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THE IPAD  AS  A  TOOL  FOR   EDUCATION   A  study  of  the  introduction  of  iPads   at  Longfield  Academy,  Kent  

This study  was  undertaken  on  behalf  of  Naace  (The  ICT   Association)  and  supported  by  9ine  Consulting  Ltd  




“The iPads  have  revolutionised  teaching”   —LONGFIELD  ACADEMY  TEACHER  


Paul  Heinrich  BEd  (Oxon)  MPhil  DipRSA   Paul  Heinrich  &  Co  Ltd  (Education  Consultants)   12  Braeside  Close   Winchester   SO22  4JL    

About This  research  was  jointly  commissioned  by  NAACE  and  9ine  Consulting  to  assess  the   impact   of   iPads   at   Longfield   Academy.     Longfield  Academy   Longfield  Academy  is  an  oversubscribed  mixed  non  selective  secondary  school  for  students   aged   11-­‐18.     It   is   situated   near   Darford   in   Kent   and   forms   part   of   the   Leigh   Academies   Trust.   The  current  role  is  around  970  students  with  around  160  of  these  in  the  sixth  form.     The   Academy   comprises   of   3   Colleges   and   each   College   has   its   own   Principal.   Results   over   the  past  3  years  have  improved  significantly  and  the  Academy  was  described  by  OFSTED  in   May  2011  as  Good  with  outstanding  features.  

Naace (The  ICT  Association)   Naace  is  the  ICT  association.  We  are  a  community  of  educators,  consultants,  school  leaders,   technologists  and  policy  makers  from  all  phases  of  UK  education,  who  share  a  vision  for  the   role   of   technology   in   advancing   education.   We   represent   the   education   technology   community  and  support  it  through  conferences,  courses  and  the  dissemination  of  resources,   research  and  reflection.  We  play  a  key  role  in  members’  professional  development  through   the  challenge  and  support  of  a  community  of  practice,  the  development  of  the  profession  as   a  whole  and  through  sharing  innovation  and  expertise.   Naace   -­‐   PO   Box   6511,   Nottingham   NG11   8TN   -­‐   Phone:   0115   945   7235   Email:  

9ine Consulting  –   9ine   is   an   integrated   consultancy   providing   services   and   solutions   to   education   organisations.  Our  business  is  fundamentally  different  from  any  other  consultancy  operating   within   the   Education   market.   We   manage   the   full   ICT   operations   life   cycle   from   cradle   to   grave.     This   encompasses   technology   consultancy,   curriculum   integration,   solutions   architecture,   management   of   project   delivery,  embedding   the   solution   and   delivering   through   efficient   operations   management.   This   unique   different   means   we   can   talk   about   current   and   future   technology   and   advise   on   the   implementation   of   those   technologies   within  a  live  environment.   We  have  supported  Longfield  Academy  since  2009  in  the  development  of  the  iPad  scheme.  We   provide   technical   consultancy,   change   management   and   project   management   to   Schools,   Academies,   Universities   and   commercial   organisations   in   the   UK   and   internationally   on   the   integration   of   iPads   and   other   emerging   or   new   technologies.          

LIST OF  CONTENTS   Executive  Summary  




Introduction and  Background  


Insights from  the  Literature  


Background to  the  Longfield  Academy  iPad  project  












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LIST OF  FIGURES   Figure  1.  

Responses by  year  group  


Figure 2.  

Use of  iPads  in  each  key  stage  as  reported  by  staff  


Figure 3.  

Level of  use  in  lessons  (Staff)  


Figure 4.  

Level of  use  in  lessons  (Students)  


Figure 5.  

Subject use  (students)  


Figure 6.  

Subject use  (teachers)  


Figure 7.  

Main uses  of  iPads  (students)  


Figure 8.  

Main uses  of  iPads  (staff)  


Figure 9.  

Student use  of  iPads  beyond  school  


Figure 10.  

Staff requirement  for  student  use  of  iPads  beyond  school  


Figure 11.  

iPads and  student  motivation  (student  responses)  


Figure 12.  

iPads and  student  motivation  (staff  responses)  


Figure 13.  

iPads and  student  work  quality  (student  responses)  


Figure 14.  

iPads and  student  work  quality  (staff  responses)  


Figure 15.  

iPads and  student  progress  (student  responses)  


Figure 16.  

iPads and  student  progress  (staff  responses)  


Figure 17.  

iPads and  student  achievement  (student  responses)  


Figure 18.  

iPads and  student  achievement  (staff  responses)  


Figure 19.  

iPads and  effective  working  (student  responses)  


Figure 20.  

iPads and  effective  working  (student  responses)  


Figure 21.  

iPads and  collaborative  working  (students)  


Figure 22.  

iPads and  collaborative  working  (staff)  


Figure 23.  

Student use  of  Apps  in  class  (students)  


Figure 24.  

Use of  Apps  in  class  (staff)  


Figure 25.  

The value  of  Apps  in  helping  learning  (students)  


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Figure 26.  

The value  of  Apps  in  helping  teaching  (staff)  


Figure 27.  

Willingness to  use  iPads  regularly  for  learning  (students).  


Figure 28.  

Willingness to  use  iPads  regularly  for  teaching  (staff).  


Figure 29.  

Ease of  integration  of  iPads  in  classroom  contexts  (staff)  


Figure 30.  

iPad ease  of  use  (students)  


Figure 31.  

iPad ease  of  use  (staff)  


Figure 32.  

Technical issues  (Students)  


Figure 33.  

Technical issues  (Staff)  


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   This   study,   one   of   the   most   extensive   yet   regarding   the   use   of   tablet   devices   finds   that   with   the   majority   of   pupils   at   the   school   now   having   iPads   there   has   been   a   significant  and   very   positive   impact   on   learning   together   with   further   significant  and   still  developing  changes  in  pedagogy.  In  particular  it  was  found  that:    

• • • •

The overwhelming  majority  of  teachers  regularly  use  iPads  in  their  teaching   iPad  use  is  particularly  strong  in  English,  Maths  and  Science   There  is  high  demand  from  students  for  iPad  use  to  be  extended  further   Teachers   have   identified   significant   benefits   for   their   workload   and   have   also   identified  cost  savings   • Use   of   the   iPads   is   increasingly   being   developed   for   homework   and   beyond   school  activities   • Students  are  more  motivated  when  using  iPads   • The  quality  and  standard  of  pupil  work  and  progress  is  rising   • Both  staff  and  student  feel  they  can  work  more  effectively  with  iPads   • Levels  of  collaborative  working  have  improved   • Appropriate  use  of  Apps  aids  learning   • All  find  the  iPad  easy  to  use   • Minor  technical  issues  have  arisen,  often  due  to  user  error,  but  are  readily  dealt   with   • Effective   project   management   has   been   critical   to   the   success   of   this   development.    

The outcomes   at   Longfield   clearly   demonstrate   the   value   of   the   iPad   as   an   educational  tool  and  the  role  that  it  can  play  in  learning  and  teaching.  

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ABSTRACT The  iPad  as  a  Tool  for  Education:   A  study  of  the  introduction  of  iPads  at  Longfield  Academy    

This study   reviews   the   impact   on   learning   and   teaching   of   the   introduction   of   iPad   devices   at   Longfield   Academy,   Kent   since   September   2011.   It   finds   that   with   the   majority   of   pupils   now   having   the   devices,   there   has   been   a   significant   and   very   positive   impact   on   learning,   as   well   assignificant   and   still   developing   changes   in   pedagogy.  Students  are  very  positive  about  the  devices  and  the  impact  they  have  on   their   motivation,   ability   to   research,   communicate   and   collaborate,   while   staff   increasingly   exploit   the   range   of   educational   Apps   made   available.   While   some   technical  issues  have  been  identified,  these  are  dealt  with  through  excellent  project   management.  The  outcomes  at  Longfield  clearly  demonstrate  the  value  of  the  iPad  as   an  educational  tool.  

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INTRODUCTION AND  BACKGROUND   Although   use   of   conventional   computers   including   laptops   and   netbooks   is   well   established   in   schools   and   a   considerable   body   of   literature   confirms   their   value   and   impact,   the   integration   of   tablet   devices   such  as  the  iPad  is  still,  in  early  2012,  at  the  innovation   stage   of   development.   There   is   currently   only   limited   published   research   on   the   impact   of   such   devices   on   learning  and  teaching,  although  the  work  of  Melhuish   &   Falloon   (2010)   and   Smith   (2011)   demonstrate   the   benefits   and   innovative   practice   engendered.   This   is   further   supported   by   reports   in   non-­‐academic   blogs   such   as   those   at   and  .   However,  considerable  debate  remains  regarding  the  educational  benefits  of  tablet   and   other   personal   devices   for   learners.   Most   studies   to   date   have   involved   trials   with   class   sets   of   tablets   rather   than   the   pupils   using   their   own   personal   devices.   While   clearly   demonstrating   benefits   of   the   technology,   the   shared   nature   of   the   trials  raised  its  own  problems.   Thus   the   recent   introduction   of   iPads   throughout   Longfield   Academy   provides   an   excellent  opportunity  for  a  small  scale  research  study  of  the  initial  impact  of  the  iPad   on  learning  and  teaching  throughout  the  school  and  the  social  and  technical  issues   arising.  There  is  also  scope  for  a  more  significant  longitudinal  study  of  these  aspects.   We   are   at   a   point   in   the   evolution   of   technology   where   the   personal   tablet   device   postulated   by   Hepple   (1998)   is   becoming   a   reality.   However,   we   do   not   yet   understand   how   access   to   and   use   of   these   devices   will   change   learning   and   teaching.  Without  such  understanding  we  are  left  with  an  inadequate  analysis  that   creates   the   conditions   for   ill-­‐informed   policy   decisions   at   both   school   and   national   level  and  a  self-­‐sustaining  cycle  of  misunderstanding  and  doubt.   This   study   will   address   a   gap   in   the   literature   by   examining   the   impact   on   learning   and  teaching  in  an  innovative  school  that  already  has  a  strong  commitment  to  ICT.  In   particular,   it   will   focus   on   changes   in   teaching   and   learning   styles,   impact   on   standards   and   on   pupil’s   attitudes   to   learning   with   the   devices,   together   with   any   whole-­‐school  technical  and  management  issues  arising.    

