the most important erosional agent and erodes most commonly as running water in streams. • Raindrops (especially in dry environments) create splash erosion that moves tiny particles of soil. • Water collecting on the surface of the soil collects as it moves towards tiny rivulets and streams and creates sheet erosion. • In a stream, the faster that water moves the larger objects it can pick up and transport. • Waves in oceans and other large bodies of water produce coastal erosion. The power of oceanic waves produce 2000 pounds of pressure per square foot.

• Glaciers - Glaciers' Effects

water systems