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Local Woman Honors Veterans: Part I By Pattie Story McClung, Pittsburg, Texas As May arrives, I find myself pondering on the true meaning of Memorial Day. Sadly it has somehow been "lost" with many of my fellow American's. So. I pose this question ... "What does Memorial Day mean to you?" It hurts me to think that many American's think of Memorial Day as a 3-day weekend to kick up their heels at area lakes, at the beach, hike in the mountain, have family BBQ's and just have a good ole' time. To some, it is a time to clean Cemeteries and decorate the graves, to honor their loved ones who have died. For me personally. it has many meanings that ALL bring a tear to my eyes, a tremble to my lips and a huge lump in my throat. To me it is a day of remembrance of all the soldiers that have fought for our country, for those that gave their lives for our freedom and for those, like my Dad, who were lucky enough to make it home to their families but forever changed by the war they fought and all that their tender young eyes beheld. A time to pray for our current active Military, as I do each day, that are still fighting to protect us . Many are in harms way. Personally, I will always remember that on Memorial Day, 1978, my nephew Rodney L. Sawyer (15) was killed by a drunk driver and his friend Jerry Francis (13) died 3 days later from the injuries of the accident. But let's take a look at the TRUE meaning of Memorial Day. Originally, Memorial Day was called Decoration Day. A day to remember those who have died in our nation's service. While over two dozen cities and towns lay claim to being the birthplace of Memorial Day, there is evidence that Southern women were decorating graves before the Civil War ended. In fact, there was a hymn published by Nella L. Sweet in 1867 " Kneel Where Our Loved Ones Are Sleeping" which seemed to carry out their dedication. Officially, Waterloo. N.Y. was declared the birthplace of Memorial Day by President Lyndon B. Johnson in May 1966. It is VERY difficult to prove the origin of the day. General John Logan's 1st proclamation on May 5, 1868, National Commander of The Grand Army of The Republic, in his General order #11, when flowers were laid on the ground at Union and Confederate Soldiers graves at Arlington National Cemetery. The 1st state to officially recognize the holiday was N.Y. in 1873. By 1890 it was recognized by all Northern states. The South, however, refused to recognize this holiday, and honored their dead on separate days until after WWI when at that time Congress passed the National Holiday to honor not just the Civil War dead but ALL the American's who did fighting in any war. This is The Holiday Act of 1971 (P.L.90-363) to ensure a three day weekend to all Federal workers. Several Southern States have an additional day for honoring their Confederate War dead, such as:

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January 19 in Texas April 26 in Alabama, Florida Georgia and Mississippi May 10 in South Carolina June 3 ( Jefferson Davis' Birthday) in Louisiana and Tennessee In 1915, inspired by The Flanders Fields Poem, Moina Michael wrote her own poem: We cherish too, the Poppy red That grows on fields where valor led, It seems to signal to the skies That blood of Heroes never dies. It's because of this poem that Red Poppies are worn on Memorial Day to honor our servicemen. She was the first to wear one and sold them to her friends and co-workers and sent the money to benefit servicemen. Later on Madame Glorin visited the USA from France and learned of the new custom and went back to France and began to make artificial Poppies and selling them to raise money for orphans and widows. The tradition spread to other countries and in 1921 The Franco-American Children League sold the Poppies nationally benefit war orphans in Belgium and France. The League disbanded one year later and she approached the VFW in America for help. Shortly before Memorial Day 1922, the VFW became the first Veteran's organization to nationally sell the Poppies. Two years later their "BUDDY POPPY PROGRAM" was born. They began handing out and selling Poppies that were made by disabled Veteran's. In 1948, The United States Postal Service honored Mrs. Michael for her role in founding the National Poppy Movement by issuing her likeness on a 3 cent stamp. So now we have explored how Decoration/Memorial Day came to be an it's true meaning. The Buddy Poppy Program at the VFW Post and what they mean. Next time we will share memories of Heroes who fought in the Battle of New Orleans and The Civil War from right here in Titus and Camp counties. And so I ask you to think about my question again... 'What does Memorial Day REALLY mean to you" and while you make your plans for the holiday weekend please, take a few moments to Honor and remember someone you have known that has served in the Military and think of the sacrifices many of them have made for you and I. The next time you see a Soldier, take a moment to thank him or her for serving...... Cherish the freedom every soldier past and present has given you so you may have the life you have today. Written by Patti Story McClung Pittsburg, Texas May 13, 2010 Š Copyright 2010. All rights Reserved. The NuWave Reporter

