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32창7$5,1$3/$청(1$8 32창7$16.2085('8=$*5(%

15. travnja  CIJENA

6UHWDQ8VNUV

7 12 kn


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ISSN 0350-3100 Nakladnik Ă…Gospodarski listÂľ Novinsko nakladniÄ?ko i trgovaÄ?ko d.d. 10000 Zagreb Trg bana JelaÄ?ića 3 telefon 01/48 16 145 telefaks 01/48 16 146 Direktorica Andreja Vrcan E-mail: andreja@gospodarski-list.hr UredniĹĄtvo Majstora Radonje 12 telefon: 01/38 43 222, 01/38 42 777 telefaks 01/38 43 666 E-mail: redakcija@gospodarski-list.hr www.gospodarski.hr Glavni urednik Branko Horvat UredniÄ?ki odbor Vitomir Patko (zamjenik glavnog urednika) Goran Beinrauch (odgovorni urednik) Ilustracije BoĹžidar Ĺ poljarić-Largo List izlazi svakih 15 dana. TromjeseÄ?na pretplata 70 kn Inozemna godiĹĄnja pretplata 75 â‚Ź ili 100 $ RaÄ?unovodstvo i pretplata telefon 01/38 43 555 telefaks 01/30 77 725 pretplata@gospodarski-list.hr prodaja: hrvoje@gospodarski-list.hr RaÄ?un broj 2360000-1101284610 kod ZagrebaÄ?ke banke d.d. Zagreb RaÄ?un broj 2390001-1100301008 kod Hrvatske poĹĄtanske banke Zagreb Devizni raÄ?un u ZagrebaÄ?koj banci: IBAN HR12 23600001101284610 MatiÄ?ni broj: 3222195 OIB: 09377481666 Tisak i graďŹ Ä?ka priprema VJESNIK d.d. ZAGREB Slavonska avenija 4 Rukopisi i slike se ne vraćaju. Ă…Gospodarski listÂľ d.d. upisan je u Upisnik HGK o izdavanju i distribuciji tiska pod rednim brojem 73. Na temelju Ä?lanka 34. stavka 3. Zakona o medijima objavljujemo: - prosjeÄ?na naklada Ä?asopisa "Gospodarski list" u 2013. iznosila je oko 21.000 primjeraka, a prihodi ostvareni u 2013. godini iznosili su 6,051.539,82 kuna. Prilozi i savjeti objavljeni u „Gospodarskom listuâ€? temelje se na struÄ?nosti i iskustvu autora i „Gospodarski listâ€? ne odgovara za sluÄ?aj ĹĄtete ili neuspjeha. „Gospodarski listâ€? ne odgovara ni za sadrĹžaj oglasa.

internet izdanje

www.gospodarski.hr 2 x mjeseÄ?no u VaĹĄem domu

Iz ovog broja izdvajamo: 

AKTUALNE TEME  

 

2 – 4 .DNRRWYRULWLSROMRSULYUHGQRJRVSRGDUVWYR 5 3UHSRUXNDSROMRSULYUHGQLPSURL]YRÄ DÄ€LPD]D 6 13 14 15

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RATARSTVO, KRMNO BILJE, MEHANIZACIJA 

17 9DçQRVWJQRMLGEHXSURL]YRGQMLJODYQLKUDWDUVNLK

LLQGXVWULMVNLKNXOWXUD

18 – 19 5DQDVMHWYDNXNXUX]D 20 1HSRçHOMQHELOMQHYUVWHQDOLYDGDPD 23 – 24 27 – 29

LSDĂĽQMDFLPD 

6LMDÞLFH]DRNRSDYLQH äWRWUHED]QDWLSULMHSUVNDQMD"

VAŠVRT  35  36 38 – 39 45

1MHJDQDVDGDOXND 5DGXXUEDQLPYUWRYLPD 3UHFL]QDVMHWYDSRYUĂžD &YMHWQRĂĽDUHQLORLVSRGVWDEOD

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK 

47 – 59 %LRPDVD²REQRYOMLYLL]YRUHQHUJLMH

*ÇĄ  ÇĄ  

62 3URUMHÄ LYDQMHSORGRYD 63 6LYDSOLMHVDQLOLWUXOHçMDJRGD 67 *ULQMH²ĂĽWHWQLFLYLQRYHOR]H

LJEKOVITO BILJE 68 – 69

/MHNRYLWRVWLJOLFDERUDVPUHNHLMHOH

,ÇĄ  

70 'DQVNDNRNRü²QDMVWDULMDHXURSVND

SDVPLQD 71 -DQMHQMHRYDFD   73 2SDVQRVWLPODGHSDüH 74 – 75 3URL]YRGQMDMDMD

ȲSretan Uskrs pretplatnicima, suradnicima i poslovnim partnerima


Biomasa – obnovljivi izvor energije

GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

mali

.RULåWHQMHIRVLOQLKJRULYDLPDQHJDWLYQHSRVOMHGLFHQDRNROLå(PL VLMHVWDNOHQLĀNLKSOLQRYDNRMHQDVWDMXNDRSRVOMHGLFDNRULåWHQMDIR VLOQLKJRULYDSRVSMHåXMXXĀLQDNNOLPDWVNLKSURPMHQDDXYLMHNSR VWRMLLUL]LN]DJDāHQMDWODLYRGH2VLPWRJD]DOLKHIRVLOQLKJRULYD VXRJUDQLĀHQHDVDVPDQMHQMHP]DOLKDSRVH]DWLþHVH]DVNXSOMLP L QHSRYROMQLMLP PHWRGDPD GRELYDQMD IRVLOQLK JRULYD åWR þH LPDWL JOREDOQRORåXWMHFDMQDFLMHQHHQHUJLMH8SUDYR]DWRVHNDRMHGQD RGGREULKDOWHUQDWLYDGDQDVVYHYLåHSUHSR]QDMHPRJXþQRVWNRUL åWHQMDELRPDVHLRVWDOLKREQRYOMLYLKL]YRUDHQHUJLMH 15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

47


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK 48

Biomasa i ostali obnovljivi izvori energije 7HรงQMD (8 ]D HQHUJHWVNRP QHRYLVQR รฅรพX QHVWDELOQRVW FLMHQD IRVLOQLK JRULYD L HIHNW VWDNOHQLND JODYQL VX SRNUHWDฤ€L NRULรฅWHQMD QRYLK ฤ€LVWLK &2QHXWUDOQLK JRULYD2E]LURPGDMH+UYDWVNDSRVWDOD SXQRSUDYQDฤ€ODQLFD(8VDPLPWLPHMH SUHX]HOD REYH]H L] 'LUHNWLYH (XURSVNH NRPLVLMH   NRMD QDODรงH SURPRFLMX LXSRUDEXHQHUJLMHL]REQRYOMLYLKL]YRUD 1MRPH VX VYH ฤ€ODQLFH (8 GXรงQH SRYH รพDWL HQHUJHWVNX HILNDVQRVW L XรฅWHGMHWL  HQHUJLMH GRVWLรพL  HQHUJLMH L] REQRYOMLYLK L]YRUD X XNXSQRM SRWURรฅQML WH VPDQMLWL HPLVLMX VWDNOHQLฤ€NLK SOLQRYD ]D (&  .DRMHGDQRGGREULKSXWRYDXLV SXQMHQMXRYHGLUHNWLYHGDQDVVHVYH YLรฅH SUHSR]QDMH PRJXรพQRVW NRUL รฅWHQMDELRPDVHLRVWDOLKREQRYOMLYLK L]YRUDHQHUJLMH 3UHPDGLUHNWLYL(8L9LMHรพD(XUR SHELRPDVDMHGHILQLUDQDNDRร…ELR UD]JUDGLYLGLMHORYLSURL]YRGDRWSDGD LOLRVWDWDNDL]SROMRSULYUHGHรฅXPVNL RWSDGLRWSDGVURGQLKLQGXVWULMDNDR L ELRUD]JUDGLYL GLMHORYL LQGXVWULMVNRJ L JUDGVNRJ RWSDGDยต %LRPDVX ฤ€LQH SURL]YRGL ELOMQRJ L รงLYRWLQMVNRJ VYL MHWD X WR VH XEUDMDMX QHLVNRULรฅWHQL GLMHORYL รฅXPDUVNR ยฒ GUYQH LQGXVWUL MHSROMRSULYUHGQHSURL]YRGQMHSUH KUDPEHQH LQGXVWULMH NRPXQDOQRJ RWSDGDRUJDQVNRJSRULMHNODLVO *ODYQD SUHGQRVW NRULรฅWHQMD ELR PDVH NDR L]YRUD HQHUJLMH VX RELOQL SRWHQFLMDOLQHVDPR]DWXQDPMHQX X]JRMHQLK ELOMQLK YUVWD YHรพ L QX VSURL]YRGD L RWSDGQRJ PDWHULMDOD X SROMRSULYUHGQRM L SUHKUDPEHQRM LQGXVWULML 3UHGQRVW ELRPDVH X RG QRVX QD IRVLOQD JRULYD MH L QHXV SRUHGLYR PDQMD HPLVLMD รฅWHWQLK SOL QRYD L RWSDGQLK WYDUL 5Dฤ€XQD VH GDMHRSWHUHรพHQMHDWPRVIHUHV&2 SUL NRULรฅWHQMX ELRPDVH NDR JRULYD ]DQHPDULYR EXGXรพL GD MH NROLฤ€LQD HPLWLUDQRJ &2 SULOLNRP L]JDUDQMD MHGQDND NROLฤ€LQL DSVRUELUDQRJ &2 WLMHNRP UDVWD ELOMDND %LRPDVD MH GDNOH&2QHXWUDOQRJRULYR 6DJRULMHYDQMH MH QDMXฤ€HVWDOLML QD ฤ€LQ GRELYDQMD HQHUJLMH L] ELRPDVH

gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

6DJRULMHYDQMHP ELRPDVH RVOREDฤD VH WRSOLQD NRMD VH PRรงH L]UDYQR NRULVWLWL ]D JULMDQMH LOL XSRWULMHELWL ]D SURL]YRGQMX HOHNWULฤ€QH HQHUJLMH 3OLQRILNDFLMD MH GUXJL QDฤ€LQ NRULรฅWH QMDELRPDVHSULฤ€HPXVHELRPDVD SUHWYDUD X SOLQ 7DM SOLQ VH PRรงH L]UDYQR NRULVWLWL LOL SRVUHGQR ]D GR ELYDQMHGUXJLKREOLNDHQHUJLMH QSU HOHNWULฤ€QHHQHUJLMH %LRSOLQMHVPMH VD SOLQRYD QDVWDOLK GMHORYDQMHP EDNWHULMD SUL DQDHUREQRM UD]JUDGQML RUJDQVNHWYDUL3RVWRMHGRND]LGDMH ELRSOLQ NRULรฅWHQ ]D JULMDQMH NXSHOML X $]LML RG  VWROMHรพD X 3HU]LML RG  VWROMHรพD 0DUFR 3ROR VSRPLQMH GD VX X .LQL NRULVWLOL NDQDOL]DFLMVNL RWSDG]DSURL]YRGQMXELRSOLQDSULMH JRGLQD0HWDQMHSUYLL QDMYDรงQLMLVDVWRMDNELRSOLQDDVDPD NYDOLWHWDELRSOLQDPMHULVHSRXGMHOX PHWDQD %LRGL]HO MH PHWLOQL HVWHU SURL]YH GHQL]XOMDXOMDULFDLOLXOMDDQLPDOQRJ SRULMHNODNDNYRรพHPLQHUDOQRJGL]H OD D NRULVWL VH NDR ELRJRULYR 1DM YDรงQLMHVLURYLQH]DSURL]YRGQMXELR GL]HODVXXOMDQDUHSLFDVXQFRNUHW VRMD SDOPD RWSDGQR MHVWLYR XOMH JRYHฤLORMLWG ,]ELRPDVHVHPRJXGRELWLLDONR KROQDJRULYD ELRHWDQRO 1DMYDรงQLMH VLURYLQH]DSURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD VX รฅHรพHU รฅHรพHUQD WUVND รฅHรพHUQD UHSD VLUDN  รฅNURE NXNXUX]NUXPSLU LFHOXOR]D GUYR SROMRSULYUHGQLRVWDWFLWUDYH 6LURYL

U poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji ostaje velika koliฤina neiskoriลกtene biomase: slama, kukuruzovina, ostaci pri rezidbi voฤ‡ki, vinove loze i maslina, stabljike suncokreta i dr. i relativno su lako iskoristiv oblik energije. Biomasa nastaje uglavnom fotosintezom u biljkama, kojom se Sunฤeva energija pretvara u organsku tvar. Iz biomase nastali fosilni energenti (ugljen, nafta i zemni plin) ne ubrajaju se u biomasu. Priroda svake godine proizvede ogromne koliฤine biomase, od koje se samo mali dio koristi kao hrana, obnovljiva sirovina ili kao energent. QHERJDWHรฅHรพHULPDYUORVXSRJRG QH ]D SURL]YRGQMX HWDQROD EXGXรพL GDYHรพVDGUรงDYDMXMHGQRVWDYQHรฅH รพHUH JOXNR]X L IUXNWR]X NRML PRJX IHUPHQWLUDWL L]UDYQR X HWDQRO 6LUR YLQH ERJDWH รฅNURERP VDGUรงDYDMX YHOLNH PROHNXOH XJOMLNRYRGLND NRMH WUHED UD]ORรงLWL QD MHGQRVWDYQH รฅH รพHUH SURFHVRP VDKDULILNDFLMH รฅWR ]DKWLMHYD MRรฅ MHGQX ID]X X SURFHVX SURL]YRGQMH L SRYHรพDYD WURรฅNRYH 8JOMLNRYRGLFLXVLURYLQDPDERJDWLP FHOXOR]RPVDVWDYOMHQLVXRGMRรฅYH รพLK PROHNXOD L WUHEDMX VH SUHWYRULWL XรฅHรพHUH1DM]QDฤ€DMQLMHELOMQHYUVWH NRMHVHX]JDMDMX]DSURL]YRGQMXHWD QROD VX VLUDN รฅHรพHUQD WUVND VLUDN รฅHรพHUDFLNXNXUX]9RGHรพD]HPOMDX SURL]YRGQMLLSULPMHQLHWDQROD]DYR ]LODMH%UD]LOJGMHVHVYDNHJRGLQH SURL]YHGHYLรฅHRGPLOLMDUGLOLWDUD


3RYUรฅLQD=HPOMHMHRNRPLOL MDUGDKD7UHQXWQDSRYUรฅLQDRUDQL FDSURFMHQMXMHVHQDPLOLMDUGD KD 8NXSQR REUDGLYR ]HPOMLรฅWH SRJRGQR ]D X]JRM RUDQLฤ€QLK NXO WXUDSURFMHQMXMHVHQDPLOLMDUGH KD 2(&' L )$2   .XOWXUH ]DSURL]YRGQMXELRJRULYDWUHQXWQR ]DX]LPDMX PDQMH RG  PLOLMXQD KDGLOMHPVYLMHWDXXVSRUHGELV PLOLMDUGDKD ]EURMUDWDUVNLKSRYU รฅLQD L SDรฅQMDND  NROLNR VX NRULVWL รฅLURP VYLMHWD ]D SURL]YRGQMX KUD QH]DOMXGHLรงLYRWLQMH ,]PHฤX UDQLK WLK L NUD MD LK SRYUรฅLQD JOREDOQLK REUDGLYLKWDODSRUDVODMH]DVYHJD  GRN VH VYMHWVND SRSXODFLMD JRWRYR XGYRVWUXฤ€LOD .DR UH]XOWDW WRJD SRWUHEQD SRYUรฅLQD REUD GLYRJ WOD SR RVREL SDOD MH ]D   RG  KD QD VDPR  KD ,SDN WLMHNRP WRJ LVWRJ UD]GREOMD ]QDฤ€DMQRVHSRSUDYLODUD]LQDSUH KUDQH L VWYDUQH FLMHQH KUDQH VX SDOH 2YDM WUHQG VH PRรงH REMD VQLWL VSHNWDNXODUQLP SRYHรพDQMHP SURGXNWLYQRVWL SR MHGLQLFL SRYUรฅLQH WODNRMHVPDQMXMHSRWUHEQXSRYUรฅL QXWODSRMHGLQLFLSURL]YRGD]D ,DNRVHSURFLMHQMHQLKPLOLMDUGHKD ]HPOMLรฅWDVPDWUDSULNODGQLP]DSURL ]YRGQMDKUDQHVDPRMHRNRPL OLMDUGHKDWUHQXWQRXXSRWUHEL Od 2.150.000 potencijalno obradivih povrลกina u Hrvatskoj ฤak je 974.080 ha neiskoriลกteno, gdje bi se primjenom melioracijskih mjera mogao proลกiriti uzgoj poljoprivrednih kultura za proizvodnju hrane, ali i biogoriva. Potrebno je naglasiti da proizvodnja biomase nije ograniฤena samo na oraniฤna tla, nego se proizvodnja odvija i na degradiranim/marginalnim tlima, koja se trenutno ne koriste za proizvodnja hrane, a kao biomasa se koriste i poljoprivredni ostatci. 2E]LURPGDELRHQHUJHWVNHNXO WXUHQHELELWUHEDOHELWLXL]UDYQRM

NRQNXUHQFLMLXVMHYLPD]DOMXGVNXL VWRฤ€QXKUDQXRWYDUDMXVHQRYDSR GUXฤ€MH LVWUDรงLYDQMD V NRULรฅWHQMHP QRYLKELOMQLKYUVWDLVRUWLรคWRVHWLฤ€H ELOMDNDLVWUDรงLYDQMLPDVXREXKYDรพH QHYUVWHNRMHVHQHVOXรงH]DOMXGVNX LVWRฤ€QXSUHKUDQX,VNXVWYRVQHNLP ELOMQLPYUVWDPDVXREHรพDYDMXรพH 1LVND SURGXNWLYQRVW X SROMRSUL YUHGL X PQRJLP UHJLMDPD UH]XOWLUD X QHRGUรงLYRP NRULรฅWHQMX ]HPOMLรฅWD HUR]LMLLJXELWNXWODGHIRUHVWDFLMLLVL URPDรฅWYX 3RYHรพDQD SURGXNWLYQRVW X QDUHGQRP UD]GREOMX NDR UH]XOWDW EROMHJ JRVSRGDUHQMD QRYLK WHKQR ORJLMDRSOHPHQMHQLKYUVWDXODJDQMD XHQHUJLMXSRVWXSQRELSRYHรพDODLQ WHQ]LWHWNRULรฅWHQMD]HPOMLรฅWDWDNRGD GRYROMQH SRYUรฅLQH ]HPOMLรฅWD RVWDQX GRVWXSQH ]D ]DGRYROMDYDQMH VYH YHรพH SRWUDรงQMH ]D OMXGVNRP L VWRฤ€ QRP KUDQRP DOL L ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRPDVHRGQRVQRELRJRULYD

Bioenergetski usjevi protiv usjeva za hranu

VHNDYDLฤ€DMXVMHYLNRMLQHXEOD รงDYDMXJODG 81RYD 2UJDQL]DFLMD ]D KUDQX L SROMRSULYUHGX )$2  L ,QWHUQDWL RQDO )RRG 3ROLF\ 5HVHDUFK ,QVWL WXW VX REMDYLOL SULMHNRUQD L]YMHรฅรพD X NRMLPD VX ELRJRULYD SULND]DQD NDRJODYQLNULYDF]DSRVNXSOMHQMH FLMHQD SROMRSULYUHGQLK SURL]YRGD XL2EMHRUJDQL]DFLMH WYUGH GD EL YODGH WUHEDOH KLWQR  SUHLVSLWDWL VYRMX SROLWLNX ELRJRUL YD ]ERJ SRUDรงDYDMXรพL Xฤ€LQND NR MHJ SURL]YRGQMD ELRJRULYD LPD QD FLMHQH KUDQH L SRYHรพDQMH JODGL X VYLMHWX 2G ELRJRULYD VX QDSUDYLOL รงUWYHQRJMDUFD]DYLรฅHFLMHQHURED DOLSRVNXSOMHQMDVXXRELฤ€DMHQDQD SROMRSULYUHGQLP WUรงLรฅWLPD ]ERJ NRPELQDFLMHUHODWLYQRQHHODVWLฤ€QH SRWUDรงQMHLQHSRVWRMDQHRSVNUEH 3RYLMHVQL SRGDFL SRND]XMH GD MH VWYDUQDVYMHWVNDFLMHQDSรฅHQLFH V XNDONXOLUDQRPLQIODFLMRP X LELODYHรพDRGQDMYHรพLK FLMHQDX2VLPWRJD(8SURL

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

Globalni potencijal biomase

3LWDQMH NYRWD ELRJRULYD NDPHQ MH VSRWLFDQMD X QHNLP HNRORรฅNLP L KXPDQLWDUQLP VNXSLQDPD NRMH VPDWUDMX GD EL SUHWMHUDQR UHYQD SURL]YRGQMD ELRJRULYD PRJOD L]D]YDWL PDVRYQX GHIRUHVWDFLMX VMHฤ€X รฅXPD LGRYHVWLGRQHVWDรฅLFDKUDQH

6DPR  RUDQLฤ€QLK WDOD X VYL MHWX VH NRULVWL ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHQHUJLMH GRN  REUDGLYRJ ]HPOMLรฅWD SUHVXGQRJ ]D X]JRM KUDQHOHรงLQHREUDฤHQR7LEURMHYL SRND]XMX VDPR GD ]HPOMLรฅWH NRMH VOXรงLGDX]JRMVLURYLQH]DELRJRUL YDQLMHJODYQLX]URNJOREDOQHJOD GL 8] WR QD  PLOLMXQD KD VDGH

]YRGQMDELRHWDQRODL]SรฅHQLFHSR ฤ€HODMHR]ELOMQRWHNXJRGL QL 6WRJD PRUD SRVWRMDWL FLMHOL QL] ฤ€LPEHQLND NRML XWMHฤ€X QD FLMHQH UREDRGNRMLKVXQHNLFLNOLฤ€QL SR QDYOMDMX VH  D QHNL VX VWUXNWXUQL &LNOLฤ€QL ฤ€LPEHQLFL VX QHSRYROMQL YUHPHQVNL XYMHWL NRML ]D SRVOMH GLFX LPDMX ORรฅH รงHWYH X NOMXฤ€QLP