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INSIGHTS FROM  THE  LITERATURE   Several  studies  of  the  use  of  the  iPad  as  an  educational  tool  have  been  undertaken   since   the   introduction   of   this   product,   together   with   others   relating   to   tablet   computers  in  general.  However,  the  focus  of  most  has  been  on  the  iPad  due  to  the   functionality  of  the  tool  compared  to  some  others,  the  range  of  apps  available  and   the  attractiveness  and  street  credibility  of  the  iPad  to  young  people.   Researchers  have  explored  the  impact  of  iPads  in  a  number  of  situations  to  date,  though   mostly   where   small   scale   trials   of   the   device   have   taken   place   as   in   that   reported   by   Glicksman  (2011)  on  the  website  iPads  for  Education  and  also  by  Garcia  and  Friedman   (2011)  in  a  study  in  a  United  States  history  classroom.  Other  similar  studies  have  taken   place   in   Germany   at   Kaiserin   Augusta   Schule,   where   a   six   month   evaluation   with   600   students  was  reported  by  Spang  (2011)  at  and  by  Learning   Exchange  (2011)  in  Australia.   In   the   above   examples,   the   devices   were   owned   by   and   managed   by   the   school,   yet   it   must   be   remembered  that  iPads  and  similar  tablet  devices  are   designed   as   personal   devices   and   thus   ‘will   cause   significant   shifts   in   the   idea   of   ownership,   the   ownership   of   technology   and   knowledge.’   (Traxler   2010).   It   is   only   recently   that   schools   such   as   Longfield  have  begun  to  equip  the  majority  of  pupils   with   a   personal   iPad,   thus   enabling   the   full   impact   of   the   device   to   be   evaluated   both   in   a   snapshot   view   and  potentially  as  part  of  a  longitudinal  study.   However,   there   is   considerable   convergence   in   the   findings   of   these   various   studies   which,   while   highlighting   considerable   benefits   of   iPads,   also   highlight   a   number   of   technical,   pedagogical   and   management   issues   that   schools   will   need   to   address.   The   results  from  the  Longfield  study,  using  similar  research  methodologies,  serve  to  further   confirm  the  significant  potential  of  tablet  devices  as  ubiquitous  tools  for  learning.   It  is  useful  here  to  consider  the  nature  and  potential  of  mobile  devices  in  education   identified   by   researchers   thus   far,   while   noting   that   the   situation   regarding   ownership   of   a   range   of   personal,   net   connected   devices   is   expanding   rapidly.   For   example,  a  study  by  the  Speak  Up  National  Research  Project  (2011),  with  a  sample  of   416   000   US   3rd   to   12th   grade   students,   found   that   by   of   secondary   age   pupils   50%   owned   Smartphones   and   21%   personal   tablets.   The   level   of   ownership   is   likely   to   have   increased   since   then   as   prices   generally   become   more   competitive   as   the   technology  matures.   As  ownership  of  devices  increases,  so  does  student  demand  to  use  them  in  school  and   in  parental  acceptance  of  such  devices  in  school.  However,  the  Speak  Up  research  also    

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notes that,   as   is   evident   in   the   UK,   school   management   is   reluctant   to   allow   such   use!   Curiously   only   40%   of   parents   see   value   in   ubiquitous   Internet   access   in   a   modern   school,   a   view   totally   at   odds   with   exploiting   the   benefits   of   personal   devices.   Students,  conversely,  find  the  filtering  restrictions  on  school  networks  frustrating.   Current   research   findings   from   Melhuish   and   Falloon   (2010),   Gliksman   (2011),   Learning   Exchange   (2011)   and   Spang   (2011)   all   demonstrate   educational   value   and   positive   learning   outcomes   from   the   use   of   iPads,   as   does   this   writer’s   study   at   Longfield  Academy.  There  are  however  some,  such  as  Traxler  (2010),  who  continue   to   urge   caution   and   express   reservations   about   the   convergence   of   multiple   technologies  in  modern  smart  devices.  He  expresses  concern  that  we  have  yet  to  see   the   emergence   of   a   generic   converged   device   and   that,   “an   architecture   based   on   dedicated   closed   boxes   means   that   this   situation   will   not   change”.   While   true   of   Apple   technology,   this   ignores   the   wide   range   of   devices   based   on   variants   of   the   Android  operating  system  now  available.  Traxler  (2010)  further  notes  that,  “devices   owned  by  students  will  be,  at  best,  poorly  suited  for  learning,  different  and  changing,   often   for   reasons   that   are   not   technical,   not   educational,   and   probably   not   even   rationale  and  foreseeable.”  This  view  does,  indeed,  have  some  validity  at  the  time  of   writing  since  early  adopter  schools  are  adapting  what  is  essentially  a  device  created   for   individual   personal   use   into   a   ubiquitous   classroom   tool.   The   technology   is   still   developing  rapidly  and  this  poses  its  own  problems  for  schools,  such  as  ensuring  that   there  is  a  commonality  of  platform  and  Apps.  However,  where  the  school  recognises   the   personal   nature   of   the   device   and   adapts   its   approach   and   pedagogy   to   suit,   it   is   possible,  as  at  Longfield  Academy,  to  integrate  iPads  as  just  another  tool  for  learning.   Indeed,   Traxler   (2010)   note   that   mobile   technologies   are   difficult   to   ignore   as   they   are,   “woven   into   all   times   and   places   of   students’   lives”,   something   that   can   only   increase  as  devices  become  more  affordable  and  powerful.   Melhuish  and  Falloon  (2010)  lead  us  to  a  consideration  of  how  mobile  technologies   are  redefining  what  constitutes  a  learning  space,  one  that  is  no  longer  fixed  in  time   but   based   on   connecting   people   with   each   other   and   information   through   virtual   collaborative  spaces  and  communities.  Such  use  is  evident  at  only  a  low  level  in  the   Longfield   study,   where   much   use   is   classroom   based.   However,   there   is   evidence   from   both   pupil   interviews   and   questionnaires   indicating   that   some,   but   not   all   students,   are   using   their   iPads   in   just   this   way.   In   this   respect   the   findings   reflect   those  of  the  Speak  Up  2011  study.   Exploring  the  issues   While   these   recent   studies   are   demonstrating   the   benefits   of   personal   devices,   their   introduction   does   give   rise   to   many   issues:   technical,   pedagogical   and   in   management.   However,  lessons   are   being   learned   from   the   early   adopters,   though   not  always  by  the  manufacturers.  

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Traxler (2010)   considers   current   mobile   technologies   are   not   designed   for   educational  use  and  are  poorly  suited  to  learning.  However,  this  is  a  generalisation   and  takes  little  account  of  the  speed  of  development  over  the  last  two  years  during   which   the   iPad   has   become   the   dominant   tool   and   the   technology   of   choice   in   schools.  There  are  clear  reasons  for  this,  the  most  important  being  the  consistency   of  the  operating  system  and  interface  and  the  availability  of  educational  apps.  This  is   simply   not   (yet)   the   case   with   other   systems.   Speirs   (2012)   notes   in   his   blog   that   while   iOS   5   is   deployed   in   the   vast   majority   of   iOS   devices   in   the   field,   the   main   competition,   Android   platforms,   are   largely   using   the   outdated   Android   2.x,   with   little   likelihood   of   upgrade.   Further,   there   are   no   Android   Apps   equivalent   to   e.g.   GarageBand,  Keynote,  ArtRage  etc.  As  ever,  it  is  the  availability  of   educational  tools,   as   well   as   issues   of   security,   backup   and   restore   and   lifecycle   support   that   are   important  to  school  users.  Currently  only  the  iPad  provides  all  of  these.   As   noted   above,   the   iPad   and   similar   products   are   produced  and  marketed  as  personal  devices  and  as  such   are  not  designed  for  educational  use.  Thus  Traxler  (2010)   considers   typical   student   owned   devices   to   be,   “poorly   suited  to  learning”.  However,  this  is  too  simplistic  a  view   since  it  applies  to  the  range  of  devices  that  a  learner  may   own,   including   Smartphones,   while   successful   use   of   tablet  devices  has  taken  place  where  there  has  been  use   of  a  consistent  technology,  typically  iPads.   Yet  a  device  is  only  as  useful  as  the  tools  or  apps  that  it  uses  and  in  the  case  of  the   iPad  there  appears  to  be  a  developing  use  of  a  small  but  growing  number  of  apps  –   GarageBand,  Brushes,  KeyNote,  Pages  etc  that  are  proving  their  worth.  These  meet   the   concerns   expressed   by   Melhuish   and   Falloon   (2010)   that,   “For   applications   to   be   effective   as   part   of   an   individual’s   learning   pathway   they   must   be   pedagogically   sound  in  their  design,  foster  interactions  that  is  grounded  .  .  .  in  m-­‐Learning  theory,   rather  than  focusing  solely  on  content,  engagement  or  ‘edutainment’.”   This   brings   us   to   matters   of   pedagogy   and   school   practice,   an   area   that   has   been   widely   debated   since   mobile   and   hand-­‐held   technologies   became   readily   available.   There  is  broad  agreement  on  the  potential  of  such  tools,  notably  around  the  idea  of   anytime,   anywhere   learning   and   the   facility   for   learners   to   access   courses   and   resources  at  will  and  to  both  ask  questions  of  and  to  publish  to  an  audience  far  beyond   school.   This   has   not   however   translated   into   radical   pedagogical   approaches   in   schools.   Personal   classroom   observations   and   those   of   e.g.   OFSTED   (2012)   reinforce   the   notion   that   schools   wish   to   remain   in   full   control   of   a   pupil’s   learning   through   restrictions   on   web   access,   virtual   learning   environments   (VLEs)   that   are   largely   document  repositories  with  little  or  no  direct  student  participation  and  where  learning   is   directed   along   narrow   and   sometimes   shallow   paths.   This   at   a   time   when   universities   are   complaining   (Cambridge   Assessment   2012)   that   students   are   poorly  

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prepared in  critical/higher  order  thinking  skills  and  independent  inquiry/research  skills,   the  development  of  which  can  be  supported  by  effective  use  of  mobile  technologies.   There   are,   however,   dangers   if   appropriate   pedagogies   are   not   evolved.   Traxler   (2010)  notes  a  changed  sense  of  both  ownership  and  knowledge  brought  about  by   personal   devices,   while   expressing   concern   that   such   devices   deliver   knowledge,   “chunked,  i.e.  structured  and  connected  in  very  different  ways  from  earlier  learning   technologies   such   as   the   lecture,   the   web   and   the   book.”.   Yet   is   this   markedly   different  from  the  way  in  which  a  school  curriculum  is  often  delivered  –  small  chunks   of   knowledge   sufficient   to   pass   an   exam,   something   that   may   well   become   worse   under   a   Hirsch   style   knowledge-­‐based   curriculum   as   currently   proposed   for   England.   Melhuish   and   Falloon   (2010)   are   similarly   concerned   that   there   is   now   a   blurred   distinction   between   formal   and   ‘just   in   time’   learning   and   no   association   with   the   sustained,  deep  and  formalised  learning  that  society  has  demanded.   Traxler  (2010)  further  notes  that  as  individuals  can  now  exercise  choice  and  control   they  begin  to  inhabit  their  own  worlds  of  knowledge.  Whether  you  agree  or  disagree   with   Traxler’s   view   that,   “This   erodes   the   idea   of   a   commonly   accepted   canon,   a   common   curriculum,   of   things   we   all   need   to   know   and   are   assumed   to   know,   and   replaces   it   with   what   some   people   referred   to   as   a   neo-­‐liberal   nightmare”   may   depend   on   your   personal   political   outlook.   The   very   fact   that   learning   is   able   to   become   much   more   personalised,   and   without   the   cost   and   effort   of   joining   and   travelling   to   libraries,   lectures   and   seminars   can   only   be   positive.   Learning   is   liberated   from   both   the   classroom   and   direct   control   of   the   school,   indeed   of   the   State.   Dangerous   times,   or   an   exciting   new   freedom?   Certainly   it   brings   a   conflict   between  a  highly  formalised  traditional  curriculum  and  testing  regime  and  one  based   on   a   small   core   of   fundamental   knowledge   and   the   open   exploration   of   wider   concepts  and  ideas.  Thus  Melhuish  and  Falloon  (2010)  suggest  teacher  and  student   must  work  together  to  develop  individual  pathways  based  on  actual  student  need.   As   ever,   the   reality   of   the   classroom   might   lead   to   varied   ways   of   utilising   the   opportunities  presented  by  tablet  devices,  yet  the  studies  published  thus  far  and  the   evidence   of   Longfield   Academy   suggest   that   there   is   a   remarkable   similarity   in   modes  of  use  and  of  teacher  and  pupil  perceptions  of  the  devices.  Thus  the  Learning   Exchange   (2011)   study   in   Australia   identified   that   the   iPad   is   a   significant   tool   to   support  and  enhance  learning  and  in  particular:   • • • • •

Was used   for   tasks   that   best   suited   its   use   rather   than   simply   because   it   was   available,   Offered  quick  access  to  Apps  required  for  particular  learning  tasks,   Was  engaging  learning,  depending  on  choice  of  Apps,   Enabled   reinforcement   and   rote   learning   of   basic   concepts   for   learners   at   all   levels,   Supported  creativity,  

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Strongly supported   research   and   information   fluency   and   critical   thinking,   problem  solving  and  decision  making.  