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Local Woman Honors Veterans: Part II By Pattie Story McClung, Pittsburg, Texas As we all know the immediate cause of the war of 1812 were a series of economic sanctions taken by the British & the French against the U.S. as a part of the Napoleonic wars & American's were outraged at the British especially after the Chesapeake incident of 1807 which crippled the American trade. The U.S. ( under Jefferson ) tried different embargos to retaliate but this seemed to hurt the U.S. more than it did the Brit's. Again the American citizens were angered & provided support to Congress War Hawks like Henry Clay. So, in 1812 with President Madison in office, Congress declared war against the British. The war began as an attack on Canada both as an effort to obtain land & cut off the supply lines the Brit's were sending to Tecumseh's Indian Confederation because for a long time this had troubled the U.S. The initial battles were not as easy for The War Hawks. In fact only one naval victory by Oliver H. Perry on Lake Erie & Thomas Macdonoughon Lake Champlain was a serious northern front prevention of invasion of the U.S. , including New York. But at the Battle of the Thames in 1813 General William Henry Harrison did manage to kill Tecumseh in the midst of a victory against the British General Isaac Brock's smaller force. In 1814 on the Mid-Atlantic Coast the Brit's landed on the Chesapeake Bay & pushed towards Washington. The city was evacuated and the British burned the Capitol and the White House, along with most other nonresidential buildings in Washington. As the British pressed onward, General Ross was Killed as they neared Baltimore. Fort McHenry was bombarded which guarded Baltimore's harbor, but it could not take the pressure. This event was the inspiration that led Francis Scott Key , an American Lawyer, being held prisoner on one of Cochran's ship's to write" The Star Spangled Banner". Unsuccessful at Baltimore, Cochran's badly damaged ship's struggled towards Jamaica for repairs and to prepare for the invasion of New Orleans in hopes of cutting off American use of the Ole' Mississippi River. The war proved to be much harder on both sides than expected and far more costly. So each side began looking for a way to extricate themselves from their commitment. After considerable bickering all the negotiators that had met in the Belgian city of Ghent finally came to an agreement and on December 24, 1814 the Treaty of Ghent was signed Officially ending the war. Even though the war was over, news traveled slowly across the Atlantic Ocean. In New Orleans, Cochran landed his British troops who were awaiting their replacement commander for Ross. On January 8,1815 Andrew Jackson's ragtag Army defeated the British at the battle of New Orleans. Even though this battle was fought unnecessarily as the treaty had already been signed and the war was officially over the U.S. celebrated the victory wildly, thus creating a surge in American pride and patriotism. As was seen in our three local men that served in the war of 1812.

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John Lindsay was born May 12, 1789 in Tennessee. He served with the Tennessee Militia in the war of 1812. Serving with General Jackson's Army at the battle of New Orleans. He was 1st married to Martha Ledford & 2nd to Nancy Walker who was a sister to Elizabeth Snodgrass, the wife of David Snodgrass. The Snodgrass family had come to Titus County about 1849 & settled in the southeastern part of the county in what is now known as the Chapel Hill Community. John Lindsay came to Titus County in the early 1850's & settled in the same community with the Snodgrass family. He died Sept. 17, 1865. He was the father of: James Buchanan Lindsay ( 1811-1885) Elisha Jackson Lindsay (1813-1874) Noah Caleb Lindsay (1817-1879) Martha Jane Lindsay (1824-1884) He is buried in the Snodgrass Cemetery in Titus County, Texas. William Keith was the son of Alexander Keith and Margaret Harned. He was born April 25, 1783 in Jefferson County, Kentucky. He was the husband of Elizabeth Storm. He served in the war of 1812 PVT 2 REG Kentucky Infantry. He died December 15, 1852 in Cookville, Titus County, Texas. William and Elizabeth had 12 children: Warren Cash, Nancy, Amy, Benjamin, John Hinton, Jesse Bean, Joseph, Elizabeth, William G, Mary Margaret, Simon, and Elizabeth. William is buried in the Keith Cemetery North of Cookville in Titus County, Texas. James Harris was born 9-28-1795 in Greene county Georgia to Matthew Harris and Hannah Rose Ross. He was married to Lucrettia Jones (b.1795- d.1878) He served in the War of 1812 Pvt.2 Regt. Georgia Militia He died August 7, 1869 in Titus County, Texas He and his wife had the following children: Margeret Harris Black (1821-1859) McCamey A. Harris ( 1829-1900) Elizabeth Baxter Harris Cobb (1832-1906) He is buried in the Greenhill Cemetery in Titus County. With much admiration and gratitude I wish these brave souls rest in eternal peace. Hope you have a great week . Meet you back here on Thursday when we will discuss the Civil War and some of our local Heroes of that war. Written by Patti McClung Pittsburg, Texas - May 20, 2010 5