15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

49


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK 50

VYMHWVNLP SRGUXÄ€MLPD SURL]YRG QMH RJUDQLÄ€HQD UREQD WUJRYLQD ]ERJ QDPHWDQMD L]YR]QLK RJUD QLÄ€HQMD X UD]OLÄ€LWLP ]HPOMDPD L VSHNXODWLYQDXODJDQMDQDWUçLĂĽWLPD SROMRSULYUHGQLK SURL]YRGD 0HÄ X VWUXNWXUQLP Ä€LPEHQLFLPD VX UD VWXĂžD SRWUDçQMD JRVSRGDUVWDYD X QDVWDMDQMXSRYLMHVQRQLVNHUD]LQH LQYHVWLFLMD X SROMRSULYUHGX SR OMRSULYUHGQD LVWUDçLYDQMD NRMD VX XVSRULOD SURGXNWLYQRVW UDVWXĂžD SURL]YRGQMDELRJRULYDLYLĂĽHFLMHQH QDIWH .RQNUHWQR SURFMHQMXMH VH GD SRYHĂžDQMH FLMHQD QDIWH RG  86' â‚Ź  QD86']DEDUHO L]D]LYD  SRYHĂžDQMH WURĂĽNRYD X UDWDUVNRM SURL]YRGQML UDWDUVNLK SURL]YRGD  L  X VWRÄ€DUVNRM SURL]YRGQML VWRÄ€DUVNLK SURL]YR GD  %UD]LOLPDPLOLMXQDKDREUD GLYRJ ]HPOMLĂĽWD RG Ä€HJD VDPR SHWLQX RUDQLFD EH] DPD]RQVNLK ĂĽXPD L GUXJLK HNRORĂĽNL RVMHWOMLYLK SRGUXÄ€MD  =ERJ YUOR YLVRNH SUR GXNWLYQRVWLĂĽHĂžHUQHWUVNHNRULVWH ĂžLSULEOLçQRPLOLMXQDKDLOLVDPR VYRMLKRUDQLFD%UD]LOSURL]YR GLGRYROMQRHWDQROD]DSRNUHWDQMH RWSULOLNHVYRMLKRVREQLKDXWR PRELOD 2YR MH L]YDQUHGQR SRVWL JQXĂžH 3URL]YRGQMD KUDQH XVNR MH SR YH]DQD V GRVWXSQRĂĽĂžX L RSVNU ERP HQHUJLMH 1HGRVWDWDN HQHU JLMH X SROMRSULYUHGQLP VXVWDYLPD UXUDOQLKSRGUXÄ€MD]HPDOMDXUD]YR MXMHGDQMHRGNOMXÄ€QLKÄ€LPEHQLND QLVNHSURGXNWLYQRVWLVLURPDĂĽWYDL QHVWDĂĽLFDKUDQH 'UçDYH Ä€ODQLFH 2(&' WURĂĽH  PLOLMDUGX 86' VYDNRGQHYQR ]D SRWLFDMH VYRMLP SROMRSULYUHGQLFL PD ĂĽWR MH UH]XOWLUD L]YR]RP MHI WLQLKSUHKUDPEHQLKDUWLNDODX]H POMHXUD]YRMXL]DXVWDYOMDUD]YRM QMLKRYH SROMRSULYUHGH VPDQMXMH SULKRGVLURPDĂĽQRPVWDQRYQLĂĽWYX L XEU]DYD GHSRSXODFLMX UXUDOQLK SRGUXÄ€MD 7UHQXWQR JRWRYR  PLOLMXQDKDX(8QHNRULVWLVH]D KUDQX ]ERJ KLSHUSURGXNFLMH 6X ILFLWX]HPOMDPD(8QHPRçHGRĂžL GR VLURPDĂĽQLK OMXGL X ]HPOMDPD

gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

Perspektiva bioenergetskih usjeva Sljedeće Ä?injenice pokazuju ogromne potencijale biomase koji bi poboljĹĄali proizvodnju hrane i sirovine za bioenergiju: t (PEJĂ?OKB QSJNBSOB QSPJ[WPEOKB CJPNBTF OB DJKFMPK ;FNMKJ  J[OPTJ 22 milijarde tona suhe tvari = 4500 EJ, ĹĄto je 10 puta viĹĄe od svjetske potroĹĄnje primarne energije. Biomasa koriĹĄtena za hranu iznosi 800 milijuna t ST= samo 0,4 % primarne proizvodnje biomase. t #JPNBTBUSFOVUOPPQTLSCMKVKFQPUSPĂ?OKFFOFSHJKFVTWJKFUVJ[B 1% globalnog transporta osigurava gorivo. Razina varira od 90 % u zemljama poput Nepala, preko 45 % u lndiji, do 28 % u Kini i Brazilu. Potencijal za poboljĹĄanje uÄ?inkovitosti biogoriva putem novih tehnologija vrlo je visoka. t (PEJĂ?OKBQSPJ[WPEOKBISBOFKFPEQPUSFCBTWKFUTLFQPQVMB cije. t 7FMJLF QPWSĂ?JOF WJĂ?LB QPMKPQSJWSFEOPH UMB V &6  JTUPÇ?OPK &VSPQJ  SAD i Latinskoj Americi mogle bi postati podruÄ?ja za znaÄ?ajnu proizvodnju biomase. t 1SPTKFÇ?OB VÇ?JOLPWJUPTU GPUPTJOUF[F KF PLP   1PWFÇŽBOKF GPUPTJO tetske uÄ?inkovitosti (kroz oplemenjivanje bilja i genetski inĹženjering) imao bi spektakularne efekte u proizvodnji biomase (viĹĄe Ĺžetvi godiĹĄnje). t #JPFOFSHFUTLJVTKFWJUBLPĂŞFSNPHVCJUJQSPJ[WFEFOJOBLWBMJUFUOJN poljoprivrednim tlima bez ugroĹžavanja svjetske proizvodnje hrane za ljude i Ĺživotinje ako se poveća uÄ?inkovitost koriĹĄtenja zemljiĹĄta, posebno u regijama u razvoju. Prihodi od biomase i proizvoda dobivenih iz biomase mogli bi pruĹžiti kljuÄ?nu polugu za ruralni razvoj i poboljĹĄanje poljoprivredne proizvodnje.

X UD]YRMX L SULGRQLMHWL UMHüDYDQMX SUREOHPDJODGL 6YMHWVNDJODGQLMHGDNOHX]UR NRYDQD QHGRVWDWNRP KUDQH YHÞ VLURPDüWYRPLQHGRVWDWNRPDGH NYDWQLK SULKRGD 8NODQMDQMHP YLVRNLK SULVWRMEL QD ELRJRULYD VX]ELMDQMH SROMRSULYUHGQLK VXE YHQFLMDLVWYDUDQMHJOREDOQRJWUçL üWDELRJRULYDVLJXUQRÞHSRPRÞL VWYRULWL QRYH PRJXÞQRVWL ]D ]H POMHXUD]YRMXGRSULQLMHWLVWYDUD QMXQRYLKUDGQLKPMHVWDLSRPRÞL X ERUEL SURWLY UXUDOQRJ VLURPDü

WYD &LMHQH KUDQH VX SRUDVOD X FLMHORP VYLMHWX ]ERJ YLVRNLK FL MHQD QDIWH SURPMHQH SUHKUDQH XUEDQL]DFLMH ĂĽLUHQMD SRSXODFLMH PDQMNDYRVWL WUJRYLQVNH SROLWLNH HNVWUHPQLK YUHPHQVNLK XYMHWD L ĂĽSHNXODFLMD 7UHED MDVQR QDJODVLWL GD MH GH IRUHVWDFLMD VMHÄ€D ĂĽXPD  LOL ]DX]L PDQMH YHOLNLK SRYUĂĽLQD RUDQLÄ€QLK WDOD ]D X]JRM HQHUJHWVNLK XVMHYD QHVDPRQHSRWUHEQRQHJRVHQH VPLMHQLWROHULUDWL SURIGUVF-RVLS/HWR


2EQRYOMLYLL]YRULHQHUJLMHL]SROMRSULYUHGHGHILQLUDMXVHNRULVWH ĂžLSRMDPELRJRULYDNRMDVHSURL]YRGHRGELRPDVHDPRJX VHNRULVWLWLNDRQDGRPMHVWDN]DIRVLOQHL]YRUHHQHUJLMH3RVWRMH GYLMHRVQRYQHSRGMHOHELRJRULYDLWRRE]LURPQDREOLNNUDMQMHJ NRULĂĽWHQMD NUXWDWHNXĂžDLSOLQRYLWDELRJRULYD WHYUVWLELRPDVH ]DSURL]YRGQMXLVWLK SUYDGUXJDLWUHĂžDJHQHUDFLMDELRJRULYD  8VOLMHG GUDVWLÄ€QRJ SRUDVWD FLMH QD IRVLOQLK HQHUJHQDWD ORçLYRJ XOMD L SOLQD WLMHNRP ]DGQMLK JRGLQH JULMD QMH QD ELRPDVX RVRELWR QD EULNHWH LSHOHWH SRVWDMHVYHDWUDNWLYQLMHĂĽWR MH UH]XOWLUDOR LQVWDODFLMRP EURMQLK NXĂžQLK L LQGXVWULMVNLK SRVWURMHQMD .DNRELVHVPDQMLOLWURĂĽNRYLNUXWD ELRJRULYDVHPRJXNRULVWLWLLXW]Y ULQIX]QRP VWDQMX RGQRVQR X IRU PL VMHÄ€NH LOL EDOH 0HÄ XWLP X WLP REOLFLPD HQHUJHWVNRJ LVNRULĂĽWHQMD JXELVHHILNDVQRVWWLMHNRPSURFHVD L]JDUDQMD X RGQRVX QD SHOHWLUDQL L EULNHWLUDQL REOLN WH VH L] WRJD UD ]ORJD X YHĂžLQL VOXÄ€DMHYD SULVWXSD SURFHVLPD VDELMDQMD %ULNHWLUDQMHP LOL SHOHWLUDQMHP EROMH VH LVNRULĂĽWDYD NUXWRELRJRULYRXVLWQLP SUDĂĽNDVWLP  REOLFLPDGDMXĂžLLPSRJRGQLMLREOLNL SRYHĂžDYDMXĂžLLPRJUMHYQXYULMHGQRVW 6YDNDNRMHELWQRQDSRPHQXWLGDVX Briketiranje, a i peletiranje se sastoji od zbijanja sitnih zrna biomase pod pritiskom u kalupima, pri tome formirajući propisane oblike. Da bi se biomasa povezala u jednu cjelinu obiÄ?no se dodaje sredstvo za vezivanje (lijepljenje) zrnaca. Ova sredstva mogu biti razliÄ?ita, odnosno organskog ili anorganskog porijekla. Nadalje, tijekom proizvodnje briketa i peleta mora se obratiti pozornost na kvalitetu istih. Kvaliteta briketa/peleta se prvenstveno manifestira kroz energetsku vrijednost (ovisno o sirovini), gustoću i Ä?vr-

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QRYLMD ORçLüWD SRWSXQR DXWRPDWL]LUD QD WH L]LVNXMX PLQLPDOQL OMXGVNL UDG 7UHQXWQR QDM]DVWXSOMHQLMD WHNXÞD ELRJRULYDVXELRGL]HOLELRHWDQRO8 RYLVQRVWL R VLURYLQL QDVWDMDQMD RED QDYHGHQDWLSDVXVUHÞHPRLXSUYRML XGUXJRMJHQHUDFLMLELRJRULYD %LRJRULYD SUYH JHQHUDFLMH VX YUVWDJRULYDNRMDVHXJODYQRPSURL ]YRGHRGüHÞHUDçLWDULFDLOLXOMDULFD L ]DKWLMHYDMX UHODWLYQR MHGQRVWDYDQ SURFHVNDNRELVHSURL]YHORJRWRYR JRULYR %LRGL]HO SUYH JHQHUDFLMH VH GHILQLUD NDR PHWLOQL HVWHU PDVQLK

stoću (otpornost na habanje), te uniformnu ĹĄirinu i duĹžinu. Osnovne osobine briketa/peleta definirane su standardima Ĺ?NORM, DIN plus M7135 i DIN 51731 koji se odnose iskljuÄ?ivo za drvnu biomasu, dok za poljoprivrednu biomasu standard joĹĄ nije utvrĂŞFO. KoriĹĄtenjem briketa/peleta imamo viĹĄestruku korist: tPMBLĂ?BOBNPHVÇŽOPTUUSBOTQPSUB i manipulacije u odnosu na rinfuzne oblike, t JNBKV EPCSV USBKOV  TQPTPC nost uskladiĹĄtenja, t TBHPSJKFWBOKFN TF PTMPCBĂŞB samo ona koliÄ?ina CO2 koju je biomasa tijekom rasta preuzela fotosintezom iz atmosfere, tQSFSBEPNVCSJLFUFQF lete ostatcima poljoprivredne proizvodnje raste cjenovna vrijednost.

