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By:Adria and Gabby


Nerotransmitters Communication of information between neurons is accomplished by movement of chemicals across a small gap called the synapse. Chemicals, called neurotransmitters, are released from one neuron at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Neurotransmitters then cross the synapsewhere they may be accepted by the next neuron at a specialized site Pictures and Videos: eurotransmitters.html! !

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called a receptor. The action that follows activation of a receptor site may be either depolarization (an excitatory postsynaptic potential) or hyperpolarization (an inhibitory postsynaptic potential). A depolarization makes it MORE likely that an action potential will fire; a hyperpolarization makes it LESS likely that an action potential will fire.

Resources: tters/norepinephrine/ ety.html

Quick Look: 1. Norepinephrine Defeniciences result in: •Lack of energy •Lack of motivation •First ‘state’ called depression

2. Functions in: •Arousal, energy, drive •Stimulation •Fight or Flight

3. Supplement required:

Norepinphrine Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter found in the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine is similar to adrenaline. It works by constricting (narrowing) the blood vessels and increasing blood pressure and blood glucose (sugar) levels. Norepinephrine can be a inhibitory or excitatory. It functions in arousal, energy, drive, stimulation and is also known as the fight or flight instinct. Like dopamine, norepinephrine has a stimulating effect, fosters alertness, and plays an important regulatory role in long-term memory and learning. It also protects endorphins from being broken down prematurely. Optimal levels of this transmitter can stimulate a sense of wellbeing or even create a euphoric effect in stressful situations. Yet excess norepinephrine can fuel the physiological expressions of fear and anxiety, as may be the case for people who suffer from anxiety disorders.Drugs that mimic the action of norepinephrine are often used to treat asthma because they relax bronchial smooth muscle, helping the asthma patient to breathe more easily The amino acid tyrosine, found in high concentrations in cheese, is converted by specific reactions into at least two neurotransmitters – norepinephrine and dopamine. Norepinephrine is produced from dopamine, with the help of the amino acids phenylalanine, lysine, and methionine. Vitamins C and B6, magnesium, and manganese are important cofactors. Norepinephrine is used to treat life-threatening low blood pressure (hypotension) that can occur with certain medical conditions or surgical procedures. This medication is often used during CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation). Too much Norepinephrine can cause aggression, anxiety, stimulates violent behaviors. It can cause schizophrenia, paranoia and psychosis.Norepinephrine is the brain chemical most associated with a state of arousal as in hyper-alertness or an increased feeling of panic or dread. This is the brain chemical associated with panic attacks and impaired concentration. Norepinephrine is associated with the body chemical adrenaline and can cause a physical response such as rapid heartbeat, increase in blood pressure and sweaty palms. High levels of norepinephrine induce the feelings of a panic attack, which may be overwhelming. Panic attacks are sudden surges of norepinephrine. Some of the symptoms are dizziness or feeling faint, shortness of breath, feelings of suffocation or choking, numbness and tingling of hands and feet, chest constriction, and chest pain. Treatment for too much norepinephrine is aimed at reducing it and relieving anxiety and feelings of panic. Some medications reduce levels of other brain chemicals that ninhibit norepinephrine. Low levels of norepinephrine are associated with depression. Too little results in feelings of sadness and uninterest. Depression can also occur after stressful events. Symptoms of depression are continuing sadness, difficulty sleeping, loss of enjoyment in activities that were previously satisfying and a change in appetite. Treatment for depression involves balancing brain chemicals. The type of drug most often used are SSRIs, or serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These drugs make norepinephrine and serotonin more available to the neurotransmitters in the brain. It can take up to three weeks for these drugs to work. Once they begin to work there is a noticeable difference in mood.

•1-phenylalanine •Vitamin B6

4.Usueful sources of building blocks: •Almonds •Apples •Avocado •Bananas •Beef liver or kidney •Blue-green algae •Cheese" •Fish •Most green vegetables •Lean meat •Nuts •Grains •Pineapple •Poultry •Tofu

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