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Ancient Egypt The Civilization on the Nile


Geography of Ancient Egypt NILE RIVER

Sahara Desert

Mediterranean & Red Seas


• Flows North 4,145 mi. from mountains of Central Africa to Mediterranean Sea

Significance of Nile • Predictable flooding allowed settlement and the building of a civilization

• Silt formed from the flooding and crops were grown for subsistence and commercial uses


• Living on the delta provided fertile soil • Protection was secured by the cataracts of the river • Transportation was convenient through the region by river • Fish and other resources abundant

Irrigation Systems were quickly developed, beginning with the use of the shadoof

Use of the Nile


Old Kingdom • Upper Egypt in southern region of Nile River

• Lower Egypt in northern delta region

Narmer, king of Upper Egypt led his army to take control of Lower Egypt and unite the civilizations around 3000 B.C. In about 2600, the Old Kingdom began and lasted for nearly 500 years


Organization of Old Kingdom Cities

Religion

Government

Artisans

Social Classes


Characteristics of Old Kingdom Plantations owned by wealthy

Great Pharaohs

Great Pyramids

Old Kingdom

Strong Religious Beliefs

Preservation (mummies)


Gods of Old Kingdom • God of River – Hapi • Sun God – Re • Harvest God - Osiris


Middle Kingdom • • • •

Government overthrow of the pharaoh About 2300 BC to around 1786 BC Began trade with other regions Fell when invaded by Hyskos who came in with chariots and weapons made of iron • Middle kingdom’s rule by Hyskos came to end when Egyptian, Ahmose, rose up and drove them out


New Kingdom • Kingdom grew rich and extended territory • Pharaohs used military to push kingdom borders • Queen Hatshepset and nephew Thutmose extended land into Syria and Palestine


New Kingdom Characteristics

Trade & Expansion Religious Changes & Worship of Amon-Re

Building of Temples With scribes writing in hieroglyphics


Decline of Egypt • Priests gained too much power and wealth • Power of pharaohs declined • Amenhotep came to power and took power away from priests – Claimed one god – Aton – People of Egypt did not accept new religion

• King Tut came to power after Amenhotep’s death and went back to old religion • Egyptian Empire continued to decline due to many factors and taken over by Assyrians in 671 BC


Contributions of Egyptian Empire Papyrus

Sandals

Mathematics & Fractions

Calendar

Medicine

Irrigation

Paper

Baskets

Rafts & Riverboats


Ancient Egypt