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Chapter Five “Ancient India and Persia”

Himalayan Mountains


Lesson One: “Geography of South Asia” A Diamond Breaks Away Himalayas – the worlds largest mountain range. Plate tectonics – Earth’s surface is made of several slowly moving plates. The movement of plates may cause changes such as the development of mountain ranges, basins, and bodies of water.


Plate Tectonics

http://geology.com/plate-tectonics.shtml Convergent Boundary - India and Asia - Himalaya Range Continents collide as India plows into Asia. The Indian Plain suddenly rises to the peaks of the Himalaya Mountain Range.


Mount Everest 

Over 29,000 feet

Tibetans call Mount Everest: “Goddess Mother of the World”


South Asia Eight countries are part of South Asia: 1. India 2. Pakistan 3. Nepal 4. Bhutan 5. Afghanistan 6. Bangladesh 7. Sri Lanka 8. Maldives Islands ( or Maldives)


Various Landforms of South Asia Mountains: Pakistan is home to the second tallest mountain, the K2. Also, mountains are featured in Nepal and Bhutan. Desert: Pakistan and northwestern India. River Delta: Bangladesh Plains: South of the Himalayas the land flattens into a lush green plain. (Indo-Ganges Plain) Plateau: A dry plateau towards the southern tip of India. (Deccan Plateau)


Climate Three seasons in South Asia: October – February March – May June – September

mild and cool very hot monsoon season


Monsoon Season (rainy season) 

Nearly all yearly precipitation, or rain and snowfall, falls during monsoon season.

After monsoon season, the land is refreshed and full of life again.

Monsoon season is very important to farmers, who depend on the rains for crops.

The region’s economy is closely tied to the monsoon.


Three Great Rivers   

Indus Ganges Brahmaputra These rivers carry water and silt into farmlands to irrigate and enrich the fields.


Farming ď ą

Crops grown along the Indo-Ganges Plain includes: barley, wheat, rice, peas, and beans

Many farmers in South Asia are subsistence farmers Subsistence Farmers -- people who subsist, or live on, the food they grow. They do not sell much of their crops. ď ą


Deccan Plateau     

The climate is dry in this area, and more irrigation for farming is needed. The plateau has rich volcanic soil. The plateau is made of lava flows that produce thick black soil. Cotton crops thrive in this region. Farms also produce peanuts.


Miscellaneous Information 

Sri Lanka and the Maldives Islands export: tea, coconuts, fish, and rubber

Manufacturing is an important industry in the coastal areas and Indian Ocean islands.

Many people work in clothing and textiles, too.

Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the region. It has the most garment factories.


Lesson Two “India and Persia”


Aryan Empire   

Lasted from about 1500 B.C. until 550 B. C. Nomads who crossed the Hindu Kush. Recorded their stories and songs in the Vedas, or “ Books of Knowledge. Groups were headed by a rajah.

Persian Empire    

Founded the religion of Zoroastrianism. Developed roads and trade with India. Lasted from 550 B. C. to 320 B. C. Founder was Cyrus II.


  

Mauryan Empire

Gupta Empire

Lasted from 320 B.C. to about 185 B.C. First Indian Empire. Had civil service workers, a powerful army, and an army of spies. Used stone columns to mark territory and make announcements.

  

Developed the number system we use today. Designed stone temples. Lasted from about A.D. 320 until about A.D. 520. Sanskrit became the language of the wealthy.


Lesson Three “Hinduism”


Seeds of Beliefs   

 

Hinduism is the main religion in India. Hinduism is also practiced in Nepal and Malaysia. Hinduism is different from other religions because it has no founder. Rig Veda – the oldest of the four Vedas. It is a collection of more than 1,000 hymns that priests recited at ceremonies and rituals. The themes of the Rig Veda include spiritual beliefs in the power of nature. Today, Hindus still sing hymns from the Rig Vedas at ceremonies such as wedding and funerals.


Buddhism – Four Noble Truths    

Suffering is a part of life for all people. People suffer because they want so many things in life. If people can free themselves from wanting so many things, they will not suffer. People can free themselves from wants and from suffering by following the Eight-Fold Path.

Chapter Five -- India and Persia  

Chapter Five -- India and Persia

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