Vrtis (2010)  further  noted  that  students  using  tablets  in  the  classroom  felt  better  prepared   with  their  homework  and  that  the  technology  assisted  them  with  their  note  taking  skills.   The   latter   use   was   clearly   evident   during   classroom   observations   at   Longfield,   where   a   majority  of  students  used  their  iPad  for  this  purpose  rather  than  pen  and  paper.   Glicksman   (2011)   reporting   on   a   US   high   school   study,   while   again   noting   use   of   a   common  set  of  Apps,  also  refers  to  annotation  of  notes  while  identifying  particular   use   in   subjects   such   as   History,   Religious   Studies   and   Science.   Perhaps   of   greater   significance   are   the   results   of   Glickman’s   student   survey   which   identified   that   the   majority  of  students:   • • • •

Found the  iPad  easy  to  use,   Helped  learning  in  class,   Was  easy  to  use,  including  the  onscreen  keyboard,   Was  preferred  to  a  laptop.  

This again   mirrors   the   more   detailed   Longfield   study   and   is   further   confirmed   by   the   Spang  (2011)  study  in  a  German  grammar  school.  Whilst  small  scale  the  results  are   markedly   similar   to   those   obtained   from   Longfield   Academy.   In   summary   Spang   found  that:   • • •

Use in  Maths,  Music  and  Religion  was  particularly  strong,   Internet  research  was  the  main  use  followed  by  use  of  Pages,  Keynote,  Popplet   and  GarageBand  Apps  plus  annotation  of  documents,   A  significant  majority  of  pupils  felt  they  worked  better  with  an  iPad,  found  Apps   beneficial  to  learning  and  wanted  to  make  greater  use  of  the  devices.  

Elsewhere, Garcia   and   Freedman   (2011),   using   iPads   with   US   high   school   History   students,   found   that   use   of   a   particular   App   (Explore   9/11)   identified   small   but   significant   learning   gains   compared   to   classes   not   using   the   App.   In   particular   they   note  that  use  of  the  iPads  facilitated  and  encouraged  group  collaboration  that  itself   had  a  positive  impact  on  achievement.  This,  of  course,  requires  access  to  discussion   boards,  wikis,  etc  on  a  school  VLE  or  via  cloud  tools,  while  also  raising  e-­‐safety  and   security   issues.   The   potential   is   there   but   perhaps   as   yet   not   fully   exploited,   regardless   of   the   device   or   platform   available   within   the   school   environment.   Beyond  school  is  another  matter  entirely.   There  is  now  strong  evidence  that  devices  such  as  the  iPad2  (and  indeed  the  iPad  in   particular  rather  than  Android  tablets)  are  valuable  educational  tools.  As  will  be  seen   in  the  detailed  analysis  of  the  Longfield  study,  there  are  issues  to  be  resolved  in  using   personal   devices   in   an   enterprise   environment   but   the   increasingly   positive   impact   on   learning   and   attitudes   to   learning   are   clearly   identified,   even   after   a   mere   two   school  terms.    

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BACKGROUND TO  THE  LONGFIELD  ACADEMY  IPAD  PROJECT   Longfield  Academy  in  Kent  is  a  new  build  school  of  960  students  covering  Years  7  to   13  (11-­‐18  chronological  ages).  The  school  has  a  strong  vision  for  ICT  and  intends  to   provide:   • • • •

A cutting  edge  learning  experience  including  access  to  technology  in  every  lesson   and  at  home.   Every  student  with  their  own  learning  device.   Exciting  and  engaging  lessons.   Every  student  using  technology  to  improve  their  learning  wherever  they  are.  

Working with   9ine   Consulting,   the   school   has   been   able   to   provide   high   quality   cabled   and   wireless   networking   to   support   400   iMac   workstations   located   in   three   ICT   suites,   three   plaza   spaces   and   the   post-­‐16   learning   area   together   with   teacher   MacBooks  and  staff  and  pupil  iPads.   The  iPads  are  provided  through  a  leasing  scheme  with  uptake  as  at  March  2012  of   726  units  representing  76%  of  the  pupils  on  roll:   Y7   Y8   Y9   Y10   Y11   Y12   Y13  

-­‐ -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐  

159 145   123   125        81        60        33  

Additionally, a  further  100  students  have  iPads  not  supplied  by  the  school.   The  implementation  has  been  led  at  senior  management  level  through  an  iLearning   Group  led  by  the  Principal.  This  oversees  the  vision  and  takes  a  strategic  overview  of   the   iPad   for   learning.   The   group   comprises   staff   with   a   range   of   responsibilities,   experience   and   confidence,   meets   regularly   and   meetings   are   minuted   with   appropriate  actions  and  deadlines.   Considerable   initial   and   ongoing   training   and   professional   development   has   been   provided.   The   school   has   noted   several   challenges   arising   from   this   novel   scheme,   mainly   technical   such   as   ensuring   that   the   VLE   supports   the   Safari   browser   and   also   from   licensing   issues   for   Apps,   since   Apple   do   not   currently   offer   enterprise   licensing.   Education   challenges   include   the   provision   of   ongoing   CPD   and   to   continually   challenge  teachers  in  their  use  of  the  devices.  

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METHODOLOGY Within  the  constraints  of  time  and  budget,   it   was   agreed   with   the   school   to   gather   data   via   questionnaire   surveys   of   staff,   students   and   parents.   This   was   further   supported   by   a   structured   site   visit   involving   interviews   and   lesson   observations  in  order  to  clarify  and  further   develop   issues   identified   in   the   questionnaire  responses.   The   questions   and   structure   used   in   the   questionnaires   were   reviewed   by   senior   staff  at  Longfield  and  modified  following  comments  and  some  limited  testing,  after   which  they  were  created  on  SurveyMonkey  with  appropriate  web  links  provided  for   the   school   to   distribute.   The   use   of   SurveyMonkey   enabled   rapid   and   automatic   summarising  and  graphing  of  the  data,  thus  saving  considerable  time  and  speeding   analysis.   Copies   of   the   questionnaires   can   be   found   at   Annex   1   (Staff),   Annex   2   (Students)  and  Annex  3  (Parents).   Given  the  size  of  the  school  (960  on  roll)  and  the  number  of  students  now  with  iPads,   it   was   agreed   that   the   sample   should   include   all   staff   plus   students   with   iPads   and   their   parents.   The   questionnaires   proved   quick   and   easy   to   complete,   resulting   in   71   staff  responses,  310  pupil  responses  but  only  23  responses  from  parents.  While  the   poor   response   rate   from   parents   means   that   this   data   is   of   low   statistical   significance,   parent   comments   have   been   included   in   the   findings   where   appropriate.   Data  collection  and  analysis   Student   and   staff   questionnaires   were   completed   in   late   March/early   April   2012,   largely   during   school   hours   thus   ensuring   ready   access   to   the   tools   and   support   in   the   event   of   problems.   Parents   were   informed   in   the   last   week   of   the   spring   term   2012   but   in   the   event   the   response   rate   by   the   end   of   April   was   poor,   with   numbers   (n=23)  insufficient  to  provide  valid  data.   The   use   of   SurveyMonkey   resulted   in   a   general   analysis   of   responses   to   each   question  being  available  almost  instantly.    

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FINDINGS Overview   The  iPads  “Have  revolutionised  teaching.”  In  the  opinion  of  one  Longfield  teacher,  a   statement   that,   while   not   necessarily   shared   by   all,   sums   up   the   views   of   most   students  and  many  staff.   Use  by  year  group   While   the   majority   of   students   have   iPads,   only   one   third   of   these   completed   the   questionnaire   and   of   these   68%   were   in   key   stage   3   (KS3)   and   23%   in   key   stage   4   (KS4)  and  the  remainder  in  the  6th  form.    

Figure  1.  

Responses by  year  group  

Interestingly, staff   reported   slightly   greater   use   with   KS4   than   with   younger   pupils,   though   interviews   with   pupils   suggested   that   greater   use   was   occurring   in   KS3.   Certainly  there  were  suggestions  from  KS4  students  that  they  felt  the  tool  was  not   being  exploited  in  sufficient  lessons,  indicating  that  there  is  an  issue  here  that  could   be  followed  up  further.  

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Teacher views  are  shown  in  the  following  table:  

Figure  2.  

Use of  iPads  in  each  key  stage  as  reported  by  staff  

Level of  use   The   iPads   are   now   regularly   used   in   lessons   by   the   overwhelming   majority   of   teachers,   although   two   respondents   had   not   used   them   in   the   survey   period.   However,   80%   of   staff   reported   using   the   device   in   between   one   and   ten   lessons,   with  38%  reporting  use  in  between  six  and  ten.  A  significant  number  of  staff,  17%,   used   the   iPad   in   the   majority   of   their   lessons,   though   given   the   later   responses   on   subject  use  this  is  also  driven  by  the  availability  of  suitable  software  and  Apps.   Student   interviews,   albeit   a   very   small   sample,   suggested   a   somewhat   different   picture.  While  KS3  students  were  overwhelmingly  positive  and  talked  readily  about   the  regularity   and  range   of   use  of   the  iPads,  those  in  KS4  were,  in  some  cases,  quite   negative.   They   reported   only   limited   use   by   a   small   number   of   teachers.   However,   this   is   at   variance   with   the   staff   survey   responses,   where   greater   use   in   KS4   compared  to  KS3  is  indicated  (88%  compared  to  76%  of  staff).  It  would  thus  appear   that  the  interview  sample  of  KS4  students  were  not  representative  of  the  key  stage   as  a  whole.  

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Figure 3.  

Level of  use  in  lessons  (Staff)  

Data from   pupils   provides   a   similar   picture,   with   84%   reporting   use   in   between   one   and  ten  lessons  per  week,  of  which  27%  indicating  use  in  six  to  ten.  Again  a  significant   number,   12%,   indicated   use   in   the   majority   of   their   lessons.   Thus   after   just   two   terms   of  the  implementation  programme,  the  use  of  the  iPads  is  becoming  firmly  embedded.  

