Page 1

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء‪ :‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻳﻜﻴﺒﻴﺪﻳﺎ )ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪(2013‬‬

‫ﻭُﻟّﺪ ‪ PDF‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪ mwlib‬ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ /http://code.pediapress.com‬ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪PDF generated at: Sat, 26 Jan 2013 15:04:28 UTC‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺃ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ‪2011-2012‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﺗﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫ﺇﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪38‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﺇﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‬

‫‪49‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪62‬‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‬

‫‪63‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬

‫‪66‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ‬

‫‪71‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬

‫‪73‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫‪76‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪78‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪79‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ )ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‬

‫‪79‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫‪82‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ‬

‫‪83‬‬

‫ﺏ‬

‫‪83‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫‪85‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪89‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ )ﺩﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‬


‫‪91‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪91‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪94‬‬

‫ﺕ‬

‫‪94‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ )ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ(‬

‫‪96‬‬

‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫‪97‬‬

‫ﺙ‬

‫‪97‬‬

‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫‪98‬‬

‫ﺝ‬

‫‪98‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺣﺮﺏ‬

‫‪99‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪101‬‬

‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫‪102‬‬

‫ﺡ‬

‫‪102‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪104‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪107‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫‪111‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪111‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪112‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫‪114‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬

‫‪115‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺎﺩ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬

‫‪116‬‬

‫ﺩ‬

‫‪116‬‬

‫ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪117‬‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬

‫‪119‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪121‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪123‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪133‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪138‬‬

‫ﺫ‬

‫‪138‬‬

‫ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‬

‫‪140‬‬

‫ﺱ‬

‫‪140‬‬

‫ﺳﻔﺴﻄﺔ‬

‫‪142‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬


‫‪144‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬

‫‪145‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪145‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪184‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪185‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫‪187‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬

‫‪189‬‬

‫ﺵ‬

‫‪189‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪190‬‬

‫ﺷﻌﺒﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪191‬‬

‫ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪193‬‬

‫ﺷﻮﻓﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪195‬‬

‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪200‬‬

‫ﺽ‬

‫‪200‬‬

‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪201‬‬

‫ﻉ‬

‫‪201‬‬

‫ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪202‬‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‬

‫‪206‬‬

‫ﻋﺼﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬

‫‪216‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪217‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪224‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬

‫‪225‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪228‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﻒ‬

‫‪230‬‬

‫ﻑ‬

‫‪230‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬

‫‪233‬‬

‫ﻓﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪236‬‬

‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬

‫‪238‬‬

‫ﻕ‬

‫‪238‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪240‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪243‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪245‬‬

‫ﻙ‬

‫‪245‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﻔﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬


‫‪247‬‬

‫ﻝ‬

‫‪247‬‬

‫ﻻﺟﺊ‬

‫‪248‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪252‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪256‬‬

‫ﻡ‬

‫‪256‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫‪257‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪263‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬

‫‪265‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‬

‫‪266‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪267‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬

‫‪268‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬

‫‪269‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ‬

‫‪270‬‬

‫ﻥ‬

‫‪270‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪270‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬

‫‪275‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪276‬‬

‫ﻧﻔﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪277‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫‪278‬‬

‫ﻱ‬

‫‪278‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫‪283‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻮﻥ‬

‫‪287‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﺧﺺ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫‪295‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ‬


‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ‪2011-2012‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ‪2011-2013‬‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 29‬ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪- 2011‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ ‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺤﺴﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻔﻮ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﻭﻃﻨﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫* ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﻣﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ •‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ •‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ‬

‫* ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺋﺐ ﺃﺣﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺋﺮ‬

‫‪ 8000+‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪ 15000+‬ﺟﺮﻳﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻌﻠﻴًﺎ ﺣﻴّﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ ﻗُﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﻠّﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻗُﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒَﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺷﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻃﻔﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 2 / 26‬ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ـ ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ‪ 2011 /‬ﻡ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺧﻀﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺴﺒﻮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍءﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﻄﻴﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎء ‪ 15‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‪/‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2011‬ﻭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺿﻤﺖ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 3 / 18‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ـ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ 2011 /‬ﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﺎﻡ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻭﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺑﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻫﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﺎﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺷﻄﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﻙ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﻣﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺪﻟﻌﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2010‬ﻭﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2011‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 25‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1971‬ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1963‬ﻗﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍء ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎﺭ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺲ«‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ )ﻋُﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ( ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﻮّﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫»ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ«‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺘﺸﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﺯﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ [4][3].‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ »ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻣﺔ« ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻥ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺣﻤﺺ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻘﻂ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻮَّﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 100‬ﻣﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 25‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺮَّﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﺘﻌﻢَّ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ »ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ« ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺭﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺤﻤﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﺓ ﻭﺩﺍﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻞ ﻭﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮَّﺕ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﺩ ﺷﻴﺌﺎً ﻓﺸﻴﺌﺎً ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻋﺎً ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 31‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺧﻄﺎﺑﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻨﻲٍّ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪء ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮَّﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 7‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻧﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺷُﻜﻠﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ ﻋﻮﺿﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ‪ 21‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 48‬ﻋﺎﻣﺎً ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 25‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴَّﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﺟﺮﺍء ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢَّ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺴﺒﺒﺎً ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻜﻠﺦ ﺃﺩﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻫﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻠﻜﻠﺦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 28‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﺔ ﺃﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﺼﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺘﺤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 70‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮَ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﺕ ﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ»ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ« )ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍءً ﻣﻦ ‪ 4‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ‪ 31‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ )ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ( ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻥ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﺤﺎء ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺩﻣﻮﻳَّﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺭﺍﺡَ ﺿﺤﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 150‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺘﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮَّ ﻷﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 50‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎً‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺷﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎء ﺑﺈﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ »ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ«‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺷﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻠﻦَ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱٍّ ﻳُﻮﺣﺪ ﻫﺆﻻء ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ »ﻟﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﺍﺭ« ﺗﺤﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﺵ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼﻩ ﺑﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳَﺘﺤﺪ ﻟﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺨﺾ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﻻﻉ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﺑﺪء ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻔﺮﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴًﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻢ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ [5].1963‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ‪ ،1963-1970‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋُﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1970‬ﺃﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻣًﺎ ﻗﻮﻳًﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪًﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴّﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴًﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴًﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺿﻤﻨﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺯﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺭﺳﻤﻴّﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 100%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ‪ [6]،‬ﻭﻛﻔﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ 1973‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﻩ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼّﺖ ﻣﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻫﻮ »ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ« ﻣﺎ ﺣﻮّﻝ ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ؛ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ؛ ﻭﻗﻄﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 1979‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ »ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ« ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻘًﺎ ﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻣﺘﺪّ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 1982‬ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪.1982 - 1979‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪ 2000‬ﻏﺪﺍ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺭﺋﻴﺴًﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜّﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﺢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ؛ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺗﺠﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ؛ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺮﺑﻬﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 2001‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﺍء ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 2004‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺸﻠﻲ ﺗﺮﺣﻜﺎﺕ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺃﻛﺮﺍﺩ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ؛ ﻭﺗﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻗﻤﻊ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻛﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪ [8].‬ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻭﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥّ ﺃﺣﺪًﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ [9].‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ »ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ«؛]‪ [10‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻴﻢ ﺧﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﺯﻱ ﻛﻨﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢّ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻓﻲ »ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﺭﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫]‪[11‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﻔﺖ ﻫﻴﻮﻣﻦ ﺭﺍﻳﺘﺲ ﻭﻭﺗﺶ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ‪ 154‬ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴًﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻧﻤﻮًﺍ ﻭﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺴﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻓﺎﺕ ﺟﻤّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺿﻤﻦ »ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ« ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﻓﺈﻥ ‪ 41.5%‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺩﺧﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ [13].‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﻭﺣﻠﺐ؛ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻋﺰﻭﻓًﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ‪ 32%‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺷﺒﺎﺏ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫]‪[14‬‬ ‫‪ 250‬ﺃﻟﻔًﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 300‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺳﻨﻮﻳًﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺗﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥّ ‪ 75%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 25‬ﻋﺎﻣًﺎ‪ [15]،‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 8.4% 2005‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ‪ [15].12%‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪ 35%‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻳﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻬﻢ‪ [16]،‬ﻣﻊ »ﻓﺸﻞ« ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺸﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ‬

