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This is the foundation of all. “ We are not to imagine or suppose, but to discover, what nature does or may be made to do. Francis Bacon

1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. He is also known as a proponent of the scientific revolution.


Chapter 3

Understanding SlideShare SlideShare ( is considered to be world’s largest community for sharing presentations on the web. Built on the Web 2.0 ideology, it has made a mark as one of the leaders in the online presentation sharing space and as a strong media innovator Initially the basic theme on SlideShare was the sharing of slide decks. The SlideShare is the world’s largest community for sharing next stage for SlideShare was to become a rich social arena fostering presentations onpeople, the web. SlideShare hasdecks been as built connections between keeping the slide theonfocus. the Web 2.0 model and has made a mark as one of the leaders in the online presentation space. Initially This chapter looks into the conceptualsharing and functional aspects of having the sharing of slide decks as the central theme, SlideShare. the next stage for SlideShare was to become a rich social arena which would foster connections between people, keeping slide decks as the basis.

This chapter looks into the functional aspects and conceptual details of SlideShare.

“ SlideShare: Power Point + YouTube ”

TechCrunch ( by Michael Arrington on October 04, 2006 TechCrunch is a highly ranked blog about Web 2.0 products and companies, mostly covering the Silicon Valley and wider United States technology start-up community.


Project Brief

The beginning of the project...

Initial Project Brief

re Social networking on Slidesha

called the “YouTube sharing of slides. It has been the for ce spa ial soc a is are Slidesh of PowerPoint”. eshare. This ys for people to connect on Slid wa ign des to is ject pro the The goal of r research (through ign, interface design and use des tion rac inte ses pri com project is about social system ). But most of all, the project ms nis cha me er oth and s log user your slides - it is not (yet) is a good place for uploading are esh Slid ntly rre Cu . ign des around slides. The next g, conversation and interaction a rich social arena for sharin nect. ome a place for people to con stage is for Slideshare to bec for users to connect y moments, places and ways ntif ide to er ign des a ect exp We s and YouTube and like MySpace, Flickr, del.icio.u on Slideshare. Analyze sites alyze professional rking works on those sites. An understand how social netwo eshare can become a place kedIn to understand how Slid time analyzing networking sites such as Lin er should also expect to spend ign des e Th ng. rki wo net al for profession mechanisms. lf through web logs and other user behaviour on the site itse limited to) projects includes (but is not The social networking design of the below aspects. conceptualization and design connect and are a major provide a way for people to • Groups Mechanism: Groups y for users to form groups ng. Currently, there is no wa component of social networki are? Look at other group concept work on Slidesh on Slideshare. How should the ing for groups. typ oto and do interaction design/pr example sites. Conceptualize social networking is the : Another building block of • Add and share with friends with them. How should “friends” and share materials ability to designate users as eshare become a second on Slideshare? How can Slid ir Slidespace like the concept of friends work How to get users to treat the ce? spa ng rki wo net ial soc generation working design for these goals, craft a social net on ed Bas ce. spa al ion fess their pro Slideshare. Prototype it. t re is a basic tagging on Slideshare: Currently the y) nom oso folk (or lity abi nomy that lets • Social find d to design an effective folkoso nee we but , are esh Slid on m mechanis to user to slideshow to y manner - moving from tag eas a in n atio rm info find people g behaviour on Slideshare is to understand current taggin ks tas ign des the of e On . tag alize and prototype what is and Flickr. Conceptu and compare to sites like del are. ctive folkosonomy on Slidesh required for creating an effe above systems and move will begin by conceptualizing er ign des the t tha ect exp We detailed interaction design s in Photoshop / Illustrator to me efra wir gh rou ial init m fro rk in close collaboration also expect the designer to wo in Flash or HTML/CSS. We easily. We expect that ir work can be implemented ding site user with the developers so that the and other ways of understan gs blo we h wit rk wo also l the designer wil experience. rking on Slideshare and the foundation of social netwo Overall, this project will lay a place for people to for people to upload slides to help it transition from a place es. converse and connect over slid

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

The start of the diploma project was marked by a project brief being forwarded by Dr. Rashmi Sinha on my request. The detailed project brief not only highlighted by my responsibilities as a designer but also the main aspects of the social networking which I would be involved with.

My Initial Response The project brief really made me have high expectations as it looked explorative and challenging. After going through SlideShare (, I was convinced that this was a very promising online product being used by many thousands of users worldwide. My first reaction was to understand the structure, functioning and conceptual details of SlideShare and make sure that I am aware of their features and latest developments before joining Uzanto. Reaching Uzanto, The first thing I was assigned was to understand the conceptual and technical framework of SlideShare, explore and understand the Social Networking domain and the latest Web 2.0 ideology. Along with that, in order to discipline and adjust to the SCRUM development process, I was assigned the SlideCast Player design which was the core of the next major upgrade to SlideShare, thus influencing the sociability aspects in the coming future. The project brief was modified after understanding the context and the SlideShare service to the following:

Develop a social networking framework and design the respective elements for SlideShare, to help it transition from an online presentation sharing service to an online space for social sharing.

- Refined Brief

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare




Online space for presentation sharing

SlideShare defined

Supported Formats

y SlideShare is intended for public content. SlideShare is intended for public influencing and not private meetings. y SlideShare is about asynchronous sharing of documents. It is not about live meetings. It is intended for sharing files so other people can look at them on their own schedule. y SlideShare is really an international site. The user base includes a lot of Latin Americans, Canadians, French, Indians and Germans

Content on SlideShare: Slide decks Slde deck refers to the basic sharing object on SlideShare in the form of PowerPoint, PDF, OpenOffice presentations. The term as a variant of ‘card deck,’ meaning a pile of slides (transparency films) that are loosely stacked like a deck of playing cards and can be put on the stage of an overhead projector one by one. That’s what a presentation application such as PowerPoint actually is, just in digital form.

