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DISSERTATION

DEVELOPING FRAMEWORK FOR RIVERFRONT PROJECTS FINAL REPORT

MRINALINI VERMA FOURTH YEAR B-ARCH A/2559/2013 11/11/2016                

GUIDE: SHRUTI NARAYAN COORDINATOR: SHUVOJIT SARKAR


ABSTRACT Â

Rivers are a very critical part of urban fabric of a city for it. It provides city with most important resource, water, contributes to the culture of a place, its economy etc. It has been established that the rivers have played significant role in shaping human civilizations. However, it is now seen that a significant percentage of rivers are in an appalling state. The governments have realized that the condition is deteriorating and efforts have been made to improve the current situation. However, these efforts have made very little difference. In order to bring back the lost relationship between river and city, there is a need to approach the problem in a sustainable manner. This can be done by following a structured framework which looks holistically at the development. The rivers in India were even not included in the master plans initially. But now with awareness and the need, they have included them as a separate part of the master plan. There is a strong need to include riverfront development projects in master plan in order to ensure proper development and making them significant part of the cityscape. The purpose of this dissertation is to propose the framework of riverfront development project that have been developed after studying various successful riverfront development projects around the world and in India. Or, the aim is to answer: "What could be the possible indicators for assessing future riverfront development projects?" .The framework has been developed also keeping in mind the characteristics of a public space and elements that are essential in maintaining river-city relationship. Who is this framework for? The purpose of this guide is to help governments in creating a sustainable riverfront which can be best established if it involves the community, architects, planners, water department, development authority and other stakeholders at the planning level itself and they work together throughout in a respectful and flexible process. There would be certain variations in the framework proposed due to regional variation in context and climate. The Yamuna Riverfront Development plan as proposed by DUAC has covered the major aspects of the proposed framework. But there is a strong need to implement the proposal as the river has reached its worst possible stage. Keywords: Riverfront Development , Framework, Identity, Sustainability.

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DECLARATION

The research work embodied in this dissertation titled _ DEVELOPING FRAMEWORK FOR RIVERFRONT PROJECTS _ has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate Dissertation programme in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, under the supervision of Mrs. Shruti Narayan. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarised in part or full form from any source.

Name of student: Mrinalini Verma Roll No.

: A/2559/2013

Date

:12/11/2016

(Signature of student)

(Signature of guide)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would sincerely like to thank my internal guide, Mrs. Shruti Narayan, for her immense guidance and patience with me during this entire dissertation process. Without her valuable insights, this dissertation would not have been possible. I would also like to thank my coordinator Mr. Shuvojit Sarkar, for his guidance, help and support. I am also grateful to the college for providing free access to exhaustible reading material that helped in shaping my research .            

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................ 4 List of Figures ............................................................................................................. 6 List of Tables .............................................................................................................. 6 CHAPTER ONE: OVERVIEW 1.1

Introduction....................................................................................................... 8

1.2

Need Identification .......................................................................................... 10

1.4

Aim: ................................................................................................................ 11

1.5

Objectives:...................................................................................................... 11

1.6

Scope: ............................................................................................................ 11

1.7

Limitations ...................................................................................................... 12

1.8 Research Methodology ..................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Identity of City .......................................................................................................... 14 Role of Rivers ........................................................................................................... 15 River- City Relationship ............................................................................................ 17 Riverfronts as a public space ................................................................................... 17 CHAPTER THREE: SECONDARY CASE STUDIES Research framework for Secondary case studies .................................................... 20 Auckland waterfront development ............................................................................ 21 Chicago riverfront ..................................................................................................... 29 Sabarmati riverfront development ............................................................................ 36 CHAPTER FOUR: PRIMARY CASE STUDY Yamuna Riverfront at ITO, Delhi .............................................................................. 41 Evolution of the river................................................................................................. 43 Need for Riverfront Plan ........................................................................................... 44 CHAPTER FOUR: DEVELOPMENT OF FRAMEWORK AND ANALYSIS Developing process .................................................................................................. 50 What is the need for this guide? ............................................................................... 52 CONCLUSION: ........................................................................................................ 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................... 59 5   


List of Figures FIGURE 1: IMAGE OF RIVER YAMUNA TAKEN ON 7TH NOVEMBER BY INDIAN EXPRESS ON THE CONCLUDING DAY OF CHATT PUJA SHOWING MOUNTAIN OF POLLUTANT FROTH (IMAGE SOURCE: INDIAN EXPRESS,2016) .................................................................................... 10  FIGURE 2 : VIEW OF THE CITY FROM THE SEA ( AUCKLAND TOURISM,2015) ......................... 22  FIGURE 3 : 1800S ...........................................................................     FIGURE 4: 1900S   22  FIGURE 5: 1940S ..................................................................................................................... 23  FIGURE 6: 1951 ....................................................................................................................... 23  FIGURE 7: 1950S ..................................................................................................................... 24  FIGURE 8: 1955 ....................................................................................................................... 24  FIGURE 9 : CURRENT IMAGE OF THE DISTRICT SHOWING THE WATERFRONT CHARACTER ..... 25  FIGURE 10: AUCKLAND CENTRAL DISTRICT PLAN (AUCKLAND COUNCIL,2016) ................... 26  FIGURE 11: TARGETS SET BY AUCKLAND COUNCIL LONG-TERM PLAN 2015-2025 ............. 28  FIGURE 12: LIVEABILITY INDEX( THE ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE UNIT,2016) ........................ 28  FIGURE 13: VIEW OF CITYSCAPE (BEHANCE,2014) ................................................................ 30  FIGURE 14: RIVER WALK PLAN SHOWING VARIOUS BRANCHES (BUTLER,2001) .............................. 31  FIGURE 15: THE MARINA PLAZA AT NIGHT (URBAN MATTER, 2016) ..................................... 32  FIGURE 16 : THE WATER PLAZA (URBAN MATTER,2016) ...................................................... 33  FIGURE 17: THE RIVER THEATRE (URBAN MATTER,2016) .................................................... 34  FIGURE 18: THE MAIN BRANCH (SASAKI,2014) ................................................................... 35  FIGURE 19 : THE RIVER WALK AT NIGHT( SRDCL,2016) ....................................................... 36  FIGURE 20 : THE OPEN SPACES DURING EVENING(SRFDCC,2014) ..................................... 39  FIGURE 21 YAMUNA RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT SCHEMATIC SKETCH(DUAC,2015) ....... 41  FIGURE 22: THE DEVOTEES IN THE SEA OF FROTH DURING CHATT PUJA(INDIAN EXPRESS,2016) ............................................................................................................... 43  FIGURE 23 : EXISTING LAND USE PLAN OF THE SITE ............................................................... 45  FIGURE 24: PROPOSED AREA OF DEVELOPMENT .................................................................... 46  FIGURE 25 CONCEPTUAL PLAN BY DUAC( DUAC,2015) ..................................................... 46  FIGURE 26 FINAL PROPOSAL FOR YAMUNA RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT (DUAC,2015) ... 47  FIGURE 27 TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE OF SUSTAINABILITY(METER,1999) .................................... 50 

List of Tables TABLE 2: COMPARATIVE TABULATION OF FEATURES OF THE RIVERFRONT PROJECTS ......... 51 TABLE 3 : FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ................. 53

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CHAPTER ONE

OVERVIEW

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1.1 Introduction Â

Water is the primary source of life .Adequate amount of clean water is necessary for sustenance of humans as well as other living beings.