Local Woman Honors Veterans: Part III By Pattie Story McClung, Pittsburg, Texas 1860 A FEW EVENTS THAT LEAD UP TO THE WAR During November of 1860, President Lincoln declared that our "Government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free..." he was the 1st President, the 1st Republican receiving 108 of 303 possible electorial votes and 40% of the popular vote. Subsequently, Lincoln was elected President of the United States. In December, South Carolina secedes from the Union, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas within 2 months time. Things were not looking too good to say the least for the new administration when they arrived in Washington. On Feb. 9, 1861 the Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate & former U.S Army Officer appointed as their President. On March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as the 16th President of the United States. Shortly after, all the real trouble began. THE CIVIL WAR... A GENERATION LOST. The war officially began the morning of April 12, 1861 in South Carolina when General Pierre Beauregard commenced to opening fire with 50 cannons upon Ft. Sumter at 4:30 am. Ft. Sumter, after capture, showing damage from re-enforced bombardment of well over 3000 shells began flying the " Stars and Bars" ( the ‘Confederate Flag’ on April 14, 1861.) On April, 15th President Lincoln issued a Proclamation to summon Congress to a special meeting to be held on July 4th calling for 75,000 Militiamen. Robert E. Lee , a son of the Revolutionary War Hero, and a 25 year distinguished Veteran of the U.S. Army and a former Superintendent at West Point was offered the Command of the Union Army but respectfully declined the offer. More trouble brewed as Virginia secedes on April 17th followed in 5 weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. Thus forming an 11 state Confederacy with a population of about 9 million strong including nearly 4 million slaves. The Union will soon have only 21 states and a population just over 20 million. 6


Now President Lincoln is beginning to sweat a little bit- and issues a Proclamation against all Southern Ports of call as a blockade. And these blockades limited the ability for the South to fully stock up on much needed supplies through the remainder of the war. But it did not stop the determined Southern boys!

Now comes a BIG and unexpected surprise. On April 20, 1861 Gen. Robert E. Lee resigned his commission in the Army stating " I cannot raise my hands against my birthplace, my home, my children"! He then went to Richmond, Va. and he offered up his services to the Command of the Military and Naval forces of Virginia and was accepted. Lincoln in a speech to Congress states war " is a peoples contest... a struggle for maintaining in the world, that forms a substance of government whose leading the call for another 500,000 men. FIRST BULL RUN July 21, 1861 The Union Army being led by Gen. Irwin McDowell suffers defeat at Bull Run 25 miles S W of Washington. Confederate General Thomas J Jackson earns his nickname " Stonewall" as his brigade resists the Union attacks. The Union falls back & Lincoln for the 1st time seems to realize that the Southern boys won't be so easy or quick to lick. He remarks, " the war will be long starting and it's bad, damned bad". He had NO idea the devastation and loss that both sides would have in this awful war. No one knew what lay ahead for them..... By September Lincoln revokes Gen. John Fremont’s unauthorized military proclamation of Emancipation in Missouri. Later, the President relieves Gen. Fremont from his duties of Command and replaces him with Gen. David Hunter. George B. McClellan had been Commandeer of the Department of the Potomac for 2 months by this time and tells his wife." I find myself in a new a strange position herePresident, cabinet, Gen. Scott and all deferring to me. By some strange operation of magic I seem to have become the power of the land." November 8th marked the new beginning of an international diplomatic crisis for the President. As two of the Confederate officials sailing toward England were taken / seizes by the U.S. Navy. England, the leading world power at that time, threatened to retaliate by war if they were not promptly released. So , of course, they were released. The president was quoted as saying " one war at a time." 7