Reviews of SlideShare Business Week, 18 December 2006 Issue th

n Globe, The Bosto 2006 rd Oc tober 23

The Idea

Presentation formats y PowerPoint y OpenOffice y Keynote y PDF (Portable Document Format)

“ I got the idea for SlideShare while helping organize a BarCamp (an informal tech conference) in New Delhi. I was responsible for getting the conference material onto the web. People out there were giving me PowerPoint files on CDs, on USB drives, as e-mail attachments; but there was no way for me to easily get the files online! Meanwhile, all the photos from the conference were being uploaded to flickr, without me being involved at all. That’s when the idea of a “flickr for PowerPoint” came to me ”

Constraints / Drawbacks

y No authoring of slide decks, only sharing supported. y Flash is required in order for the slide decks to be seen properly. y Maximum slide deck size is 30 MB. y Any sounds, animations, or movies within a slide deck will not be visible via Slideshare. y There is no way to set privacy settings for these slide decks. Currently, all slide decks are public. y SlideShare does not support editing abilities for uploaded slide decks.

Jonathan Boutelle

CTO, Uzanto

Where to share slides? When not to use SlideShare? Who needs SlideShare? Who uses SlideShare? Who developed SlideShare?



When do people needs SlideShare? When do they uses SlideShare? When do people share presentations?




How does it function? How do people share slides?



What is sharing of presentations? What is SlideShare’s purpose? What are slide decks and presentations?

Why the need for SlideShare? Why did SlideShare come up? Why use SlideShare?

Mental Model for understanding SlideShare

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare




Digging deep into the concept of Presentations and Slideshows

Types of Presentations


Several types of presentations based on their purpose are as follows:

A slideshow is a sequence of full screen images, each one loading the next. Each image is called a “slide”. Each slide is displayed on screen for a specified period of time. When this period is over, the next slide is displayed using a possible transition effect (cut, roll, fade...). A background music can be added as well as a startup video sequence. Slideshows are conducted by a presenter using an apparatus, such as a carousel slide projector, an overhead projector or in more recent years, a computer running presentation software.

Informative An informative presentation sticks to facts and explains when things should happen or where things should happen to how they should happen ?

Instructional The purpose here is to give specific directions or orders. In this, the listeners should come away with new knowledge or a new skill.

Arousing The purpose here is to make people think about a certain problem or situation. The speaker arouses the audience’s emotions and intellect so that they are receptive to his point of view.

Slideshows have artistic uses as well, such as being used as a screensaver, or to provide dynamic imagery for a museum presentation, for example, or in installation art.


A presentation may be defined as a carefully planned visual and aural event, designed for the purpose of gaining understanding and/or agreement and/or action. Basically a presentation illustrates, demonstrates and involves.

Why do we make Presentations ? We make presentations for numerous purposes from communicating to one another for personal safety (according to Maslow), establishing and maintaining our personal contacts, emotional expressions, identifying ourselves from the way we interact with others to solving challenges and obtaining practical solutions in this real world.


The purpose here is to convince the listeners to accept one’s proposal. A convincing persuasive presentation offers a solution to a controversy, dispute, or problem.

When and where will a presentation be delivered ? Will be a lesson, seminar, group meeting or a University open day ? Will it be for a small group or a crowd of hundred people ? Will it be presented on the Internet or in real world ?

Decision-making A decision-making presentation presents ideas, suggestions, and arguments strongly enough to persuade an audience to carry out one’s requests. In a decision-making presentation, the speaker mostly tells the audience what to do and how to do it.

What are Presentations ?


Receives the Presenter’s message. This reception is filtered through and affected by things such as the listener’s own experience, knowledge and his/her own sense of values.


Presentations are usually delivered directly to the audience. There are also cases where they are asynchronously delivered over the Internet.


Many things such as sleepiness, the cold, noisy interruptions threaten the audience’s concentration. The speaker has to cope with all such problems and try to keep the audience’s attention.


- Tell something

Communicate - Exchange ideas Teach - Build Understanding and Knowledge Train

- Teach to do something

Capacity Building Get Feedback

- Systematic improvement on a line of business

- Building Consensus


Techniques such as voice projection, body language, gestures, careful wording, eye contact etc. are all techniques used to deliver the presentation to the end audience.

Reaction / Feedback

The audience reaction and success of the presentation largely depend on whether to presenter’s message was adequately presented or not.


Communicates with the audience and controls the presentation


Components of a Presentation

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare




The multimedia format which forms the user generated content on SlideShare

Presentation Program

What is PowerPoint ?

A presentation program is a computer software package used to display information, normally in the form of a slide show. It typically includes three major functions: an editor that allows text to be inserted and formatted, a method for inserting and manipulating graphic images and a slideshow system to display the content.

Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft for its Microsoft Office system. Microsoft PowerPoint runs on Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS computer operating systems and is widely used by business people, educators, students, and trainers. It is among the most prevalent forms of persuasion technology. As a part of Microsoft Office, Microsoft Office PowerPoint has become the world’s most widely used presentation program.

What is a PDF ?

Microsoft Powerpoint 2003 Interface

PDF (Portable Document Format) is a file format that has captured all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that one can view, navigate, print, or forward to someone else. PDF files are created using Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Capture, or similar products. To view and use the files, one needs the free Acrobat Reader, which is easily downloadable from Abode Website.

