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!e 1 Amendment

1791

Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition Summary: The first amendment grants citizens of the United Sates the ability to have the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, and freedom of petition. The government cannot force you to choose a certain religion. You can also say what you want, be with whoever you want and you are able to suggest new ideas. Though you do have the freedom of speech, it is somewhat limited. The government can ban or limit libel. These are your civil liberties which the Constitution protects.

Martin Luther King Jr. giving his “ I Have a Dream Speech.” Exercising !eedom of assembly and speech.

Historical context: The First Amendment was passed by Congress in 1789 and was ratified by the states in 1791. This amendment was created to give the people basic rights to start off this new country. The 1st amendment has never been set aside except for wartime censorships and sedition acts. Sedition acts occurs when the people start speaking about rebelling against the government of a state or monarchy. People believe that this is one of the most important amendments. The 1st amendment is a part of the Bill of Rights. At first, the 1st amendment only applied to white male landowners. Then, after slavery was abolished the first amendment started to apply to more and more people. When women started to receive more rights and people started to become citizens, then the 1st amendment applied to everyone who is a legal citizen in the U.S.

The newspaper makes many opinions about different arguments and debates. Exercising !eedom of press. Essential elements: 1. Ratified in 1791. 2. Grants freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. Andrew Laborde Tuesday, September 17, 2013 1:55:09 PM Central Daylight Time 3. First amendment of United States.


Rights Reserved To The States !

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Tenth Amendment ! !

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Ratified in 1791 by Hunter Williams

Summary:

The Tenth Amendment is the last amendment in the Bill of Rights. This amendment was ratified to define the balance of power between the states and the federal government. Because of this amendment, all rights are reserved to the states, except for the constitution, over which the federal

government only has power.

This man is protesting gay marriage, and states have the power to accept or deny gay marriage, thanks to the Tenth Amendment.

Historical Context:

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States’ power

The Tenth Amendment was ratified in 1791 to explain which rights and how much power the states and the federal government have and share. This amendment was the only amendment in the Bill of Rights that was Government Power recommend by all of the state conventions that submitted proposed amendments. The Bill of Rights were passed because states would not ratify the constitution if there was not a Bill of Rights.

This scale represents the balance between states and federal government power.

Essential Elements: •Defines power between states and government •Final amendment of the Bill of Rights •Rights reserved to the states, except for rights that outline the constitution Hunter Williams

Tuesday, September 17, 2013 3:38:39 PM Central Daylight Time


The 11th Amendment Passed by congress on March 4, 1794 Summary: The Judicial

Suits Against States

power of the United States of America, cannot be constructed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Essential Elements: • It was adopted in order to overrule the U.S Supreme Courtʼs Decision on Chisholm v. Georgia. • M o r e r e c e n t l y, a d i v i d e d Supreme Court has held that states are immune from all lawsuits in federal courts unless they specifically agree to be sued.

U.S Supreme Court

By: Nigel Tatum

Ratified February 7th, 1795

Historical Context:

The Eleventh Amendment was passed by the congress on March 4, 1794. It was ratified on February 7, 1795. The Eleventh Amendment is the first constitutional amendment to specifically overturn a Supreme Court decision. The Supreme Court has lately used the amendment in several cases to strike down federal laws that it believes overstep state power. It also protects states from certain types of legal liability is a concept known as “sovereign immunity.” The amendment did not bar all lawsuits against states in federal courts. For example, as initially interpreted, the Eleventh Amendment did not bar suits against states when a matter of federal law was at issue nor did it prevent suits brought against a state by its own citizens.

The Seal of the U.S supreme court.


The 12th Amendment Election of President and Vice President By: Evie Gomila Summary: The 12th A m e n d m e n t ’s m a i n purpose was to state that each political party can nominate a vice president to represent their political party. The inhabitant clause, included in the Twelfth Amendment suggests that the President and Vice President not be residents from the same state, but it is not mandetory. However, if the President and Vice President are from the same state the electors from that state cannot vote for both offices.

Ratified: 1804

Historical Context: The Tw e l f t h A m e n d m e n t was ratified in 1804. Before this amendment was ratified, the runner up for presidency was the Vice President. This way of electing a vice president caused problems because it meant the President and Vice President were from different political parties and it made it hard to govern the U.S. The Amendment was passed by congress in Obama and Biden, the current president and vice president December 1803 and was quickly ratified in of the United States, are both democrats due to 12th June of the next year. Amendment.

Essential elements: • The Vice President is nominated by each political party • Ratified in 1804, shortly after being passed by congress • Vice President and President can be from the same state but not recommended

Thomas Jefferson, the president, and Aaron Burr, the vice president, were the last president and vice president to be from different political parties.


13th Amendment ABOLITION OF SLAVERY 1865 A slave who was whipped so harsh that the whip made scares

Historical Context: The 13th Amendment was the first of the 3 Reconstruction amendments after the Civil War. The three amendments granted a lot of rights for African American the 13th was probably the most important because it granted the freedom of all slaves in the north when the the southern slaves where freed in the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and involtary servants in the United States.

Summery: The 13th Amendment the Abolition of Slavery grants the freedom of all slaves and involuntary servants, except as a punishment for a crime where the party has have been convicted.

Essential Elements: I. Grants Freedom to slaves II.Result of Civil War “Am I not a man and a brother�


Created by: Jacob Randolph

The 14th Amendment Ratified on July 9th 1868

CitizenshipRights,EqualProtection, Apportionment, and Civil War Debt

Summary This amendment ensures that the state can not take away a citizen’s federal rights. Citizens were people who were born in the U.S. That included slaves and therefore reversed the 3/5 Clause. This amendment helped end slavery, but some southern states tried to pass laws to restrict slaves’ rights.

The headlines to the morning paper claiming freedom to slaves.

The 14th amendment was passed and known as one of the reconstruction amendments.

A slave rejoicing his freedom.

Historical Context The 14th amendment was passed in 1868, just after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865. Although the 3/5 Clause was before this amendment was passed, the agreement was reversed and gave equal rights to former slaves. With the north winning the Civil War, reconstruction amendments were passed such as the 14th amendment to give former slaves equal rights.

Essential Elements •This amendment was part of the Reconstruction Era. •Grants citizenship to all born in the U.S. including slaves.


The 15th Amendment Summary:

1870

The right to vote is not denied by race

The fifteenth Amendment states that the right to vote should be given to people born in the United States or naturalized citizens, and should not be denied by race. The fifteenth Amendment helped for a period of time, but people eventually started finding other ways to exclude non-whites. literacy or oral tests, possession of an I.D., or voting fees were required of some people in order to vote. Today some people continue to argue against the requirement of identification for voting.

By: Beach Groome

Voting pin received from voting.

Historical context:

Diagram of certain states having voting acts.

This Amendment was created to further help create equality between whites and blacks. This Amendment was ratified on February third 1870. Although most of the states did not agree on the Amendment, they all decided it would be right to do so. It took nearly a decade to finally do its job due to pole taxes, literary, and oral tests. The civil rights movements mainly targeted to help this Amendment.

Essential elements:

• This amendment sparked the civil rights movement. • Created a major impact on the world we live in by allowing more rights. • Made people start to think differently about the people around them. Beach Groome

Tuesday, September 17, 2013 2:02:07 PM Central Daylight Time


Class amendments textbook (11 to 15)