Figure  4.  

Level of  use  in  lessons  (Students)  

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Use of  the  iPads  in  curriculum  subjects   It   is   clear   that   particular   use   of   the   iPads   is   made   in   a   small   number   of   subjects,   though   all   are   reported   to   have   made   some   use.   Three   subjects   in   particular   dominate   use   –   English,   Maths   and   Science,   though   strong   usage   in   Geography,   History,  Art,  Music  and  Drama  is  also  reported.  

Figure  5.  

Subject use  (students)  

Figure  6.  

Subject use  (teachers)  

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Staff use,   of   course,   reflects   both   the   number   of   staff   teaching   a   subject   and   the   allocated   teaching   time.   It   is   therefore   no   surprise   that   those   subjects   with   the   greatest  allocation   of   time   are   also   the   greatest  users   of   the   device.   However,   it   also   confirms   that   all   subjects   are   making   at   least   some   use   and   thus   gaining   valuable   experience  in  what  the  iPad  can  offer.   There   are   interesting   similarities   between   this   data   and   that   obtained   by   Spack   (2011)  at  his  Cologne  school.  He  found  particularly  high  levels  of  use  in  Maths,  Music   and  Religion  with  sciences   following,   though  at   no   more   than  14%  of   users   and  with   other   subjects   trailing.   However,   in   the   Spack   study,   a   single   class   set   of   iPads   was   shared,  whereas  the  Longfield  students  largely  have  personal  devices,  thus  enabling   significantly  greater  routine  use.   Interviews   with   Longfield   students   highlighted   use   in   Maths,   English,   History   and   Music  especially.  However,  there  does  appear  to  be  a  relationship  between  level  of   use   and   the   availability   of   suitable   tools   and   Apps.   Thus   in   Maths   use   of   graphing   Apps,   including   3D   graphing,   is   important,   as   is   the   ability   to   send   work   direct   to   the   teacher  for  email  response.  In  English  the  teacher  sends  slide  shows  created  in  Prezi,   while   Pages   is   a   standard   tool.   GarageBand   is,   of   course,   a   modern   essential   for   music,   as   is   the   Brushes   finger   painting   App   in   art,   the   latter   enabling   rapid   experimentation  and  remarkable  quality.   Students   identified   regular   iPad   use   in   many   other   subject   areas   within   GCSE   and   6th   form   courses.   Photography   was   mentioned   especially   frequently,   as   was   Business   Studies.   The  nature  of  iPad  use   Three   main   uses   of   the   iPads   dominate.   Unsurprisingly   the   major   use   in   class,   reported   by   64%   of   students   and   80%   of   staff,   is   researching   topics   online.   This   illustrates  a  significant  benefit  of  personal  devices  and  good  network  connections  in   that   reference   to   web   resources   can   be   integrated   fully   into   the   lesson.   Thus   historical   resources,   science   videos,   online   maps,   religious   viewpoints   etc   can   be   referred   to   instantly   and   used   to   extend   learning   in   ways   simply   not   possible   otherwise.  

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Figure 7.  

Main uses  of  iPads  (students)  

The other   key   uses   reported   were   mind   mapping   using   the   Popplet   App   and   the   creation   of   presentations.   The   use   of   mind   mapping   (reported   by   56%   of   students   and   70%   of   staff)   is   particularly   important   since   it   supports   the   development   of   higher   level   thinking   skills   and   better   analysis   of   information   and   connectivity   of   ideas   and   events.  A  lesson   observation   where   the  technique  was   used  to  reinforce   understanding   demonstrated   that   given   a   free   choice   most   pupils   chose   to   use   Popplet  rather  than  pencil  and  paper,  citing  speed,  the  facility  for  rapid  edits  and  the   ability  to  readily  share  their  mind  map  as  important.  Clearly  the  users  know  what  the   device  is  capable  of  and  are  keen  to  exploit  that  functionality.  

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Figure 8.  

Main uses  of  iPads  (staff)  

Other major   uses   are   as   expected,   notably   reading   teacher   provided   course   materials   and   notes   (reported   by   33%   of   staff   and   pupils),   reading   published   texts   (20%   of   students   and   18%   of   staff)   and   poster   design   (37%   of   pupils   and   44%   of   staff).   The   former   exploits   the   eBook   reader   potential   of   the   iPad   while   the   heavy   emphasis  on  poster  design,  a  perhaps  overused  technique,  is  made  easier  with  the   iPad  through  easy  editing  and  ready  access  to  graphics  and  text  information.  This  has   the  potential  to  support  more  thoughtful  and  better  researched  student  responses.   Overall,  many  of  main  uses  of  the  iPads  are  “traditional”  -­‐  word  processing  (23%  of   pupils  and  59%  of  staff)  or  watching  videos  (19%  of  students  and  31%  of  staff).   The   data   suggests   that   many   staff   feel   more   comfortable   using   the   devices   within   familiar  contexts  while  students  are  potentially  more  likely  to  exploit  functions  and   Apps  that  they  feel  meet  their  needs  and  learning   styles.  However,  some  tools  are   well   exploited   by   both   e.g.   using   the   iPad’s   camera   to   take   video   of   work   in   progress   and   for   assessment   purposes   (37%   of   students,   55%   of   staff)   and   in   particular   the   rapidly   developing   use   of   both   general   and   subject   specific   Apps   (32%   of   students,   45%  of  staff).   Collaborative  working  is  commonplace  (reported  by  43%  of  pupils  and  52%  of  staff)   but  in  observations  appears  to  be  a  classroom  activity  involving  recording  of  group   work   rather   than   an   online   activity.   Indeed,   at   the   present   stage   of   development   some   key   benefits   of   the   iPad   are   not   yet   fully   exploited.   Thus   few   students   produce   podcasts  (6%),  comment  on  forums  or  blogs  (5%),  though  20%  create  web  content   e.g.   on   the   school   VLE.   The   potential   is   certainly   there   to   exploit   e.g.   use   of   video   production.   For   example,   as   part   of   an   RE   lesson   the   teacher   set   groups   a   task   to  

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make a   two   minute   news   report   regarding   religious   views   of   certain   controversial   individuals.   However,  open  responses  from  students  offer  an  insight  into  the  wider  uses  that  are   developing.  Examples  include:   • • • • • •

Maths games  and  English  games   I-­‐Movies  for  photography   Making  music  (e.g.  using  GarageBand  App)   Making  videos   Writing  stories   Art  

This was  expanded  considerably  when  students  were  asked  what  they  would  like  to   use  the  iPad  for  if  given  the  opportunity.   But  what  would  students  like  to  do  with  their  iPads?   A   wide   range   of   responses   were   received   but   three   key   issues   stand   out.   In   particular,   students   wish   to   make   much   greater   use   of   video   resources   to   help   their   learning,   many  of  which  are  hosted  on  YouTube  and  therefore  inaccessible  to  them  in  school.   This  is  not  the  place  for  a  debate  on  school  web  filtering  and  a  good  case  can  be  made   for   blocking   YouTube   in   schools   simply   because   of   the   huge   amount   of   undesirable   material   hosted  there.  However,  there   also  exists  an   equally   large  repository  of   free   educational  resources   that   are   simply   not   being   exploited.  Students   are   well   aware   of   this   and   voiced   their   frustration   both   in   the   questionnaires   and   in   face   to   face   interviews.  This  is  an  issue  for  all  schools  and  one  requiring  wider  debate.   The  other  key  requests  relate  to  greater  use  of  iMovie  and  also  use  of  educational   games.   Thus   students   mentioned,   “designing   games”,   “playing   interactive   games   that   help   me   learn”,   “downloading   games   that   help   you”,   and   “use   games   to   help   work   better”.   While   ‘computer   games’   is   a   term   with   negative   connotations   for   traditionalists  (although  gaming  has  been  used  e.g.  in  Geography  for  many  years)  at   least   some   students   appreciate   the   learning   benefits   offered   by   appropriately   designed  gaming  activities.   Overwhelmingly   students   wanted   to   make   more   use   of   their   iPads   and   indicated   a   range  of  activities  that  they  felt  should  be  more  common  e.g.   • • • • • •  

Use them  more  in  Art,  PE,  Maths,  English  etc.   Use  wikispaces   Edit  photographs  and  animations   Write  more  notes   Create  more  presentations   Make  videos/movies   PAGE  21  

• • • • • • • • • • • •

More online  research   Word  games  to  help  spelling   For  staff  to  set  more  tasks  requiring  use  of  the  iPads   Using  the  iPads  instead  of  pen  and  paper   Write  essays  and  stories  using  the  iPad   Make  more  music  on  the  iPad   Do  tests  on  the  iPad   Use  more  Apps  for  Science   Maths  homework   Designing  games   Use  the  iPad  instead  of  books   Access  the  school  VLE  

These represent   no   more   than   a   summary  of  the   main   responses   but   one   has   to   feel   for   the   student   who   complained   that,   “we   never   use   our   iPads”.   This   was   the   only   negative   response,   most   others   demonstrating   that   not   only   are   their   iPads   well   used   but   that   students   want   much   more,   to   the   point   where   their   ideas   might   usefully  form  the  driver  for  the  next  stages  of  development.   Doing  now  what  could  not  be  done  before   This  same  theme  is  apparent  when  students  were  asked  what  they  could  now  do  to  help   their  learning  compared  to  the  pre-­‐iPad  era.  A  key  theme  to  emerge  was,  once  again,   the  ease  of  access  to  resources.  Thus,  in  summary,  responses  included  aspects  such  as:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Easy Internet  access   Use  of  iBooks   Makes  reading  interactive   Translation  tools   Making  movies   Use  of  educational  games   Use  of  Apps  to  support  learning   Mind  mapping   Communication  with  teachers   Creating  and  delivering  presentations   Homework   Access  to  texts,  mark  schemes  and  past  exam  papers   Listening  to  podcasts  e.g.  on  GCSE  Pod   Annotation  of  texts   Drawing  etc  in  art.  

