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European Life During the 1400's1500's Key Terms: - Conquest - Turmoil - Hierarchy Main Idea: With Europe advancing with technology and the way their system is run, things start to take a change for the better. Why it Matters Now: The way European society was run back then with the social hierarchy can be compared to how our society is run today. Also, the slave trade would continue on for many years to come. With the trade, different cultures were brought into the new America. We still have these cultures living in the United States today. The European's way of life would go through some major changes during the 1400-1500's. These changes incorporate the government, the way society functions and new inventions that were created. The new inventions that Europe created would put them ahead over the other nations. For hundreds of years before the 1400's, Europe was completely controlled by the church. Would this stay the same over the years to come? Throughout the time period prior and following Columbus' exploration, the European society was in consent change. Before and during Columbus's time in his homeland (1400's) the church dominated every aspect of European culture. The leader of the Church, referred to as the Pope, determined most to all matters of faith. The church taught that earthly suffering was exchanged for the guarantee of


eternal life with God. This soon changed in the late 1500's, when the church was slowing losing power. Once this change was in occurrence, the government broke off and started to become more independent. With or without this change, Europeans had a system in place referred to as the social hierarchy. The social hierarchy organized their citizens into groups. In most cases, these groups were based on three different aspects. These aspects include: how much money a person has, their job title and skin color (see figure 1 for social breakdown). This breakdown in societies still occurs today in many areas of the world. The biggest change that came to European society was the period called the Renaissance and the new found idea of a slave trade. During this period of time, people were encouraged to become individuals and focus on their own human capabilities. This new idea encouraged Europeans started to seek personal glory through their own adventure, discovery and conquest. Lastly, when Columbus returned from his first voyage to the Americas, he brought back Indian slaves. "Why should you take by force what you can have by love? Why should you destroy us who have provided you with food?" This was a statement from Powhatan to Columbus. In the opinion of many, bringing back these slaves, brought Europe more power. In addition to power, starting the idea of the slave trade. This slave trade continued for hundreds of years to come. In closing, there were many ideas that brought Europe more power and wealth; but some ideas had to be looked at for change. This change would be how much power the church was given over the citizens. European government played a very important role in how Europeans lived and worked. Around the time period of the 15th century, Queen Isabella had many productive ideas for the new era. In 1492, she eliminated all Muslims and Jews from Spain. In addition, the Queen set the stage for Columbus’s journey towards the Americas. During Queen Isabella's reign in Spain, Britain and France were fighting for land and power. This war lasted from 1337-1453 and would be the first recorded war in history where peasants foot soldiers determined the war. After nearly 100 years fighting, France won the war and left Britain in turmoil. Lastly, Portugal also started their


exploration in 1420. The person who funded this exploration to India, was Prince Henry. All of these important factors made up the powerful government that Europe once had. During the time period of Columbus (1400's-1500's), there were many new inventions. These inventions changed the way countless of Europeans lived their lives. One major invention was the printing press(see figure 2). Europeans invented the printing press to mass produce books (up until this invention, books were copied by hand) and ease the work process. Guns were also created to hunt and protect themselves(see figure 3). These guns also played a vital role in the period called the Crusades. The last big invention was the large ships. These ships were used for trading on trade routes and provided a faster more effective way of travel. Lastly, if your country, which in this case Europe, had ships and could sail the waters you automatically have an advantage on your opponent's. Overall, Europe created many new inventions to quicken and better their everyday lives.

Figure 1: This triangle gets into job titles and the whole social breakdown of the European society.


Figure 2: Printing Press: created by the Europeans in 1440.


Figure 3: Old European muskets(guns). *Conquest: the act or state of conquering or the state of being conquered; vanquishment. *Turmoil: a state of great commotion, confusion, or disturbance; tumult; agitation; disquiet: mental turmoil caused by difficult

decisions.


*Hierarchy: any system of persons or things ranked one above another. Critical Thinking: 1. Why do you think the church lost power and the government became more independent? 2. The breaking of the church and government, does that still apply today? Does it have affect on our country?

The Native Ways Of Life What you will read in the following paragraphs are some short examples of the different topics discussed. Also we will ask a few critical thinking questions at the end of the reading to make sure you understood the topics covered. Main idea- the development and growth of the Native American life. Innovations and inventions of the Native Native Americans played a major role in some of the new innovations that still follow us today. The Native Americans played a major role in the development in of soul food. The reason Native Americans played a role in the development of soul food such as cornbread and other homemade food. This is because Native American slaves were combined with African slaves and they worked together. The Native Americans had the ability to weave water tight baskets. This was an extraordinary ability because it meant they could hold water or other things that were liquid. The Native Americans farming skills were not primitive at all. The Native Americans were able to draw out three times as much nourishment from the soil as the Europeans.


This meant more healthy crops. This also means more of a surplus of food to feed the people. The Native Americans also invented paper which led to the development of the printing press by the Europeans. This proves that Native Americans held a major role in the development of new things which helped our society.