‫‪3‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ »ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻨﻌﺔ« ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬ ‫]‪[17‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺜﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 4600‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭًﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻭ»ﺑﺈﺣﺼﺎﺋﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﺋﻠﺔ« ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1200‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭًﺍ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‪ [18].‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ »ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ« ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻱ ‪ 2010‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪ 10‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﻮﻣﻴًﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ‪ 127‬ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ [19].‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻄﺮﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ‪ 6-7%‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﻻﺣﻘًﺎ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ 3.5%‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺳﻔﺮ‪ [20].‬ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺣﺼﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ 30%‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 6%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻭ‪ 6%‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫]‪[21‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ »ﻳﻮﻡ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ« ﻓﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‪ [22]،‬ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻠﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻟﺤﺪﻭﺙ ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳَﺴﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺳﺨﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ [23].‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﻮﻥ ﺑﻤُﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻀﺄﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ‪25‬‬ ‫]‪[24‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠّﻂ "ﺷﺒﻴﺤﺔ" ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫]‪[25‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 5‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 17‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺠﻤﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻫﺎﻧﺔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﺩﺩ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫»ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺬﻝ« ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻀﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺸﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 22‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺍﻋﺘﺼﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨًﺎ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ »ﺧﺎﻳﻦ ﺇﻟﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﻘﺘﻞ ﺷﻌﺒﻪ«‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺗﻴﺰﻳﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪2012 - 2011‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺗﻤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ »ﻳﻮﻡ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ« ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺴﺒﻮﻙ‪ [27][26]،‬ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻘﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺛﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫]‪[28‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ 2011‬ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺿﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ‪ [30][29]،‬ﻓﻀﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ [31].‬ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺔ‪ [34][33][33][32].‬ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ‪18‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ [35].‬ﻭﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﺴﺮﺣًﺎ ﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ‪ 100-150‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗُﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺷﺒﻴﻬﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺷﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‪ [38][37][36].‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 25‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ »ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ« ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤًﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭًﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻤﺪﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎء ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻛﻔﺮﺳﻮﺳﺔ؛ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫]‪[40][39‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 31‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺧﻄﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﺘﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻋﻄﺮﻱ‪ [42][41].‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺠﻨﻴﺲ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺍﻷﻛﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﺴﺔ‪ [43]،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ [44]،1963‬ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺳﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪ [45].‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ‪ 22‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺳﻘﻂ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ؛]‪ [47][46‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻣًﺎ ﺿﺨﻤًﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﻤﺠﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 18‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪ 25‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ‬ ‫]‪[50‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ؛]‪ [49][48‬ﺃﻟﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ﺑﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 9‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻤﺜﻠﺖ ﺑﺤﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻤﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ‪ [52][51]،‬ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺼﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻮﺻﺮﺕ ﺗﻠﻜﻠﺦ‪ [53]،‬ﺛﻢ ﺣﻮﺻﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ‬ ‫]‪[55][54‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻳُﺤﻄﻤﻮﻥ ﺗﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﻓﻲ ‪ 25‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻣًﺎ ﺿﺨﻤًﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‪ [58][57][56]،‬ﺭﺩّﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﻤﺠﺰﺓ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭﺩّ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ‪ [59].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪ ‪ 4‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﻓﺤﺎﺻﺮ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺏ ﻭﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ؛]‪ [60‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺤﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‪ [61]،‬ﻭﻋﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 120‬ﺟﺜﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﺮﺓ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺳﻘﻄﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻣﺠﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻤّﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ‪ [62].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴًﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫]‪[63‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ »ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻠﺐ«‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺛﺮ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫]‪[67][66][65][64‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺷﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ »ﺑﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﻔﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﻴﻦ« ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ »ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ«؛]‪ [68‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﺮًﺍ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﻻً ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ [69]،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 2‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻤﺜﻼً ﺷﺮﻋﻴًﺎ‬ ‫]‪[70‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻮﻥ ‪ 14‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻘﻄﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻲ ﺑﺮﺯﺓ ﻭﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺑﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﻴﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ [72][71]،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ 16‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﻄﻨﺎ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪20‬‬ ‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﺔ‪ [73].‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 31‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺣﻤﺺ‬ ‫]‪[74‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﻳﻘﺔ ‪ 65‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺗُﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ »ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ« ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﻼﻝ »ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ« ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪ 29‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺮﺏَ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪.‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ [75]،‬ﻭﺧﻠﻔﺖ ‪ 30‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً‪ [76].‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥّ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﺴﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ؛]‪ [78][77‬ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺎﺯﺕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻮﻳّﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺒﻘﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻮﻡ ‪ 31‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺧﻠّﻒ ‪ 150‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ‪ 100‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ [79]،‬ﻭﻣﺠﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪7‬‬ ‫]‪[80‬‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺧﻠﻔﺖ ‪ 300‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 9‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺳﻔﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨ ّ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ [81]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﺃﻣﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﻤُﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﻣﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻛﻔﺮﺳﻮﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴَّﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﺕَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺤِّﻲ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ [83][82].‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪22‬‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﺟﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺣﻤﺺ‪ [87][86][85][84].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ 12‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ؛ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺭﻓﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‪ [88].‬ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪًﺍ ﻛﺒﻴﺮًﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗًﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫]‪[90][89‬‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺮﺳﻮﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻭﺭﻳﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻝ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪء‬ ‫]‪[92‬‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ [91]،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺾ ﺃﺟﻬﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﺸﻌﻞ ﺗﻤﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 7‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺸﻠﻲ‪ [93]،‬ﻭﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻴﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ‪ 50.000‬ﺷﺨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺑًﺎ ﻋﺎﻣًﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ [94].‬ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺤﻤﺖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‪ [95].‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﺘﻴﻞ‬ ‫]‪[96‬‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻲ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 16‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎً ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺢ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻣﺎً ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﺒﺪء ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻳَﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻗﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ [97].‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡٍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨﺎً ﻣﻊ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻻﻗﻰ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎً ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺍً ﻭﻓﻖ‬ ‫]‪[99][98‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺘﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺩﺧﻞَ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻃﻼﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﺵ ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳَّﺲ ﺃﻭَّﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﻘﻴﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﻩ »ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﺍﺭ«‪ [100]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﻭُﻟﺪَ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢٌ ﺛﺎﻥٍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻖ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺪ‪ [102][101].‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳَﺨﺾ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴَّﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 27‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﻟﻌﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲّ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺑﺎﻧﺴﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺆﻗﺘًﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫]‪[103‬‬ ‫ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 29‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻗﺼﻔﺎً ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻤﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺩﺍﺭﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺻﺤﻔﻲٍّ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩُﻣﺮ ﺣﺎﺟﺰﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮﺍً ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺘﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 17‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻭﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ‪ [105][104].‬ﻭﺇﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻗﺼﻒ ﻋﻨﻴﻒٌ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺫﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻒ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﺎً ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻂَ ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻲ ﻭﻧﻘﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍء‪ [109][108][107][106].‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻴﻮﻣﻦ ﺭﺍﻳﺘﺲ ﻭﻭﺗﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ‪ [110].‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﺗﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ‪ 8‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ]‪ [109‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻌﻘﻼً ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﻘﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ [111].‬ﻭﺇﺛﺮَ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 11‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫]‪[112‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﺎً ﻟﻺﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ »ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨﺎً ﻣﻊ ﺣﻤﺺ«‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 16‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭَّﻝ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪء ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚُ ﻫﺎﺟﻢ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺳﺘﺎ؛]‪ [114][113‬ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨًﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 2‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺺّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‪ [115][106].‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠّﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ‪ 16‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫]‪[120‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ [119][118][117][116].‬ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 19‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﻴﻦ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ‪ 771‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﺳﻘﻄﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ [121].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ‪ 19‬ﻭ‪20‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺴﻤﺒﺮ )ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ( ﺷﻬﺪﺍ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻨﺼﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﻋﻮﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺈﺩﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺎﺻﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ 72‬ﻣﻨﺸﻘﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻗﺮﺏَ ﺑﻠﺪﺓ ﻛﻨﺼﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﺘﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎً‪ [122]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﺮﺕ ‪ 160‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﻔﺮﻋﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫]‪[123‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺩﺗﻬﻢ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎً ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠّﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 23‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ [124]،‬ﻃﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﺍً ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﺘُﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻻﺣﻘﺎً ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺎﺋﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻹﻧﻬﺎء ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺣَّﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫]‪[125‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮَ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺭﻓﻀﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻟﻌﺖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 13‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪَ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻴﻄﺮَ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﺤ َ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻒ ﻋﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢَّ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﺯﻋﻴﻦ‪ [126].‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 28‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﺎً‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻓﻲ ﻏﻮﻃﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﻭﻳﺘﺮﺯ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻛﻔﺮﺑﻄﻨﺎ ﻭﺳﻘﺒﺎ ﻭﺣﺮﺳﺘﺎ ﻭﺣﻤﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﺗﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺖَ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ [128][127].‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺻﺒﺎﺡ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﻗﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ‪ [130][129]،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‬ ‫]‪[131‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 30‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ‪ 1‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺣﻮﺻﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﺠﺪﺩًﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺴﺤﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‪ [135][134][133][132]،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﺑﺴﻘﻮﻁ ‪ 337‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً‬ ‫ﻭ‪ 1.600‬ﺟﺮﻳﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ [137][136].‬ﻭﺗﻮﺳَّﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﻻﺣﻘﺎً ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﺣﻴﺎء ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺿﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻳَﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ [138].‬ﻭﺑﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﻴﺲ ‪ 9‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﺎﺩَ ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ 3‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻨﺪَ ﺑﺪء ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫][‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ 755‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻃﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫]‪[139‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺾ "ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻮ" ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥّ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﻗﺘﻞ ‪ 5‬ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺓ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 18‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 15-20‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻣﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻴﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﻮﺝ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ‪ [140].‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻓﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 26‬ﻳﻮﻣًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﺎً ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺼﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺧﻠﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺭﺍﺡ ﺿﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ 47‬ﺇﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻃﻔﻼً‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺘﻨﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﻒ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺣﻠﺐ ﻭﺭﻳﻒ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﻳﻒ‬ ‫]‪[142][141‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪ 2012‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﺍﺯ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ "ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺑﺤﻤﺺ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺼﻔﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﺍﻷﻣﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻛﻮﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻀﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ؛ ﻭﺗﻼﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻳﺎﻡ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻀﻮﺍ ﺫﺑﺤًﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺰﺯﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻳﻤﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﯨﺨﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪ ،2012‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﻟﻘﺎء ﺟﻴﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫"ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻦ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﺎﻕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻑ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻟﻌﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻏﻮﻃﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺯﻟﺰﺍﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻻﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 22‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﻟﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻠﺐ؛ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺗﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ؛ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺿﺮﺍﻭﺓ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺰﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻣﺎﺭ ﻫﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺴﻂ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ؛ ﺧﻼﻓًﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺑﺴﻂ ﻧﻔﻮﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺪﻧﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻋﺰﺍﺯ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺒﺮ ﺗﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ؛ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻰ "ﻣﺤﺮﺭﺓ" ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ؛ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻗﺮﺏ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ »ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ« ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﻦ‪ [143].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺪﺩﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ »ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻼ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ« ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺪﻓﺖ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺻﺤﻔﻴﻴﻦ‪ [144].‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﻭﺛﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 29‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪ [145].‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﻣﺼﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ( ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺗﺄﺷﻴﺮﺓ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺳُﻠﻤﺖ ﻻﺣﻘﺎً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ [146].‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﻓﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﻓﺎﺯ »ﺍﻓﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﺎء ﺍﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ« ﻣﺸﻴﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ »ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫]‪[147‬‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺪﺓ«‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‪ [148].‬ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺎء ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﻮﺍﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺛﻢ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻛﺴﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﻢ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻣﻈﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻟﺠﺎﻧﺎً ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻏﺎﺛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻜﺴﺒﺮﺱ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﺪﻳﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫]‪[149‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺠﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺗُﺪﻋﻰ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ »ﻣﺜﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ«‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 6‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍء ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻄﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ [150].‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺘﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻜﺘﻠﻨﺪﺍ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ‬ ‫»ﺗﻮﻡ ﻣﺎﻛﻤﺎﺳﺘﺮ«‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍء« ﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ »ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ« ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ [151].‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﺗﻀﺢ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﺘﺎﻩ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[150‬‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ »ﺟﻴﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﻴﺸﺘﺶ«‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪًﺍ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﺪﻟﻌﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺜﺖ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2011‬ﻧﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺤﻲ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺮﻱ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ‪ -‬ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ‬ ‫]‪ [152‬ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﺐ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ]‪ ....[153‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺭﺯﻕ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﺁﺑﺎﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ]‪ ..[154‬ﻭﺷﻴﺦ ﻗﺮّﺍء ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴّﺔ‪ ..‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺩ]‪ [155‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ ..‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺜﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺒﺄ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻧﺒﺄ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﺮﻉ‬ ‫]‪[156‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧًﺎ ﻛﺬّﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺪﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ‪ 24‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﻟﻤﻴﺎء ﺷﻜﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻲ »ﻣﻌﻬﺎ«‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻤﻨﺤﻪ »ﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺷﻬﺪﺍء ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ«‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻨﺸﺮ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‪ [157].‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤُﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ ‪ 24‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲَ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬

‫‪8‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺯﻭﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴَّﻔﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺇﺛﺮَ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺘُﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴَّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﺮَّﺣﺖ‬ ‫]‪[158‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻧﻪ »ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ« ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺯﺟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻳﻌﺔ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﻭﻻ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺭﻓﻀﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺨﺮﺝ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫]‪[159‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻮﺭﺳﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒَﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻲ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺪﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﻩ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﺨﻴﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ [160].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺚّ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻤﻮﻩ »ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ«‪.[161].‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍً ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺎً ﺑﺎﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺝ ﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺶ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻭﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺐ ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺻﺤﻔﻲ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻗﻪ ﺃﻥ "ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﺳﺮﻯ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻘﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ...‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺗﻴﺢ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﻻﻧﺸﻘﻮﺍ‬ ‫]‪[162‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎً"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ‪ [163].‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1920‬ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺪﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ »ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ« ﻣﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔًﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻟﻌﻞّ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﺎ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ؛]‪ [164‬ﻭﺗﻤﺖ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻛﻔﺎﺡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1936‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻇﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺤًﺎ ﻭﻋﻮﺿًﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﺨﺮﻃﺖ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻤﻜﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1963‬ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫]‪[165‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ »ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ« ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳّﺔ ﺩﻭﺭًﺍ ﺑﺎﺭﺯًﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻌﻞّ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﺎ ﺻﻼﺡ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1970‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩًﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳّﺔ ﻟﻄﺮﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻜّﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗﻴّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﺮﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺼﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ »ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ« ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻱ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻳّﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺷﻌﺒﻴّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﻗﻌّﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻮﻳّﺔ ﻣﺜﻘﻔﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻟﻼﻧﺨﺮﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺷﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺴﺮﺧﻮ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺷﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻮﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ »ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ«‪ [163].‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺩﻳﻮﺏ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳًﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻣﻴّﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻭﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎء‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳّﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻞ ﻭﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻓﻌﻼً ﺗﺨﻮﻓًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺳﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮ‪ [166]،‬ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻯ »ﻣﺘﻄﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﻨﻴّﺔ« ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ؛ ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺤﻮ »ﺑﻨﺎء ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ«‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻳﻮﺏ ﺻﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻻﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺁﻏﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺛﻮﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ‪ 164‬ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴًﺎ ﻗﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ﻭﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ ‪ 2011‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ »ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﻣﺠﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳّﺔ« ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻻﺗﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ »ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ«‪ [167].‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺷﺎﻋﺖ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴًﺎ »ﺳﻨّﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ«‪ [168]،‬ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ »ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ« ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺯﻋﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﺨﺮﺍﻃﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺘﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﻴّﺔ ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‪ [169]،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻨﺘﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ »ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ« ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺘﻪ‪ [169].‬ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﺗﺎﻳﻤﺰ ﺃﻥّ ﺟﺰءًﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺨﻮﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣّﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ‪ [171][170].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﺗﻘﺎﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ "ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺭﺛﻮﺫﻛﺴﻴﺔ" ﺗﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‬ ‫]ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ[‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻬﺠﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻴﻦ‪ [173][172]،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺗﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴّﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺒﺬﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﻣﺘﺨﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺖ ﻹﻋﻄﺎء »ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻺﺻﻼﺡ«‪ [175][174]،‬ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴّﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺑﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻮﺱ ﻧﺼّﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﺋﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺗﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ؛]‪ [169‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺻﺒﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻗﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤّﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﺎﻳﺰ ﺳﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﺎﺭﺍ ﻧﺼﻴﺮ ﻭﺭﻭﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻛﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ‪ [169].‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺯﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺣﺮﺍﻛًﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴًﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‪ [166].‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻋﺒّﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﺪﻩ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ »ﻻ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴﺔ« ﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ [176].‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴّﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻲ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻮﻥ ﻭﺧﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻃﻲ ﻭﺳﻮﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻃﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ »ﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ«؛]‪ [177‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺸﻂ‬