NLVHOLQD SURL]YHGHQ L] XOMD XOMDULFD XOMDQDUHSLFDVXQFRNUHWVRMDSDO PD  L PDVWL çLYRWLQMVNRJ SRGULMHWOD %H] LNDNYLK GRGDWQLK SUHLQDND QD GL]HO PRWRULPD VH PRçH GRGDYDWL X RPMHUX RG  D RGUHÄ HQL WLSR YL PRWRUD PRJX NRULVWLWL L WQL ELRGL]HO 1HGRVWDWFL ELRGL]HOVNRJ JRULYD VX QH]QDWQR ORĂĽLMH RVRELQH X RGQRVX QD PLQHUDOQL GL]HO VPD QMXMH VQDJX PRWRUD ]D  GR    SULQLçLPWHPSHUDWXUDPD &°) XNROLNR VH QH GRGDMX DGLWLYL PLMH QMDDJUHJDWQRVWDQMHLSUHOD]LXJHO NRG VWDULMLK DXWRPRELOD GMHOXMH NDR RWDSDORLPRçHX]URNRYDWLRWDSDQMH ERMH 0HÄ XWLP MHGQD RG QDMYHĂžLK RJUDQLÄ€HQMD X SURL]YRGQML ELRJRUL YD SUYH JHQHUDFLMH MH NRPSHWLFLMD ]D SURL]YRGQLP SRYUĂĽLQDPD V SR YUĂĽLQDPD ]D SURL]YRGQMX KUDQH 6OLMHGQRP QDYHGHQRJ SRÄ€HWNRP WLK GROD]L GR LQWHQ]LYQRJ UD]YR MD ELRJRULYD GUXJH JHQHUDFLMH =D UD]OLNX RG SUYH JHQHUDFLMH GUXJD JHQHUDFL MD NDR SULPDUQX VLURYLQX NRULVWL LVNOMXÄ€LYR RVWDWNH SROMRSULYUHGQH SURL]YRGQMH QSU RNODVDN VLMHQR VODPD  RGQRVQR VLURYLQH W]Y OL JQRFHOXOR]QRJ VDVWDYD FHOXOR]D KHPLFHOXOR]D L OLJQLQ  2E]LURP GD OLJQRFHOXOR]QL RVWDFL SUHGVWDYOMDMX XMHGQR L GUDJRFMHQX VLURYLQX ELW QX ]D RÄ€XYDQMH NYDOLWHWH WOD QMLKR YR QHVPRWUHQR XNODQMDQMH PRçH R]ELOMQR XJUR]LWL NYDOLWHWX WOD 3UH PD QDSXWFLPD (XURSVNH NRPLVLMH PDNVLPDOQR  RG SRWHQFLMDOQR GRVWXSQHELRPDVHPRçHVHNRULVWLWL XHQHUJHWVNHVYUKH6WRJDGRGDWQD OLJQRFHOXOR]QD ELRPDVD PRUD ELWL SURL]YHGHQD QD ]DVHEQR RIRUPOMH QLPSODQWDçDPDVDGQMRPNXOWXUD]D SURL]YRGQMX HQHUJLMH 0LVFDQWKXV GLYOMHSURVREOMHĂĽWDF 1DGDOMHGH ILQLUDMXĂžL ELRGL]HO GUXJH JHQHUDFLMH NRULVWLPRSRMDPNRMLRSLVXMHSRVWX SDNQMHJRYRJQDVWDMDQMDRGQRVQR %WO %LRPDVVWROLTXLG²%LRPDVDX

15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

KlasiďŹ kacija i osnovne znaÄ?ajke biogoriva

51


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

WHNXรพLQX  รฟYUVWD ELRPDVD VH SRG YLVRNLP WODNRP L YLVRNRP WHPSH UDWXURP WHUPRNHPLMVNLP SRVWXS NRP  SUHYRGL X VLQWHWVNL SOLQ NRML VHSRWRPSUHUDฤXMHXELRJRULYR8 SURVMHNX L] SHW NLORJUDPD ELRPDVH VHGRELYDLOLWUDELRGL]HOVNRJJRULYD 7DNRSURL]YHGHQELRGL]HOLPDYHOLNL SRWHQFLMDORE]LURPGDVH]DQMHJR YX SURL]YRGQMX PRJX NRULVWLWL รฅLURN VSHNWDU VLURYLQD RGQRVQR UD]OLฤ€LWL WLSRYL OLJQRFHOXOR]QH ELRPDVH 0H ฤXWLP YDรงQR MH QDSRPHQXWL GD VH NRG GDQDรฅQMLK PRWRUD PRรงH EH] SUREOHPD NRULVWLWL NDR PMHรฅDYLQD LOL X ฤ€LVWRP REOLNX 2VLP JRULYD NRML QDVWDMH RYLP SURFHVRP QDVWDMH L VWUXMD WRSOLQD L SDUD NDR QXVSURL ]YRGLRYHSURL]YRGQMH.DRQDMYHรพL OLPLWLUDMXรพL IDNWRU X SURL]YRGQML %WO JRULYDMHVNXSDLVORรงHQDSURL]YRG QMDยฒWHรฅNRGDรพHGRJRGLQH ELWLXNRPHUFLMDOQRMXSRWUHEL

*RYRUHรพL R ELRHWDQROX SUYH JH QHUDFLMHPRUDPR]QDWLGDVHUDGLR DONRKROXSURL]YHGHQRPL]รฅHรพHUQLK L รฅNUREQLK VLURYLQD LVWLK NDR L ]D SURL]YRGQMX KUDQH รฅHรพHUQD WUVND L UHSDWHNXNXUX] 'DELSURL]YRGQMD HWDQRODELODHNRQRPLฤ€QDSRWUHEQR MH NRULVWLWL รฅWR MHIWLQLMX L GRVWXSQLMX VLURYLQX NRMD GDMH ]DGRYROMDYDMXรพL SULQRVHWDQRODXรฅWRMHGQRVWDYQLMHP SURFHVX (WDQRO NDR JRULYR QDMฤ€HรฅรพH VH NRULVWL X  L  PMHรฅDYLQDPD V EHQ]LQVNLP PLQHUDOQLP JRULYRP LOL NDRVLURYLQD]DSURL]YRGQMXYLVRNR RNWDQVNLK QDIWQLK DGLWLYD 0MHรฅDYL QDGRQDMYLรฅHHWDQRODXPLQH UDOQRP EHQ]LQVNRP JRULYX PRรงH VH NRULVWLWL EH] LNDNYH SUHLQDNH QD PRWRULPD 8NROLNR VH PRWRU SUL SUHPL]DNRULรฅWHQMHHWDQRODWDGDVH WDM SRVWRWDN SHQMH QD QDMYLรฅH  XGMHODHWDQRODXPMHรฅDYLQLVPLQH UDOQLPJRULYRP7UHQXWQRVX%UD]LO

52

gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

L6$'YRGHรพHGUรงDYHVYLMHWDXSURL ]YRGQMLELRHWDQRODDSURL]YRGHJD L]รฅHรพHUQHWUVNH %UD]LO LNXNXUX]D 6$'  .DGD JRYRULPR R HWDQROX GUXJHJHQHUDFLMHJRYRULVHXVWYDUL R OLJQRFHOXOR]QRP HWDQROX .DNR L VDPR LPH JRYRUL NDR SULPDUQD VL URYLQDVHNRULVWLOLJQRFHOXOR]QDELR PDVDNDRLXVOXฤ€DMXELRGL]HODGUX JH JHQHUDFLMH 2VQRYQL SUREOHP NRMLVHMDYOMDMXSULOLNRPSURL]YRGQMH HWDQROD L] OLJQRFHOXOR]QLK VLURYLQD MHQHPRJXรพQRVWIHUPHQWDFLMHOLJQL QD SRPRรพX PLNURRUJDQL]DPD NRML MH SUDWHรพL PDWHULMDO FHOXOR]H L KH PLFHOXOR]H L] NRMLK VH XVWYDUL SURL ]YRGLHWDQRO3ULMHQHJRรฅWRVHSUL VWXSLVDPRMDONRKROQRMIHUPHQWDFLML ELRPDVHSRWUHEQRMHSUYRRGYRMLWL FHOXOR]XLKHPLFHOXOR]XRGOLJQLQD รฅWRVHSRVWLรงHW]YSUHGWUHWPDQLPD IL]LNDOQL NHPLMVNL IL]LNDOQR ยฒ NH PLMVNL  0HฤXWLP RE]LURP GD VSR PHQXWL SUHGWUHWPDQL X YHOLNRM PMHUL QDUX รฅDYDMX FMHORNXSQX HNRQRPVNX ELODQFX SURL]YRGQMH NRPHU FLMDOQD XSRWUHED HWD QRODGUXJHJHQHUDFL MH VH L QH Rฤ€HNXMH X EOLรงRMEXGXรพQRVWL

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รพDYDQMHPWROHUDQFLMHQDVXรฅXLSR YHรพDQMHPIRWRVLQWHWVNHDNWLYQRVWL =HOHQD PDVD NXNXUX]D VH PRรงH NRULVWLWLL]DSURL]YRGQMXELRSOLQD=D RYXQDPMHQXNXNXUX]XEHUELPRUD LPDWLVXKHWYDULWHMHYUORYD รงDQGREDURGDELUKLEULGD]DRYXQD PMHQX9DรงQRMHL]DEUDWLKLEULGHNRML รพHRVWYDULWLYLVRNSULQRVELOMQHPDVH DWLPHLYLVRNLSULQRVHQHUJLMH 8 (XURSL VH ELRHWDQRO XJODY QRP SURL]YRGL RG SรฅHQLFH NXNX UX]DMHฤ€PDUDรงLLรฅHรพHUQHUHSH8 VMHYHUR]DSDGQRM (XURSL QDMYLรฅH MH ]DVWXSOMHQD SรฅHQLFD D X VUHGLรฅQMRM (XURSL L รคSDQMROVNRM NXNXUX] 0H ฤXWLP L X VMHYHUR]DSDGQRM (XURSL VHSULEMHJDYDXYR]XNXNXUX]DNDGD MH SURL]YRGQMD SรฅHQLFH QHGRYROMQD ]D SRGPLUHQMH VYLK SRWUHED 5Dรง VH ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD NRUL VWLX3ROMVNRM1MHPDฤ€NRMLSRGUXฤ€MX %DOWLNDDMHฤ€DPX1MHPDฤ€NRMLรคSD QMROVNRM 7ULWLNDOH MH WDNRฤHU MHGQD RG VLURYLQD YLVRNRJ SRWHQFLMDOD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD 7ULWLNDOH MH รงLWDULFD NRMD QHPD YHOLNH ]DKWMHYH SUHPD DJURHNRORรฅNLP XYMHWLPD L WHKQRORJLMLSURL]YRGQMHWHVHVPDWUD MHGQRP RG QDMHNRQRPLฤ€QLMLK NXOWX UD ]D SURL]YRGQMX HWDQROD 7ULWLNDOH QH VDGUรงL YHรพX NROLฤ€LQX SHQWR]DQD WHVHIHUPHQWDFLMDRGYLMDEH]WHรฅNR รพD2GMHGQHWRQHWULWLNDOHDPRรงHVH GRELWLOHWDQROD