How people use slideshows (and PowerPoints) ?

History of Presentation Program Originally these programs were used to generate 35mm slides, to be presented using a slide projector. As these programs became more common in the late 1980s, several companies set up services that would accept the shows on diskette and create slides or print transparencies. In the 1990s dedicated LCD-based screens that could be placed on the projectors started to replace the transparencies, and by the late 1990s they had almost all been replaced by video projectors. The first computer software specifically intended for displaying a presentation on a personal computer screen was VCN ExecuVision, developed in 1982. This program allowed users to choose from a library of images to accompany the text of their presentation. Apple KeyNote

Other Prominant Presentation Software OpenOffice Impress

Corel Presentations

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Astound Presentations


Research /Statistical Data


Knowledge Sharing

Thoughts / Self Expression

Photo Sharing

Expert Talk

Assignments / Collaborative Works

How people navigate slideshows ? The linear orientation of looking through material is so hard-wired into our media usage, that it is the preferred way to take in media rather than the non-linear approach.

“Next” Method Slideshows are a linear navigation medium. The primary choice of most users is moving linearly through slides, which results in viewing more slides and is similar to flipping through a deck of cards or bunch of papers.

“Arrow/Choice” Method When the amount of time to spend on particular slides is the primary goal, then users like to click through or choose the particular slides (from thumbnails or just indexes).

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



SlideShare Users

Target audience, the emerging user segment and the hypothetical personas

“ First, it’s interesting how big we are in Latin America. I have no idea why; no one on the team is Spanish-speaking, but the site is really popular there. The second is the large number of educators that are using the system. Teachers really love SlideShare. They upload their conference speeches but also their lessons, and we’ve had lots of questions about how to use SlideShare with course management systems like Moodle. So we think that SlideShare is an e-learning play as much as anything else, which was a surprise to us. ”

The Target User The concept of SlideShare revolved around sharing of slides for people who would present at talks, seminars and conferences. This online space was thus aimed at the presenters and people who had the core need for sharing presentations or slideshows with others.

“ So one thing we see is that a lot of consultants, speakers, or other people who make living by having influence are using the site to market themselves. The people using our site fall into a couple of different categories: (1) People trying to market themselves or to have influence in a professional way with their peers

Speaker Expert

(2) People who forward a lot of PowerPoints that they receive in e-mail

Business Executives

So this second group is really young, very much the YouTube type of people. And they’ve been forwarding jokey PowerPoints to each other for years. ”

The Emerging User Segment Users come from:

User Experience and Interaction Designer

Anti-racism Expert

Information Architect, Publisher


Vice President, Journalist, Blogger,Search UED, Yahoo Director of Public Author, Consultant Relations

Principal and Founder, LukeW

Founder and Principal Consultant

Web-design Consultant

Information Architect Innovator, Strategist

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Travel Enthusiast

Scientist (Electronics)

12.2% 5.9% 5.2% 5.1% 4.4% 4.4% 4.1% 3.9% 3.5% 2.8% 2.5% 2.3% 2.2% 2.1% 2.1% 2.0% 1.8% 1.8% 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 21.7%

United States Mexico Brazil Chile Spain Colombia Peru India Venezuela Italy United Kingdom France Argentina Canada Germany Ecuador Netherlands Dominican Republic Guatemala Australia Puerto Rico El Salvador Vietnam Malaysia Japan Other Countries (According to statistics as on August 09, 2007)

Jonathan Boutelle CTO, Uzanto

“When we launched the site, we were really still thinking about it as a way to share slideshows from conferences. But our users had other ideas. From the first day we were getting business plans, photo albums, sermons, and even book reports! PowerPoint is a very flexible medium, and it turns out it is used by all kinds of people to do all kinds of things. It’s a medium that allows you to tell a story with words and pictures, and it’s extremely easy to use. I think of it as the people’s multimedia authoring tool. So it’s not just for businesses. At this point SlideShare is a real mix. We have professional speakers and consultants who upload talks and presentations that they want to share. Then there is the e-learning crowd which has lectures and lessons on everything from math and history to web 2.0 and podcasting. And of course there are individuals with the funny PowerPoints that used to get e-mailed around and now get uploaded to SlideShare. And photo essays, sermons ... all kinds of stuff really! ”

y Interviews with Stakeholders y SlideShare Blog Entries y Internal Documents Information Gathering

User Segmentation


Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare




The hypothetical personas and their respective goals in using SlideShare

Brian Collins

“The Expert” Brian is a leading expert in the field of Information architecture and has coauthored two bestselling books on the subject. An internationally distinguished speaker, Brian provides keynotes and seminars on such topics as user experience, knowledge management, information architecture, ambient findability, and the future.

Celma Perry

“The Teacher”

Ram Shriram

“Surfer” Ram is a computer graduate, currently working as tech support lead in one of top notch call centers in Delhi, India. Ram is enthusiastic about networking with people online and is crazy about photography and music. He likes to explore things and spends much of his time on the web finding cool stuff and forwarding to others.

Celma teaches social science at the Northwest High School in Sao Paulo, Brazil. She has done her masters in Sociology and shares a strong interest in Cognitive Psychology. She encourages her high school students to explore about the discussed topics online. She regularly exchanges notes, lectures, assignments with them through e-mail and now also through SlideShare.

DEMOGRAPHICS y Age: 42 years old y Nationality: American (born Michigan,USA) y Education: Advance degree in library and information science from the University of Michigan’s School of Information. y Native Language: English (American) y Other Languages: French, Spanish

DEMOGRAPHICS y Age: 30 years old y Nationality: Brazilian (born Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) y Education: Master's in Sociology from the y Native Language: Portuguese y Other Languages: English, Italian.