1862 President Lincoln penned and issued the General War Order #1-- Calling for all U.S. Naval and land forces to begin a general advance by Feb. 22, 1862 ( which was George Washington's birthday). In February, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Tennessee won the victory capturing Ft. Henry and in 10 days Ft. Donnellson. This earned him the nick name "unconditional surrender" Grant. President Lincoln was struck with unbelievable grief when his 11 year old son, Willie fell ill to a fever after drinking contaminated water at the White House and died on Feb. 20, 1862. March 8/9 The Confederate Ironclad " Merrimac" sinks 2 wooden ships belonging to the Union and then proceeds to battle the Union Ironclad " Monitor" to a Naval warfare that forever changes the making of wooden war ships obsolete. As McClellan’s Army of the Potomac begins a Campaign down the Potomac and Chesapeake Bay from Washington to the peninsular South of the Confederate Capitol of Richmond, Va. and then on into Richmond President Lincoln temporarily releases McClellan as General-inChief and takes the direct command himself of the Union Army. Shiloh

April 6/7 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's troops who were unprepared for what happened at Shiloh along the Tennessee River resulted in a bitter struggle with 13,000 Union soldiers killed and wounded and 10,000 Confederate. More men then in all previous American wars put together. At this point the President was pressured to release Grant but he resisted by saying "I can't spare him, he fight's!" Union ships moved up the Mississippi taking New Orleans, the South’s greatest seaport. Later, in the war, Flag Officer David Farragut uttered the now famous phrase," Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!' as they maneuvered their sails through Rebel mine fields. In May the Battle of the 7 Pines ensued as Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army attacks McClellan's troops in front of Richmond, almost, but NOT quite defeating them. However Johnston was badly wounded in the skirmish------ Robert E. Lee replaced him in command, renaming the unit The Army of Northern Virginia.

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The 7 days battle as Lee attacks McClellan's troops near Richmond resulted in heavy losses for both sides. McClellan began to withdraw towards Washington and I imagine he also began to eat his previous words when he said that Lee " was not impressive and most likely timid and irresolute in action....WRONG. After being his own General-in-Chief for a while now, Lincoln handed over the job to Henry W. ( Old Brains) Halleck on July 11. 1862. 2nd BATTLE OF BULL RUN Aug. 29/30. 75,000 Federals under General John Pope were soundly defeated by the Confederates numbering 55,000 under the leadership of Ole' Stonewall Jackson and Gen. James Longstreet at the 2nd battle of Bull Run in Northern Virginia. Once again, the Union Army retreats towards Washington and the President relieves Pope of his duties.

Lee pushes on to the North with 50,000 Confederate soldiers ( having lost some 5,000 at Bull Run) towards Harper's Ferry located some 50 miles NW of Washington. ( by this time it is September)The Union Army is some 90,000 strong and under the command of McClelland is in pursuit of Lee. ANTIETAM

This is the bloodiest battle in our military history. On September 17, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Armies are stopped at Antietam , Maryland by McClellan. They were way out numbered by forces. It is said that Farmer Miller had a 40 acre corn field which was thriving. The battle ensued and by night fall his cornfield lay in ruins as the intense rifle and artillery fire cut every single stalk of corn down to the ground "as close as if you had cut it with a knife" and horrifyingly 26,000 men lay dead or dying. Can you imagine the smell of the gun powder, the blood, sweat and tears? The sight of all those men lying there on the ground and hearing the painful moans of the dying and the sobs of the live having to identify a friend, a comrade that awful night ? Battles like these are what brought you and I our freedom. What a price they paid.