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

ลฝitarice โ€“ sirovine za proizvodnju bioetanola

Jeฤam -Hฤ€DP MH WDNRฤHU MHGQD RG รงLWD ULFD NRMD VH PRรงH NRULVWLWL ]D SURL ]YRGQMX ELRJRULYD 2VRELWR VX ]D QLPOMLYH VRUWH MHฤ€PD EH] SOMHYLFD JROR]UQLMHฤ€DP NRMLLPDMXYLรฅLVDGU รงDMรฅNUREDDPDQMLVDGUรงDMYODNDQD LSHSHODX]UQXXRGQRVXQDMHฤ€DP

15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

53


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

V SOMHYLFDPD 2VRELQH JROR]UQRJ MHĀPDVXVOLĀQHSåHQLĀQRPLNXNX UX]QRP ]UQX WH JD ĀLQH SRçHOMQRP VLURYLQRP ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRJRUL YDDOLL]DSUHKUDQXOMXGLLKUDQLGEX VWRNH6DGUçDMåNUREDXJROR]UQRP MHĀPXNUHþHVHRGGR

Slama žitarica

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Šećerna repa i šećerna trska 8 YULMHPH NDGD VX YLVRNH FLMH QH ]UQD çLWDULFD NDR YUOR ]DQLPOMLYD L SRçHOMQD VLURYLQD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQRODSRMDYOMXMHVHåHþHUQDWU VNDLåHþHUQDUHSDRGQRVQRåHþHU QLVLUXS8SURåORMJRGLQLMHSRUDVOD SURL]YRGQMDELRHWDQRODL]åHþHUQRJ VLUXSD ]ERJ YHþH NROLĀLQH åHþHUD

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gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

QD WUçLåWX D LVWRYUHPHQR MH GRåOR GR SRUHPHþDMD X FLMHQL çLWDULFD 8 JRGLQLRNRXNXSQHSURL ]YRGQMHçLWDULFDLXNXSQHSURL ]YRGQMHåHþHUQHUHSHLVNRULåWHQRMH ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD 5DGL VH RSURL]YRGQMLRGRNRPLOLMXQD OLWDUD ELRHWDQROD 3UHGQRVW NRULåWH QMD åHþHUQLK XVMHYD X RGQRVX ]D çLWDULFH SD L FHOXOR]QH NXOWXUH MH X WRPH åWR PRJX GLUHNWQR IHUPHQWL UDWL %XGXþQRVW NRULåWHQMD åHþHUQLK XVMHYD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHQHUJLMH RYLVL R NRPSHWLWLYQRVWL RYLK NXOWXUD VGUXJLPNXOWXUDPDNRMHVHNRULVWH ]D RYX QDPMHQX -HIWLQD åHþHUQD VLURYLQD]DGRELYDQMHELRJRULYDWUH EDODELLPDWLYLVNRNVDGUçDMåHþHUD YLVRNSULQRVPDVHX]JDMLYDĀLELWUH EDOL RVWYDULWL YLVRN GRKRGDN L LPDWL PDOH WURåNRYH SURL]YRGQMH 'RN MH åHþHUQD UHSD YUOR GREUR SR]QDWD QDåLP SURL]YRāDĀLPD R åHþHUQRM WUVNL VH PDOR ]QD 1H X]JDMD VH X (XURSLQHJRXWURSVNRPLVXSWURS VNRP SRGUXĀMX 7R MH YLåHJRGLåQMD WUDYD NRMD X VWDEOMLFL VDGUçL YLVRNX NROLĀLQX åHþHUD ,PD EU] SRUDVW L RVWYDUXMHYLVRNHSULQRVH2NR åHþHUDXVYLMHWXGRELYDVHRGåHþHU QHWUVNH(WDQROVHGRELYDL]PHOD VH NRMD VH GRELYD WLMHNRP SUHUDGH åHþHUQH WUVNH 2G åHþHUQRJ VRND åHþHUQH WUVNH PRçH VH GRELWL RNR  O HWDQRODKD (NRQRPLĀQRVW SURL]YRGQMH HWDQROD L] åHþHUQH WU VNHSRYHþDYDVHDNRVHLFHOXOR]QL RVWDFLLVNRULVWH]DRYXVYUKX

Krumpir, batat i čičoka

=DSURL]YRGQMXELRHWDQRODNRULVWL VHLNUXPSLU.UXPSLUPRçHRVWYDULWL SURL]YRGQMXRGGROELR HWDQRODSRKHNWDUX'DELVHL]EMH JOD NRQNXUHQFLMD V SURL]YRGQMRP KUDQH]DSURL]YRGQMXELRHWDQRODVH PRJX NRULVWLWL L VSRUHGQL SURL]YRGL NRMLRVWDMXQDNRQSUHUDGHNUXPSLUD DERJDWLVXåNURERP,VWUDçLYDQMLPD MH XWYUāHQR GD VH RG   WRQD RWSDGDNUXPSLUDPRçHSURL]YHVWL GRPLOLMXQDOLWDUDHWDQROD

2EHþDYDMXþD NXOWXUD ]D SURL ]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD MH EDWDW LOL VODW NL NUXPSLU ,SRPHD EDWDWDV  ĀLML MH NRULMHQ ERJDW åNURERP ,PD YLVRN SULQRV ELRPDVH GREUX RWSRUQRVW QDELRWVNHVWUHVRYHLGREUXDGDSWD ELOQRVW1RYLMDLVWUDçLYDQMDSRND]DOD VX GD EDWDW PRçH GDWL   ²  SXWD YLåH HWDQROD SR MHGLQLFL SRYUåLQH QHJRNXNXUX] 3RWHQFLMDO EDWDWD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD MH  OW D NXNXUX]D  OW 6 RE]LURP GD EDWDW RVWYD UXMHSULQRVHRG²WKDSD VYH GR  WKD QD SRJRGQLP WOLPD X] SULNODGQX WHKQRORJLMX SURL]YRG äHþHUQD WUVND VDGUçL GYD L]YRUD QMHSRWHQFLMDOMHRĀLW YODNDQD ]D SURL]YRGQMX HWDQROD 7R Čičoka VX RVWDFL ELOMQH PDVH QD SROMX NRML ÿLĀRND +HOLDQWKXV WXEHURVXV RVWDMXQDNRQVMHĀHåHþHUQHWUVNHD GUXJLL]YRUYODNDQDVXRVWDFLQDNRQ /  YLåHJRGLåQMD MH NXOWXUD NRMD VH X]JDMD UDGL JRPROMD X NRMLPD VH HNVWUDNFLMHåHþHUQRJVRND


Uljarice za proizvodnju biodizela %LORNRMHXOMHLOLPDVWELOMQRJLOLรงL YRWLQMVNRJSRULMHNODPRรงHELWLVLURYL QD]DSURL]YRGQMXELRGL]HOD0HฤX WLP SUREOHP SUHGVWDYOMD FLMHQD WLK VLURYLQD*ODYQDVLURYLQD]DGRELYD QMHELRGL]HODX6$'XMHVRMLQRXOMH D X (XURSL MH WR XOMH XOMDQH UHSLFH 8OMHXOMDQHUHSLFHฤ€LQLFMHORNX SQHNROLฤ€LQHXOMD]DSURL]YRGQMXEL RGL]HODXVYLMHWX 8OMDQD UHSLFD MH QDMUDรฅLUHQLMD NXOWXUD X (XURSL ]D SURL]YRGQMX

Uljana repica i druge krstaลกice

%LOMQHYUVWHL]SRURGLFHNUVWDรฅLFD %UDVVLFDFHDH YUORVXSRJRGQH]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 1DM]QDฤ€DMQL MDMHXOMDQDUHSLFDDOLGDELVHL]EMH JOD NROL]LMD V SURL]YRGQMRP KUDQH L GUXJH YUVWH VH PRJX X]JDMDWL ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 7R VX %UD VVLFD UDSD / JRUXรฅLFD % MXQFHD /  HWLRSVND JRUXรฅLFD % FDULQDWD /  RULMHQWDOQD JRUXรฅLFD % MXQFHD / รงXWDJRUXรฅLFD 6LQDSLVDOED/  ODQLN &DPHOLQD VDWLYD / &UDQW]  L GU 6YH RQH LPDMX SRWHQFLMDOD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 8OMH VH ODNR SUHUDฤXMHXELRGL]HODLNYDOLWDWLYQH DQDOL]HVXGDOHYUORSRYROMQHUH]XO WDWH0HฤXWLPGRNMHSULQRVXOMDQH UHSLFH]QDWQRSRYHรพDQNRGGUXJLK YUVWDL]RYHSRURGLFHWRQLMHVOXฤ€DM 1HGRVWDWDNMHLGRVWDYLVRNDFLMHQD VLURYLQD L QLรงL YROXPHWULMVNL VDGUรงDM HQHUJLMH 1HRSKRGQR MH GDOMQMLP LVWUDรงL YDQMLPD L RSOHPHQMLYDQMHP VWYRULWL VRUWHNRMHรพHVHPRรพLX]JDMDWLLQD ORรฅLMLP WOLPD V PDQMRP NROLฤ€LQRP NYDOLWHWQHYRGHWHQHรพHELWLNRQNX UHQFLMD SURL]YRGQML KUDQH ]D OMXGH L 6RMD MH MHGQD RG JODYQLK NXOWXUD VWRNX ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 8 %UD]LOX Lanik VHRGVRMHSURL]YHGHRGXNX /DQLN LOL SRGODQDN &DPHOLQD SQLK NROLฤ€LQD ELRGL]HOD X $UJHQWLQL X6$'XDX(XURSVNRM VDWLYD/&UDQW] MHGQRJRGLรฅQMDMH XOMDULFD L] SRURGLFH %UDVVLFDFHD 8QLML =D SURL]YRGQMX  O ELRGL]HOD SR NRMD VH YUOR ODNR PRรงH X]JDMDWL L WUHEQRMHRNROXOMD6RE]LURPGD MHVRMDYUORYDรงDQL]YRUEMHODQฤ€HYLQD LXOMDNRMLVHNRULVWHXSUHKUDQLOMXGL LXKUDQLGELVWRNHWUHEDORELNRULVWLWL GUXJH VLURYLQH ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELR GL]HOD .DRVLURYLQD]DSURL]YRGQMXELR GL]HODPRรงHVHNRULVWLWLLUHFLNOLUDQR ELOMQRXOMH1DWDMQDฤ€LQVHVPDQMXMH NROLฤ€LQDWDNYRJXOMDNRMDVHLVSXรฅWD X RNROLQX RGQRVQR WR MH QDฤ€LQ GD VHRWSDGQRXOMHSUHWYRULXHQHUJLMX ,VWRYUHPHQR QH GROD]L GR NRPSH WLFLMH V NRULรฅWHQMHP XOMD X SUHKUDQL OMXGL 3UREOHP NRPSHWLFLMH SURL ]YRGQMHVLURYLQD]DGRELYDQMHELRGL ]HODL]DSUHKUDQXOMXGLMHLPRUDOQR SLWDQMH

15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

XPMHVWR รฅNURED QDOD]L  ยฒ   LQXOLQDรฟLฤ€RNDMHSR]QDWDNDRKUD QD ]D GLMDEHWLฤ€DUH NDR ]DPMHQD ]D NUXPSLU  DOL LPD SRWHQFLMDOD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRHWDQROD L ELRSOLQD รฟLฤ€RNDVHPRรงHX]JDMDWLXUD]OLฤ€LWLP DJURHNRORรฅNLP XYMHWLPD 3RGQRVL X]JRMQDORรฅLMLPWOLPDYUORMHRWSRU QDQDQLVNHWHPSHUDWXUH GR&  D RVQRYQD SUHGQRVW MH รฅWR NDG VH MHGQRP]DVDGLPRรงHRVWDWLQDLVWRM SRYUรฅLQLยฒJRGLQD=DX]JRMฤ€Lฤ€R NHQLVXSRWUHEQHYHรพHNROLฤ€LQHJQR MLYD D NRQWUROD NRURYD MH SRWUHEQD VDPRXSUYRMJRGLQLX]JRMDรฟLฤ€RND RVWYDUXMH YLVRNH SULQRVH JRPROMD  ยฒ  WKD  D SULQRV PHWDQD VH NUHรพH RG  ยฒ  PW KODSOMLYLK WYDUL1DNRQSURL]YRGQMHELRHWDQROD RVWDMHPDVH]DNRMXMHXWYUฤHQRGD MHGREUDVLURYLQD]DGRELYDQMHELR SOLQD 1D WDM QDฤ€LQ JRPROML ฤ€Lฤ€RNH VHPRJXYLรฅHVWUXNRLVNRULVWLWL