Water has the ability to

enhance life as well as it has destructive potential. In both states: scarcity and flood, the damage caused is plentiful. With climate change, the change in environmental patterns have cause heavy downpours leading to floods. This has caused the drainage systems to fail and it has become a home of disease causing bacteria and virus. Hence, water systems needs to be managed continuously. The attitude of people has changed and water bodies are acknowledged as important elements of the city. There is an effort to work on ill effects of industrialisation. After long years of negligence we have now realised that they are valuable economic and community assets.

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Rivers are powerful forces of nature which have shaped and moulded the pattern of human civilisation for ages. The mood and character of river has set the pattern of developments along its course. Rivers, being a continuous open corridor, provides an ideal space for architectural expressions. The riverfront thus develops as an outcome of interaction between river, city, built forms and the people. Rivers have defined identity of various cities. It is difficult to imagine London without Thames, Egypt without Nile and Varanasi without Ganga. In river-based cities, the riverfront becomes the most important urban space. It's a representation of the city's culture and architecture and reflects the nature of the city and also its inhabitants. No riverfront city can sustain if the condition of the river is continuously deteriorating. Many countries are struggling in economic and social development as these are very much related to water. Issues related to water shortage and quality deterioration are increasing. Rivers, being major fresh water source, needs to be taken care of and its development to meet various demands related to domestic, agriculture, industrial and environment has become important. The purpose of this dissertation is to study what identity means in respect to cities. Thereafter to study how rivers contribute to it. It will also develop an understanding of riverfronts as a public space. Case studies would help in identifying the characteristics of existing successful riverfronts and coming up with a framework for future projects. Later part of study will include a study of history of Yamuna river and its relation with Old Delhi as well as modern Delhi. This will also include an analysis of current Yamuna riverfront development proposal along the ITO stretch. The final outcome of this dissertation is to come up with a set of indicators which will help in assessing future riverfront developments in India. Getting started, you may imagine you are wading for the first time into an unknown lake. You may  wonder where to take your first steps, and be uncertain where the deeper pools may lie, hidden by  the surface waters. You may feel you are working in isolation. We hope this booklet offers a trusty  guide at such a time.

"What could be the possible indicators for assessing future riverfront development projects?"

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1.2 Need Identification

Some quick facts which would itself justify the need for working towards this issue: About 70 percent of Earth is covered with water out of which only 2.5 percent comes under fresh water source. About 70 percent of total industrial waste is discharged into rivers. About 80 percent of the water pollution is due to human waste. 15 million children under the age of five die due to diseases caused by contaminated water.   According to a survey done by Food &Water watch cities, about 3.5 billion people will die in 2025 due to water shortage issue which will be mainly due to water pollution. River Ganga is considered s the most important river of the Indian subcontinent. The river directly or indirectly affects over 420 million people who rely on the river for food, water and other functions. The river now has a toxin level which is 3000 times over the limit of what is considered "safe" by WHO.

Figure 1: Image of River Yamuna taken on 7th November by Indian Express on the concluding day of Chatt Puja showing mountain of pollutant froth (image source: Indian Express,2016)

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The list goes on but the underlying fact is that rivers human race is facing a major crisis Clean water is basic need for sustenance of living beings. Rivers have been source of water and have been the focal points of human civilisations. However, with industrialisation and rapid urbanisation, the situation of rivers deteriorated and they have merely became carriers of sewage waste. As you can see above, it is imperative to address the appalling condition of rivers. Cities are now turning back to their rivers and redeveloping its edges. After long years of negligence we have now realised that they are valuable economic and community assets. The riverfront development projects around the world are trying to refocus city's attention towards its river. In India, the situation of rivers still remains appalling and the efforts are at surface level. The need of the hour is come up ith riverfronts which are environmentally, socially and economically suitable. For this there is a need to come up with a structure and a set of guidelines which would hel in development of future riverfront projects.

1.4 Aim: To study how riverfront developments can be developed that they contribute to identity of a city and come up with indicators to assess

future

riverfront

developments in India.

1.5 Objectives:  What are the different aspects of identity in relation to cities ?  How do rivers contribute to the identity of a city?  What can be the possible indicators to assess future riverfront developments?

1.6 Scope: 

Due to time constraint, the dissertation looks only at the urban  planning and architectural  aspects along with transportation aspects. However, other stakeholders need  to be involved  to form  a well structured and detailed framework.  The scope of the proposed framework could not be defined as the framework can be applied  to all the riverfronts.  

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1.7 Limitations 

 

Different climatic conditions  would lead to modification in the framework proposed. What  may be acceptable in hot and humid climate may not be in a tropical climate. The  dissertation proposes a framework which is very general.  There may be regional variations as well due to different social setting.    Since the Yamuna Riverfront development project is at proposal stage, the effects of the  riverfront could not be analyzed   

1.8 Research Methodology

In general, the research involved four steps. Through review of literature, a study was done on what identity means with respect to cities and how rivers contribute to this identity especially river cities. The literature survey further developed an understanding of the relationship between rivers and cities, both historically and in modern times. Apart from this, the literature review included a study of various aspects that should be taken into account while designing a public space. The next step involved a study of this relationship through secondary case studies and understanding the reasons which triggered the riverfront projects. It

also

involved identification of key features of those riverfront development projects. The features of each case studies were analysed and tabulated. A set of indicators was developed based on three things: key features of the case studies, the points which were essential to maintain river-city relationship and the elements of a good public space. The primary case study involved study of history of Delhi and Yamuna and the role Yamuna played in the identity and evolution of the city. It included the current DUAC Yamuna Riverfront Development Plan and involved a study of key features of the project. The report is analysed with respect to the previously formed frmework.

