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Universal Access to Information &  Communication Technology  in the Asia Pacific Region The Asia and Pacific Regional Preparatory  Meeting for the World Telecommunication  Development Conference Bali, Indonesia, 25 to 27 April 2001

08/14/10

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Topics Asia Pacific Digital Divide Measurement  Reasons 

Initiatives to enhance access National  Regional  International 

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Some definitions Access to ICT   

Physical ownership / availability  Affordability Skills

“There will always be segments of any society that  will not want to avail themselves of technology…” “In essence, the real difference between the info­poor  and the info­rich is the inequality of physical and  financial access to ICT and in the actual usage of  sources of information in a particular society.” Source: www.nitc.org.my/resources/AccessEquity.pdf

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ICT Gap in the Asia­Pacific Asia­Pacific. Per 100 people. January 2000. 60

55.1

50

Developing Developed

x24

40

43.0

30

x10

20 10

x28

5.3

1.8

0 Telephones

Mobile

Difference  bet ween  developed  and  developing

22.5

0.8 I nternet

Note: Developed refers to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Hongkong SAR, Korea  (Rep.), Singapore and Taiwan­China; developing are all others. Source: ITU.

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ICT Gap within countries Internet penetration in Malaysian states, 2000 KL Se la ngor Pe na ng M e la ka M ALAYSI A Johor Sa r a w a k Ne ge r i Se m bila n Pe r a k Ke da h /  Pe r lis Pa ha ng T e r e ngga nu Sa ba h Ke la nta n

5 .9 % 4 .6 % 4 .4 % 3 .7 % 3 .2 % 2 .7 % 2 .0 % 1 .4 % 1 .1 % 0 .9 % 0 .5 %

1 1 .3 % 8 .9 %

Source: ITU adapted from NITC.

1 9 .2 %

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Obstacles to bridging the Digital  Divide N . Am e r ica S. Am e r ica Asia ­ Pa cific

25% 20%

Eur ope Afr ica

15% 10% 5%

re u lt C u

P

o

ve

rt

y

y ac au

re u B

La n

g

u

cr

ag

re u tr

as fr In

C o

rr

up

ct

ti

u

on

m is n io ct te ro P

0%

Source: Global Information Infrastructure Commission

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I nt e r ne t  Pe ne t r a t ion

Income barrier 1 0 0 .0 % 2

R = 0.6884 1 0 .0 %

1 .0 %

0 .1 % 1 '0 0 0

1 0 '0 0 0

1 0 0 '0 0 0

GD P pe r  ca pit a

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Tariff barrier Thirty hours of Internet access, October 2000, US$ Kirib a t i M a ld iv e s Ca m bod ia N e w  Ca le d on ia Solom on Ja p a n PN G ASI A­ PACI FI C I n d on e sia Gu a m La o P. D. R. Fij i N epal N e w  Ze a la n d M a la y sia Sin g a p ore

 I SP  Te le phone

$0 Source: ITU

$50

$100

$150

$200

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Socio­cultural barrier Singapore. Never use Internet (by language). 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

English only Source:

Chine se only

M a la y only

ITU adapted from CABSAT/NETWATCH. 

English & Chine se

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National policies National ICT plans  Liberalization PC ownership subsidies  Universal access Skills development Digital legislation Local content 10


National ICT Plans Elevate ICT to top of agenda Specify policies and actions that are  relevant to country Roadmap

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Liberalization Open up  infrastructure and services market Allow full service operators Liberalization of the VSAT market in Nepal  has led to a sharp drop of Internet tariffs and  consequent rise in users 12


Personal Computer (PC)  Ownership Reduce or eliminate  tariffs on PCs Provide incentives  for purchasing PCs   

Republic of Korea Singapore Malaysia

 13


Universal access: Diversity of models

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Skills development Most effective way  of developing ICT  skills is to ‘wire’  schools ICT human resource  requirements Private sector

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Digital legislation Acceptance of electronic forms Security, confidence  Crime, copyright Convergence

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Local content: Pondicherry, India

Knowledge Centre staff at  Embalam village explaining use of  RealAudio

Weather reports Fish stocks Entitlement, nutrition,  job, women  databases Agricultural info Entertainment

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Regional initiatives APT AII ­ Asia­Pacific Summit on the  Information Society e­ASEAN e­APEC 

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Global Initiatives G­8 DOT Force UNDP Digital Opportunity Initiative

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Next Steps  What should ITU Development Sector  role be in reducing the Digital Divide?

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What does Digital Divide Mean? Asia-Pacific

Africa Business Opportunity ICT Access Developed-Developing Urban-Rural

S. America

Europe

N. America 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

Percentage of Responses by Region

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eg ul at Pr or iv at iz O at pe D io n e n re In gu ve st la tio m en n tP Ba ol ic si ie c s Ed C u IT on ca Sk su tio ill m n ser B Pr ui ld ot O in ec pe g tio n Ac n R ce ul ss es M an da te s

In de pe nd en tR Percentage of Responses by Region

Needed Public Policy 18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6% N. America Europe S. America Africa Asia-Pacific

4%

2%

0%

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Digital Bridge Applications

30% 25% Electronic Commerce Distance Education Telemedicine E-Government

20% 15% 10% 5%

Af ric a

pe Eu ro

As ia -P ac ifi c

S.

Am

er

er ic a

ic a

0%

N .A m

Percentage of Responses by Region

35%

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D ev el op m

N. America Europe S. America Africa

Ai d

iv il S

G O s

py

oc ie ty

N

an iz at io ns

re ig n

Ph ila nt hr o

C

en tO rg

Fo

en t

Se ct or

er nm

iv at e

G ov

Pr

Percentage of Responses by Region

Who Should Bridge the Digital Divide? 25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

Asia-Pacific

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Universal Access to ICT in AP