ELRJRULYD KUDQH L VWRฤ€QH KUDQH 8OMDQD UHSLFD RVWYDUXMH YLVRNH SUL QRVHXOMDVYLVRNLPVDGUรงDMHPFH OXOR]H WH MH SR WLP VYRMVWYLPD WUH QXWQR SUYD RSFLMD ]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 7UHQXWQR VH MHGLQR XOMH XOMDQH UHSLFH PRรงH NRULVWLWL ]D WH NXรพH ELRJRULYR EH] SUHWKRGQRJ WUHWPDQD8(XURSVNRM8QLMLVHYLรฅH RGXOMDXOMDQHUHSLFHNRULVWL]D SURL]YRGQMX ELRGL]HOD 1DNRQ XOMD QH UHSLFH VOLMHGH XOMH VXQFRNUHWD VRMHLSDOPLQRXOMH3UHPD(XURSH DQ %LRGLVHO %RDUG X  JRGLQL X (XURSVNRM 8QLML MH SURL]YHGHQR  PLOLMXQD WRQD ELRGL]HOD 1DMYH รพLSURL]YRฤDฤ€ELRGL]HODX(XURSLMH 1MHPDฤ€ND PLOLMXQDWRQD 2NR  PLOLMXQD KHNWDUD REUDGLYLK SR YUรฅLQD X (XURSVNRM 8QLML GDQDV MH ]DVLMDQRNXOWXUDPDฤ€LMDMHQDPMHQD SURL]YRGQMDELRGL]HOD

55


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

X QDüLP XYMHWLPD ]D GRELYDQMH ELRGL]HOD 6MHPH SRGODQND VDGUçL YUORNYDOLWHWQRJXOMDVYLüH RGRPHJDPDVQLKNLVHOLQD WHDQWLRNVLGDQVHNRMLRYRXOMHĀLQH YUORVWDELOQLPLRWSRUQLPQDYLVRNH WHPSHUDWXUHLUDQNHWOMLYRVW8OMHVH PRçH NRULVWLWL QH VDPR NDR L]YRU RPHJD PDVQLK NLVHOLQD QHJR L NDR YUOR ]GUDYR XOMH ]D NXKDQMH 8OMHVHPRçHNRULVWLWLLXNHPLMVNRM LQGXVWULMLLNDR]DĀLQ6RE]LURPGD LPD PDOH ]DKWMHYH SUHPD DJURH NRORüNLP XYMHWLPD SRGODQDN VH PRçH X]JDMDWL QD PDUJLQDOQLP SRYUüLQDPD WH QH SUHGVWDYOMD NRQNXUHQFLMX NXOWXUDPD NRMH VH NRULVWH X SUHKUDQL OMXGL 8ODJDQMD X SURL]YRGQMX VX YUOR PDOD WH MH YUOR LVSODWLYD NXOWXUD ]D SURL]YRG QMXELRJRULYD

Jatropha 8QHNLP]HPOMDPDVH]DEUDQMX MH NRULĂĽWHQMH MHVWLYRJ XOMD ]D SURL ]YRGQMXELRGL]HOD8WLP]HPOMDPD QSU ,QGLMD  X]JRM NXOWXUD RG NRMLK VH GRELYD QHMHVWLYR XOMH MH QDÄ€LQ GDVHL]EMHJQHNRPSHWLFLMDL]PHÄ X SURL]YRGQMH ELRGL]HOD L SUHKUDQH UDVWXĂžHJ VWDQRYQLĂĽWYD -HGQD RG WDNYLKNXOWXUDMHMDWURSKD -DWURSKD FXUFDV/  -DWURSKD MH YLĂĽHJRGLĂĽQMD WURS VND NXOWXUD NRMD VSDGD X SRURGL FX (XSKRUELDFHDH 7R MH PHNDQR GUYR VD VXNXOHQWQLP OLVWRYLPD 3ULODJRÄ HQDMHX]JRMXXVHPLDULG QLP WURSVNLP XYMHWLPD 0RçH VH X]JDMDWLQDORĂĽLPLVXKLPWOLPDQD NRMLPDX]JRMGUXJLKNXOWXUDQHGR QRVLGREUHUH]XOWDWH8OMHVHQDOD ]LXVMHPHQX  WRNVLÄ€QR MHLQHPRçHVHNRULVWLWLXSUHKUDQL OMXGLLKUDQLGELVWRNH8OMHMDWURSKH VHPRçHYUORODNRSUHUDGLWLXELR

Konoplja za proizvodnju biogoriva Biomasa konoplje moĹže se koristiti za dobivanje bioetanola i biodizela jer ima povoljan kemijski sastav koji omogućava proizvodnju ovih vrsta biogoriva. Stabljika ima visok sadrĹžaj celuloze, i manje lignina, ĹĄto je Ä?ini pogodnom kulturom za ovu namjenu. Konoplja sadrĹži 55 % celuloze, 16 % hemiceluloze, 18 % pektina i 4 % lignina. Od biomase konoplje moĹže se ostvariti proizvodnja od 413 kg bioetanola a iz sjemena moĹže se dobiti biodizel na ekoloĹĄki prihvatljiv i efikasan OBÇ?JO1SJOPTVMKBLPOPQMKFQPIFLUBSVKFPLPM7SMPKFWJTPLBLPO verzija ulja u biodizel, ali zbog kinematiÄ?kog viskoziteta i niske toÄ?ke zamućenja, zahtijeva hladne uvjete prerade. Konoplja ostvaruje vrlo visoke prinose biomase koja se moĹže koristiti da dobivanje bioplina. 6UWSĂŞFOPKFEBTFNPäFPECJPNBTFLPOPQMKFQSPJ[WFTUJPLPN3 bioplina/ha. U podruÄ?ju sjeverne Europe konoplja ima isti ili Ä?ak i veći energetski potencijal nego neke druge kulture (npr. kukuruz i ĹĄećerna repa). Konoplja se moĹže dobro uklopiti u plodored, zahtijeva malo ili gotovo niĹĄta pesticida, a s obzirom da vrlo dobro guĹĄi korove, smanjuje se potreba za primjenom herbicida i kod sljedeće kulture. Proizvodnja pesticida zahtijeva utroĹĄak energije pa je svaka mogućnost smanjenja utroĹĄka energije dobrodoĹĄla. S obzirom na njene vrlo dobre energetske i agronomske karakteristike, konoplja bi trebala biti viĹĄe zastupljena na ratarskim povrĹĄinama. Osim toga, stvaranjem novih sorata konoplje većeg prinosa biomase, povećat će se konkurentnost prema kukuruzu, ĹĄećernoj repi, pa i viĹĄegodiĹĄnjim kulturama za proizvodnju biogoriva.

GL]HO NRML ]DGRYROMDYD DPHULÄ€NH L HXURSVNH VWDQGDUGH 3URFMHQMXMH VH GD MH QHWR YULMHGQRVW HQHUJLMH L]MDWURSKH*-KDJRGLQL7RMH HNYLYDOHQWQR  O ELRGL]HODKD JRGLQL 0HÄ XWLP SURL]YRGQMD MDWURSKH LPDLQHGRVWDWDND9UORMHYDULMDEL ODQSULQRVVMHPHQDDXOMHMDWURSKH

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gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

LPD YLVRN VDGUçDM VORERGQLK PD VQLKNLVHOLQDüWRSUHUDGXXELRGL]HO ĀLQL QHüWR VNXSOMRP %H] RE]LUD QDWRMDWURSKDMHMHGQDRGNXOWXUD NRMDLPDSRWHQFLMDODLMHGQRJGDQD PRçHSRVWDWL]QDĀDMDQL]YRUXOMD]D SURL]YRGQMXELRGL]HOD SURIGUVF$QD3RVSLüLO SURIGUVF0LODQ3RVSLüLO


7UDYQMDFLLPDMXYDçQXXORJXXJOREDOQRMSROMRSULYUHGLLSRNULYDMX RNRPLOLMDUGHKDRGQRVQRVYMHWVNLKSROMRSULYUHGQLKSR YUĂĽLQDLOLRGXNXSQHSRYUĂĽLQH=HPOMH7UHQXWQRVHXJODY QRPNRULVWHXVWRÄ€DUVWYXNDRJODYQLL]YRUKUDQH]DVWRNX 8SRVOMHGQMLK²JRGLQDX(X URSLL6MHYHUQRM$PHULFL]QDWQRVHSR YHĂžDOR]DQLPDQMH]DWUDYQMDNHXIXQN FLMLSURL]YRGQMHELRHQHUJLMH8WYUÄ HQL VXQMLKRYL]QDÄ€DMQLSRWHQFLMDOLXSURL ]YRGQMLELRPDVHLHQHUJLMH%LRPDVD WUDYQMDNDSRJRGQDMH]DPQRJHQD Ä€LQH SURL]YRGQMH HQHUJLMH 7UHQXWQR VHNRULVWLNDRVLURYLQD]DSURL]YRGQMX ELRSOLQDLNUXWLKELRJRULYD]DVDJRULMH YDQMH%XGXĂžLSXWHYLPRJXXNOMXÄ€LYDWL SURL]YRGQMX OLJQRFHOXOR]QRJ ELRH WDQROD VLQWHWVNLK ELRJRULYD LOL VLQWHW VNRJSULURGQRJSOLQD 6YDNL REOLN HQHUJHWVNRJ NRULĂĽWH QMD ]DKWLMHYD VSHFLILÄ€QH NDUDNWHULVWL NH ELRPDVH WUDYQMDND NRMH VX YUOR SURPMHQOMLYH L RYLVH XJODYQRP R JRVSRGDUHQMX WUDYQMDFLPD 6WRJD QDJODVDNOHçLXLVWUDçLYDQMXSULNODG QRVWLELRPDVHWUDYQMDND]DSRMHGLQH QDPMHQHLQDVWUDWHJLMDPD]DNRQWUR OX RVRELQD ELRPDVH 'UXJL SULRULWHW MH HNRORĂĽND L HNRQRPVND RGUçLYRVW SURL]YRGQMHELRHQHUJLMHVWUDYQMDND 2YDM GLR SUHJOHGD VH XVUHGR WRÄ€XMH QD SURL]YRGQMX ELRSOLQD RGQRVQR DQDHUREQX GLJHVWLMX RU JDQVNHWYDUL]DSURL]YRGQMXPHWD QDNRMLVHPRçHSUHWYRULWLXHOHN WULÄ€QXHQHUJLMXWRSOLQXLJRULYR