DEMOGRAPHICS y Age: 24 years old y Nationality: Indian (born in Bangalore, India) y Education: Bachelors degree in Computer Application from Bangalore University. y Native Language: Telegu y Other Languages: English, Kannada, Hindi

PSYCHOGRAPHICS y Social Class: Typical careerist, possessing neither family status nore unusual wealth y Social Group Status: Influencer y Social Network Role: Peripheral specialist (Person whose expertise plays a vital role, but who operates on the periphery of the network) y Personality and Self-Image: Compulsive y Interest and Hobbies: Reading, Hiking

PSYCHOGRAPHICS y Social Class: Average-pay teacher who live on “the better side of town.” y Social Group Status: Part of the crowd y Social Network Role: Central Connector (Links most people in an informal network, the classic go-to person) y Personality and Self-Image: Gregarious y Interest and Hobbies: Singing, Painting

PSYCHOGRAPHICS y Social Class: Average-pay blue-collar worker who lives on “the better side of town.” y Social Group Status: Wanna-be y Social Network Role: Boundary spanner (Roving ambassadors who serve as a groups eyes and ears to the wider world) y Personality and Self-Image: Compulsive y Interest and Hobbies: Music, Photography, Tennis

WEBOGRAPHICS y Amount of Online Usage: 4 hours per day y Type of Usage: Information-retrieval, Information-sharing. y Internet Devices: Desktop-browser, y Tenure of Online Usage: about 3 years been using the Internet for research and learning.

WEBOGRAPHICS y Amount of Online Usage: 10 hours per day y Type of Usage: Communication, Networking y Internet Devices: Desktop-browser y Tenure of Online Usage: about 5 years

WEBOGRAPHICS y Amount of Online Usage: 7 hours per day y Type of Usage: Information-retrieval, Communication y Internet Devices: Desktop-browser, PDA, Cellphone, file-sharing applications. y Tenure of Online Usage: about 10 years been studying and exploring web services


Goals y Share his presentations effectively and easily online with his friends and colleagues.

y Find presentations of various interest topics.

Primary Persona National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

y Share her teachings, lectures and other resources with her students through slideshows. y Connect to experts, teachers, educators and learn more on her interest topics.

Primary Persona

Goals y Find interesting slideshows, forward to his friends y Creating cool and wacky slideshows and sharing with others

Secondary Persona Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare


Chapter 4

The Social Web In both professional and personal life, human beings naturally form groups based on affinities and expertise. We gravitate to others with whom we share interests. Most of us belong to real world networks that were formed organically. Not surprisingly, these networks rapidly migrated to the online world. Online social networking has been around in various forms for nearly a decade, and has begun to achieve wide notice in the past few years. Online social networks take many forms, and are created for many reasons. This chapter looks into the online social web, digging deep into the very basics and identifying the attributes of existing online social services.


Online Social Networking In real space, networking is all about meeting people, establishing a connection, following up on contact, and continuing the relationship. Many personal and professional social connections are often serendipitous in nature or created by intermediaries who make the effort to consider and then facilitate initial contact.

What is networking ?

Social Networking VS Social Software

Social Networking Service

“A social network is the map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familiar bonds.” - Social Networking

A social network service focuses on the building and verifying of online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others, and which necessitates the use of software. Most social network services are primarily web based and provide a collection of various ways for users to interact, such as chat, messaging, e-mail, video, voice chat, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups, and so on.

“Social software lets people rendezvous, connect or collaborate by use of a computer network.” - Social Software

Networking is simply defined as meeting people who can be of help to you and being a help to them. More precisely, connecting with people of like interests for the purpose of bonding, uncovering opportunities, learning, creating new relations, sharing resources etc.

Benefit of Online Social Networks The primary benefit to extending networks electronically through social-networking software is the ability to find resources and like-minded colleagues beyond one’s primary network in a more organized fashion. Instead of relying on a colleague to create the connection, social-networking software allows the member greater flexibility in finding contacts by either browsing his or her network or searching the entire site using key search terms.

What is a community ? All the groups of individuals living together in the same area, usually interacting or depending on each other for existence and/ or sharing some common interests.

How is a social network differs from a community ? All the groups of individuals living together in the same area, usually interacting or depending on each other for existence and/ or sharing some common interests.

Types of Social Networks Mainstream and Friend Networks

Professional Networks

Social Sharing Networks

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Instant Messaging

Social network services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. Social networks are beginning to be adopted by health care professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions. Social networks connect people at low cost; this can be beneficial for entrepreneurs and small businesses looking to expand their contact base. These networks often act as a customer relationship management tool for companies selling products and services.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Object-mediated Social Networking

object-centered sociality

First Generation Social Networks (Friendster, LinkedIn..) Second Generation Social Networks “You are linked to him...”

- Individuals connected to each other

“I’m linked to you...”

- Relationships can be marked, hubs identified - Concept of Six Degrees of Seperation “..and so on”

Social Sharing

- “Are you my friend” type of awkwardness

Viral Sharing

Watercooler conversations around stuff (Social Networks with object in between, e.g., Flickr, Yahoo Answers) “I Share my pics...”

Tag-based Sharing

Pasing on interesting stuff to others ( e.g., YouTube Videos)

“I send video I like...”

Linking by contexts and concepts ( e.g., Flickr,

“I stag my bookmarks...”