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Again, there  is  a  clear  message  that  students  regard  the  iPad  as  a  tool  that  enables   them  to  work  more  efficiently  and  thus,  by  extrapolation,  more  productively.   Staff   were   as   positive   as   students   in   this   respect.   With   the   exception   of   one   respondent   who   stated   bluntly,   “Take   them   away”,   the   majority   were   able   to   identify  benefits.  Some  were  glowing  in  their  praise:   Everything!   Frees   me   up   from   finding   a   computer   room   when   I   want   to   do   something.  This  means  much  less  stress.  Can  plan  lessons  with  more  variety  and   better  pace  as  the  device  can  be  used  for  a  few  minutes  and  then  move  on,  then   again  later  in  the  lesson.  Makes  role  play  much  more  productive.  Students  can   better   review   what   they   have   done,   with   other   students,   and   allows   effective   peer   evaluation   of   this   work.   Allows   students   to   research   maps   and   link   with   satellite  photos  in  a  way  it  has  never  possible  before.  They  can  easily  find  places   they  know  to  do  work  which  makes  it  more  relevant.  I  have  taken  the  devices   outside  onto  the  field  to  do  things;  I  could  not  do  this  with  a  desktop!  These  are   just  a  few.”   Another  teacher  noted  that:   “iPads   allow   instant   access   to   a   huge   range   of   resources.   Students   are   able   to   research   a   word   definition   in   an   instant.   They   can   dip   in   and   out   of   various   literary   texts   without   the   need   to   go   to   the   library   or   be   given   photocopied   resources   or   books.   Learning   is   far   more   varied   and   interactive.   Electronic   textbooks  can  be  tailored  to  the  group  or  even  to  the  individual,  so  that  iPads   open  the  door  to  a  genuinely  individualised  curriculum.”   One  noted  cost  savings  amongst  other  benefits:   “Personalised   PowerPoint   slides,   saves   on   my   photocopying   bill,   set   tasks   at   home  -­‐  such  as  researching  video  clips,  receiving  typed  work  in  the  lesson,  pupils   can  message  my  iPad  within  class  if  they  are  needing  help.”   Others  talked  about:   “Animations  on  locations  editing  and  analysing  photographs  as  they  are  taken.   Spontaneous  visual  research  in  class  discussions.”   “Allows  more  independent  learning  from  students.  They  can  take  on  board  the   task   and   feed   it   back   however   they   wish   as   long   as   they   are   answering   the   question  or  completing  the  task.”  

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“Immediate access  to  information.  Videoing  experiments  and  playing  back,  use   of  photos  easily  in  coursework  and  assessments.”    

Yet others  noted  personal  benefits  such  as:   • • • • • •

Using their  own  iPad  for  registration   Creating  podcasts   Not  having  to  worry  about  finding  a  computer   Easier  lesson  planning   Facilitating  target  setting   Sharing  resources  easily  

While benefits  to  learning  were  equally  clear  in  comments  including  amongst  others:   • • • • •

Engaging students   Immediate  research   Promoting  independent  learning   Easier  to  differentiate   Enabling  students  to  immediately  see  the  results  of  their  learning.  

Comments such  as  those  quoted  above  show  not  only  the  impact  that  the  iPad  is  having   on  pedagogical  thinking  but  also  that  staff  increasingly  recognise  and  exploit  the  benefits   brought  about  by  students’  access  to  personal  devices  that  are  always  available.   Teachers   also   offered   interesting   insights   into   those   things   that   they   would   like   to   further  develop  using  the  iPads  and  while  some  wished  to  develop  innovative  practice,   this   was   not   always   the   case   despite,   the   remarkable   range   of   uses   so   far.   In   some   cases,  frustration  with  the  technology  was  evident  e.g.  the  inability  to  use  education   websites   such   as   MyMaths   that   use   Flash   (which   Apple   systems   cannot   handle),   technical   issues   in   connecting   iPads   to   the   interactive   whiteboards   in   order   to   use   AppleTV  and  the  potential  cost  of  some  useful  Apps,  e.g.  for  Science  teaching.  Indeed,   lack  of  budget  for  paid-­‐for  Apps  appears  as  a  potential  use  limiting  issue.  However,  the   Flash  issue  has  now  been  resolved  through  use  of  the  Puffin  web  browser  App.   Others   were   keen   to   further   explore   both   currently   available   tools,   as   well   as   developing  pedagogical  practice.  The  following  were  commonly  mentioned:   • • • • • •

Podcasts and  Apps  to  support  literacy   Blogging   eBooks   More  subject  specific  Apps   Final  product  performance  videos  for  assessment  and  peer  review   Self  review  and  peer  assessment  in  general  

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• • • • •

Creating eBooks   Peer  teaching   Creation  and  use  of  revision  resources   Use  of  interactive  games   Linking  to  voting  systems.  

Some teachers   identified   several   of   the   above   but   bemoaned   the   lack   of   time   to   develop  resources,  a  common  issue  that  also  arises  in  VLE  development.  It  is  possible   that   commercial   providers   will   identify   this   as   a   potential   market   and   create   materials,  though  cost  may  be  a  limiting  factor  in  the  current  financial  climate.   It  is  clearly  evident,  however,  that  both  teachers  and  pupils  not  only  want  to  expand   the  use  of  the  iPads  but  can  articulate  many  ways  in  which  this  can  and  should  be   done.  The  ideas  are  there  and  while  some  are  still  at  the  stage  of  doing  traditional   things  more  easily,  many  others  are  potentially  agents  of  change.   Use  of  the  iPads  beyond  the  classroom   There  is  little  point  in  students  having  personal  devices  if  they  are  not  fully  utilised   wherever   the   student   happens   to   be.   Clearly   the   school   seeks   to   exploit   this   by   setting  homework  and  other  learning  activities  that  require  use  of  the  iPads  but  has   to  accept  that  students  will  also  use  them  for  personal  activities.  Thus  while  71%  of   students   report   using   their   iPad   to   complete   homework   tasks   87%   use   them   for   playing  games  and  social  networking.  While  the  latter  use  raises  the  usual  e-­‐safety   and  cyberbullying  issues,  the  majority  of  reported  uses  were  broadly  in  the  context   of  learning  activities.  

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Figure 9.  

Student use  of  iPads  beyond  school  

Thus 47%  of  students  researched  topics  online,  while  39%  reported  using  them  for   creative   and   design   activities.   Other   reported   uses   included   making   videos,   music   and  taking  pictures,  with  one  student  complaining  that  they  needed  more  books  on   the   device.   There   is   therefore   strong   evidence   that   most   students   are   using   their   iPads  to  support  their  learning  in  ways  that  meet  their  particular  needs.   Some,  but  not  all  staff  (60  of  71  respondents),  set  homework  and  coursework  tasks   requiring   use   of   the   iPad,   with   73%   of   those   responding   requiring   online   research   and   63%   completion   of   homework   tasks   with   a   further   38%   requiring   students   to   access  course  materials  and  texts.  

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Figure 10.   Staff  requirement  for  student  use  of  iPads  beyond  school  

Some innovative   use   was   mentioned   e.g.   listening   to   and/or   preparing   podcasts,   making  presentations  and  work  on  graphs  and  data  handling.   Overall,  a  significant  group  of  staff  are  developing  the  use  of  the  iPads  for  learning   beyond  school,  albeit  largely  as  a  replacement  for  traditional  paper-­‐based  activities   at   this   stage   with   only   limited   exploitation   of   the   more   innovative   tools   available.   However,  this  reflects  the  current  early  stage  of  development  and  provides  a  good   basis  for  further  development.   Of   more   concern   is   the   15%   of   staff   who   appear   not   to   set   homework   and   similar   tasks   that   require   use   of   the   iPads,   especially   as   this   number   is   much   larger   than   the   5%   who   indicate   overall   antipathy   to   them.   Whilst   this   may   be   due   to   a   view   that   as   not   all   students   yet   have   the   devices   it   would   be   impractical,   there   may   be   other   reasons   that   this   study   has   not   been   able   to   identify.   However,   the   school   is   introducing  a  new  homework  policy  in  June  2012  that  emphasises  the  use  of  iPads   and  should  serve  to  address  this  issue.   The  impact  of  the  iPads  on  student  motivation   A   significant   69%   of   students   certainly   consider   themselves   to   be   more   motivated   now  that  they  have  the  iPads,  with  46%  agreeing  and  23%  strongly  agreeing  with  the   statement,  “I  feel  more  motivated  and  can  work  better  than  without  it”.  Only  11%   disagreed  with  the  statement,  possibly  including  those  who  later  indicated  technical   problems  with  their  devices.  

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Figure 11.   iPads  and  student  motivation  (student  responses)  

Interestingly, 67%   of   staff   had   similar   views   with   51%   agreeing   and   16%   strongly   agreeing  that  students  are  more  motivated  and  worked  better  when  using  the  iPads.   Some  14%  of  staff  disagreed,  a  figure  consistent  with  other  staff  responses.  

Figure  12.   iPads  and  student  motivation  (staff  responses)  

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Rather more   staff   than   pupils   currently   maintain   a   neutral   position,   though   this   is   to   be  expected  at  this  stage  of  the  implementation.  What  is  important  is  that  there  is  a   clear   consensus   from   all   involved   that   the   iPads   are   having   a   positive   impact   on   both  motivation  and  how  students  work.   The  impact  of  the  iPads  on  the  quality  of  students  work   Some  73%  of  students  report  a  highly  positive  impact,  with  49%  indicating  that  they   agreed   and   24%   that   they   strongly   agreed   that   working   with   the   iPad   has   helped   improve  the  quality  of  their  work.  Only  some  6%  disagree.  

Figure  13.   iPads  and  student  work  quality  (student  responses)  

Staff were   rather   more   reticent   on   this   issue,   with   31%   remaining   neutral.   Of   the   remainder   51%   agreed   and   16%   strongly   agreed   that   work   quality   was   improving.   However,   after   a   mere   two   terms   there   is   not   currently   sufficient   assessment   data   available  to  confirm  the  current  subjective  view.   The   fact   that   virtually   half   the   staff   believe   that   the   quality   of   work   is   improving   due   to  the  iPads  is  a  very  positive  indication  of  the  impact  of  the  devices.  

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Figure 14.   iPads  and  student  work  quality  (staff  responses)  

Again some  14%  of  staff  disagree,  reinforcing  the  view  that,  as  in  any  school,  there   are  a  small  group  of  staff  who  simply  cannot  see  the  benefits  of  technology.   The  impact  of  iPads  on  student  progress   Again,   there   is   a   division   of   opinion   between   students   and   staff,   with   the   former   again  more  positive.  Thus  a  consistent  67%  of  students  agree  (44%)  or  strongly  agree   (23%)   that   they   are   making   better   progress   now   that   they   have   iPads,   though   a   quarter  remain  neutral.  Again,  under  10%  disagree.  

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Figure 15.   iPads  and  student  progress  (student  responses)  

The views   of   staff   are   rather   less   positive,   though   28%   agree  and   11%   strongly   agree   that   the   iPads   have   resulted   in   improved   student   progress   and   a   larger   18%   disagreeing.  Some  42%  remain  neutral.  

Figure  16.   iPads  and  student  progress  (staff  responses)  

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The impact  of  iPads  on  student  achievement   As   with   progress,   so   with   achievement,   where   the   disparity   of   opinions   between   staff  and  students  is  similarly  marked  -­‐  indeed  more  so  as  the  positive  response  from   staff   in   particular   is   much   lower.   Thus   some   61%   of   students   agree   (42%)   or   strongly   agree   (19%)   that   their   achievement   has   risen,   while   28%   remain   neutral.   Unfortunately,  the  reasons  for  this  perception  were  not  investigated  so  it  is  unclear   as   to   whether   it   is   due   to   assessment   data   and   commentary   returned   to   students   or   simply  a  ‘feel  good’  factor  engendered  by  the  facility  to  produce  work  digitally.  

Figure  17.   iPads  and  student  achievement  (student  responses)  

The majority  of  staff,  almost  58%,  remained  neutral  on  this  question,  indicating  again   that   there   is   currently  insufficient   assessment  data   available   to   confirm   or   otherwise   any   impact   from   the   use   of   the   iPads.   Indeed,   in   a   new   school   building   with   new   working  methods,  it  may  be  difficult  to  define  any  one  individual  factor  influencing   achievement  in  the  short  term.  