VWDYXSULQRVPHWDQDVWUDYQMDND PRçH ELWL RYLVDQ R VPMHVL ELOMQLK YUVWDRGQRVQRRERWDQLÄ€NRPVD VWDYXWUDYQMDND 3UYD XVSRUHGQD LVWUDçLYDQMD R SULQRVX ELRSOLQD RG PRQRNXOWXUD QHNROLNRYUVWDWUDYDSRWMHÄ€XL]äYL FDUVNH 3URQDÄ HQH VX PDOH UD]OLNH X SULQRVX ELRSOLQD L]PHÄ X PDÄ€MHJ UHSNDNOXSÄ€DVWHRĂĽWULFHLEOMHĂĽFD 3ULQRVL ELRSOLQD VX ELOL X UDVSRQX RGGROLWDUDSRNJRUJDQ VNH67 1MHPDÄ€ND LVWUDçLYDQMD XNOMX Ä€LYDOD VX VYMHçH L VLOLUDQH X]RUNH RVDP YUVWD WUDYD 3ULQRVL PHWDQD VYMHçLK X]RUDND ELOL VX X UDVSRQX RGGROLWDUDSRNJRUJDQ VNH67 8WYUÄ HQH VX YHĂžH YDULMDFLMH L] PHÄ X VYMHçLK L VLOLUDQLK X]RUDND QHJRL]PHÄ XYUVWDWUDYD6SHFLILÄ€ QL SULQRVL PHWDQD SR MHGLQLFL SR YUĂĽLQH UD]OLÄ€LWLK WUDYQLK YUVWD LPDOL VX PQRJR ĂĽLUL VSHNWDU YDULUDQMD RGGRPKD'DNOH VSHFLILÄ€QL SULQRV PHWDQD SR MHGL QLFL SRYUĂĽLQH UD]OLÄ€LWLK WUDYQLK YU VWDÄ€HĂĽĂžHRYLVLRSULQRVXELRPDVH QHJR R VSHFLILÄ€QRP SULQRVX PH WDQDVLURYLQH Utjecaj vrste trave na 5H]XOWDWL EURMQLK LVWUDçLYDQMD prinos metana GRVOMHGQR SRND]XMX GD MH XWMHFDM 2E]LURP GD VH ELOMQH YUVWH WUDYQH YUVWH QD VSHFLILÄ€QL SULQRV PRJXUD]OLNRYDWLXNHPLMVNRPVD PHWDQDVLURYLQHVSRUHGDQ

Vrijeme koĹĄnje 7SJKFNFLPĂ?OKFKFPEWFMJLFWBä nosti za specifiÄ?ni prinos metana sirovine. Dokazano je da se ovaj prinos smanjuju s odmicanjem zrelosti vegetacije. Uslijed starenja usjeva dolazi do povećanja sadrĹžaja sirovih vlakana. To osobito ograniÄ?ava maksimalni potencijal proizvodnje bioplina, jer se sirova vlakna uglavnom sastoje od hemiceluloze i lignina, komponenata teĹĄko razgradljivih u anaerobnim uvjetima. Osim toga, kasnom se koĹĄnjom dobiva manji postotak metana u proizvedenom bioplinu, zbog toga ĹĄto trave sadrĹže manje sirovih bjelanÄ?evina i sirovih masti kao komponenata koje povećavaju sadrĹžaj metana. IstraĹživanja na austrijskim alpskim travnjacima pokazuju da se specifiÄ?ni prinosi metana sirovine smanjuju s odmicanjem zrelosti vegetacije. Tako, prinosi padaju sa 221-362 litre po kg organske ST tijekom vlatanja i prije pojave cvata na 171 litru po kg organske ST tijekom cvatnje (pojave praĹĄnika) do konaÄ?no 153 litre po kg organske ST nakon cvatnje. 7FÇŽJOB JTUSBäJWBOKB EPTMKFEOP pokazuje smanjenje specifiÄ?nog prinosa metana sirovine PEHBĂŞBOKFN SPLB LPĂ?OKF V LB snije stadije razvoja vegetacije (od pojave cvata iz rukavca zadnjeg lista do cvatnje i dalje do formiranja sjemena).

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

Bioplin iz travnjaka

Intenzitet agrotehnike ,QWHQ]LWHW JRVSRGDUHQMD WUDY QMDNRP XJODYQRP MH NDUDNWHUL]L UDQ XÄ€HVWDORĂĽĂžX NRĂĽQMH L YUVWRP L UD]LQRP JQRMLGEH DOL L QDYRG QMDYDQMHP QDGRVLMDYDQMHP LWG 8 DXVWULMVNLP $OSDPD SULQRVL PHWD QD RG HNVWHQ]LYQR NRULĂĽWHQLK EUG VNRSODQLQVNLK WUDYQMDND L LQWHQ]LY QR NRULĂĽWHQLK GROLQVNLK WUDYQMDND SRND]XMX ]QDÄ€DMQH UD]OLNH 9LĂĽL VSHFLILÄ€QLSULQRVLPHWDQDVLURYLQH RG ELRPDVH GROLQVNLK WUDYQMDND

15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

57


MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

PRJX VH SULSLVDWL UDQLMLP URNRYL PD NRรฅQMH 8 NRPELQDFLML V YLรฅLP SULQRVLPD ELRPDVH LQWHQ]LYQR JRVSRGDUHQMH GROLQVNLP WUDYQMDFL PD GDMH  SXWD YLรฅH PHWDQD SR KHNWDUXQHJRHNVWHQ]LYQRNRULรฅWHQL SODQLQVNL WUDYQMDFL SUL LVWRP EURMX RWNRVD WLMHNRP JRGLQH 3ULQRV PH WDQD SR MHGLQLFL SRYUรฅLQH UDVWH V SRYHรพDQMHP EURMD RWNRVD 8]RUFL VD LQWHQ]LYQLK รฅYLFDUVNLK WUDYQMDND SUYLRWNRVXOLSQMX GDOLVXSULQRVH ELRSOLQD RG  OLWDUD SR NJ RUJDQVNH67GRNVXRQLVHNVWHQ ]LYQLK WUDYQMDND SUYL RWNRV X NROR YR]X  GDOL VDPR  OLWDUD SR NJRUJDQVNH673ULQRVLPHWDQDL] LVWUDรงLYDQMDXMXรงQRM1MHPDฤ€NRMGR VHJOLVXOLWDUDSRNJRUJDQVNH 67 QD LQWHQ]LYQLP WUDYQMDFLPD  RWNRVD JRGLรฅQMH   OLWDUD SR NJ RUJDQVNH67QDHNVWHQ]LYQLPWUDY QMDFLPD GYDRWNRVDJRGLรฅQMH L OLWDUD SR NJ RUJDQVNH 67QDWUDY QMDFLPDNRรฅHQLPMHGQRPJRGLรฅQMH 5H]LPLUDMXรพL GRVWXSQH UH]XOWDWH PRรงH VH UHรพL GD VH SULQRVL PHWD QDXSUDYLOXSRYHรพDYDMXNRGDJUR WHKQLNHYHรพLKLQWHQ]LWHWD6SHFLILฤ€QL SULQRVLPHWDQDVLURYLQHUDVWX]ERJ UDQLMLKURNRYDNRรฅQMHGRNVSHFLILฤ€QL SULQRVLPHWDQDSRMHGLQLFLSRYUรฅLQH XJODYQRP UDVWX ]ERJ SRYHรพDQMD SULQRVDELRPDVH

ลฝetva i poslijeลพetvena tehnologija 7HKQRORJLMD รงHWYH NRQ]HUYLUDQMD LVNODGLรฅWHQMDWUDYDNDRVLURYLQH]D DQDHUREQX GLJHVWLMXVOLฤ€QD MH RQRM ]D SURL]YRGQMX NUPH XJODYQRP X REOLNX VLODรงH GLMHORP NDR ]HOHQH PDVH 1DNRQ NRรฅQMH SRNRรฅHQD ELRPDVD VH PRรงH SRNXSLWL V SROMD L L]UDYQR XSRWULMHELWL ]D SXQMHQMH SRVWURMHQMD]DELRSOLQLOLVHPRรงHX SROMXSURYHQXWLQD67LSR KUDQLWL X UD]OLฤ€LWH YUVWH VLORVD 7LMH NRPรงHWYHLVNODGLรฅWHQMHXJODYQRP GYD SURFHVD LPDMX XWMHFDM QD SUL QRVPHWDQDXVLWQMDYDQMHLVLOLUDQMH

Usitnjavanje (sjeckanje) 8 ODQFX SULSUHPH WUDYQH PDVH NDRVLURYLQH]DDQDHUREQXGLJHVWL MX XVLWQMDYDQMH PRรงH ELWL SURYHGH

58

gospodarski list

15. travnja 2014.

QRWLMHNRPรงHWYHLQDNRQL]X]LPDQMD L] VLORVD 7LMHNRP รงHWYH XVLWQMDYD VHXUHฤDMLPDQDVWURMHYLPD]DรงHWYX 0LQLPDOQD WHRUHWVND GXOMLQD VMHF NDQMDPRรงHVHSRGHVLWLQDPP ]DVMHฤ€NDOLFHPP]DVLORNRPEDM QHLPP]DEDOLUNH2VLPฤ€LVWRJ PHKDQLฤ€NRJ XVLWQMDYDQMD SR]QDWL VX L GUXJL REOLFL IL]LNDOQLK NHPLM VNLKLOLELRORรฅNLKSUHGWUHWPDQDรฅWR MH GRYHOR QH VDPR GR VPDQMHQMD YHOLฤ€LQHฤ€HVWLFDQHJRLGRSRฤ€HWND UD]DUDQMD NHPLMVNH VWUXNWXUH RVR ELWR OLJQRFHOXOR]QRJ NRPSOHNVD 3UHGWUHWPDQWUDYQHPDVHQDNRQL]X ]LPDQMDL]VLORVDMHGYDGDVHGDQDV SULPMHQMXMHXSUDNVL