Social News Creation Users rating news stories ( e.g., Digg, Newsvine)

“I find an interesting story”

global voices lebanon

“ you, pass on”


“...with you”


“ him, who sends on ”


“ see my tags”

technology “ share your pics”

People don’t connect to each other, they connect through a shared object. Think about objects as the reason why people get in touch with each other. Real-world sociality centers around objects. We’re naturals at object sociality and love to invent games around objects. When a service fails to offer the users a way to create new objects of sociality, they turn the connecting itself into an object. Good services, allow people to create social objects that add value.


“you rate story”



“.with him”

“ share your tags” “ her, who send on...

“Others rate story”




CNN web global networks blogs technology - People share objects, Watch others

- Individual to Individual to Individual

- Save and Tag stuff (bookmarks, photos)

- Finding and rating of stories

- Social connections through objects

- Popularity based navigation helps track viral items

- Tags mediate social connections

- Popular stories rise to the top (get featured)

- Formation of social streams of informtion with emergence of popular, interesting items.

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

- Formation of social/ conceptual information streams. Emergence of popular and interesting items.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Web 2.0

Second generation of web-based communities and hosted services

What is Web 2.0 ? The phrase Web 2.0 refers to a perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services — such as social-networking sites, wikis and folksonomies — which aim to facilitate collaboration and sharing between users. The term became popular following the first O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004, and has since become widely adopted. Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to Web technical specifications, but to changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the web as a platform. According to Tim O’Reilly, “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform. Chief among those rules is this: Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them. (This is what I’ve elsewhere called “harnessing collective intelligence.”)”

Characteristics of a Web 2.0 Application

Fig. The mind-map picture constructed by Markus Angermeier on November 11, 2005 sums up the memes of Web 2.0

A Web 2.0 website may exhibit some basic common characteristics. These might include: y “Network as platform” — delivering (and allowing users to use) applications entirely through a browser. y Users owning the data on a site and exercising control over that data y An architecture of participation that encourages users to add value to the application as they use it. This stands in sharp contrast to hierarchical accesscontrol in applications, in which systems categorize users into roles with varying degrees of functionality. y A rich, interactive, user-friendly interface based on Ajax or similar frameworks. y Some social-networking aspects. The impossibility of excluding group-members who don’t contribute to the provision of goods from sharing profits gives rise to the possibility that rational members will prefer to withhold their contribution of effort and free-ride on the contribution of others. The concept of Web-as-participation-platform captures many of these characteristics. Bart Decrem, a founder and former CEO of Flock, calls Web 2.0 the “participatory Web” and regards the Web-as-information-source as Web 1.0.

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

Instant, Continual andCollaborative Creation: People as Computing Power and Networks as Broadcasters Instant response on a large scale-

People as computing power Current Events

-Innovations come on a daily basis -Global community, greatest computing power -More people, tools more powerful -content more richer, higher user satisfaction -Connecting people now effortless -Crowd Wisdom


WEB 2.0 Conceptual Shifts

Web 2.0 is an attitude, not a technologySmall pieces loosely joinedPerceptual Beta and Remix CultureUser Behaviour not pre-determinedHackabilityTrust in Users-

Technology and Infrastructure

Good User Experience

-Everyone able to find what they need -Highly responsive applications -Quickly loading and highly interactive -Performs more like a desktop application -Better user experience, more usable

Web 2.0 HoneyComb The Concept of Web 2.0

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Online Social Networks Social Networking

Social Networking

MySpace is a popular social networking website offering an interactive, usersubmitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music and videos internationally. According to Alexa Internet (, 25th January 2007 statistics), MySpace is currently the world’s sixth most popular Englishlanguage website and the sixth most popular website in any language, and the third most popular website in the United States, though it has topped the chart on various weeks. The service has gradually gained more popularity than similar websites to achieve nearly 80% of visits to online social networking websites. It has become an increasingly influential part of contemporary popular culture, especially in English speaking countries. With the 100 millionth account being created on August 9, 2006, in the Netherlands and a news story claiming 106 million accounts on September 8, 2006, the site reportedly attracts new registrations at a rate of 230,000 per day. As of September 7, 2007, there are over 200 million accounts.

Facebook is a social networking website, launched on February 4, 2004, and founded by Mark Zuckerberg, a Harvard graduate. Initially, the membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. It was subsequently expanded to other Boston area schools (Boston College, Boston University, MIT, Tufts), Rochester, Stanford, NYU, Northwestern, and all Ivy League schools within two months. Many individual universities were added in rapid succession over the next year. Eventually, people with a university (e.g .edu,, etc.) email address from institutions across the globe were eligible to join. Networks were then initiated for high schools and some large companies. Since September 11, 2006, it has been made available to any email address user who inputs a certain age range. Users can select to join one or more participating networks, such as a high school, place of employment, or geographic region.

Typical MySpace profile, MySpace co-founder Tom Anderson’s profile

MySpace - Why so successful ? At MySpace, it is not just about belonging to a group, but having a common place to belong “in” and where communication with others is quick and easy. It’s a place where teens can experiment with their identity and reinvent themselves whenever they please - an important part of growing up. Given the size of the membership, it gives these kids so many options for finding the crowd whose values they are most comfortable with - whether that group exists in their neighborhood or on the other side of the planet. Even the many teens who don’t particularly like MySpace still have profiles as that’s where all their friends are - resistance is futile if you want to remain up to date with your “tribe”.

National Institute of Design (Year 2007 )

How Facebook is special? Facebook has tons of applications and tools which enable you to play around the site, and if you are program-savvy, you can even write an application or two and share it with everyone on Facebook. Another important feature is Market place, which acts as al platform for showcasing Ones wares.