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Identity of City

A city is often defined with what makes it different from others. It is defined through any historical event that took place there, or through an architectural masterpiece, through kind of culture that persists there or sometimes through geographical features of the place. This is nothing but identity of a city. However, to be able to be identified means to have distinction from others, its recognition as a separate entity. Identity is therefore not in sense of equality with something else. It has to have a sense of individuality or oneness. There is an overlap of images when one defines identity of city. Every person has a different perception of what his city is about. And this is very different from how a tourist perceives the place to be. However, there always exists a public image of any given city which is based on series of overlapping characteristics. It is a common mental picture which is based on a combination of single physical reality, a common culture and basic physiological nature which is agreed by majority. Kevin Lynch in his book "The Image of the City" talks about this common mental picture or image of a city. While taking a survey about what identity of Jersey is, he asked the natives of the place a very simple question, "What comes to mind with the words 'Jersey City'?" This question basically seeks to look for a public image of the city.Take for example London. First thing that one pictures is the London bridge. In case of Egypt, one thinks of the pyramids. In case of Varanasi, ghats.These are nothing but things that define the identity of these places. 14  


Identity of a city is influenced by many aspects. It may be due to architectural aspect like kind of planning of a city, on how opens spaces, streets, corridors, edges come together to define its character. It may be due to demography or other social aspects of the area. It may be due to its function and its contribution at national or global level. It may be due to an important historical event. It may even be due to it very name. City's identity may also be defined through a set of visual memories that a visitor or resident of a city uses to recall or describe to others. The first impressions of a city for a traveller is generally linked to entry corridors of the city. Hence how this entry point is designed, would very much play an important role in defining identity of the city its linked to. Hence while designing taking identity into consideration, we need to identify the characteristics which is define the place.

Role of Rivers River is long considered as humanity's one of the most important natural resources. Since Egyptian times, settlements have grown keeping in mind water availability and land suitability in order to make sure balanced resource consumption. Rivers were initially used as a means of transportation of travellers and goods. This period shows the relationship between rivers and people. The growth of cities started along river. Travellers started to settle down along river edge as rivers provided water resource for daily use and trading operations. Colonising along river may also be because of safety reasons and also because the rest of the land was filled with forests initially. Eventually, forests were cut down and cleared for agriculture. River provided for the basic resources and became the focal point of the cities. Technological changes made boats and steamers as mode of transportation. With railways and aircrafts coming up as transportation means, the focus shifted to land from rivers. Rivers became

backyards

of

cities.Not

only

that,

rivers

are

complex

ecosystems(Gole,2013).The riparian zone(interface between land and river )gives shelter to a variety of plants, animals and decomposers who utilise and decompose nutrients , imparting the flowing stream a self-cleansing ability(Gole,P cited in Gole,S 2013).However, in response to surroundings, rivers evolved , affecting the ecosystems. The changed conditions of stream no longer fulfils the needs, disturbing the equilibrium.

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"The position of Ganga in India is unique. Even though great cities and empires have risen on the banks of other big rivers in the world, no other river has played such an important part in the life of the country through which it flows.

Cities

and pilgrimage centres crowded with shrines and temples dot its course-milestones in the history of land and the growth of Indian civilisation. The Gangetic plain has in fact been the pole towards which, since antiquity, the political, economic and religious life of the country is gravitated." (Mahajan,1984) Rivers in India have had religious importance. They are personified as goddesses and it is long considered that a holy bath in the river would purify of one of his sins. Even when a person dies, his ashes are released to the river because it is believed that it would purify his soul.

The major religious centres in India like Haridwar,

Varanasi, Ujjain, Nasikare known for its location next to river. There are about a hundred of temples and ghats located along the riverbanks in India because of their religious value. The city of Varanasi is closely associated to the Ganges and its religious character. Most of the palaces, temples and ghats were built in recent times in 18th and 19th century. Rich personalities from all over the country came and occupied land along the river and built temples and shelters that would attract pilgrims. Building monumental structures were a away to reaffirm their power and presence in the city(Freitag,2006 cited in Jalias,2008). The ghats allow easy access to the river and also easy access to the city. The construction of ghats also prevented the city from flooding. Being major religious centre, it has become a major source of income for the pandits. The riverfront has become the identity of the city across the globe. Rivers played different roles in different cities. For example in case of Venice, it acts as natural defence and as a major source of income. The first men to settle in Venice were the frightened men from nearby areas in Italy. With the collapse of Roman empire, the communities were in chaos and they fled to areas where their enemies could not follow. The channels protected them from enemies, who lacked ships. Hence, the area became inaccessible and people enjoyed independence from successive upheavals which rest of the Italy suffered. Also the water separated them 16  


from Italian political life. The water also provided them with fish and salt which helped them buy things which they did not possess. The Venetians focussed their attention towards east and the rich markets of Levantine and Constantinople. This is how the great mercantile empire came up. Presently, most of the city navigate through canals. The canals attracts tourist from all over the world and it has become major source of income. The jetty and gondolas drivers still depend on the canals for income.

River- City Relationship The river-city relationship can thus be summarised broadly as follows: 

Suppliers of fresh water to the city

Carriers of rainwater and wastewater

Rivers are entry corridors of a city

Means of transportation of goods and people

Source of employment for people associated with water-related business activities like fishery.

Rivers are site for religious activities in many Indian cities. It becomes major source of income.

Rivers are also sometimes major tourist attraction and hence becomes an important source of income.

Rivers banks have also been sites where initial agricultural lands came up.

Rivers acted as natural defence.

Rivers also connected cities together to allow for transportation from one place to another and to promote trade.

Riverfronts as a public space Riverfronts help in connecting the people living in a city with its river. It is an interface between the city and the river. The riverfront may or may not contribute to the identity of the city.. However, a good riverfront development should integrate river with its city and make its people identify with the river. Riverfronts are public space accessible by all. A public space is a gathering place which helps in promoting social interaction and sense of community. There are minimum standards for a "good" public space which may be relevant to riverfronts 17  


as well. According to American Planning Association a good public space should have the following characteristics: 

It should promote human contact and social activities.

It is safe, welcoming, and accommodating for all users.

It has design and architectural features that are visually interesting.

It promotes community involvement.

It reflects the local culture or history.

It relates well to bordering uses.

It is well maintained.

Has a unique or special character.

While designing a good public space, the following questions should be answered in order to meet the minimum standards: 

What are the landscape features of the space and how can they contribute to the essence of the place. In our case how can the river and the adjacent biome(if exists) contribute to the special nature of the place?

How is the space accessible by people? Is it pedestrian friendly or is accessed by transit, bicycles

or other means? Does the space welcome

people the physically disabled? 

How does the space facilitate multiple activities?

How does it contribute to the surrounding community?

Does it provide visual experiences and vistas?

What makes this place extra-ordinary and memorable?