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Figure 18.   iPads  and  student  achievement  (staff  responses)  

Despite this,  some  28%  of  staff  took  the  view  that  achievement  has  risen,  with  over   8%  agreeing  strongly.  Thus  in  some  classes  at  least,  it  can  be  considered  that  the  use   of  the  iPads  is  certainly  having  a  positive  impact  on  achievement.  The  challenge  for   the   school   will   lie   in   identifying   the   pedagogical   practices   in   those   lessons   that   are   enabling  this  improvement.   The  impact  of  iPads  on  working  effectiveness   Unsurprisingly,   a   significant   73%   of   students   consider   that   they   work   more   effectively   now   that   they   can   (usually)   make   routine   use   of   the   iPads.   Thus   48%   agreed  and  25%  strongly  agreed  that  this  is  the  case.  Only  19%  remain  neutral  and   the   same   small   cohort   of   8%   disagree.   Given   responses   elsewhere   regarding   e.g.   the   benefits  of  immediate  online  research  and  the  benefits  of  many  Apps,  such  a  positive   response  is  to  be  expected.  

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Figure 19.   iPads  and  effective  working  (student  responses)  

Figure  20.   iPads  and  effective  working  (student  responses)  

Staff again   take   a   more   reserved   attitude,   though   42%   agree   and   9%   strongly   agree   that   students   are   indeed   working   more   effectively,   with   31%   remaining   neutral.   A   rather   higher   proportion   than   with   other   questions,   18%,   disagree,   though   whether   this  is  due  to  e.g.  technical  issues  or  the  nature  of  a  particular  subject   is  not  recorded.   Again,  this  is  an  area  requiring  further  research  and  analysis  at  school  level.  

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The iPad  and  collaboration   Both  students  and  staff  were  asked  whether  the  availability  of  the  iPads  enabled  a   greater   level   of   collaborative   work   than   had   previously   been   the   case   e.g.   through   sharing   resources   and   ideas   online   and   through   group   working   in   class   where   the   devices  enabled  such  activities  as  the  rapid  creation  of  group  videos.   Students   clearly   believed   that   the   iPads   supported   collaboration,   with   which   47%   agreeing  and  18%  strongly  agreeing  with  the  question.  Again  a  consistent  group,  10%   disagreed.   As   has   already   been   noted,   a   proportion   of   the   respondents   reported   technical  and  other  issues  with  their  iPads  and  others  will  not  have  been  placed  in   learning  situations  where  the  teacher  uses  collaborative  techniques  or  where  these   are  not  an  appropriate  methodology.  

Figure  21.   iPads  and  collaborative  working  (students)  

Staff were  slightly  less  confident  in  their  responses  but  even  so  56%  overall  agreed   (39%)   or   strongly   agreed   (17%)   that   students   did   work   more   collaboratively   with   iPads   that   they   did   without.   Again,   a   consistent   14%   disagreed   while   about   one   quarter  remain  neutral.  

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Figure 22.   iPads  and  collaborative  working  (staff)  

Again though,  a  majority  of  staff  do  recognise  and  exploit  the  potential  of  the  iPad   and   are   evolving   their   pedagogical   approaches   accordingly.   It   will   therefore   be   important  for  future  development  that  the  school  is  able  to  identify  the  best  practice   in   the   school   and   to   disseminate   this   as   part   of   their   already   well   structured   programme  of  continuing  professional  development.   Does  the  use  of  Apps  aid  learning?   A  range  of  iPad  Apps  were  installed  when  the  devices  were  introduced  with  others   added  since.  It  is  therefore  not  surprising  that  these  are  well  used,  with  student  use   higher   than   for   staff.   This   is   while   74%   of   students   reported   use   of   Apps   in   their   classes  and  only  66%  of  staff  did  so,  suggesting  that  students  make  use  of  some  Apps   regardless.   The   relatively   brief   classroom   observations   and   interviews   suggest   that   students  understand  the  benefits  of  e.g.  keeping  notes  using  Pages  or  mind  mapping   with  Popplet  and  prefer  to  work  on  the  iPad  rather  than  in  an  exercise  book.   Interestingly,  slightly  more  than  one  third  of  staff  (34%)  had  not  used  Apps  in  their   lessons,   with   some   claiming   that   there   were   no   subject   appropriate   Apps   or   that   they   could   not   afford   to   purchase   those   that   were.   All   iPads   have   Pages   and   Keynotes   installed.   These   are   Apps   that   have   uses   across   the   curriculum,   so   a   lack   of   use   by   some   teachers   perhaps   indicates   either   an   unwillingness   to   explore   their   potential   or   a   limited   awareness   of   how   to   exploit   them   in   the   classroom.   It   also   sits   uneasily   with   the   indications   in   earlier   responses   of   the   benefits   offered   by   the   devices.   However,   the   reason   may   be   more   prosaic   in   that   Pages   etc   are   not   regarded  as  Apps  but  as  what,  on  a  traditional  computer,  would  be  seen  as  ‘office’    

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tools and  that  these  are  used  anyway.  It  is  possible  that  non-­‐App  users  are  actually   referring  to  non-­‐use  of  subject  specific  Apps  only.  

Figure  23.   Student  use  of  Apps  in  class  (students)  

Figure  24.   Use  of  Apps  in  class  (staff)  

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A wide   range   of   Apps   were   indicated   to   be   in   use   covering   several   subjects,   but   particularly   those   noted   earlier,   Maths,   Science   and   English.   Those   mentioned   by   both  staff  and  students  include:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Pages Keynote   iMovie   Popplet   GarageBand   Wordz   Froggy  Jump   Calculator   Dice   Fractions   Quick  Graph   Number  Cruncher   Wordventure   Accelerated  Reader   Jumbline2   Numbers   iBooks   Show  Me   Freddy  Fractions   Maths  Party   Quakes   Traffic  Lights   Creative  Book  Builder   Easy  Recorder   Brushes   .  .  .  and  many  more.  

The potential   is   certainly   recognised,   though   it   might   be   prudent   for   the   school   to   review  and  evaluate  these  resources  in  order  to  identify  those  that  offer  the  greatest   value  with  regard  to  learning.   The   students   certainly   consider   that   Apps   are   a   valuable   part   of   their   lessons   with   51%   indicating   agreement   and   25%   strong   agreement   with   the   idea   that   Apps   had   helped  their  learning.  Only  6%  disagreed,  though  this  rises  slightly  to  8%  if  those  who   skipped  the  question  are  considered  as  negative  responses.  The  positive  response  is,   however,  overwhelming.  

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Figure 25.   The  value  of  Apps  in  helping  learning  (students)  

Figure  26.   The  value  of  Apps  in  helping  teaching  (staff)  

Staff, similarly,   appear   to   recognise   the   value   of   Apps   in   their   teaching   with   54%   agreeing   and   10%   strongly   agreeing   with   the   contention   that   use   of   Apps   appears   useful  to  their  teaching.  A  further  31%  remain  neutral  on  the  matter  again  indicating   that  around  one  third  of  staff  respondents  to  all  questions  are  still  taking  the  line  the   ‘the   jury   is   still   out’.   However,   while   not   as   strongly   positive   as   the   students   the   value  of  Apps  is  recognised  though  the  open  responses  indicate  that  whilst  there  is    

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considerable innovation   in   some   classes   this   is   not   universal.   Thus   there   remains   a   need   for   ongoing   professional   development   and   sharing   of   best   practice.   This   is   well   understood  by  the  senior  management  team.   How  happy  are  staff  and  students  using  the  iPads  in  learning  and  teaching?   This  is  perhaps  an  awkward  question  but  one  that  provides  a  valuable  summary  of   feelings   and   attitudes   towards   the   introduction   of   these   devices.   This   is,   after   all,   something  of  a  radical  experiment,  as  Longfield  is  one  of  a  very  small  number  of  UK   schools  to  implement  a  school-­‐wide  programme  of  this  nature.   A   highly   significant   90%   of   students   indicated   that   they   happy   using   iPads   in   their   learning,   with   48%   agreeing   and   42%   strongly   agreeing   with   the   statement.   This   represents   an   overwhelming   endorsement   of   the   device   and   its   use   by   the   students.   It   may   be   surmised   that   this   majority   included   all   iPad   owners   and   that   the   small   number  who  disagreed  were  those  without  their  own  devices  or  who  had  technical   issues.  

Figure  27.   Willingness  to  use  iPads  regularly  for  learning  (students).  

The student  view  was  confirmed  by  staff,  with  77%  happy  to  regularly  use  the  iPad  in   their  teaching.  A  significant  55%  agreed  and  a  further  23%  strongly  agreed  with  the   statement.   Only   6%   disagreed   while   17%   remained   neutral   on   the   matter.   The   proportion   of   staff   happy   to   develop   the   use   of   the   iPad   is   unusually   high,   though   as   studies   cited   earlier   confirm,   it   does   seem   to   be   a   common   finding.   A   number   of   reasons   may   be   postulated,   most   importantly   the   fact   that   the   device   is   (almost)   always   available,   thus   it   becomes   ubiquitous   and   can   be   used   at   will,   unlike   older  

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laptop and   desktop   technologies   that   require   considerable   planning   and   preparation   if  they  are  to  be  used  in  a  lesson.  Other  reasons  concern  the  type  and  use  of  Apps,   immediacy  of  research  and  ease  of  collaboration.  

Figure  28.   Willingness  to  use  iPads  regularly  for  teaching  (staff).  

This leads  to  a  consideration  of  whether  the  iPad  has  impacted  on  the  way  in  which   teachers  now  teach.  Again  a  majority  of  the  staff,  some  63%  consider  that   it  has  and   many  offer  valuable  insights  into  why  this  is  so.  Typical  responses  include:   •

More student   centred   approach,   more   group   work   activities,   more   student   led   plenaries  and  activities   • I  just  use  it  as  another  tool.  My  teaching  approach  has  not  changed  but  clearly   using  the  iPads  is  new.   • The   iPad   is   intuitive   and   a   pleasure   to   use.   This   means   that   I   am   more   enthusiastic   about   researching   and   planning   lessons.   I   have   greater   scope   to   introduce   English   students   to   a   broad   range   of   literature   without   spending   hours   creating   and   photocopying   resources   (This   is   particularly   true   of   A   Level   teaching).   I   have   started   to   create   electronic   textbooks   which   aim   to   focus   individual  students  on  the  GCSE  tasks  they  need  to  complete.  This  sort  of  tailored   curriculum  was  simply  impossible  before  the  introduction  of  the  iPad.   • The  instant  access  to  new  information  means  that  students  can  gain  info  from  a   variety  of  resources  not  just  a  textbook  or  worksheet.   • My   teaching   is   now   very   focused   during   practical   sessions   on   students   who   struggle   to   concentrate   while   others   are   able   to   continue   with   the   work   because   they  have  the  task  and  video  tutorials  in  front  of  them.  