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Then came Sept. 22, 1862 when Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation freeing Slaves. Then he replaced Gen. George McClellan with General Ambrose E. Burnside as the New commander of The Army of the Potomac. Lincoln had grown impatient with his slowness to follow up on the success at Antietam , even telling him" If you don't want to use your Army, I should like to borrow it for awhile" FREDRICKSBURG Dec. 13, 1862 The Army of the Potomac suffered a costly defeat at Fredericksburg, Virginia with a loss of 12,653 men after 14 frontal assaults on well entrenched Rebels on Mary’s Height's. " We might as well have tried to take Hell" one Union soldier remarked. The Confederate losses were 5,309. Lee stated during the fight, "it is well that war is so terrible---we should not grow too fond of it." 1863 Lincoln signed the Final Proclamation of Emancipation freeing ALL Slaves in territories held by the Confederate and emphasized the enlisting of Black soldiers into the Union Army on Jan. 1, 1863. Now the war to preserve the Union had become a Revolutionary war for the Abolition of Slavery.. Lincoln appointed Gen. Joseph ( Fighting Joe) Hooker as Commander of the Army of the west with orders to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi on Jan. 29, 1863. In March the Congress opens it's eyes and enacts the draft. This affects citizens aged 20 to 45 but will exempt those that pay or provide $300.00 substitute. The poor Northerners complain, but Congress stance is "The blood of a poor man is just as precious as that of the wealthy". CHANCELLORSVILLE MAY 1-4, 1863 The Union Army under the command of Gen. Hooker entered the battle of Chancellorsville, Va. and as a result of Gen. Lee's brilliant but sometimes daring tactics they defeated Gen. Hooker's larger forces quite decisively. Confederate Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by his own soldiers in this battle. Hooker retreats. The Union looses are 17,000 killed, wounded or missing out of 130,000 troops. The Confederate lost 13,000 out of 60,000 troops. The South suffers a huge blow when Stonewall Jackson dies from his wounds on May 10, 1863. His last words were said to have been, " Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees". I have lost my right arm " laments General Lee. With 75,000 Confederates Gen. Lee launched his 2nd invasion of the North heading into 10


Pennsylvania on June 3, 1863 that soon leads them to the massacre at Gettysburg. One of the saddest days yet to come. Lincoln appoints Gen. George G. Meade commander of the Army of the Republic, replacing Hooker who had said he had lost all confidence in himself. Meade is now the 5th man to command the Army in less than a year. GETTYSBURG July 1-3, 1863. This is the turning point of the war against the South as the Confederates are defeated at The Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This is the most famous and important battle that occurred within 3 days in July. It was hot, the weather was sweltering and the humidity was stifling around the small market town of Gettysburg. In it's infancy this battle was only a skirmish but by it's maturity in 3 days time it would involve 160,000 American lives. On this morning, Tuesday, June 30th, a Confederate Infantry Brigade of soldiers who were headed to Gettysburg in search of shoes spotters a long column of Federal Calvary headed toward town. They withdrew and went to tell their commanding officer who in turn told his superior officer. They would go back for shoes in the morning. Wednesday morning, July 1st, two divisions of Confederate soldiers headed back to Gettysburg. They ran into the Federal Calvary West of town at Willoughby River and the skirmish began. Quickly the events would unfold and escalate. Lee rushed 25,000 men to the scene. The Union had less than 20,000 men. After heavy casualties on both sides from the fierce fighting the Federals pushed back through the town and regrouped south of town along the ridge near the cemetery. Lee ordered the Confederate Gen. Ewell to seize the high ground from the battle fatigued Federals. Gen. Ewell hesitated- giving the Federals time to "dig in" along the cemetery ridge and bring reinforcements with artillery. By the time Lee realized Ewell had NOT attacked the opportunity was gone. Meade arrived on the scene & thought it an ideal place to do battle with Lee's army. Meade anticipated some 100,000 men to arrive to strengthen his defensive position. Confederate Gen. Longstreet saw the Union position as nearly impregnable. & told Lee to leave it alone & that he should instead move East between the union Army and Washington & build a defensive position thus boxing the Federals to attack them instead. But, Lee believed his own way was invincible. So, he moved ahead. Lee ordered Longstreet to attack along the Cemetery ridge on Thursday July 2nd at about 10 am. But they were slow to get into position and did not attack until 4 pm that evening giving the Union Army ample time to strengthen it's position. 11