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CHAPTER THREE 

SECONDARY CASE STUDIES

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Research framework for Secondary case studies

Introduction to the river and the city through which it flows. This will talk about the role the river has played in ancient as well as modern times. The second part will talk about what were the reasons for the need for the development project. The third part will talk about the key features of the development project and its outcomes.

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AUCKLAND WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT

The city and the sea Auckland is New Zealand's largest cosmopolitan city with a population of 1.45 million. It is situated in temperate zone and does not experience extreme climatic conditions. The city and suburbs are hemmed to the east and west by two large harbours and ocean(Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea) beyond. Maori's were the first settlers of the region. The isthmus was strategically located with two harbours providing access to the sea on both east and west coasts. The area also had fertile soil which facilitated horticulture and the two harbours provided people with seafood. The area was later occupied by Europeans. However, the Maoris still remain a major community in Auckland.The early history of the waterfront includes gathering of fish and shellfish and harvesting and trade of crops grown along the banks. The waterfront is divided into a number of districts.

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Figu ure 2 : View of the city from f the sea a ( Auckland d Tourism,2 2015)

The West W Ha aven Ma arina In 1800 0s, the are ea was hom me to tradittional industries in pa articular tim mber, tanning and fising. Here all th he tall shipss were ancchored in the t harbou ur for pickin ng up or dropping off the cargo. In n 1900s, th he Shelly Beach be ecame a great g publiic waterfro ont with nades and d meeting g spaces where pe eople cam me togeth her to enjjoy the promen waterfrront. By 1940s, the governme ent reclaim med the la and on top p of the re eef and created d a safe sh heltered sp pace for bo oating and mooring boats.

 

Figure 3 : 1800s

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Figu ure 4: 1900s s


Figure 5: 1940s

Figure 6: 1951

By 1950s, the motorways captured the area and the Shelly beach disappeared under the anchorage and mooring. In 1955 the Harbour bridge is built and and the western edge is reclaimed to enable traffic access. The first pile moorings appeared.

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Fiigure 7: 195 50s

In late 1950s the motorwayy was comp pleted. The e waterfron nt was now w a highwa ay and this cha anged the coastal dyynamics co ompletely changed c fo or the local communitty. The harbou ur bridge was w constru ucted which h connecte ed the nortthern part o of the shorre with the resst of the cityy.

F Figure 8: 195 55

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The no orthern parrt of the ba ay reached d its full ca apacity and d they startted expand ding on the so outhern sid de to meet the evver increas sing dema and of the berthag ge. The Aucklanders mad de sailing their t nation nal sport and the cityy came to b be known as a "The City of Sails". Today,, the wate erfront is the t primarry site forr commercce and tou urism. It has h the highest concentra ation of ma arine indusstry busine ess in New w Zealand and is the largest port. Itt is home to harbou ur commun nities and the waterrfront is th he site for fishing industrry. It conta ains one of o the larg gest marin nas.

A la arge numb ber of resttoration

projectts have occurred in the t past 20 0 years inc cluding resstoration o of Britomarrt. New offices, cafes, shops and re esidences have come up which h has chan nged the im mage of ace. the pla Auckland's land use plan(Fig 9) sh hows that the harbo our and p port area and its contrib buting area a forms a major part. p Next to the harbour, grreen spac ces are developed to imp prove acce essibility and remove e private ownership o of land. Th he plan also sh hows mixed d-land use e developm ment of the neighbourrhood

 Figure 9 : Current image i of the e district showing the waterfront w ch haracter

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Figu ure 10: Auck kland Central District Plan P (Auckla and Council,,2016)

anuku Devvelopment of Auckla and is work king on im mproving th he accessibility of The Pa the rivverfront fo or the tourists and the local community. The o objectives of the waterfrront plan were w (Aucklland Waterfront Deve elopment Agency,20 A 11/2012): 

1.To crea ate a public waterffront: A waterfront w t that is acccessible by y all. It would be a destina ation for all a Aucklan nders and the tourissts. A space that expressess cultural heritage and history of o the natio on and crea ates a des stination recognized d for its arcchitecture, public places and fa acilities.

2. To crea ate a work king waterrfront: The e objective e was to crreate a pla ace that would attra act marine e industriess and busin nesses and port-rela ated activities. It is the busine ess hub of the city.

3. To crea ate a grow wing waterrfront: The e objective is to creatte a most liveable l urban com mmunities by encouraging a mix m of residents, businesses, visitors and other activities.

4. To cre eate a welll connectted waterrfront: The e aim is to o create a highly accessible e waterfron nt which iss connecte ed to locally as well as to the rest of

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Auckland and New Zealand. The area is safe for pedestrians and cyclists and visitors and it is connected though telecommunications as well.

Key features of Auckland Riverfront Development Plan : 

Net zero waste/energy zone

The role of existing stakeholders(the Maori) in the planning of the waterfront

Sustainable structures are built along the waterfront

Social, economic, environmental and cultural objectives which are bringing the citizens close to its resource.

A welcoming and resilient neighbourhood that is safe, diverse and attractive, with plentiful open space and access to local services and facilities

Low impact and efficient transport system: public walking, cycling parking, shared transport.

Preserving the biodiversity of the place.

Water transport, fishing industry, port activities are developed which contribute majorly to the economy of the city.

Pedestrian linkage and cycle linkage to the site

Public spaces, recreational opportunities, facilities and events; a place where we protect and express our cultural heritage and history, and celebrate our great achievements as a city and nation

Clean electricity grid supplemented by renewable energy

Waste Water and flood management plans

Sustainable and healthy lifestyle

Minimising exposure to toxins and pollutants through the design and construction process and choice of materials.

There is a major contribution to the economy by the Auckland Riverfront Development

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The Au uckland Ma aster Plan is directly influenced d by the Wa aterfront(F Figure 11).

Figure e 11: Targets s set by Auc ckland Coun ncil Long-term Plan 201 15-2025

Auckland is the eight e mostt liveable cities c in the world( th hird most liveable in n 2014). Accord ding to a su urvey cond ducted amo ong Auckla anders abo out the glo obal identity y of the city, the e results were w (Auckkland Coun ncil, Govt. of o New Zea aland,2016 6): 

Over one-fifth of resp pondents cited c Auckland's harb bours and geography y as the unique asp pect of the e city.

Sixteen pe ercent of the Aucklanders feel that the beaches b an nd coastlin nes in a low-popula ation city makes m the life differen nt from oth her global ccities.