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Allows me  to  set  tasks  and  the  students  to  just  get  on  with  it,  they  have  all  the   visual   tools   and   resources   in   front   of   them.   Plus   they   can   email   me   work   so   I   don't  have  to  lug  bits  of  work  home.   • I   think   it   makes   for   more   relevant   lessons.   Students   engage   in   the   material   more   and  can  work  independently  more  effectively.   • Easier   to   work   with   students   who   experienced   difficulty   when   grasping   certain   concepts.    

Other teachers  expressed  some  reservations  but  were  clearly  aware  of  the  value  of   the   iPads.   Interestingly,   there   were   no   overtly   negative   comments   although   the   anonymous   nature   of   the   survey   enabled   such   responses.   The   example   comments   below   indicate   that   teachers   are   reflecting   both   on   the   role   of   the   iPad   and   its   impact   on   their   teaching   and   they   are   thus   identifying   practical   and   policy,   rather   than  pedagogical,  issues.   •

It has   made   me   think   differently   about   how   I   deliver   my   lessons,   ultimately   though  students  still  need  key  drawing  skills  which  they  do  not  need  the  iPad  for.   • I   still   find   myself   doing   activities   that   the   iPad   can   be   incorporated   into   rather   than  centralising  all  work  to  be  done  on  the  iPad.  I  am  not  sure  what  the  policy  is   on   the   use   of   iPads   over   exercise   books   are   and   whether   it   is   acceptable   to   have   all   work   on   the   iPad   and   none   in   the   books.   How   is   all   the   work   on   the   iPad   meant  to  be  marked.   • Because  I  still  need  basic  resources  available  for  those  without  iPads.   • It   has   made   resourcing   slightly   easier   (i.e.   not   having   to   have   whiteboards   and   pens  and  A3  paper)  but  not  changed  much  in  my  style  of  teaching.    

A majority  of  staff  further  confirmed  that  they  found  the  iPad  easy  to  integrate  into   their   work   in   a   classroom   context,   with   62%   overall   in   agreement   (Agree   52%,   strongly   agree   10%)   with   a   further   23%   remaining   neutral   at   this   time.   However,   some   16%   were   in   disagreement   and   although   reasons   were   not   sought,   it   can   be   surmised  from  other  comments  to  include  a  supposed  lack  of  appropriate  Apps  and   perhaps  antipathy  towards  technology  in  general.  

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Figure 29.   Ease  of  integration  of  iPads  in  classroom  contexts  (staff)  

There are   messages   here,   both   for   Longfield   and   for   other   schools   following   a   personal   device   strategy.   In   particular,   regular,ongoing   CPD   and   dissemination   of   experiences   and   practice   are   crucial   aspects   of   the   change   management   process.   This  is  well  understood  by  Longfield,  where  the  implementation  strategy  has  been   exemplary.   But  is  the  iPad  easy  to  use?   There  is  no  doubt  that  it  is,  for  both  students  and  staff.  Some  87%  of  students  and   over  86%  of  staff  agreed  or  strongly  agreed  that  both  the  interface  and  applications   were  easy  to  use.  

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Figure 30.   iPad  ease  of  use  (students)  

Figure  31.   iPad  ease  of  use  (staff)  

A very   small   proportion   of   the   respondents   found   difficulty   with   the   device,   that   figure  being  in  line  with  the  proportion  of  negative  responses  found  throughout  the   study.  Problems  in  using  the  device  itself  are  therefore  no  barrier  to  its  use  in  class   by   most   people.   It   should   be   noted  that   this  study  has  a   focus   entirely   on   the   use   of   the   Apple   iPad   and   that   this   response   may   not   necessarily   apply   to   other   table   devices  and  operating  systems.    

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Technical issues   With   all   computer   and   network   technologies   there   are   technical   issues   that   arise   from   time   to   time.   While   good   infrastructure   planning   and   use   of   good   quality   equipment  can  minimise  these,  a  school  is  a  tough  environment  for  any  piece  of  kit  –   some   users   could   easily   push   military   grade   devices   to   their   limit!   Thus   some   technical   issues   are   to   be   expected,   particularly   as   a   completely   new   installation   beds  in,  and  it  is  therefore  no  surprise  that  some  were  reported.   About  one  third  of  students  agreed  that  they  had  technical  issues  in  school,  with  a   similar   proportion   disagreeing   and   the   same   remaining   neutral.   Staff   responses   offered   a   very   similar   picture   evenly   spread   between   those   having   problems   and   those  not,  though  in  this  case  only  20%  remained  neutral  on  the  issue.  

Figure  32.   Technical  issues  (Students)  

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Figure 33.   Technical  issues  (Staff)  

However, it   is   when   the   reasons   are   analysed   that   the   picture   becomes   clear.   Of   particular   note   are   the   lack   of   problems   with   the   iPads   themselves,   though   some   students  had  received  faulty  devices  e.g.  buttons  and  sound  not  working  but  within   the  expected  failure  rate  for  what  is  essentially  a  consumer  device.  Other  complaints   include   Apps   crashing,   not   doing   what   the   user   wanted,   or   freezing   in   use   and   for   some  the  inability  to  update  or  download  Apps.  However,  many  of  these  may  be  due   to  user  error,  either  through  naivety  or  malicious  intent.   One   student   user   interviewed   was   quite   scathing   of   those   having   problems,   claiming   to   be   aware   of   many   who   had   tried,   for   example,   to   ‘jailbreak’   the   machine   with   not   unexpected  consequences.  The  same  student  noted  also  that  some  of  his  peers  just   could  not  be  bothered  to  maintain  the  systems  or  to  use  the  support  that  the  school   had   put   in   place.   Others   praised   the   iLeaders   (tech   savvy   students)   system   for   the   quality   of   support   it   provided   to   others   -­‐   it   is   clearly   a   strength   and   the   school   is   doing   well   in   ensuring   that   students   can   update   and   maintain   their  iPads   effectively.   This  is,  however,  a  normal  school  with  normal  students  and  all  that  that  entails.   The  main  student  complaints  related  to  occasional  poor  network  access  and  to  the   blocking  of  Internet  sites.  Further  investigation  of  the  network  issues  with  technical   staff  indicated  that  these  were  well  understood  and  that  appropriate  upgrading  and   provision   of   further   access   points   was   in   progress.   Once   again,   the   high   quality   of   project  monitoring  by  the  school  is  highlighted  as  well  as  the  speed  with  which  issues   can  be  dealt  with,  offering  a  useful  lesson  to  others  planning  similar  developments.   Restrictions   on   web   access   due   to   school   filtering   policies   result   in   student   complaints   in   all   schools.   However,   schools   have   a   duty   of   care   and   this   requires    

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them to   filter   Internet   access   to   an   acceptable   standard,   typically   that   set   by   the   erstwhile  BECTA  some  years  ago.  The  critical  thing  is  not  the  filtering  but  whether  it   is   flexible   enough   to   take   account   of   the   needs   of   learning,   especially   for   older   students   and   for   advanced   courses.   However,   despite   the   frequency   of   this   complaint   in   the   questionnaire   returns,   when   interviewed,   students   at   all   levels   consider   the   filtering   a   mere   nuisance   rather   than   a   serious   restriction   on   their   activities.   Others   noted   that   there   were   many   Apps   available   to   access   proxy   servers   and   thus   avoid   the   school   filtering   altogether   –   an   ongoing   battle   for   network   technicians  in  many  schools.   Staff   reported   a   different   set   of   problems.   The   inability   of   Apple   devices   to   access   Flash   based   websites   is   a   particular   issue,   given   that   many   education   sites   are   created  using  Flash.  With  the  implementation  of  HTML5  this  problem  will  fade  over   time   and   is   something   that  Apple  users   must  currently   live  with,   though   the   Puffin   web   browser   App   appears   to   resolve   the   issue   and   has   recently   been   installed   at   Longfield.  Adobe  Flash  Media  Server  4,  a  recently  announced  method  of  streaming   content  to  an  iPad,  provides  another  solution.   However,  the  key  issue  for  many  staff  has  been  problems  in  connecting  the  iPad  to   class   projectors.   Technically,   this   should   not   be   an   issue   provided   that   the   appropriate  adaptors  have  been  made  available  and  the  iPads  configured.  Since  the   ability  to  project  the  iPad  screen  for  demonstration  purposes  is  an  essential  for  many   staff,   ensuring   a   simple   solution   is   important   and   an   area   that   requires   further   development  and  possible  staff  training.   Other   complaints   are   those   common   to   any   technology,   including   the   humble   exercise   book   –   students   leaving   the   device   at   home,   losing   work   and   sometimes   Apps   or   not   actually   having   the   expected   Apps   installed.   Also,   despite   the   long   battery   life   of   an   iPad   some   students   still   forget   to   charge   them   or   run   down   the   battery  playing  games  in  the  lunch  break.   There  are  few,  if  any,  surprises  regarding  technical  issues.  Most  are  to  be  expected   and  the  school  is  evolving  ways  to  deal  with  it  as  they  develop  experience.  Valuable   lessons  are  being  learned  but  leading  edge  innovative  development  has  never  been   the  most  comfortable  place!   The  Parent  Perspective   The   number   of   parent   questionnaires   returned   (23)   means   that   the   data   thus   acquired   is   not   statistically   significant.   Indeed,   the   nature   of   many   of   these   responses  suggests  that  the  population  is  likely  to  be  unrepresentative  and  thus  the   data   presented   below   should   be   considered   with   caution.   The   fact   that   the   overwhelming  majority  of  parents  have  not  responded  could  be  taken  as  acceptance   of  the  value  of  the  iPad  project.  

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As stated,  only  23  parents  responded,  of  which  19  (82%)  had  one  or  more  children  in   Years  7  to  10.These  respondents  were  the  least  positive  of  all  the  study  groups  and   suggest  a  possible  gulf  in  viewpoint  between  parents  and  students.  Thus  only  35%  of   parents  considered  their  child  more  motivated  and  able  to  work  better  with  the  iPad   than  without,  with  30%  disagreeing  and  35%  remaining  neutral.  However,  the  age  of   the   students   must   be   a   consideration   -­‐   teenagers   are   no   more   likely   to   appear   motivated  about  school  just  because  they  have  an  iPad  than  they  would  without.   The  survey  group  were  more  positive  when  asked  whether  the  iPad  could  improve   the   overall   quality   of   their   child’s   work   with   a   positive   response   of   43%,   though   35%   were   still   negative.   Similarly,   when   asked   about   impact   on   their   child’s   progress   only   34%  were  positive  with  26%  disagreeing.  However,  with  regard  to  improvements  in   achievement  since  the  introduction  of  the  iPads  the  response  is  very  negative  with   43%   indicating   disagreement   and   only   17%   supporting   the   contention   that   achievement   has   risen.   But   such   an   answer   is   very   subjective,   since   the   project   is   only  two  terms  old  and  only  limited  assessment  data  would  have  been  reported.   With   regard  to  whether   students   work   more   effectively   with   the   iPads   than   without,   one  third  agree  and  one  third   disagree  though  a  more  positive   response  was  elicited   with  regard  to  collaborative  working,  where  43%  agreed  that  their  child  now  worked   more   collaboratively,   though   30%   still   disagreed.   Comments   from   parents   suggested   that   they   were   largely   unaware   of   the   widespread   use   of   the   iPads   in   class,   while   several  complained  that  their  children  used  the  device  for  too  much  games  playing.   There  were,  however,  positive  comments  as  well,  e.g.:   • •

He uses  it  a  lot  in  English  and  History  but  is  increasing  his  use  of  it  in  science.  It   has  been  very  useful  for  revision  during  exams.   Easy  access  to  internet  and  emailing  homework.  