‫‪9‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﺭﺍﺟﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﺻﻨﺔ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫]‪[178‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻋﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺗﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺈﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴّﺔ ﻧﻔﺎﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﻧﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪ [166]،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﻔﻴّﺔ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺻﻔﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺯ »ﺍﻟﺪَﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨّﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ« ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻔﺮًﺍ ﻟﻸﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﺎﺳﻤًﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ؛]‪ [169‬ﻋﻠﻤًﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺜﻴﻨﺔ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ »ﺑﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴّﺔ«‪ [166]،‬ﻭﻫﻲ »ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻠﻌﺐ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻜﻠّﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫]‪[163‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨَﻬﺞ«‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻲ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﻻﻉ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻋُﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻧﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻢ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻃﻴﺎﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﻀﺮﻩ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻰ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺐ‪ [179]،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫]‪[179‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﻠّﻢ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘًﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 1980‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ »ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ«‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 2‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﻛﺴﻞ ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ »ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ« ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫]‪[180‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 28‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ »ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ«‪ [181]،‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺪﻕ ﺳﻤﻴﺮ ﺃﻣﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﻀﺮﻩ ‪200‬‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ 1963‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ [181]،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ »ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ« ﻭﺃﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮ ﻗﺪﻣًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ؛]‪ [181‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺪﻕ ﺳﻤﻴﺮ ﺃﻣﻴﺲ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ« ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ 60‬ﻋﻀﻮًﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ [182]،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥّ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺪﻕ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻄﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﻧًﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻘﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺗﻼﺳﻦ ﺗﻄﻮّﺭ ﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻙ ﺑﺎﻹﻳﺪﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫]‪[183‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ 12‬ﺷﻬﺮًﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮّﻝ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 8‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺪﻋﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﺼﻬﻴﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺃﻧﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﻴﺜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﺮّﺡ‪» :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻳﺠﻠﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺭﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ [184]«.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻬﻴﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻗﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻇﻠّﺖ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤّﻊ ﺻﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺗﺸﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ‪ 200‬ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﺠﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺳﻤﻴﺮ ﺃﻣﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧًﺎ ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻴًﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛّﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮّﻝ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[186][185‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻬﺪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻖ ‪ 16‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ\ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺇﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 400‬ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ »ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﻭﻃﻨﻲ« ﺗﺘﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫»ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ« ﻭﻣﻦ »ﺷﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫﻴﺜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺢ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺣﻔﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪» :‬ﺇﻥّ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﺒﻨﺎ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻨﺎ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺎﻑ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﻭﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 15‬ﺷﺨﺺ ﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺢ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟـ»ﻓﺎﺷﻲ« ﻭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫]‪[187‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻩ ﺑﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 60‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 70‬ﺍﻟﻒ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1980‬ﻭ‪ 1990‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺣﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺠﻦ ﺗﺪﻣﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺤﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻙ ﺃﻭﺑﺎﻣﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ »ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻨﺤﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎ«‪ [188].‬ﻭﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺻﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻴﻬﺎ؛]‪ [190][189‬ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ »ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫]‪[191‬‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ«‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻌﺖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 6‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ »ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺧﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺃﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻩ«‪ [192]،‬ﺛﻢ ﺷﺪﺩﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻬﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻃﻴﺐ ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ »ﻓﻈﺎﺋﻊ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﻀﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ [193].‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ )ﺃﻱ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻐﺎﻝ( ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ‬ ‫]‪[194‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻠﻮﻳﺢ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ »ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺾ« ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪10‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺩﻋﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻓﻨﺰﻭﻳﻼ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮﻭﻩ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺰﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‪ [197][196][195].‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺃﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ [198]،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﻓﺪﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺣﺎﻣﻼً ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻋﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ [199]،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫‪ 25‬ﻧﺎﺋﺒًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ‪ 50‬ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮّﺡ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺖ ﻃﻠﺒًﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻓﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ )ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻳﺘﺲ ﻭﻭﺗﺶ( ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ »ﻣﻤﻨﻬﺠﺔ« ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺋﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ [200].‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﻮّﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﻧﻔﺬﻩ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻫﻴﻼﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻴﻨﺘﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﺨﺼﺎً ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎء ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻘﺎء ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[201‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫”‬