Figu ure 12: Livea ability Index x( The Econo omic Intellig gence Unit,2 2016)

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CHICAGO RIVERFRONT

Chicago is the third most populous city in United States. It is located in north eastern Illinois on the south western shores of Lake Michigan. The city lies along the three freshwater sources: Lake Michigan and two rivers: the Chicago River and the Calumet River. The world-class city is known for its architecture, cuisine and leading cultural institutions. "Chicago also has a reputation as one of the friendliest and most walk able cities in the U.S., with a breath taking lakefront that's so close to all the action." The city's history and economy is closely linked to the Lake. The Chicago river handled the cargo , the Lake now handles the huge freighters. The lake also affects the micro-climate of the place by making the local area warmer during winters and cooler during the summers.

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 Figure 13: View of cityscape (Behance,2014)

The Chicago river wasn't as clean as it looks today. It was seen as a dump yard in the Early 20th century. The sewage system at that time was very primitive. The waste was directly discharged into either Lake Michigan or the river which flowed into the lake. According to the Chicago River website, the carcasses discharged into river released methane gas and produced foul smelling bubbles. This killed the vegetation and small animals living along the river. People got diseased with cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery. The situation of the river was appalling and it needed to be addressed immediately. In 1887, the government decided to reverse the flow of river with the help of engineers. They built Chicago Sanitary and Ship canal to reverse the flow of river from eastwards to westwards. The human and industrial waste was carried from Lake Michigan to Mississippi river through Des Plaines and Illinois rivers.In 1909 , the government started a beautification drive. It re-claimed the lake front for public and created parks and playground for the citizens. Daniel Burnham proposed the straitening of river channel and was publically approved. A new channel was dug in and the river was straightened. According to

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the Ch hicago Pub blic Libraryy, the reve enue of the adjacent property increased d which invited people to the river frront. In 1998 8, the watter quality of the Chicago river was declared to be e fair(City search website e, 2000).T The new,cle ean river invited pro ospective neighbours n s to invest in land adjacent to the rivver. es and com mmercial spaces werre built. Hotels,, residence

 Figure 14: Rive er walk plan showing various branche es (Butler,2001)

The No orth branch h has abou ut 8 parks along a its branch whicch gives it suburban feels. f The Main branch h runs alon ng through h the heartt of the citty and it provides sp pace for recreattional activvities. The e location of the rive erwalk and d its linkag ge with the other places in the cityy makes it more acccessible. There T are spaces a along the river r for walking g , dining and a interaccting with people p which makes it alive botth during day d and night time. Waterr taxis and d city tour boats incre eases tourrist activityy. Apartments and lofts ha ave been added a so th hat the ressidents can n enjoy the view. A part of riverfron nt near Ce entennial Fountain F was develop ped by a p private firm m Lohan Associates. The e area developed with mix xed land-u use consisting of hotels, apartm ments and commerciial space together. It containss major public spac ces like

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River Esplanade, Major Ogden park, Major Ogden Slip Promenade and the Centennial Fountain. The points that were kept in mind which developing this space were: 

Creating well articulated space consisting of mixed land use along with parks

Addressing the River, Ogden slip and the Lake.

Strong emphasis on quality, functionality and sense of place.

The Main branch is being further developed by the government. It is trying to revitalise the river walk for improved connectivity and usability. Their goal is to create a continuous path along the river's edge which is about one mile from Lake Michigan to Lake street. It envisions a number of new functions along the river which will transform experience.

Figure 15: The Marina Plaza at night (Urban Matter, 2016)

The waterfront development authority is trying to transform a apart of Chicago real estate which has underutilised for a long time. The path continuously changes in shape and forms and provides opportunity to have multiple connections with the

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river. Each block between two bridges takes a different based typology. The different spaces include : The Marina Plaza: This includes restaurants with outdoor seating providing view of the river. It also includes passing barges, water taxis and sightseeing boats. The Cove: This provides physical connections with the water through recreation. The River Theatre: This is composed of landscape staircase with trees which offers seating space pedestrian connectivity with the water edge The Water Plaza: A water feature offers an opportunity for children and families to engage with water at the river's edge.

Figure 16 : The Water Plaza (Urban Matter,2016)

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Figure 17: The River Theatre (Urban Matter,2016)

The Jetty: It contains a series of piers and floating wetlands which provides opportunity for interacting leaning about the ecology of the river. It also includes opportunities for fishing. The Boardwalk: An accessible walkway and new marine edge create continuous access to Lake Street and sets the scene for future development in this critical space at the confluence. The river walk contains unique features like : Centennial Fountain: West of river's mouth sits the centennial fountain which shoots a powerful arc of water every hour for 10 minutes. 34  


Chicago Rising from the Lake: Its is a permanently installed relief sculpture along the river walk which commemorates Chicago's contribution in the industry and commerce.

Bridge House: It is another feature which sits on the river walk and runs free exhibit showcasing history of the river.

Figure 18: The Main Branch (SASAKI,2014)

The following are the principles were achieved which make this riverfront successful: •

To improve the quality of the lake water.

To make the Lake front an active public space

To improve connections with the neighbourhood commercial and residential district to improve accessibility.

To improve lakefront trial system.

To make this space the identity of the city.

To improve vertical connections to the lake front.

To ensure mixed- use development of the edges.

To improve liveability and connectivity of the city.

Improve water transportation.

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SABARMATI RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT

Sabarmati River originates from Aravali hills in Rajasthan and flows down to Gujrat to meet Arabian Sea at Bay of Kambhat. It has a total length of 371km. The river is the lifeline of Ahmedabad and gained recognition when Mahatma Gandhi set up his ashram on its bank in 1917. The famous Dandi march that roused the entire nation for freedom also led from the banks of Sabarmati. However, like other rivers, the river's situation deteriorated.

Figure 19 : The river walk at night( SRDCL,2016)

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Figure 1: Map showing different zones of the development project(image source: SRFDCL ,2014)

Sabarmati riverfront development completed in 2012.The major steps that were taken in the redevelopment project were(Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Limited & AMC): 

Rehabilitation of slum dwellers : There were about 12000 houses on both the banks of the river which nearly occupied 20 percent of the riverbank area. These people have been allotted house for resettlement with each house having 26.77 sqm of carpet area. Playing area was provided for kids. Unlike other slum rehabilitation projects, these resettlement areas were very much in the prime locations of the city. The houses were in the name of women as it was a step to empower women through the rehabilitation project. 

Sunday market or the Gurjari bazaar was redeveloped: The bazaar provided livelihood to 20000 low income residents. These were basically trades of with women comprised about 40 percent and half of them were Dalits. The area was unhygienic and was prone to flooding during monsoons. Now it has become the first well developed informal market in India. Pucca platforms are laid which provide space for 1600 vendors to do their business. The area is landscaped with 200 street lights and about 800 trees. Basic

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amenities like food court, toilets, drinking water and seating area has been provided 

The Dhobi Ghat: The riverbank was a site of about 172 Dhobis who used both the banks for washing activities. The eastern river bank near Vasna Barrage was developed as the new dhobi ghat consisting of 7 blocks. Each bock has 24 units. The ghat is equipped with well developed water supply and drainage system. Areas have been provided for drying washed clothes. Parking facility and adequate lighting is provided. Compound wall is constructed which provides security to washmen's stuff.