There were  also,  perhaps  legitimate  concerns:   •

My child’s   hand   writing   has   deteriorated   since   using   the   iPad,   but   he   keeps   better  notes  on  the  iPad  than  in  his  book,  however  he  can't  use  it  in  his  exam  and   his  teachers  are  concerned  as  am  I.  

In the   last   quote   above   there   is   potentially   greater   learning   being   achieved   by   the   pupil   but   this   is   at   odds   with   a   highly   traditional   examination   system.There   is   one   area  in  which  parents  do  agree  fully  with  staff  and  students  and  that  is  in  regard  to   the   ease   of   use   of   the   device.   Over   91%   agree   that   the   iPad   is   easy   to   use,   with   only   one   respondent   in   disagreement.   A   further   very   positive   aspect   is   the   ease   of   connection  of  the  iPad  to  home  broadband  services,  where  78%  agreed  that  this  was   easy.  The  negative  responses  were,  it  seems,  from  homes  that  had  wired  broadband   connections   rather   than   Wi-­‐Fi.   Few   other   technical   issues   were   reported   –   faulty   systems  being  the  main  issue.  There  did  however  seem  to  be  some  concern  at  how   the   school   dealt   with   technical   problems,   though   whether   these   were   justified   or   simply   a   perception   cannot   be   discerned.   Given   the   technical   support   systems   put   in    

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place by   the   school,   any   such   issues   are   as   likely   to   be   the   result   of   students   not   reporting  problems  in  accordance  with  procedures.   A   final   question   to   parents   concerned   value   for   money   and   how   the   iPad   scheme   might  be  improved.  In  the  event,  only  21%  (5  respondents)  considered  the  scheme   to   be   value   for   money,   with   48%   (11   respondents)   disagreeing   of   which   6   were   in   strong  disagreement.  This  is  disappointing  but  needs  to  be  considered  in  the  context   of   the   current   financial   climate.   The   scheme   requires   parents   to   lease   a   costly   machine  for  a  prolonged  period  of  time  and  indeed  may  have  to  do  so  for  more  than   one   child.   That   so   many   have   done   so   is   remarkable   even   if,   as   one   respondent   noted,   they   felt   bullied   into   it.   Others   noted   that   the   price   could   be   lower,   though   may  not  have  fully  understood  the  insurance  and  maintenance  value  provided  within   the  leasing  scheme,  though  concerns  over  an  upgrade  path  may  be  legitimate  given   the   rapid   model   changes.   One   respondent   demanded   that   the   school   should,   “Make   them  free”.   There   is   further   work   to   be   done   then,   at   least   with   some   parents,   to   ensure   that   they   understand   the   obvious   educational   value   of   iPads   and   their   ilk.   Indeed   this   view  was  expressed  by  some  e.g.:   •

More feedback  to  parents  what  and  when  they  are  using  them  in  school  so  we   can  see  how  much  they  are  helping  in  lessons  etc.   • would  like  to  see  a  demonstration  of  it  being  used  in  a  lesson  

This, then,   will  be   a   key  issue   now   that   experience   had   been  gained   and   the   benefits   identified.   The   educational   value,   and   thus   the   value   for   money,   must   be   clearly   demonstrated   and   there   is   now   more   than   sufficient   evidence,   not   only   from   this   study  but  from  the  wider  literature  to  provide  such  a  demonstration.  It  is  therefore   incumbent  on  schools  to  go  forth  and  make  the  case.  At  Longfield  this  dialogue  will   take  the  form  of  a  discussion  with  their  parents  Council  as  part  of  the  school’s  review   of  the  iPads  project  after  the  first  year.  

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DISCUSSION The   evidence   from   this   study   clearly   confirms   the   views   of   Melhuish,   Gliksman,   Spang   and   others   that   the   use   of   iPad   and   similar   tablet   devices   in   schools   is   beneficial  to  both  learning  and  teaching.   Such  devices  cannot  be  dismissed  as  mere  toys  or  distractions  and  while  they  bring   with   them   technical   and   management   issues,   these   are   far   outweighed   by   increased   student   motivation,   progress   and   collaboration.   Students   using   them   regularly   indicate   that   their   iPads   have   become   an   indispensible   tool,   facilitating   research,   communication   with   teachers   and,   as   in   art,   saving   considerable   time   so   enabling   greater  achievement.   Teachers  too,  though  perhaps  with  the  same  inbuilt  cynicism  that  many  have  for  any   new  technology,  are  very  positive  about  the  value  of  the  iPads  and  articulate  many   of   the   benefits,   not   only   for   learning   but   for   themselves.   In   the   context   of   a   restructured  school  in  brand  new  buildings,  to  enable  almost  all  students  and  all  staff   to  have  a  new  tablet  device,  one  not  designed  for  such  a  situation,  and  to  integrate  it   into  learning  and  teaching,  as  has  happened  at  Longfield,  would  be  considered  brave   by   many.   Yet   the   project   proved   to   be   extremely   successful.   While   the   technology   has   been   an   integral   part   of   that   success,   a   key   factor   has   been   the   quality   of   the   initial  and  ongoing  project  management,  without  which  the  outcome  may  have  been   very   different.   Sound   change   management   principles   have   been   applied   and   other   schools  intending  to  implement  similar  projects  should  learn  from  the  experience  of   Longfield  Academy.   In  a  presentation  to  schools  and  industry  in  March  2012,  the  Principal,  Anne  Davis,   set   out   nine   lessons   that   the   school   had   learned   from   the   project   up   to   that   point   and  it  is  useful  to  repeat  these  here:   • • • • • • • • •

Develop a  clear  vision  and  strategy  for  your  1:1  scheme   Define  your  learning  culture   Define  and  create  your  user  experience  and  support  model   Work  with  a  traffic  light  and  reporting  system   Evaluate  your  existing  position   Know  how  many  staff  and  students  already  own,  in  this  case,  an  iOS  device   Get  everyone  involved  –don’t  let  a  perception  grow  that  it  is  a  ‘done  deal’,  even   if  it  is!   Get  devices  in  teachers  and  learners  hand  as  soon  as  possible   Record  and  share  your  experiences  

She went  on  to  advise  that  the  above  should  be  developed  into  a  robust  structural   framework   appropriate   to   the   individual   school.   However,   there   is   nothing   new   in  

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these principles;   they   simply   represent   the   good   management   of   school   improvement  and  development.   Given   that   the   case   is   made   for   one   to   one   devices,   it   is   useful   to   briefly   consider   whether  a  straightforward  ‘Bring  Your  Own  Device’  (BYOD)  approach  might  work  as   well.   Such   an   approach   involves   students   bringing   in   all   manner   of   devices   from   Android   Smartphone’s   to   iPads,   along   with   a   raft   of   technical   and   management   issues  and  their  associated  resource  costs.  A  scheme  such  as  that  at  Longfield,  fully   managed   by   the   school   and   using   tried   and   tested   technical   standards   based   on   one   operating   system   clearly   works.   Technical   problems   are   minimised,   students   and   staff  use  the  same  tools  and  Apps  while  work  can  be  planned  and  taught,  knowing   that  most  pupils  will  be  able  to  undertake  the  activities.  To  be  accepted,  the  kit  must   just   work   as   expected   when   needed.   The   approach   at   Longfield   based   on   the   iPad   and  other  Apple  kit  does  just  that  –  it  works.  

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CONCLUSION The  implementation  of  a  one  to  one  scheme  using  the  iPad  has  been  very  successful.   The   devices   have   been   well   received   by   students   and   by   staff   and   are   increasingly   well-­‐used   in   the   curriculum   as   their   attributes   and   limitations   are   learned.   There   has   been  a  significant  and  very  positive  impact  on  learning  and  teaching  which,  in  time,   should   be   reflected   in   achievement   and   attainment,   thanks   to   both   pedagogical   changes   and   new   ways   of   learning   engendered   by   “any   time   anywhere”   access   to   information  and  learning  tools.   Progress  in  the  implementation  of  the  scheme  has  been  outstanding.  By  sharing  such   strategies  widely,  other  schools  can  adopt  similar  processes.  

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Garcia,  E.  R.  &  Freidman,  A.  (2011)  “There’s  an  App  for  That”:  A  Study  Using  iPads  in  a   United  States  History  Classroom.  Paper  for  Wake  Forest  University  Department  of   Education.   Gliksman,  S.  (2011)  What  do  Students  Think  of  Using  iPads  in  Class?  Pilot  Survey  Results.   Online  at   Hepple,  S.  (1998)  Teachers,  teaching  and  technology  in  the  new  millennium.  {Online:­‐teaching-­‐and-­‐technology-­‐ in-­‐new.html} Learning  Exchange,  (2011).  iPads  in  Schools:  Use  Testing.  Catholic  Education  –  Diocese  of   Parramata,  Australia.   Melhuish,  K.  &  Falloon,  G.  (2010).  Looking  to  the  future:  M-­‐learning  with  the  iPad.   Computers  in  New  Zealand  Schools:  Learning,  Leading,  Technology,  22(3).   Project  Tomorrow  (2012).  Personalizing  Learning  in  2012:  The  Student  and  Parent  Point  of   View.  {Online:  Accessed  16/5/12.}   Smith,  C.  (Ed.)  (2011).  Tablets  are  coming  to  a  school  near  you   Proceedings  of  the  British  Society  for  Research  into  Learning  Mathematics  31(1)  March   2011   Spang,  A.J.  (2011).  Das  iPad  im  Unterricht  an  der  KAS:  Mobiles  Lernen  an  der  Kaiser  Augusta   Schule.  Online  at­‐monate-­‐ipad-­‐ eine-­‐bilanz/.  Accessed  16/5/12.   Speak  Up  2011  National  Research  Project.  (2012)  Personalizing  Learning  in  2012  –  The   Students  and  Parents  Point  of  View.  Project  Tomorrow.  {Online:   Accessed  16/5/12.}   Speirs,  F.  (2012)  We  Need  to  Talk  About  Android.  {Online:­‐need-­‐to-­‐talk-­‐about-­‐android.html. Accessed  16/5/12.}   Traxler,  J.  (2010).  Will  Student  Devices  Deliver  Innovation,  Inclusion  and  Transformation?   Journal  of  the  Research  Centre  for  Educational  Technology,  Kent  State  University   Vrtis,  J.  (2010).  The  Effects  of  Tablets  on  Pedagogy.  Paper  for  TIE  593,  National  Louis   University.  {Online:   Accessed  16/5/12.}  


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Copyright Information   ©  Naace     Paul  Heinrich  asserts  his  moral  right  to  be  identified  as   the  author  of  this  work.   This  work  is  licensed  under  a  Creative   Commons  Attribution  NonCommercial   NoDerivs  3.0  Unported  License.  

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The ipad as a tool for education naace report supported by 9ine consulting  
The ipad as a tool for education naace report supported by 9ine consulting