‫—ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪،.‬‬

‫“‬

‫]‪[202‬‬

‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺇﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﻛﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺑﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻟﻼﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺐ ﺃﺑﺪﺕ ﺍﻧﺰﻋﺎﺟﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺩﻋﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫]‪[203‬‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺣﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ »ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ« ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ »ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺪﺳﻴﻦ«‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ »ﺳﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ« ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺸﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‪ [204]،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ‪ [205].‬ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﻒ ﻭﺗﻬﺠﻴﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺜﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺠﻼﺏ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﻴّﺔ ﻳﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ [206].‬ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ »ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ« ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺯﻭﺍﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ [207]،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫]‪[209‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﺯﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ [208]،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻼﺡ ﻟﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﻐﺐ ﻭﺇﺣﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ [210]،‬ﻭﺑﺜﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺪﺍءﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻨﻒ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ »ﺃﺧﻄﺎء ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ« ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻤﻴّﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ [211]،‬ﻭﺟﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ؛]‪ [212‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫»ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎء ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ« ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍءً ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺜﻼً ﺑﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﺎﻧﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ؛ ﻭﻳﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻻً‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﻧﻔﺬﻭﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻗﻨﺺ ﻭﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋﻦ ﺑﺚ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫]‪[204‬‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻔﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫»ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﻓﺒﺮﻛﺔ ﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ« ﻭ»ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‬ ‫]‪[214][213‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ« ﺗﺪﻋﻢ »ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ«؛‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﺄﺕ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴّﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺒﺚ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺸﻒ »ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ«‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺟﺮﺗﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﺜﺖ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻧﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ »ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ« ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻋﻮﺩﺗﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﻴﻪ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﻴًﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‪ [215]،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﻔﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻛﻤﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺭﺍﺡ ﺿﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪ 337‬ﻣﺪﻧﻴًﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﺃﻥ »ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ« ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﺜﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ [216].‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﻜﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﺴﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪّﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻋﻢ‪ [217]،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺸﻖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴّﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﺮﺣﺎﻥ ﻣﻄﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻤﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫]‪[218‬‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻤﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﺮﺻﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﻣﻨﺤﺎﺯﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ [219].‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﻙ ﺑﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ [220]،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫]‪[221‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺧﻄﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ ﻃﻮﻟﻪ ‪ 2300‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻛﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ‪ 11‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪ 2011‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺰّﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ؛]‪ [222‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ »ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ« ﻓﻲ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺪﻭﻳًﺎ ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻌﺔ ﺣﻠﺐ‪ [223]،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪9‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻃﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ‪ 16‬ﻛﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﺒﻠﺔ‪ [224]،‬ﻭﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺣﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﻮﻫﺎ‪ [225]،‬ﻭﺣﻤﻠﺔ »ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ« ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﻧﻘﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪ 360‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ [227][226].‬ﻭﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺣﻠﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ »ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ«‪ [228]،‬ﻋﻠﻤًﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻄﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻳﺪﺓ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫»ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ«‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 24‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ 2011‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺜﻴﻨﺔ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ ﻭﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎء ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻟﻸﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺃﺳﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ [229].‬ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪّﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭًﺍ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻲ ‪ 7‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣًﺎ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴًﺎ ﺑﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻴﻦ ﻛﺄﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ [230]،1961‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 21‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣًﺎ ﺑﺈﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩًﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻼً ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣًﺎ ﺑﺈﻟﻐﺎء ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣًﺎ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴًﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ »ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ« ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫]‪[231‬‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺾ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻢ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1971‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞّ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪12‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ؛]‪ [232‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 28‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﻭﻳﺨﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﺩًﺍ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ‪ 2012‬ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﺷﻌﺒﻲ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﻗﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺧﺼﻮﺻًﺎ‬ ‫]‪[233‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺤًﺎ ﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ‪ 1973‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭًﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪًﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ‪ 6‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳّﺔ‪ [234]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻏﻠﻖ‬ ‫]‪[235‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 24‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭًﺍ ﺑﺈﺧﻼء ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻮﻓﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ [236]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺃﻓﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ‪ 260‬ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻼً ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴًﺎ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﻴﻦ‪ [237]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 6‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺳﺮﺍﺡ ‪ 48‬ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻼً ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴًﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻳًﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺮﻭﺯ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ [235].2010‬ﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺳﺮﺍﺡ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﻮﺍ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻻً ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ؛]‪ [238‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻔﻮ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ 31‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻤﻞ »ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻮﻓﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻓﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﻔﻮ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ‪ 21‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‪ [232].‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴّﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴّﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫]‪[239‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﻳﻘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 29‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻧﺎﺟﻲ ﻋﻄﺮﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﺛﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺓ‪ [240]،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 3‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺳﻔﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺭﺋﻴﺴًﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﺳﻴﺮًﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ؛]‪ [241‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪11‬‬ ‫]‪[242‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺗﺸﻜﻠﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺳﻔﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 31‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ‪ [243]،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ 2012‬ﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 7‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻤﺺ ﺇﻳﺎﺩ ﻏﺰﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻝ؛]‪ [244‬ﺗﻼ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ‪ 20‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺘﻪ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎ‪ [245]،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺑﻨﺎءًَ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻀﻠﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ [232].‬ﻭﺗﻼﻩ ﻓﻲ ‪ 2‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺼﻒ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ؛]‪ [246‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 24‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺗﻢ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺮﻧﻮﺱ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺳﻤﻴﺮ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈًﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﺮ‪ [232].‬ﻭﻓﻲ ‪15‬‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﺃﻋﻔﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺧﻠﻮﻑ ﺧﻠﻔًﺎ ﻟﻪ؛]‪ [232‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ‪ 23‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻏﺪﺍ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈًﺎ ﻹﺩﻟﺐ ﻭﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈًﺎ ﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ‬ ‫]‪[247‬‬

‫ﻃﻔﻼ ‪ 2390‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪.‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎً‪ 60000‬ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ‬

‫‪7767‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﻟﺐ‬

‫‪4370‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﺎﺓ‬

‫‪2933‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‬

‫‪2954‬‬

‫ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪5421‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‬

‫‪1916‬‬

‫ﺣﻠﺐ‬

‫‪2622‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ‬

‫‪546‬‬

‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‬

‫‪1448‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻃﻮﺱ‬

‫‪73‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻜﺔ‬

‫‪94‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ‬

‫‪89‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﺍء‬

‫‪13‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪14‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻃﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﺣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻺﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫)‪ .(newlang=ara&http://www.sana.sy/print.html?sid=366498‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء – ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻭُﺻِﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪.2011-08-30‬‬ ‫‪section=0&http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D8%AD%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AB_%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7_2011-2012?action=edit‬‬

‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫]‪[5‬‬ ‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬ ‫]‪[8‬‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﺧﻄﻄﻨﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.sana.sy/ara/336/2011/05/21/347961.htm‬ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ »ﻣﻦ ﻏﺮﺭ ﺑﻬﻢ« ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺋﻬﻢ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=132135‬ﺳﻴﺮﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ‪ ،1966 - 1946‬ﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻭﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪ .2001‬ﺹ‪16.‬‬ ‫‪Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p221 ISBN 019924958‬‬ ‫‪Middle Eastern Studies ,(http://www.danielpipes.org/191/the-alawi-capture-of-power-in-syria) The Alawi Capture of Power in Syria ,Daniel Pipes.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺣﻘًﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ )Ÿ‪ ،(/https://syriafirst.wordpress.com/2012/03/04/هل-يعرف-السوريون-Øقا-بعضه٠Ø‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪12 ،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ )‪ ،(http://www.syriarose.com/ar/news/view/31825.html‬ﺯﻫﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 21 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻯ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ )‪ ،(sid=2156&file=article&http://www.kaniya-sipi.de/modules.php?name=News‬ﻛﺎﻧﻴﺎﺳﺒﻲ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﻨﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ؟‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/2FCC543E-F9AA-4244-BAFF-76F8AB3F2519.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 11/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﻊ )‪ .(http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/07/15-1‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻴﻮﻣﻦ ﺭﺍﻳﺘﺶ ﻭﻭﺗﺶ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،2005‬ﺹ‪34.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.41.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪137.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪140.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪141.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪71.‬‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫]‪[9‬‬ ‫]‪[10‬‬ ‫]‪[11‬‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫]‪[13‬‬ ‫]‪[14‬‬ ‫]‪[15‬‬ ‫]‪[16‬‬ ‫]‪[17‬‬ ‫]‪[18‬‬ ‫]‪[19‬‬ ‫]‪[20‬‬ ‫]‪[21‬‬ ‫]‪[22‬‬ ‫]‪[23‬‬ ‫]‪[24‬‬ ‫]‪[25‬‬ ‫]‪[26‬‬ ‫]‪[27‬‬ ‫]‪[28‬‬ ‫]‪[29‬‬ ‫]‪[30‬‬ ‫]‪[31‬‬ ‫]‪[32‬‬ ‫]‪[33‬‬ ‫]‪[34‬‬ ‫]‪[35‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/35036086-2ABA-43FA-9CD2-75D0E0557054.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ 17/3/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺗﻼﻋﺒﺖ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ )‪ ،(newsid=10034#content&http://news.csyria.net/news.php?newsaction=fullnews‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪189.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺴﺒﻮﻙ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ )‪ .(/http://www.sama-syria.com/sama/content/view/11482/27‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.01-02-2011‬‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://quryna.com/27428.html‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.01-02-2011‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻬﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺗﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ )‪ .(http://ar.ado-world.org/2/22/article/770‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ‪ «ADO‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.27-04-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﻘﻤﻊ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.alqanat.com/news/shownews.asp?id=121110‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.18-02-2011‬‬ ‫‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪ ..‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﻏﻀﺐ ﻓﻲ »ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ« )‪ .(id=79646&http://www.arabnet5.com/news.asp?c=2‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .27-02-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-12-2011‬‬ ‫‪ 12-15‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‪ ..‬ﻣﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=38075‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .07-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-12-2011‬‬ ‫‪ 25‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻴﺴﺒﻮﻙ ﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺿﺪ »ﺍﻷﺳﺪ« ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ )‪ .(id=10585&http://nashwannews.com/news.php?action=view‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .27-02-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.12-12-2011‬‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/344B16D2-802B-47C2-9AD1-22144352DC5C.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .16-03-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-12-2011‬‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/03/110315_syria_protest.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.16-03-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-12-2011‬‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/65526‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .15-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.03-05-2011‬‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/65526‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .16-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.03-05-2011‬‬ ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/0FEC9314-D556-4D71-9478-BCECAD02AC47.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .16-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.03-05-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻦ ‪ 32‬ﻧﺎﺷﻄﺎ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎً )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/DA0B95BF-1294-40C5-98EE-196445DC8C14.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .18-03-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.03-05-2011‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ 4 :‬ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﺮﺣﻰ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/node/658071‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .18-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.22-01-2012‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫]‪[36‬‬ ‫]‪[37‬‬ ‫]‪[38‬‬ ‫]‪[39‬‬ ‫]‪[40‬‬ ‫]‪[41‬‬ ‫]‪[42‬‬ ‫]‪[43‬‬ ‫]‪[44‬‬ ‫]‪[45‬‬ ‫]‪[46‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺆﻛﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(/http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/66170‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .24-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.22-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪ ..‬ﻭﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺔ )‪ .(http://www.alriyadh.com/2011/03/25/article616905.html‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .18-03-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.22-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻗﺘﻴﻞ )‪.(m=0&zoneid=13&http://www.alanba.com.kw/AbsoluteNMNEW/templates/international2010.aspx?articleid=181898‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .18-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.22-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/node/659755‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .25-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺗُﺮﺿﻲ ﻭﻋﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺠﻴﻦ؟ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/03/110325_syria_protests_reforms.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .25-03-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺃﺯﻋﺠﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﻟﻬﺒﺖ ﺣﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻳﺪﻳﻦ )‪ .(http://www.aleqt.com/2011/03/31/article_521097.html‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .31-03-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺣﺸﻮﺩ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﻴﻞ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/BFDB3BA6-65E3-40C0-8720-86AD229B44A8.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .31-03-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺲ ﺃﻛﺮﺍﺩ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺮﻗﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/multimedia/2011/04/110407_syria_kurd_nationality.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .07-04-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﻬﺎء ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110421_syria_legislation.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .21-04-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺳﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/ED5366DD-F627-4023-84F9-01C1824379A5.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .07-04-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 13‬ﺑﺘﺸﻴﻴﻊ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻗﺘﻴﻞ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110423_syria_killings_latest.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .23-04-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬

‫]‪ 84 [47‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﺑﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ »ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ« ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/04/22/146278.html‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .22-04-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [48‬ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺟﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110425-syria-deraa-jabalia-demonstration-many-killed-borders-with-jordan-closed‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .25-04-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [49‬ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺜﻴﻒ ﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻤﺪﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﺑﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110425-syria-deraa-city-police-army-deploiement-violence-demonstrations‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .25-04-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪[50‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻒ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻞ ﻭﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9C9910F3-4538-4DD8-8DFA-438F042A72FF.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.03-05-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.27-07-2011‬‬ ‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺘﺤﻢ ﺃﺣﻴﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺑﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110509-syria-protests-tanks-homs-army-opposition‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .09-05-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.24-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ‪ ..‬ﻭﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://www.aleqt.com/2011/05/09/article_536184.html‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .09-05-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.24-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻜﻠﺦ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻧﺰﻭﺡ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110514-syria-homs-unrest-killed-bashar-al-assad-daraa-talkalakh-violence-anti-government-protesters-clash-security‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪.24‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .15-05-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.24-01-2012‬‬

‫]‪[54‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺷﻄﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 11‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/558762‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .29-05-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.03-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ«‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺼﻒ ﺣﻤﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻓﻌﻴﺔ )‪ .(http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/558821‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .30-05-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.03-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 43‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/06/110603_syria_rastan_killing.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .03-06-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.04-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/06/110603_syria_hama.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .04-06-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.04-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﺿﺨﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/64010B79-2BB0-476E-9B8D-4048E1EC8A29.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .04-06-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.04-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/06/110604_syria_hama_strike.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .04-06-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.05-06-2011‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 38‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/06/110605_syria_hama_strike_day2.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .05-06-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/A28CDC80-44EE-40DC-B15F-0C6B4C52016B.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.10-06-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.10-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺟﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/06/110610_syrai_scun.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .10-06-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.23-01-2012‬‬

‫]‪[51‬‬ ‫]‪[52‬‬ ‫]‪[53‬‬

‫]‪[55‬‬ ‫]‪[56‬‬ ‫]‪[57‬‬ ‫]‪[58‬‬ ‫]‪[59‬‬ ‫]‪[60‬‬ ‫]‪[61‬‬ ‫]‪[62‬‬

‫]‪ [63‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺤﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﻗﺮﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/84F23948-3B64-4F24-9358-9473B03E6CE2.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.01-07-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.29-07-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [64‬ﻫﺪﻭﺉ ﻣﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺤﻤﺎﺓ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/A02C04DA-AC0E-4621-B088-1694EEF4C07D.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .07-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-07-2011‬‬

‫‪15‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫]‪[65‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﺷﻮﺵ ﻣﻐﻨﻲ »ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ« ﻣﺬﺑﻮﺣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110707-syria-slaughtered-of-the-revolution-singer-ibrahim-kashoush-bashar-assad‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﺗﺤﺼﺪ ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺡ ‪ 22‬ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺗﻨﻜﻞ ﺑﺠﺜﺜﻬﻢ‪(http://www.al-seyassah.com/AtricleView/tabid/59/smid/438/ArticleID/147118/reftab/76/Default.aspx) .‬‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺮ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﺷﻮﺵ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺭﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻳﺜﻴﺮ ﻏﻀﺒﺎ ﻋﺎﺭﻣﺎ‪(http://www.watan.com/news/2011-07-06-20-53-33.html) .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﺜﻘﻔﻴﻦ ﻭﻓﻨﺎﻧﻴﻦ ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ‪ ..‬ﻭﺗﻮﻻﻱ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺮﻧﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻀﺒﻨﺎ ﺑﺮﺷﻖ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﻴﺮﻛﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺪﻭﺭﺓ‪ ..‬ﻭﺭﻏﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻵﺧﺮ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻣﻲ‬ ‫)‪ .(m=0&zoneid=389&http://www.alanba.com.kw/AbsoluteNMNEW/templates/international2010.aspx?articleid=212199‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .16-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.10-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ »ﻟﻼﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ« )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/07/110716_syria_protests_friday.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .16-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.10-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20111002-syria-army-offensive-rastan-city-istabnbul-opposition-new-organization‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .02-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.03-10-2011‬‬