JUDGLYRVWL RUJDQVNH WYDUL LOL LQKLEL UDQMHP QHSRรงHOMQLK LOL SRWSRPDJD QMHPSRรงHOMQLKPLNURRUJDQL]DPD 3RNXVL X )LQVNRM V ฤ€HWLUL YUVWH VLODรงQLK DGLWLYD UH]XOWLUDOL VX YLรฅLP SULQRVLPDPHWDQDQDNRQรฅHVWPMH VHFLVNODGLรฅWHQMDNRGVYLKDGLWLYDX RGQRVX QD QHWUHWLUDQX WUDYQX VLOD รงX1DMYLรฅLSULQRVLPHWDQDSRVWLJQX WLVXGRGDYDQMHPPUDYOMHNLVHOLQHD SRWRPPMHรฅDYLQHEDNWHULMDPOLMHฤ€QH LSURSLRQVNDNLVHOLQHHQ]LPDLPMH รฅRYLWH NXOWXUH EDNWHULMD L] ELRSOLQ VNRJSRVWURMHQMD 'UXJLSRNXVLL])LQVNHSRND]XMX UD]OLฤ€LWH Xฤ€LQNH DGLWLYD QD SULQRVH PHWDQD RG VLODรงD WUDYQLK VPMHVD L HQJOHVNRJOMXOMDQR]DNOMXฤ€DNMHGD Siliranje MHXWMHFDMDGLWLYDELR]DQHPDULY 2E]LURP GD VH WUDYQD PDVD 8VSRUHฤXMXรพL GRGDWQH WURรฅNRYH DNXPXOLUD VH]RQVNL D ELRSOLQVND SULPMHQH DGLWLYD L GRGDWQH SULKRGH SRVWURMHQMD VH PRUDMX SXQLWL QH RG SULQRVD PHWDQD X QDMEROMHP VH SUHNLGQR RVWDMH QDP GD VLURYLQX VOXฤ€DMX PRรงH SRVWLรพL SURILWDELOQRVW NRQ]HUYLUDPRLWDNRMHVDฤ€XYDPR NRG SULPMHQH DGLWLYD X SULSUHPL ]DNDVQLMHNRULรฅWHQMH1DMSRรงHOMQLML WUDYQHVLODรงH REOLN NRQ]HUYLUDQMD MH VLOLUDQMH MHU 6DรงLPDMXรพLGRVDGDรฅQMD]QDQMDR VH HQHUJLMD VLURYLQH PRรงH VDฤ€X VLOLUDQMX WUDYH NDR VLURYLQH ]D DQD YDWL X] PLQLPDOQH JXELWNH 9LรฅH HUREQX GLJHVWLMX SULPMHUHQD NRQ SDUDPHWDUD NDR รฅWR VX YHOLฤ€LQD WUROD SURFHVD LJUD NOMXฤ€QX XORJX X ฤ€HVWLFDNRULรฅWHQMHDGLWLYDLWUDMDQMH Rฤ€XYDQMX VDGUรงDMD HQHUJLMH 3RG VLOLUDQMDXWMHฤ€XQDSURFHVVLOLUDQMDL NYDOLWHWQLPXYMHWLPDVLOLUDQMDSULQRV NYDOLWHWXVLODรงHLL]UDYQRLOLQHL]UDY PHWDQD VH PRรงH ฤ€XYDWL ]D PQRJH QR XWMHฤ€X QD SURFHV GRELYDQMD PMHVHFHGRNVHXORรฅLMLPXYMHWLPD ELRPHWDQD3UYRNODVQDNYDOLWHWD VNODGLรฅWHQMDVLODรงHYLรฅHRGSRORYLFH VLODรงH VH RSรพHQLWR VPDWUD NDR SULQRVDPHWDQDPRรงHL]JXELWL SUHGXYMHW ]D YLVRNH SULQRVH Tehnologija anaerobne PHWDQD รคYLFDUVNL SRNXVL SRND digestije ]XMX ]QDฤ€DMQR VPDQMHQMH SULQRVD ELRSOLQD ]ERJ DHUREQRJ NYDUH 8SUDNVLVHWUDYDRELฤ€QRGLJHVWL QMD WUDYQH VLODรงH 2GPDK QDNRQ UD ]DMHGQR V JQRMRYNRP L GUXJLP RWYDUDQMDEDODWUDYQHVLODรงHSULQRV VLURYLQDPD L] SROMRSULYUHGH NRUL ELRSOLQDMHELROLWDUDSRNJRU รฅWHQMHP XRELฤ€DMHQH WHKQRORJLMH JDQVNH67QDNRQSHWGDQDO DQDHUREQH GLJHVWLMH EH] SRVHE L QDNRQ  GDQD VDPR  OLWDUD QLKSULODJRGEL0HฤXWLPRSHUDWHUL SRNJRUJDQVNH673ULQRVELRSOL ELRSOLQVNLKSRVWURMHQMDVXXND]DOL QD WUDYQH VLODรงH NRรฅHQH QD NUDMX QDQHNROLNRSUREOHPDYH]DQLKX] OLSQMDX1MHPDฤ€NRML]QRVLRMH WUDYQX PDVX 7UDYQD PDVD SOXWD OLWDUD SR NJ RUJDQVNH 67 ]D GR QD SRYUรฅLQL WHNXรพLQH X GLJHVWRUX EURNRQ]HUYLUDQXVLODรงXLOLWDUD รฅWRGRYRGLGRSRYHรพDQMDWURรฅNRYD SRNJRUJDQVNH67]DSRNYDUHQX PLMHรฅDQMD 1DPDWDQMH GXรงH VMHF VLODรงX $GLWLYL NRG VLOLUDQMD PRJX NDQLKฤ€HVWLFDWUDYHRNRURWLUDMXรพLK XWMHFDWL QD SULQRV PHWDQD QHL]UDY XUHฤDMDPRรงHX]URNRYDWLNYDURYH QRSXWHPNYDOLWHWHVLODรงHLOLL]UDYQR XUDGXELRSOLQVNRJSRVWURMHQMDD SUXรงDQMHPGRGDWQHKUDQH]DEDNWH SRYHรพDYDVHLDEUD]LMD7UDYQDVL ULMHPOLMHฤ€QHNLVHOLQHXYLGXรฅHรพHUD URYLQDฤ€HVWRMHNRQWDPLQLUDQDฤ€H SRVWL]DQMHP EROMH HQ]LPDWVNH UD] VWLFDPD WOD รฅWR ]DKWLMHYDMX ฤ€HรฅรพH


Profitabilnost 3URILWDELOQRVW RSรพHQLWR RYLVL R RGQRVX WURรฅNRYD L SULKRGD 8 NRQ NUHWQRP VOXฤ€DMX SURL]YRGQMH ELR SOLQD L] WUDYH WURรฅNRYL SURL]OD]H L] GREDYOMDQMD VLURYLQH L SUHWYDUDQMD X HQHUJLMX GRN SULKRGL SURL]LOD]H L] SURGDMH ELRPDVH LOL HQHUJLMH L HYHQWXDOQRJ SULKRGD RG NRULรฅWHQMD ]HPOMLรฅWD(NRQRPVNDUDฤ€XQLFDGR VWXSQDMHSULMHVYHJDL]1MHPDฤ€NH JGMH ]DNRQRGDYVWYR SURPLฤ€H ELRH QHUJLMXRSรพHQLWRSRVHELFHELRSOLQ LJGMHMHWUDYQDPDVDฤ€HVWDVLURYLQD GLJHVWRUDQDIDUPDPD 7URรฅNRYL SULEDYOMDQMD VLURYLQH REXKYDรพDMX WURรฅNRYH DJURWHKQLNH QD WUDYQMDFLPD JQRMLGED QDGRVLMD YDQMHPHKDQLฤ€NDREUDGDQDYRGQMD YDQMH  WURรฅNRYH รงHWYH NRรฅQMD SUR YHQMDYDQMH VNXSOMDQMH WUDQVSRUW  WURรฅNRYHVNODGLรฅWHQMDLPDQLSXODFLMH VSUHPDQMHXVLORVHL]ELMDQMHVNOD GLรฅWHQMH L]X]LPDQMH L] VLORVD SX QMHQMH ELRSOLQVNRJ SRVWURMHQMD  WH RSรพH WURรฅNRYH SRUH]L RVLJXUDQMD LWG  7URรฅNRYL GRELYDQMD WUDYQH VL ODรงH XJODYQRP RYLVH R SULQRVLPD LQWHQ]LWHWX DJURWHKQLNH WUDQVSRU WQRMXGDOMHQRVWLLWHUHQVNLPXYMHWLPD ]D XSRUDEX VWURMHYD YHOLฤ€LQD SROMD PRJXรพQRVW WUDQVSRUWD QDJLE LWG  3UHPD WRPH WURรฅNRYL SURL]YRGQMH YDULUDMXXรฅLURNRPUDVSRQXLSURFMH QMXMXVHQDโ‚ฌSRWRQL67]DLQ WHQ]LYQXDJURWHKQLNXQDWUDYQMDNXV

JQRMLGERPQDGRVLMDYDQMHPLRW NRVDJRGLรฅQMHLOLQDโ‚ฌW67]D HNVWHQ]LYQHOLYDGHVMHGQLPNDVQLP RWNRVRPJRGLรฅQMH7URรฅNRYLNRQYHU ]LMH SUHWYDUDQMD X SOLQ  REXKYDรพDMX ILNVQH L YDULMDELOQH WURรฅNRYH ]D ELR SOLQVNR SRVWURMHQMH WURรฅNRYH UDGD WH RSรพH WURรฅNRYH 2QL XJODYQRP RYLVH R YHOLฤ€LQL L WHKQLฤ€NRP GL]DM QX SRVWURMHQMD 7URรฅNRYL GRELYDQMD HOHNWULฤ€QHHQHUJLMHL]WUDYQHVLURYLQH L]QRVH RG  FHQWL N:K HQHUJLMH GRN VH WURรฅNRYL VPDQMXMX SRYHรพDQMHPYHOLฤ€LQHELRSRVWURMHQMD 'RKRGDN RG SURGDMH NRQDฤ€QRJ SURL]YRGDHOHNWULฤ€QHHQHUJLMHWRSOLQH LOLSOLQDLRGSRWLFDMDYH]DQLK]DWUDY QMDNH RGQRVQR VXEYHQFLMH ]D NRUL รฅWHQMH]HPOMLรฅWDLSODรพDQMD]DNRQ]HU YDFLMXWODRYLVHRVLURYLQDPDYHOLฤ€LQL SRVWURMHQMD L WHKQRORJLML XOD]QH FLMH QHSULNRULรฅWHQMXWUDYHNDRVLURYLQHL UDฤ€XQDVHQDFHQWLN:K  HQHUJLMH1DEDYQDFLMHQD]DWRSOLQX VH SURFMHQMXMH QD  FHQWD N:K 1HNROLNR SODรพDQMD ]D NRULรฅWHQMH ]H POMLรฅWDXNOMXฤ€XMXรพLL(8MHGQRNUDWQD SODรพDQMD L SRWSRUH ]D UXUDOQL UD]YRM NDR L SRVHEQH ILQDQFLMVNH SRWSRUH ]D NRQ]HUYDFLMVNH PMHUH PRรงHPR ]EURMLWLQDHXUDKD

Konkurentnost

%LRPDVD V WUDYQMDND NRQNXULUD GUXJLP VLURYLQDPD ]D SURFHV DQDH UREQHGLJHVWLMH0HฤXQDฤ€LQLPDNRUL รฅWHQMDWUDYQHELRPDVHELRSOLQVHQD WMHฤ€HVGUXJLPREOLFLPDXSRUDEHNDR รฅWR VX WUDGLFLRQDOQL L SUHYODGDYDMXรพL QDฤ€LQ NRULรฅWHQMD  ]D VWRฤ€QX KUDQX GUXJLP HQHUJHWVNLP L PDWHULMDOQLP NRULรฅWHQMLPD 2E]LURP QD NRULรฅWHQMH WUDYQH PDVH NDR ELR HQHUJHWVNH VLURYLQH SURILWDELOQRVW WUDYH MH SRGUHฤHQD NXNXUX]X 7YUGL VH GD ELRHQHUJL MD LVWLVNXMH L]YRUQL WLS NRULรฅWHQMD WUDYQMDND ]DVWRฤ€DUVWYRNDRLGD QD WDM QDฤ€LQ GRSULQR VL QHGRVWDWNX KUDQH ]D UDVWXรพX VYMHWVNX SRSXODFLMX V UDVWXรพLP ]DKWMHYLPD ]D EROMX SUHKUDQX8UD]YLMHQLP Postrojenje za proizvodnju bioplina u Njemaฤkoj

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15. travnja 2014.

gospodarski list

MALI GOSPODARSKI SAVJETNIK

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59


MF 3600 VSF

MF 3600 A

MF 5600

MF 6600

MF 7600

MF 8600

MASSEY FERGUSON NAJVEĆI SVJETSKI PROIZVOĐAČ TRAKTORA d

Serija traktora od 20–400 KS

d

Serija kombajna od 176–500 KS

d

250.000 proizvedenih traktora godišnje

d

Prvi samohodni kombajn na tržištu

Ovlašteni trgovci Massey Fergusona:

www.austrodiesel.hr

TEL099/22 98 415 MASSEY FERGUSON je svjetski priznati brand koncerna AGCO.

NOVO AUSTRO DIESEL KAO GENERALNI UVOZNIK d

MASSEY FERGUSON i AUSTRO DIESEL uspješna suradnja koja traje već 32 godine

d

Odgovoran za 10 zemalja Središnje Europe (Austrija, Češka, Slovačka, Mađarska, Slovenija, Hrvatska, Srbija, Bosna i Hercegovina, Makedonija, Crna Gora)

d

50.000 servisiranih MF traktora 2.000 servisiranih MF kombajna

d

Najveća stručnost za rezervne dijelove

Gospodarski list 7/2014  

Korištenje fosilnih goriva ima negativne posljedice na okoliš. Emisije stakleničkih plinova koje nastaju kao posljedica korištenja fosilnih...

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