Then Longstreet attacked, some of the most bitter fighting of the civil war erupted out. Places that are now a part of American folklore, such as; Little Round Top, Devil's Den, The Wheat Field, and The Peach orchard. Longstreet took the Peach Orchard, but was driven back to Little Round Top. About 6 am Gen. Ewell attacked the Union from the North & East at Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. The attack lasted until about 10:30 pm.. The days fighting came to an end. Both sides regrouped, as they had both suffered causalities and lost a bit of ground in the battle. Each side did a count of their dead and wounded. You could hear the moaning and sobbing of thousands of men on the meadows south of Gettysburg throughout the night, under the light of a full moon. (I can't imagine.) Longstreet once again tried to convince General Lee not to attack, but Lee thought that the battered Union Soldiers were nearly beaten and would surely collapse under fire and the pressure of a final push. So Lee gambled to win by attacking the next day along the line of cemetery ridge where it would be the least expected. But as dawn broke on July 3rd about 4:30 am, Lee's time table was undetermined as Union cannons pounded Rebel forces on Culp's Hill to drive them from the trenches. But the Rebels did NOT withdraw but instead attacked the Federals around 8 am and a 3 hour straight struggle ensued. The Federals finally ran the Rebel forces off the hill and east across Rock Creek. Around 11 am the fighting at Culp's Hill stopped. An eerie quiet must have settled and must have been felt across the battlefield where so many lay dead. Rebels moved to the wooded area opposite Cemetery ridge for the coming charge. It was 90 degrees, sweltering heat and the humidity was stifling. Meade had a correct sense that Lee would attack from the center, he only had 5,750 Infantrymen stretched across the 1/2 mile front to utilize and face the 15,000 man Rebel charge. Union & Confederate Calvary troops clashed 3 miles east of Gettysburg. Jeb Stuart's Calvary had joined in led in part by 23 year old Gen. George Custer The diversion attempt failed. Around 2 pm Pickett asked Longstreet "General , shall I advance?" Overwhelmed by emotion Longstreet bowed his head and without speaking the order was given. Pickett yelled "Charge the enemy and remember the old Virginia!" as 12,000 Rebels formed an orderly line that stretched a mile flank to flank. In military pageantry from by gone days and complete silence the Union Army a mile away on cemetery ridge as the Federals gazed in wonder at this spectacular sight. As Rebels got within range accurate rifle volleys ripped into the Rebels killing many and tearing holes in the advancing line. What had been a momentary majestic line of Rebel Infantry, quickly became a terrible, horrific mess of dismembered bodies and dying wounded accompanied by a mournful roar. But the Rebels continued onward. By the time this battle was over Lee's supreme Army had been beaten back, leaving 7,500 of his men lying on the battlefield. 12


Lee rode out telling his survivors "this is all my fault" And Pickett said, "Upon my shoulders rest the blame." Confederate causalities in dead, wounded and missing were 28,000 out of 75,000. Union causalities were 23,000 out of 88,000. Nov. 9th President Lincoln went to Gettysburg to declare it a military cemetery. VICKSBURG #2 July 4th , 1863 The last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River surrendered to Gen. Grant after a 6 week siege. The Confederacy is effectively split into, cut by it's western allies. July 18, 1863 Negro Troops of the 15th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment under Col. Robert G. Shaw assaulted fortified Rebel Ft. Wagner, South Carolina. Col. Shaw and half of his 600 men were killed there under horrible conditions. Aug.21,1863 At Lawrence, Kansas pro- Confederate William C. Quantrill and 450 pro-slavery followers raid the small town and butchered 182 innocent Black boys and men. May their souls rest in eternal peace. CHICKAMAUNGA A great Confederate victory by Gen. Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee. September 19/20 Gen. William S Rosecrans’s Union Army of the Cumberland is trapped at Chattanooga, Tennessee under Confederate fire and siege. Dec. 19, 1863 President Lincoln delivers a two-minute speech declaring Gettysburg a National Cemetery. CHATTANOOGA

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Nov. 23/25. The Rebel siege of Chattanooga ends as Union forces under great defeat. The siege Army of Gen Braxton Braggs Army was one of the most dramatic moments when the Union troops yelled "Chickamauga, Chickamauga! My God, come see 'em run!". 1864 COLD HARBOR Union causalities were 7,000 in a twenty-minute battle offensive against the Rebels in Virginia. Atlanta, Georgia fell to Union troops fairly easily. This win gave Lincoln bid for re-election. Nov. 8, 1864 Abraham Lincoln is re-elected to office of the President defeating Democrat George B. McClellan. Lincoln carried all but 3 states, 455% of the popular vote and 212 of 233 electorial votes.

MARCH TO THE SEA After destroying all units, warehouses and railroad facilities, Sherman with 62,000 men began to march to the sea. Sherman boasts "I can make Georgia howl!" Hoods Rebel Army of 23,000 is crushed at Nashville by 55,000 Federals including Negro troops under George H. Thomas. The Confederate Army proves to be an effective fighting force. 1865 THE ENDING TO A HELLISH WAR Jan. 31, 1865 Congress approved the 13th amendment to the U.S. Constitution to abolish Slavery. The amendment is then submitted to the States for ratification. Feb. 3rd A peace conference with President Lincoln meets with Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens at Hampton Roads, Virginia. But the meeting was a failure. So the war continues. Only Lee's Army at Petersburg & Johnston’s forces in North Carolina remain to fight for the South against Northern forces now numbering 280,000 men. March 4

