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The 16th Amendment Federal Income Tax February, 3 1913 by:Colin Girvan

Summary: The Federal Income Tax amendment grants Congress the power to create and collect taxes on income, from whatever source derived. without having regard any census or enumeration.The 16th amendment was passed as part of the Progressive Era as a result it repealed the rule of apportionment. Which over turned a Supreme Court ruling in favor Farmer’s Loan & Trust Co.

Historical Context: The 16th amendment was an amendment ratified during the Progressive Era during the early 1900s. As a result of a ruling by The Supreme Court that declared that Farmer’s Loan & Trust Co. Which spurred congress congress to pass this amendment to make taxing on income constitutional.

Essential Elements: I. Federal tax based off income II. R e p e a l s the rule apportionment III.Ratified february, 3 1913 IV.Progression Era amendment Colin Girvan

Tuesday, September 17, 2013 1:56:40 PM Central Daylight Time

Citizens of The United States worried about over taxing.


THe government needs more money.


By: Ethan Miller


The17th Amendment POPULAR ELECTION oF Senator

-- Summary -The 17th amendment was ratified in 1913. There are two senators per state. Before the state legislative would elect both of the senators. After this amendment was ratified state citizens could elect the two senators.

The ballot box is used to collect paper ballots to be sent in, and be counted to vote for the senate of the voters choice.

-- Historical Context -The 17th amendment was ratified because the state citizens felt like if they could vote for president, they should be able to vote for there senator. This amendment provides the senators to be elected directly by the citizens of the United States of America. It was proposed in May 13, 1912 and ratified in April 8, 1913.

US senate building, this is where the senators meet to agree on laws and amendments.

-- Essential Elements -1. The citizens were able to vote for the senators. 2. It allows the senators to be directly elected by the citizens. 3. It allows everyone able to vote to be able to voice there opinion about the senator election. Ethan Miller

Tuesday, September 17, 2013 1:52:50 PM Central Daylight Time

THE 18th AMENDMENT Ratified in 1919

Prohibition of Liquor

Summary: The 18th Amendment prohibited the making, buying, transporting, and selling of liquor. The 18th Amendment was ratified in 1919. During the time this amendment was in action, the rates for alcohol consumption and alcohol related deaths decreased dramatically. However, the black market was growing so that people could obtain alcohol. Because of the growing black market the 18th amendment was repealed by the 21st amendment which states that citizens of the U.S. could drink at the age of 21.

Alcohol was poured out into the streets so that the people in the U.S. couldn’t consume, buy, sell or transport any.

The people in the U.S. were notified that they were being closely watched to see if they were breaking the 18th amendment.

Historical Context: Before the 18th Amendment was passed, states were already outlawing alcohol. Temperance movements and organizations, that sought to ban the consumption of alcohol, were starting to form. These organizations believed that if alcohol was prohibited, crime, poverty, and broken homes would be outlawed too. In the onset of the Progressive Era,the 18th amendment was ratified because of the major portion of the population that was already against alcohol consumption

Essential Elements: 1) Prohibited making, transporting, and selling alcohol. 2) Only amendment to be reversed by another amendment. 3) Alcohol related deaths and consumption decreased dramatically.

By: Eliza Nieset

19th Amendment Women’s Right to Vote Ratified on August 18th, 1920 “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” Summary: The 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote, or suffrage. It specifically states that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of sex. This amendment was passed 50 years after the 15th amendment was passed. The 15th Amendment allows any race to vote. Essential Elements: • Gives women the right to vote. • Passed 50 years after any race could vote. • Passed because of the Women’s Suffrage Movement.

Historical Context: This amendment was passed because of the Women’s Suffrage Movement. The Women’s Suffrage Movement was the movement to achieve women’s voting rights during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However some states had already given women the right to vote before this amendment was passed.

A place where can people could go to vote for women’s voting rights. Women protesting President Wo o d r o w W i l s o n i n h o p e f o r Bobby Moore women’s Tuesday, September 17, 2013 1:58:59 PM Central Daylight Time suffrage.


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Marguerite Vandenburgh

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Tuesday, September 17, 2013 2:08:35 PM CT

Class amendments textbook (16 to 20)  

Amendments 16-20

Class amendments textbook (16 to 20)  

Amendments 16-20