‫]‪[71‬‬

‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻟﻺﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺇﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/0207827F-E97E-4DB0-AC5A-7A00E31DD175.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.16-07-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.10-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/905E8A9C-4156-40DB-BA34-71366D376703.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.16-07-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.10-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻴﺶ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/3CD2B199-714C-4165-9F65-0FB2A2A05C33.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.17-07-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.19-07-2011‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﺘﺤﻢ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/143EE013-7063-4F9E-B537-BEE017AF1337.htm) .‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 28‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻗﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110814_syria_killing.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .14-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.26-01-2012‬‬

‫]‪[76‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﻧﺰﻭﺡ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻲ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110815_syria_crackdown.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .15-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.26-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺑﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110731-syria-tanks-demonstations-against-assad-hama‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .31-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.02-08-2011‬‬ ‫‪ 136‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪ 100‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﻘﺘﺤﻢ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺪﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/node/704794‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .31-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.04-08-2011‬‬ ‫‪ 150‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5D297618-27F9-4916-AE1A-3A5E04A6E940.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.31-07-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.02-08-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ »ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ« ﻓﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻟﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﻟﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110807_syria_deirezzor_tanks.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .07-08-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.11-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110808_syria_pressure.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .09-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.11-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺣﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9FF9EA0C-481B-41B6-B05C-E7DBA5CE07C2.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .18-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.19-08-2011‬‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﻟﺮﺣﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9F9FA3E3-1D9F-4214-9DFD-F2B8A892A8EB.html‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.19-08-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.19-08-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110822_syria_un_hr_council.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .22-08-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.15-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://www.free-syria.com/loadarticle.php?articleid=39702‬ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .22-08-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.15-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺃﻣﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺒﺚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110821_syria_humanitarian_team_visit.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .21-08-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.15-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﻮﻓﺪ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/08/110819_syria_humanitarian.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .19-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.15-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻣﻦ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/09/110912_syria_un_hama.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .12-09-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﻼﺣﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/DB323462-32CD-4089-A54A-D17EA98A094C.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .29-08-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺩﺍﻣﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕ )‪ .(article=637702&issueno=11961&http://www.aawsat.com/details.asp?section=4‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .29-08-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.12-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺾ ﺿﺪ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ »ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ« ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪.(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111004_veto_russia_syria.shtml‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .04-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.07-10-2011‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪» :‬ﻏﻀﺐ« ﻏﺮﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111005_syria_un_resolution.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .04-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.07-10-2011‬‬

‫]‪[66‬‬ ‫]‪[67‬‬ ‫]‪[68‬‬

‫]‪[69‬‬ ‫]‪[70‬‬

‫]‪[72‬‬ ‫]‪[73‬‬ ‫]‪[74‬‬ ‫]‪[75‬‬

‫]‪[77‬‬ ‫]‪[78‬‬ ‫]‪[79‬‬ ‫]‪[80‬‬ ‫]‪[81‬‬ ‫]‪[82‬‬ ‫]‪[83‬‬ ‫]‪[84‬‬ ‫]‪[85‬‬ ‫]‪[86‬‬ ‫]‪[87‬‬ ‫]‪[88‬‬ ‫]‪[89‬‬ ‫]‪[90‬‬ ‫]‪[91‬‬ ‫]‪[92‬‬

‫]‪ [93‬ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﻌﻞ ﺗﻤﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻣﺸﻠﻮ )‪ .(sid=43378&file=article&http://www.gemyakurda.net/modules.php?name=News‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .08-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.08-10-2011‬‬ ‫]‪23 [94‬ﺓ ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﺘﺸﻴﻴﻊ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/CE749888-EF34-4236-AE1F-37EFB437968D.html‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .08-10-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.08-10-2011‬‬

‫‪16‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫]‪ [95‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺭ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111009_syria_protests_embassies.shtml‬ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .08-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.10-10-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [96‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﻭﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111015_syria_activist_killing.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .15-10-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [97‬ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻣﺎ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111016_syria_arab_league.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .16-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [98‬ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/7E300A18-B4B2-4C7E-BBE1-796A2E730445.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .26-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [99‬ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/17780EC4-8D8C-41A1-8653-095E40059827.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.27-10-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [100‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺟﺌﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E5962FE4-45BC-468F-8CA8-8F6910207868.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.11-06-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.09-10-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [101‬ﺍﻋﻼﻥ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ )‪ .(http://www.alarengin.net/daily-news/local/1109-2011-07-30-13-46-11.html‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .30-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.02-08-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [102‬ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ “ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ” )‪http://news.nawaret.com/العالÙ‬‬ ‫‪ .(§Ø§Ù„عربي/ناشطون-ينشرون-فيديو-لعقيد-يعلن-تشكيل-Ø‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .29-07-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬‫‪.02-08-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [103‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺘﻦ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﺷﺒﺎﺡ‪ ..‬ﻭﻧﺰﻭﺡ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ..‬ﻭﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(issueno=11997&article=643217&http://www.aawsat.com/details.asp?section=4‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .03-10-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.06-10-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [104‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﻤﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻳﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/10/111029_syria_hams_killing.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .04-11-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [105‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 60‬ﺟﻨﺪﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/034EC3B7-4027-45FF-AB0F-3EE8F7AE83A3.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .29-10-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [106‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻗﺼﻒ ﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ )‪.(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111104_syria_homs_military_attacks.shtml‬‬ ‫ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .04-11-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [107‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 13‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111105_syria_release.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .11-11-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [108‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111107_syria_homs.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .07-11-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ 11 [109‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ »ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ« )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/3289E176-AF87-4A36-8D0A-C0D02BA8A10B.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.07-11-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [110‬ﺍﺗﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ »ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ« )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111111_syria_humanrightswatch.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .11-11-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.13-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [111‬ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/node/767212‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .05-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.06-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [112‬ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/F348DDAD-A707-41F4-AA18-5ECF744D15BD.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪.11-11-2011‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [113‬ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﺱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ )‪ - (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/05F27F41-3CE9-4AEA-B372-0DB1A5FC8A5C.htm?GoogleStatID=1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪16-11-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [114‬ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺸﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﻬﺎﺟﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‬ ‫)‪ - (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111114_syria_defectors_attack_intel_complex.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪16-11-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [115‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ »ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ« ﻭﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ ﺗﺘﺤﻔﻆ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/88920684-B677-4C5A-B100-AF1198F19AAA.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .03-11-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [116‬ﺃﺟﻮﺍء ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ - (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E1629E54-0E88-4DE4-9C0D-B397C331F1A6.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫‪13-11-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [117‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ )‪ - (IssueID=0&SecID=89&http://www.youm7.com/News.asp?NewsID=533541‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪16-11-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/11/111119_syria_deadline.shtml [118‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺧﻴﺮ ﻟﻤﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ[‪ .‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪19-11-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [119‬ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺿﺪ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/multimedia/2011/11/111127_syria_sanctions.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .27-11-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [120‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/12/111219_syria_signs.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .03-12-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.23-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ 120 [121‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺸﻘﻮﻥ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9279BA21-61AD-42B8-B1CB-203445264266.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.20-12-2011 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [122‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪» :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻰ ‪ 200‬ﺷﺨﺺ« ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﻴﻦ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/12/111221_syria_latest_killing.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .21-12-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.21-12-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [123‬ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/BC002C87-5CE6-4813-888F-512B887344D1.html‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .21-12-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.21-12-2011‬‬