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The Inauguration Ceremonies for Lincoln in Washington. March 25. The last offensive for Lee's Army of Northern Virginia begins with an attack on the center of Grants forces at Petersburg Four hours later the attack is broken. April 12 Grants forces begin general advances and break through Lee's lines at Petersburg. Confederate Gen. Ambrose P. Hill is killed and Lee evacuates Petersburg. The Confederate Capitol of Richmond, Virginia is also evacuated. Fire's and looting ensue. The next day Union Soldiers raise their "Stars and Stripes" to fly. LEE SURRENDERS Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox, Virginia at the courthouse. Grant allows Rebel forces to keep their sidearm’s and permits soldiers to keep their horses and mules. "After four years of service marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources" Lee tells his troops. So, the war is finally over. The soldiers all head for home. Some alive to tell the tale. But one thing is for certain, whether Rebel or Yankee, these men fought with such courage and saw such unspeakable things. Their lives were changed forever by the experience. Some fought brother against brother, father against son. No war has ever affected our country as the Civil War has. Now let's take a personal look at some of the folks that served in that war. JOHN W. BAILEY Born Sept. 22, 1836 in Georgia Died Sept. 15, 1903 in Pittsburg, Camp County, Texas The son of Elijah Josephus Bailey and Lunda Steed. Married: Frances C. Boyce Enlisted in Co. H, 3rd Texas Calvary in Upshur Countyon June 3, 1861 and mustwered into service on June 13 , 1861 at Dallas, Texas. He was present or accounted for through June 1864. Miles to rendezvous:135 Valuation of horse: $125.00 Valuation of equipment: $20.00 Buried at Reeves Chapel Cemetery, Camp County Texas

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LIEUTENANT STEPHEN PICKNEY BAILEY Born: mar. 29, 1838 Coweta Co , Georgia Died Oct. 25, 1919 Pittsburg, Camp Co, Texas Son of Ezekial L. Bailey and Mary "Polly" Steed Married #1 Nannie O. Bailey #2 Hulda Minerva Kirskey Stephen enlisted as a Pvt. in Company D, 10th Calvary at Camp Flournoy on Sept. 25, 1861. He was elected 3rd Lieutenant on July 20, 1862. He was wounded in the head at Murfreesboro, Tennessee on Dec. 31, 1862. He was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant subsequent to March-April 1863. He resigned on Jan. 11, 1864 due to the wound received at Murfreesboro. Miles to rendezvous: 125 Valuation of horse: $125.00 Valuation of equipment: $25.00 Soldier's pension #17408 and widows pension #40881 in Camp County Texas He and Hulda are buried side by side in Macedonia Cemetery in Pittsburg , Camp county, Texas JOHN STORY( my great grandfather ) Born in 1837 in Sevier county Arkansas Died 1905 Sevier county Arkansas Parents: William Story and Jane Knight Married Wife #1 Mahalia Wyatt on 9-28-1858 in Sevier Co., Arkansas Their children: William Louis Story ,Obadiah Story, Ann Story, Martha Story, Sarah Jane " Sallie " Story Wife #2 Mrs. Sarah Roberts Holcombe (a widow) Their children: John Robert Story, Emma Story, Willie Ottis Story, Henderson S. Story (my Grandfather, father of Odia L. Story of Talco) Wife #3 Fannie Halliday married on 11-4-1903 in DeQueen, Sevier Co, Arkansas John enlisted July of 1861 and served in the 2nd Arkansas Mounted Calvary. He was wounded just outside Atlanta Georgia where he was shot in the arm. He was taken to WAY Hospital In Meridian , Mississippi where he was treated. He was still serving at the time of the surrender of 1865 and was Honorably discharged. He received a soldiers pension from Sevier Co, Arkansas in the amount of $25.00 for a "stiff elbow" He attended the Confederate Soldier's Reunion on the Cossatot River in Sevier County Arkansas through 1905. He is buried in Grannis, Arkansas. I hope all of you have enjoyed this article as much as I have writing it. Have a great Memorial Day weekend and PLEASE be safe. And take time to think about what these men gave for our freedom and remember a soldier this Memorial Day. Pray for our Nation.

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Pattie McClung Honors Veterans