Site for hosting events : An area of about 60,000 sqm, between Sardar bridge and Ellis bridge on the west bank is designated for hosting mega events like Kite festival, marathons, cyclothon and Gharib KalyanMela

Increasing Urban Forest cover: Natural forestry is being developed with different plant species over an area of 1 lack sq m between Vasna Barrage and Ambedkar Bridge. This zone would provides citizens an opportunity to escape the city life and meditate in the vast green space.

Sewage System: An interceptor sewage system was constructed on either banks of the river which diverted the sever to the treatment plants.

The water quality has improved drastically which led to drastic improvement in the ecology of the site.

Creating community space: The disconnect between people and the river was removed and the riverfront development connected them by means of 36 ghats constructed along the river banks. The river plays a major role in almost all the religious groups in Ahmedabad. For the last 120 years there has been a tradition that the Mahant of Jagannath temple along with a group carries a kalash on his elephants and after the rituals performed by Pandits, the holy water is back to the temple before the Rathyatra begins. The Jains perform Parna( releasing fast through a ritual) in large groups at the riverfront.

The Promenade: Riverbanks were developed with diaphragm walls

and

retaining walls to prevent soil erosion and protect the city from flooding. Also , continuous promenade on either side allows smooth pedestrian and cycle movements. By making this continuous promenade, the riverbank will no more have private ownership of any part of the riverbank. The whole stretch is open to public. 38  


Public Gardens : 27 percent of the total area is covered with parks and gardens. There are three gardens in all one of which would be the flower garden near the event area spreading over an area of 40,000 sq m.

Water based recreational activities have developed: Boating facility is available at a number of spots on both the banks of the river. The government is planning to incorporate activities like Sabarmati Darshan and water based sports in the near future.

Figure 20 : The open spaces during evening(SRFDCC,2014)

SRFDC ,2014

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CHAPTER FOUR

PRIMARY CASE STUDY

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YAMUNA RIVERFRONT AT ITO, DELHI

Figure 21 Yamuna Riverfront Development Schematic Sketch(DUAC,2015)

Yamuna and Delhi River Yamuna is the fifth longest river in India and forms the largest tributary of the Ganges. The river originates from Champasar lake in Bandarpooch Glacier in Uttarakhand. The river flows through snow-capped Himalaya before entering the IndGangetic plains of North-India. After travelling for 1376 km, the river finally merges into River Ganga at Allahabad, UP. 41  


Delhi has been site for many empires because of proximity of Yamuna river. Historical monuments in Delhi are strong evidences of relationship of the river and the city. Be it the position of the Feroz Shah Kotla's fort or the presence of the Red fort right next to the river during Shahjahan's reign shows the importance of the river in the city's history. The city of Shahjahanabad (now Old Delhi) was constructed by the Mughal Emperor, ShahJahan. Shah Jahan's reasons for the selection of the site was due to three main reasons. One, was its location on the bank of the river which ensured continuous water supply. Secondly, being adjacent to the river, protected the city from as river acts as natural defence. Also, building next to Yamuna meant that transport and communication between Delhi and Agra was faster and easier due to presence of Yamuna. Also, Delhi was not too far from Agra, which allowed him to control both the places and also transfer of capital was easier. Delhi had a religiospiritual history as it was home to shrines of several Sufi saints. Shahjahan was highly superstitious which made him choose Delhi as the site for his next capital. Apart from this, Shahjahan repaired the canal that was built under the Khilji and extended till Akbar's reign. He got the canal up to the chosen site where his Fort was built. Also, the presence of river altered the micro-climate of the Fort by bringing cooler air into the premises. Apart from this, Yamuna has been high religious significance as well. Thousands throng Yamuna ghat to offer prayers during Chatt Puja. The river is considered daughter of Surya,the Sun God and twin sister of Yama (the God of Death). The river has been worshipped for it is considered as Goddess in Indian culture. However in modern times, the river has become more functional rather than a recreational space. The function more or less being a huge drain for the city. A lot of money has been spent by governments but the river continuous to remain in appalling state. The Delhi stretch of river is barely 22kms which is 2 percent of the entire length of the river. However this 2 percent contributes to 80 percent of the pollution load in the entire stretch of the river. The water quality of the river is deteriorating due to untreated domestic wastewater, agricultural run-offs, human carcass, mass bathing etc.

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 Figure 22: The devotees in the sea of froth during Chatt puja(Indian Express,2016)

Evolution of the river The river was part of Indus River system initially. Over time its course shifted and it became part of the Ganga River system flowing over the Aravali. This shift in course led to formation of a triangle with ridge on two sides( Aravali) and the river flood plains on the third. The landform was majorly of rocky terrain. With time, stream network emerged due to drainage system of the ridge. Natural trough was formed which attracted settlements. Early settlements settled along the water sources and based on the land availability, based on balanced resource consumption. The streams and other water sources decided the pattern of the settlements. Open spaces like gardens, parks were critically designed beyond settlement walls. Early colonial settlement came up along the North of the walled city and the ridge acted as a buffer between the walled city. New lands were examined to expand. The course of the river was further altered by building embankments and the area was reclaimed for development. The ridge acted as a city's forest cover and the river supplied the city with water. The open spaces eventually became formalised and the road network was setup for the movement of cars. The river and the water streams turned into natural drainage system for the city. Independence movement affected areas other than which were under imperial control. There was continuous influx of people from rural area into the urban fabric. Also, the period experienced rapid urbanisation 43  


which led to further formalisation of spaces. New factories came up in the city due to this urbanisation. The economy eventually became decentralised which led to development which did not pay heed to natural features. The planning strategy shifted from natural resources to infrastructure. The zoning plans were developed based on different functional spaces and landscape features were not taken account which led to degradation of these resources. Ring railway network came to facilitate inter-city movement. There was a further shift of attention from the river. Later the city was divided into various zones under different administrative bodies. The development was happening in various zones in different order( rather no order). This lead to creation of urban space lacking identity. The city experienced further development during CWG. Metro, BRTS came up. The sense of open space was lost.

Need for Riverfront Plan Now, the government is trying to focus back on the river as Yamuna is in alarming state. The government is facing the following challenges: 1. The waterfront is highly disconnected from the city. 2. The waterfront is occupied by industries, commercial and stadiums. This makes the site active only during office hours. The waterfront lacks safety, hindering people from going there. 3. The culture of meeting in open spaces is lost. People prefer to meet in malls than in open public spaces. 4. Highways limit access to the site. 5.The water quality of the river is deteriorating which is a major reason that its failing to attract tourists as well as citizens.