Typical Facebook profile, Neville Medhora’s Facebook profile

Facebook population doubled to 30 million in first half of 2007 (according to Alexia Rankings 2007).

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



>> Online Social Networks Social Networking

Orkut is an Internet social network service run by Google and named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. It claims to be designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. Similar to FaceBook, Friendster and MySpace, Orkut goes a step further by permitting the creation of easy-to-set-up simple forums (called “communities”) of users. Since October 2006, Orkut has permitted users to create accounts without an invitation. In April 2007, Orkut introduced polls in communities.

Scrap (Public) Messaging

Professional Networking

LinkedIn is a business-oriented social networking site, mainly used for professional networking.

Connections The main purpose of the site is to allow registered users to maintain a list of contact details of people they know and trust in business. The people in the list are called Connections. Users can invite anyone (whether a LinkedIn user or not) to become a connection. A contact network is built up consisting of their direct connections, each of their connections’ connections (called 2nd degree connections) and also the connections of 2nd degree connections (called 3rd degree connections). This can be used, for example, to gain an introduction to someone you wish to know through a mutual, trusted contact. It can then be used to find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by anyone in your contact network.

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Sample Profile (Jason Untulis’s LinkedIn Profile) Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Online Social Sharing Networks YouTube, LLC Website: Type of Site: video-sharing Type: Subsidiary of Google

Video Sharing YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. The San Bruno-based service uses Adobe Flash technology to display a wide variety of video content, including movie clips, TV clips and music videos, as well as amateur content such as videoblogging and short original videos. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Some videos are available only to users of age 18 or older (videos containing potentially offensive content, pornography is disallowed to be uploaded). Related videos, determined by title and tags, appear onscreen to the right of a given video. In YouTube’s second year, functions were added to enhance user ability to post video ‘responses’ and subscribe to content feeds.

Facts > Fastest growing website in Internet Industry

Key People: Steve Chen, Founder & CTO Chad Hurley, Founder & CEO Jawed Karim, Founder & Advisor Dates and Figures: YEAR 2005 Febuary 14 Founded by Steve, Chad and Jawed May Launched October First funding of $3.5mn (sucoia capital) YEAR 2006 April Second funding of $8mn (sucoia capital) October Acquired by Google for US$1.65 bn

Social Impact Internet celebrities and breaking boundaries

Brand and Music Promotion

YouTube’s popularity has led to the creation of many YouTube Internet celebrities, popular individuals who have attracted much publicity in their home countries (and sometimes world renown) due to their videos.

YouTube has also become a means of promoting bands and their music. One such example is OK Go which got a huge radio hit and an MTV Video Music Awards performance out of the treadmill video for Here It Goes Again.

> On average, 100 milliion videos per day > 65,000 video uploaded everyday > More than 13 million new users every month


> An average user spends 30 minutes on YouTube

Sharing revenue with popular users

> 58% of Internet videos are watched on YouTube > 4th Most Visited Website in the World > Accounts for 10% of Total Internet Traffic

YouTube officially accepts uploaded videos in .WMV, .AVI, .MOV, MPEG and .MP4, formats

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Singer Terra Naomi

The most subscribed YouTube member, as of June 2, 2007, is Smosh. Smosh is a duo of college students, Anthony Padilla and Ian Hecox, from Carmichael, California. They write, film, act in, and edit their own skits and “music videos”.

In May 2007, YouTube invited some of its most viewed users to become “YouTube Partners.” This exclusive status, previously only offered to commercial content providers, allows users to earn revenue from advertisements placed next to videos.

Pop Band “OK Go”

YouTube gatherings YouTubers periodically hold public gatherings to celebrate the video sharing community. One of the earliest of such gatherings, the recurrent and international As One, was first held in January 2007 in Hollywood, California. The second As One, held on February 17, 2007 at Pier 39 in San Francisco, California, managed to attract many of YouTube’s highest viewed individuals.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



>> Online Social Sharing Networks Photograph Sharing Flickr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform, which is generally considered an early example of a Web 2.0 application. In addition to being a popular Web site for users to share personal photographs, the service is widely used by bloggers as a photo repository. Its popularity has been fueled by its innovative online community tools that allow photos to be tagged and browsed by folksonomic means.

Website: Type of Site: Photo-sharing Launched: February 2004 Owner: Yahoo Priminant Features: - Upload, Share andTag - Organise into Sets - Contribute to Group Pools - Leave Comments and Notes - Send to one’s blog Mrinal’s Flickr Profile

How Flickr Works ?

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Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



>> Online Social Sharing Networks Wikipedia (Wikis) Wikipedia is an online free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as “an effort to create and distribute a multilingual free encyclopedia of the highest quality to every single person on the planet in his or her own language.” Wikipedia exists to bring knowledge to everyone who seeks it. Anyone can submit or edit an article, which is why Wikipedia has been lampooned for high-profile inaccuracies. But Wikipedia also employs a series of consensus driven vetting processes that strive to ensure the information is accurate, is verifiable, is built on solid sources, and excludes personal opinion. Just as anyone can submit an article, anyone can also start an “Article for Deletion” (AfD) review process if they believe the piece does not live up to those standards. After online debate about the worthiness of the piece, a Wikipedia administrator reviews the arguments and decides the fate of the article. (Social Bookmarking) The website (pronounced as “delicious”) is a social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks. The site was founded by Joshua Schachter in late 2003, and was acquired by Yahoo! in 2005.