- This is a picture of paper because the natives invented paper.(www.travelblog.org) The unique Society of the Native Americans Native Americans had a very sophisticated society that played a big part in how they lived their daily lives. During the times of hunting and gathering we found that it was easy. The reason we say this is because the day of a hunter and gatherer consisted of a few hours of hunting and then resting the rest of the day or doing other community tasks. The Native Americans believed in religion which was big because that means we can see how they lived their life by their religion. We have found that the Native Americans practiced religious ceremonies that consisted of eating crackers that resembled the body of the son of God. Also they drank wine that resembled the blood of the spirit. The


societies had become more warlike. Usually the Native Americans had only fought to protect their fields but the more Europeans had terrorized the natives the more violent they got this was sophisticated because it lead to the development of new weapons.one statement quoted by the Native Americans is "why should you destroy us, who have provided for you with food? What can you get from war"? This shows that the Indians tried to stay away from war and wanted peace. This quote came from a letter that the Natives had wrote. The society of the Native Americans shows us how they lived their daily lives. Natives adapt a government The Government that started to overwhelm the population of the Native Americans was democracy. Before the Europeans came to America the natives didn’t have any form of government. Eventually the natives asked the Europeans to show how to run a democracy. After they found out how to run and maintain a democracy they showed other tribes. Over the years the Native Americans contemplated ideas about different types of government. Such as the Albany plan of union which was denied. During 1775 many new things in government happened. One major part was the speech formulated to the Iroquois. Government had taken over the Native Americans so their freedom was taken away. Government played a major role in their lives after they adapted it. Why it matters-Because without the Native Americans we wouldn’t have some of the different foods we have today if we never knew of the Native Americans Primitive- simple; unsophisticated


Warlike- fit, qualified, or ready for war; martial: a warlike fleet; warlike tribes. Overwhelm- to overcome completely in mind or feeling Critical thinking: 1. Identify, how long it usually took for the Native Americans to hunt. 2. Compared, to the Europeans how much more nourishment could be drawled out of the soil compared to the Native Americans. -This matters to us today because we have to know what mistakes we made in the past so we do not repeat these things again. African Culture Main idea: The African world helped connect the rest of the world to a major trade network that revolutionized the country of Africa. Why its matters now: Africa started one of the major spreads of Islam without this we may not have Islam in much of Africa. Key Terms: • Trade routes- A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo • Ambassador-a diplomat of the highest rank; accredited as representative from one country to another • Taxation-charge against a citizen's person or property or activity for the support of government The African world had many things that change things the way things functioned in the world .The first thing that helped was the


spread of one of the major religion we have today.Another benefit of Africa is that the first African kingdom helped shape the Africans government would function one day.Finally the Africans innovation for oral history was wonderful with keeping track of correct history.This what makes up much of the majestic world of Africa. African Culture and Society The African society benefited the country by the main things that came out of there society. One of the great things that came out of it was the Trans Sahara trade route. This route didn’t swap just goods to be used but ideas and belief as well. Another great thing that benefited African society was the start of Islam in Africa. This started to happen during the 1400s which is when there was more interaction with the wider world. Later that century another great trade route was established with Africa. The Portuguese created a new trade route in the 1470s which bypassed a old trade routes. It developed a closer relationship with Europe and other countries besides just Africa. The trade route city Timbuktu and other cities also helped with African trade as well. This city helped house the connection between North Africa and Europe. These are just of the few things that helped the African society. Like most regions in Africa, the oldest male was the head of a tribe. In most cases this played out very well. But if there was not an eldest male available for the job, the oldest woman would take charge. The land in Africa was also controlled by more than one person. This is called collective ownership. The leaders in the territory claimed authority based on religion. These religions normally consisted of Islam and other local religions.


From: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/africa_islam_87.jpg

African Government The African government was a major part of the way things functioned in Africa. The kingdom of Songhai which had rule during the 1400s. Shaghai became one of the largest empires in Africa. This kingdom also gained wealth and power through trade. Aski Muhammed helped with the changes in Songhai. He was the one who organized Songhai into to administrative districts. Kongo was known to be home to home a massive amount of people at the time. During the 1470s there were four million people within the empire. One kingdom that was different from the rest was Benin. Benin was one of the only forest kingdoms in Africa. This empire also organized provinces with officials governing each. Most importantly, in the late 1400's, Benin exchanged ambassadors with Portugal. By Portugal doing this, it was a sign that both regions were allies (also, considered the same). Unfortunately, the peace between these two nations did not last. Only 100 years later, they started the slave trade and captured Benin slaves. Furthermore, the relationship between Portugal and other African countries failed to last. "The West African great ethinicsand cultural diversity makes it hazordies to generalize about social and cultural backround of the first african american." Innovations and Inventions One innovation the African society had was their ability of oral history.When in the society, the oldest member would gather around the rest and tell them all about their previous history. This history goes beyond their life span and to many others. The family member telling the story could have gone through these things, or not. Either way, it was their job to make sure the family stories live on. Another innovation was the iron ore production. This production produces steal which made many different battle shields used to protect them when time to fight. Africans might not have been the first or the best to create these items, but they made a lot of money doing it. Thirdly, the innovation of taxation. Taxation was used to tax African citizens on certain items or property. The government would receive this money collected and use it for different things in their country. Taxation an important innovation because we still use this today.


Lastly, Africans invented the idea of paper. Just like taxation paper is very much used today. Without paper, many things would not be possible.

from: http://www.bateman.co.za/BET/Sub%20sections/InPlantConveyor.jpg This is a picture of the iron ore production. 1. Analyze what was another benefit of the African trade routes besides religion? 2. Observe which kingdom of Africa became one of the largest, there was, at the time?

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Final Textbook  

Brian , Lee and Kara

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