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Riverfront at ITO Immediate context and Land-use The river is surrounded by stadiums, power stations, memorials, and institutional buildings. The east bank of the river is majorly residential. The presence of stadiums, power plants, metro stations reduces physical linkage of the people with the river. Also, the presence of a major road(Ring Road), with heavy vehicular traffic and a number of flyovers right next to the river, makes pedestrian access difficult.

Figure 23 : Existing land use plan of the site

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Figu ure 24: Prop posed area of o developm ment

   

Fig gure 25 Con nceptual pla an by DUAC(( DUAC,2015)

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Figure 26 Final Proposal for Yamuna Riverfront Development (DUAC,2015)

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Features of the Yamuna Riverfront Development Plan (DUAC): 

Adaptive re-use of Industrial buildings (IP Power Station) and railway line.

Restoring ecology and improving water quality.

Planting native species along the river corridor.

Accomodating the street vendors at ITO bridge into the weekly haat. Creating plazas and exhibition spaces to attract tourists.

Create a bird watch zone which will be landscape so as to attract migratory birds to the site.

Solar Park: Adaptive re-use of existing grid and turning it to a power generator.

Utilising Secretariat and Indira Gandhi Stadium's parking for parking rquirements of the proposed site.

Improve accesibility to the site keeping in mind the utilisation of sustainable modes of rtransport including walking and cycling.

Providing resting space at regular intervals along the pedestrian path. Provide shaded pathways and proper street furniture.

A visual link as well as pedestrian link from the

historically significant

monuments(like Feroz Shah Kotla) is to be created.

Water bodies: Apart from the river and the Nullah which is present on site, a pond is proposed in the broadwalk area and the train entrance plaza. A water fountain is proposed at kids activity zone.

Chhatt Puja is celebrated on the banks of the river every year. Thousands of people come to the river and offer their prayers to the Sun God. The plan aims at providing adequate parking space and design a large pen space to accomodate people when the event takes place. It also aims at providing temporary shelter as the people tend to stay over night.

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CHAPTER FOUR

DEVELOPMENT OF FRAMEWORK AND ANALYSIS

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Developing process Upon doing case studies of various riverfront projects, one understands the features that were key for their success. A set of basic guideline or minimum standards is created which can be further adopted while planning and designing future riverfront projects. As the need of the hour is come up with sustainable urban design ideas, the following criteria is also structured based on the triple bottom line of sustainability.

 Figure 27 Triple Bottom line of Sustainability(Meter,1999)

The criteria is divided into three levels: Primary level: This comprises of the three broad aspects of sustainability which is vital for success of any project : Environmental, Social and Economical. Secondary Level: Each of the above aspects are further aspects which are key for making each criteria possible. For example, addressing the issue of Water management is placed under Environmental because addressing the same play a role in making a project environmentally fit. Tertiary level: These contains indicators which are essential to make the secondary level possible. For example, safety is a key element in pedestrian planning which itself plays an important role in ensuring that the project has covered the aspect of social sustainability. The following table tabulates the key features of each of the case studies under environmental. social and economic impacts:

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Table 1: Comparative tabulation of features of the riverfront projects

RIVERFRONT ENVIRONMENTAL  DEVELOPMENT  IMPROVEMENT  PROJECT 

SOCIAL IMPACT

 Net Zero waste/energy  zone   Sustainable development  in the neighborhood   low impact transportation  system   Preserves biodiversity of  the site.   Clean electricity grid  supplemented by  renewable sources   Waste water and flood  management plans   Minimizing exposure to  toxins    Low impact materials   Waste water and flood  management plans 

AUCKLAND RIVERFRONT 

CHICAGO RIVERFRONT 

  

Cleaning of Lake  Michigan to achieve  "safe" level.  8 parks developed  along the stretch  Canals and sewers  developed.  Addresses river's  annual flood dynamics 

Involvement of   Water transport,  stakeholders  fishing industry        (Maoris) in the planning  and port activities  process.  developed. These  contribute to the    Safe and welcoming  economy.        neighborhood   The riverfront plan    Plentiful access to local  contributes  services and facilities  majorly to the   Public transport network  economic targets  developed  of the Auckland   Cycle parking provided  Master Plan   Strong expression of    culture and heritage   Multiple pedestrian and  cycle linkages to the site   Public spaces for  recreational activities  developed     Developing riverfront as a   Water taxis and  public space being in the  city tour boats  centre of the city.  increase tourist  activity.   Mixed use planning of   Apartments and  riverfront neighborhood.  office buildings   Continuous river walk along  with lake view  the edge even if runs along  have been zoned  private development.  along the   Multiple connections to  riverfront to  improve approach.  attract people to   High safety as the riverfront  buy property.  is active at all times of the   The property rates  day.  of the place   Different function of  increased.  different blocks between   Opportunities for  riverfronts.  fishing.   Presence of restaurants and   Development of  cafeterias.    Plays a strong role in defining  market zone  city's identity   Commemorates the victories 

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ECONOMIC IMPACT 


SABARMATI RIVERFRONT 

 Diverting sewage to  treatment plans   Increasing urban forest  cover.   Improvement in ecology of  site. 

and contribution of Chicago  in the economy   Improving universal  accessibility by constructing  ramps. Provide for basic  amenities.     Rehabilitation of slum   dwellers.   Houses were in the name of   women to provide them with  some security.    Basic amenities were  provided.    The zone tried to achieve   safety level by providing  adequate lighting.   Space for recreational and  religious activities.   Continuous river walk with  no more private ownership 

Sunday markets  redeveloped  Dhobi ghats were  developed.  First planned and  well developed  market in India.  Water based  recreational and  tourist activities  developed. 

The following guidelines is developed using the key elements essential for maintaining the river city relationship(Refer chapter 2), features of a public space(Refer chapter 2) and the above features of the case studies. It forms a structure for future riverfront development projects. These criterion should be considered at planning level itself and the model for the riverfront project should be developed based on this. However, there may be regional variations that would lead to different conditions and the criteria can be modified accordingly but in general the following can be used as a start.

What is the need for this guide? When a riverfront development project is initiated this framework would guide one where to take the first steps and what should be one's approach to designing the same. These indicators would help one set targets about what they hope to accomplish. It would also help the already developed riverfronts to measure what they have accomplished. This would also help in convincing the investors as they will know whether their money would yield a suitable return. But overall, the major intent is focused upon one challenge: How do riverfronts achieve holistic development and long term sustainability?