Social Bookmarking is a social bookmarking website the primary use of is to store ones bookmarks online, which allows one to access the same bookmarks from any computer and add bookmarks from anywhere, too. On, one can use tags to organize and remember one’s bookmarks, which is a much more flexible system than folders.

Digg (Social Content) is a popular social bookmarking and content discovery website. Although site management and maintenance is done the website’s paid staff, all the content is submitted by the site’s visitors on a voluntary basis. Readers can view all of the stories that have been submitted by fellow users in the “digg/News/Upcoming” section of the site. Once a story has received enough “diggs”, it appears on Digg’s front page. Should the story not receive enough diggs, or if enough users report a problem with the submission, the story will remain in the “digg all” area, where it may eventually be removed.

Digg has grown large enough that submissions sometimes create a sudden increase of traffic to the “dugg” website. This is referred to by some Digg users as the “Digg effect” and by some others as the site being “dugg to death”.

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Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare


Chapter 5

Social Networking on SlideShare After understanding the intricacies of the online social networking, sharing applications and the common attributes of social software, the next step was to finalise a hypothesis for social networking on SlideShare and the design methodology.


Social Behaviour Models Social behaviours defining evolutionary progression and phenomenon

Collective Behaviour in Social Insects

“Tipping Point” Model

Social insects - ants, bees, termites and wasps - can be viewed as powerful problemsolving systems with sophisticated collective intelligence. Composed of simple interacting agents, this intelligence lies in the networks of interactions among the individuals and between individuals and the environment.

Malcolm Gladwell, in his book ‘The Tipping Point: How little things can make a big difference’, talks about how contagious behavior—like a fashion trend, or the emergence of a best-seller—starts and grows in an organic fashion, much like a virus does, without any central control or master plan. It focuses in particular on examples where little changes create big effects (like when the temperature of fresh water drops from 32.2 degrees to 31.9 degrees and all of a sudden ice occurs). And it also tries to understand when change happens not gradually, but explosively.

Every single insect in a social insect colony seems to have its own agenda, and yet an insect colony looks so organised. The seamless integration of all individual activities does not seem to require any supervisor. The collective intelligence of the swarm emerges Fig. Leafcutter Ants bringing back cut leaves to the nest in a decentralized way from the actions of individual insects responding to local stimuli from the environment and, most importantly, from other members of the swarm. There is no “boss” in charge. No individual insect grasps the big picture. Yet in the aggregate, the local actions of each insect based on the local stimuli available to it can accomplish a collective goal that serves the interests of the whole community.

The “tipping point” is that point in a system’s development where a small change leads to a huge effect, in a very rapid time frame, and spreads through the system in a contagious fashion. Not all systemic change is like this, but for those people who want to foment rapid change, the principles or components of the tipping point model are worth examining.

A decentralized system has several important advantages over a centralized one, most notably robustness and flexibility.

Fig. Swarm behavior: Ants collaborate to form a living bridge Fig. To help regulate interior temperature, termites build these mounds along a north-south axis for even exposure to sunlight.

Social Proof Social proof, also known as informational social influence, is a psychological phenomenon that occurs in ambiguous social situations when people are unable to determine the appropriate mode of behavior. Making the assumption that surrounding people possess more knowledge about the situation, they will deem the behavior of others as appropriate or better informed.

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Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Design Strategies

Looking up successful models of community/network development

“Social Scaffolding” Approach Amy Jo Kim in her book “Community Building on the Web” introduces an architectural, systems-oriented approach to community building which she has called “Social Scaffolding”. This approach contains nine timeless, design strategies that characterise successful, sustainable communities.

Rashmi Sinha’s “Design for Social Sharing” Rashmi’s presentation on “Design for Social Sharing” outlined certain ideologies and principles for the social sharing applications design.

Few Principles: 1. Make the System personally useful



- Build a flexible, small infrastructure of gathering places

- develop robust, up -to-date member profiles.

3. Create porous boundary between public and private




4. Allow for levels of participation

- provide guidance to newcomers - offering leadership, and ownership to elders

- Careful Planning, Ongoing Management

- Groundrules for participation, evolve community standards




- develop regular online events - Let members develop their own events

- Acknowledge Members - Celebrate important social transitions

- Help members create and run subgroups

PURPOSE - Why are you building it? - Whom are u building for ?

2. Identify symbolic relationship between personal and social

5. Let people feel the presence of others 6. And yet, moments of Independence... 7. Enable Serendipity 8. Most of all, allow for Play Rashmi’s presentation highlighted the fact that the web has become a social sphere. About 34% of Men, 26% of Women, 37% of 18-29 years old and 20% of 65 years and older; go online, on a given day, just for fun (Figures, From Pew Internet Research, for US only, Year 2006). She also reflects on the Massively multi-player games such as Second Life. She pointed out that these games facilitate social interactions, particularly social facilitation. She then shows examples of how rich interfaces enable richer interactions.

Community Design Principles Amy Jo Kim also states three basic community design principles:

1. Growth and Change

2. Feedback Loops

Design for growth and change. As a community designer, one should not make the mistake of overdesigning the community up front and investing too heavily in a design paradigm or technology platform that can’t easily be changed and updated. Successful, longlasting communities almost always start off small, simple and focused, and then grow organically over time— adding breadth, depth and complexity in response to the changing needs of the members, and the changing conditions of the environment.

Create and maintain feedback loops.Successful community building is a constant balancing act between the efforts of the management to plan, organise and run the space, and the ideas, suggestions and needs of the members. There is a need to keep the finger on the community pulse, and this can be done by creating and maintaining feedback loops. These loops will keep the management in touch with what the members are saying and doing, and provide the information to eveolve and update the community.

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3. Empower Members Empower the members over time. Initially, it’s up to the community managers to define the purpose, choose the feature set, and set a particular tone, but as the community grows and matures, the members can and should play a progressively larger role in building and maintaining the community culture. There needs to be a progressive strategy for leveraging the ideas and efforts of the members, in order to grow a large and thriving community.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Social Software Model The elements that define the social software structure

What is Social Software ? The term Social software is normally applied to a range of web-enabled software programs. The programs usually allow users to interact, share, and meet other users. This computer-mediated communication has become very popular with sites like MySpace and YouTube.

How Social Software Works ? Gene Smith’s publication “Social Software building blocks” dated April4, 2007 provides a good functional definition of social software and lays down the foundation for thinking about how social software works. The list of seven social software elements, originally assembled by Matt Webb (who was expanding on the list created by Stewart Butterfield), was represented as a Social Software Honeycomb, borrowing the idea from Peter Morville’s User Experience Honeycomb. A brief definition of each element is as follows:


A way of uniquely identifying people in a system.


A way of knowing who is online, available or otherwise nearby.


A way of describing how two users in the system are related (e.g. in Flickr, people can be contacts, friends of family).


A way of a way of talking to other people through the system.


A way of forming communities of interest.

Reputation A way of knowing the status of other people in the system (who’s a good citizen? Who can be trusted?


A way of sharing things that are meaningful to participants (like photos or videos) Not every social software system has all of these, but most of them have three or more. And the most popular social websites implement many of these building blocks, but focus on just one or two. For example, Flcikr is for sharing photos, Twitter aims at presence, LinkedIn tracks relationships and so on. [REF,6]

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Fig. Gene Smith’s Social Software Honeycomb listing seven social software elements. Underneath the main honeycomb are examples of three social websites and how they use the building blocks. The dark green hexagon is the focus of the system; the light green hexagons are the supporting elements.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



Case of SlideShare

Defining the hypothesis for building social features into SlideShare

How to build the social features on SlideShare ?

Inspiring Models Presence The presence of others was based on an effective user and content search, tagging and categories model which were outside the scope of the project

Sharing and Identity The central theme of SlideShare was presentation sharing and there was a need to constantly redefine the ways presentations are shared and experienced online. The aim was to shift from slide decks to presentations and the new contexts which might emerge.


6 presence

The identity element was to be strengthened from the concept of personal page to that of personal space. Identity was also to be looked as the basis of social networking including the user’s activity profile as well.

1 relationships


Since the context of presentation sharing was well established and every member’s identity (cum activities) could be verified through his/her My Slidespace page, the next step was to lay the seeds for people to connect. Connections would form the basis of collective intelligence, gatherings and groups and would also help in identifying the connectors, mavens and the salesmen.

identity Reputation

Conversations Along with helping users to connect to each other, it was also necessary to help them talk within the SlideShare’s space. Conversations would help bring like-minded people together and would thus help in forming stronger bonds (relations) among them.





Conversations were also the basic necessity for groups. The viral sharing aspect would also pick up once the members got the tool to pass on the content objects quickly to their contacts.

Dance Language Stakeholders views, competitive environment, emerging sharing trends, technological constraints and server-logs formed the communication basis directing the choice of the various social elements.

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The reputation aspect would be more influenced by the sharing nature of the members. Members would get recognised on the basis of the quality of their contributions (uploads) as well as their efforts to enhance the social sharing aspect. The reputation aspect was to strengthen the identity aspect by highlight (unofficial) community leaders and role models.

Groups The groups feature was to allow the users to create their own gathering spaces to interact with the visitors and people they knew. The groups and forums element was the strongest means of connecting people together within the context and their interest areas.

Fig. Gene Smith’s Social Software Honeycomb adapted to SlideShare’s case and a plan of action to develop the social elements

Projected Social Structure

The proposed SlideShare social structure after the project culminates based on building the essential elements and on current socio-technical considerations.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare



User Experience Design

Design ideologies followed in creating the various social elements

Jesse James Garrett’s Five Plane User Experience Model Fig. This diagram showcases the importance of user experience which formed my basic understanding of the concept

This model formed the basis of my understanding of designing for the web keeping the user’s experience at the forefront. It provided me with a step-by-step approach of constructing a solution while fully respecting the user’s experience. For more information, visit:

Peter Morville ‘s User Experience Honeycomb

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Peter Morville, widely recognized as a father of the information architecture field, serves as a passionate advocate for the critical role that findability plays in defining the user experience.



Peter in consultation with his basic diagram of Information Architecture and Jesse James model, came up with the HoneyComb diagram showcasing various facet or quality of the user experience. The first major purpose it served was to help me understand the need to define priorities. Secondly, it supported a modular approach to web design. Third, each facet can serve as a singular looking glass, transforming how we see what we do, and enabling us to explore beyond conventional boundaries.



To ask whether the whether the comapny’s products and systems are useful and to define innovative solutions that are more useful. Ease of use remains vital, usability is necessary but not sufficient.


An appreciation for the power and value of image, identity, brand, and other elements of emotional design.


Help users find what they need.

As our buildings have elevators and ramps, our web sites should be accessible to people with disabilities (more than 10% of the population). The design elements that influence whether users trust and believe what we tell them.


An appreciation for the power and value of image, identity, brand, and other elements of emotional design.


The user experience must advance the mission forward.

Diploma Project Social Networking on SlideShare


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“ ” This is the foundation of all. We are not to imagine or suppose, but to discover, what nature does or may be made to do. Francis Bacon 1...