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Table 2 : Framework for future Riverfront Development Projects

GUIDELINES FOR RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS PRIMARY LEVEL 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

SECONDARY LEVEL 

TERTIARY LEVEL 

EVALUATION 

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Site topography

Minimum disturbance to natural steep slopes.

Green cover

Ensuring minimum x% of green cover on site. Does not disturb existing species especially the ones that are under endangered or vulnerable category. It also creates a habitat conservation plan to conserve riparian zone ecology. Preserves the existing water sources on sites and tries to improve the status of these.

Biodiversity

Wetlands and water bodies

Built-up area ENERGY EFFICIENCY

WATER MANAGEMENT

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT WASTE MANAGEMENT

GREEN NEIGHBOURHO OD

Production of renewable energy Conservation of energy sources Water-efficient systems Water quality Flood mitigation

Waste water management

Solid waste management Ensuring that the buildings meet minimum

YAMU NA

RFD DUA C

 

The ground cover of the built-up on site should not exceed x percent. Percentage reduction in dependence on conventional source of energy

Percentage reduction in energy consumption Use of water efficient systems in landscaping and toilets Percentage change in water quality status

Elimination of flood hazard

Retention of water in the river for the whole year Treats and reuses wastewater on-site 100% 75% 50% Interceptor sewer system for ensuring clean water in the river

Provides infrastructure for composting and collection of hazardous waste Percentage of buildings meeting the standards: 100% 75% 53

REMARKS 

Refer to : www.usgbc.org/le ed


standards of green buildings BROWNFEILD REDEVELOPME NT

50%

Adaptive re-use of abandoned buildings

Re-allocation hazardous buildings from site and re-using the abandoned buildings

There is reduction on contamination to site by x percent to change in function of the space.

 

PRIMARY LEVEL 

SECONDARY LEVEL 

TERTIARY LEVEL 

SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT

SITE DEVELOPMENT

Mixed-use planning

Pedestrian network planning

The width and gradient of the path should conform to recreations footpath standards.

Universal access

Increasing links to the riverfront

Safety

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REMARKS  Promoting mixed land-use development o the zone in order to ensure that the zone is active at all times of the day. Reference: Planning and designing for pedestrians guidelines http://www.transp ort.wa.gov.au/med iaFiles/activetransport/AT_WAL K_P_plan_design _pedestrians_guid elines.pdf The paths should be designed sensitive to differently abled citizens, women and children Development of various access roads to the riverfront to improve public access at every 40m interval Pedestrian networks should be designed with passive surveillance and good lighting to provide an


attractive and safe walking environment

Development of open spaces

Artificially or naturally shaded

Signage and information displays Street Furniture

Reflects culture of place

Provide parks and plazas at walk able distance

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT

PUBLIC ACCESSIBILTY

To ensure spaces for human interaction

Provide multiple activities on site Provide eating outlets and shaded resting spaces at 40m interval Bus/Subway/Tram or any other mode of public transport

Availability of public transport in xkm radius Cycle movement Ensuring secured cycle parking onsite Parking of Provision of shared parking spaces Private vehicles used by multiple tenants Low impact transport system Right of Way to the river

    Connection from buildings and districts to the rivers should be publicly accessible even when run along private development

No religious or other restrictions PROVISION OF BASIC AMENITIES

Toilets

Provision of toilets for both men and women

Heath care facilities

Provision of nursing home in xkm radius Provision of Public hospital in xkm radius Provision of ATM in xkm radius

Banks/ATMS STRONG EXPRESSION OF CULTURE AND HERITAGE

Conservation of architectural heritage

Provision of spaces for religious

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activities

PRIMARY LEVEL 

SECONDARY LEVEL 

TERTIARY LEVEL 

ECONOMIC VITALITY

DEVELOPMENT OF RIVERBASED ACTIVITIES

Development of Harbours, ports etc

INCREASE IN REAL ESTATE VALUE

DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ON SITE

IMPROVEMENT IN TOURIST ACTIVITY

 

REMARKS 

Development of fishing as an activity x Percentage increase in property value x Percentage increase in customers Provision for hawkers or any other economic groups on site

Improvement in water based transportation system Improvement in percentage of contribution to the economy

Yamuna Riverfront Development plan is analyzed using the indicators. However, the Riverfront Development is at planning stage and very little of it has been implemented. Hence, the evaluation is based on the proposal. The proposal covers the major aspects of the framework. The final analysis can only be done once the project is over. However, the major issue that stays is the quality of water of the river. The river has reached its worst phase and there is an urgent need to look at the problem.

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CONCLUSION: Â Rivers have shaped human settlements ever since Egyptian civilisation and has been the genius loci for all settlements round the globe. It has been established that rivers have had a strong relationship with the cities especially river cities. They have not only contributed to cities' identity but also have been a pivot of economic development for a lot of cities. However, with Industrial Revolution, the condition of rivers deteriorated. They merely became sewer channel. Further with climate change, a number of rivers have become dead. There is a strong need to come up with structured riverfront developments. The riverfront developments have been economic centre for many cities especially which have harbours and ports and which depend on rivers as source of income. The riverfronts have also become a part of urban fabric in case of many cities like Paris where it has been developed as a public space. In India, there have been efforts taken to clean up rivers, but these projects have failed majorly due to lack of importance and funding. The riverfronts have become dead polluted zones and there is a need to make them active and bring them close to citizens. The purpose of this framework is to help in creating strong, structured and sustainable riverfronts. This can be achieved if all the stakeholders work together and come up with a holistic solution to the problem. This general framework is a starting point which would help one cover all aspects that would help in creating a sustainable riverfront. However, there might be a bit of modification due to regional variation of context and climate. The proposal set by DUAC for the Yamuna Riverfront plan covers all major aspects of the framework. However, a very little has been done so it is too soon to judge.

Regional Variation: When it comes to Indian rivers, the culture and religion plays a dominant role. Hence those aspects should be taken care of while designing the riverfronts.

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Also, large population works in informal sector and while developing the riverfronts, it is essential to look whether their employment is not at stake. There should be provisions made to accommodate them. A lot of JJ colonies have encroached land along the riverfront. As in case of Sabarmati Riverfront, the people staying at the riverfront were displaced to a far off place and they lost their source of income. There is need to look at this aspect as well. The reason for "unsafe" water quality of the rivers in India is the lack of investment in the treatment plants. The government need to focus on this issue first as this has led to many diseases.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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TURNITIN PLAGIARISM CHECK REPORT

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Profile for mrinalini verma

Riverfront Development Framework  

The purpose of this dissertation is to propose the framework of riverfront development project that have been developed after studying vario...

Riverfront Development Framework  

The purpose of this dissertation is to propose the framework of riverfront development project that have been developed after studying vario...

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