‫‪17‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫]‪ [124‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭ»ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﺎﺳﻢ« ﺍﻟﺨﻤﻴﺲ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2012/01/120119_syria_wrap_new.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ .19-12-2011 :‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [125‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﻬﺎء ﺃﺯﻣﺘﻬﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/882A6C6A-C07E-489D-9F37-0B6FA99D6778.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .23-12-2011‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [126‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻦ »ﺍﻟﺤﺮ« ﻫﺪﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻨﺴﺤﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺑﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ )‪.(http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/18/188955.html‬‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫]‪ [127‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/27/us-syria-town-idUSTRE80Q1O020120127‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﻭﻳﺘﺮﺯ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ‫‪ .29-01-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.29-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [128‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺤﻤﺺ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‬ ‫)‪ .(Itemid=115&catid=72:2011-12-21-22-03-48&id=1665:2012-01-29-15-25-45&view=article&http://srgcommission.org/index.php?option=com_content‬ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .29-01-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.29-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [129‬ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20120129-syria-crackdown-national-transitional-councig-united-nations-killings‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .29-01-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.29-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [130‬ﻧﺎﺷﻄﻮﻥ‪ 66 :‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻗﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2012/01/120129_syria_military_operation.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .29-01-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.29-01-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [131‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/A2F6D7B7-A364-453E-981B-7191E32936B4.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪.31-01-2012‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.01-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [132‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﻗﺼﻒ ﻣﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/multimedia/2012/02/120204_syria_zabadani.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .04-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [133‬ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺪﺍﻧﻲ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/CC0E8D1E-368B-4B2E-814D-67D892780C86.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪.12-02-2012‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [134‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 27‬ﺑﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5AEFBF2A-8E2E-4AAB-A9DF-F3F225E134C2.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .12-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [135‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﺒﺤﺜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﻴﻦ )‪.(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2012/02/120212_syria_arab_league_ministers_.shtml‬‬ ‫ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .12-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.14-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ 337 [136‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻭ‪ 1300‬ﺟﺮﻳﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﺣﻤﺺ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/02/04/192418.html‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .04-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‬ ‫‪.04-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [137‬ﺣﻤﺺ ﺗﺸﻴﻊ ﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻨﻒ ﻗﺼﻒ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E55D20C8-E807-4ACC-84BF-BD4C26859DCE.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .04-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.04-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ 337 [138‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً )‪ (http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/02/04/192418.html‬ﻭ‪ 1.600‬ﺟﺮﻳﺢ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 3‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E55D20C8-E807-4ACC-84BF-BD4C26859DCE.htm‬ﻭ‪ 14‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 5‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/4D265E81-445D-484A-A7C7-5DD52A0624C3.htm‬ﻭ‪ 24‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 6‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/8B0E5C92-C5DC-4702-994D-11866BD96B2F.htm‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 95‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻭ‪ 200‬ﺟﺮﻳﺢ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 7‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/84E550BB-DC6A-4553-A1D1-32517F6DF4D8.html‬ﻭ‪ 93‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 8‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪ ،(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/1CDECD1E-9F0A-4E32-BFCF-D55F4BB43A7F.htm‬ﻭ‪ 112‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ 9‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫)‪.(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/D0F1D1E9-BC83-4AEB-8933-5CB9C8AC5F29.htm‬‬ ‫]‪ [139‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻮ )‪ ،(http://alwatan.kuwait.tt/articledetails.aspx?Id=169126‬ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪ 4 ،‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ‪2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [140‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺘﻞ ‪ 19‬ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻭﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ »ﺣﺎﺷﺪﺓ« ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻻﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2012/02/120218_syria_china_envoy.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ .18-02-2012‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.21-02-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ 92 [141‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/news/pages/1b0d5b24-4116-4b86-a769-3c054a497ec6‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪.04-04-2012‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.09-04-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [142‬ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ :۳۸۹‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‪ ٦ ،‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪/‬ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ‪٢٠١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ .(Itemid=2&catid=1:2011-06-08-10-46-52&id=7529:2012-04-07-07-22-07&view=article&http://birati.de/index.php?option=com_content‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪.06-04-2012‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.09-04-2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [143‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺮ )‪ .2011-4-6 .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/3A748348-C256-4A66-9F83-4FC534A75667.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪18‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [144‬ﺗﻨﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/04148BDF-0CF8-4A99-99D4-F0EE9C93F535.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-3-25 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [145‬ﻣﺼﻴﺮ ﻏﺎﻣﺾ ﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/064F5156-47A1-4CA1-AC7C-91C0EC6B9FFC.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-5-3 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [146‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺭﺣﻠﺖ ﺻﺤﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻹﻳﺮﺍﻥ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/EXERES/7C325B58-4F0C-471B-AD8E-E982FAAAA003.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-5-11 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [147‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﻭﺛﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ ،(http://www.france24.com/ar/node/681076‬ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ ‪ .2011-5-18 ،24‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬ ‫‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [148‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E9BC6177-1AA8-4513-A428-B8E217D02AD3.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 25/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [149‬ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺍﻓﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ )‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/0FF30BEA-CCF4-43F7-8E7D-14964373FBAB.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 28/4/2011‬ﻡ‬

‫‪18‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪19‬‬

‫]‪ [150‬ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﻳﻜﺘﻨﻒ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﺮﺍﻑ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/worldnews/2011/06/110610_syria_amina_kidnap.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ .2011-6-10 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [151‬ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﺪﻋﺔ ﻣﻔﺒﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/syria-politics-unrest-gay-internet-britain-us-amina-abdullah-lesbian-damascus-20110613‬ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ ‪ .2011-6-13 ،24‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪18‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [152‬ﺗﻨﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺑﻨﺎء ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-mCVHH57nyY‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‬ ‫]‪ [153‬ﺗﻨﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﺐ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺑﻨﺎء ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QwkMCsJGKw‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‬ ‫]‪ [154‬ﺗﻨﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺭﺯﻕ ﺃﺑﺎﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺑﻨﺎء ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ )‪ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncbxx6pPsuo‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‬ ‫]‪ [155‬ﺗﻨﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺑﻨﺎء ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ )‪(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tofa0P988a4‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‬

‫]‪ [156‬ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ‪ ..‬ﺃﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺇﺩﻟﺐ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.shukumaku.com/Content.php?id=28512‬ﺷﺎﻛﻮ ﻣﺎﻛﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [157‬ﺃﻗﺎﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻮﺍء ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ ‪ 24‬ﻭﻧﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ..‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻔﻴﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻘﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﻛﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ؟؟‬ ‫)‪ ،(ar=549330401&id=d56ce7c9c57164abb67077bb982f1b6b&http://www.aksalser.com/?page=view_news‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [158‬ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ ‪ 24‬ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺑﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ ‫)‪ .(http://www.france24.com/ar/20110609-france-24-charges-syria-bashar-assad-lamia-chakkour-embassy-identity-theft‬ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺲ‪ .24‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪.21-06-2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [159‬ﺭﻭﻻ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺒﺮﺃﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﻲ ﺟﺎء ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻮﺭﺳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒَﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫)‪nVCM1000008420010aRCRD&http://www.mbc.net/portal/site/mbc/menuitem.ff2c047b71869fec9318c4cd480210a0/?vgnextoid=6216a31f36c20310VgnVCM1000008420010aRCRD‬‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ‪ 26 ،MBC‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [160‬ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺪﻭ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/10796‬ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [161‬ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻮ »ﺃﻭﺭﻳﻨﺖ »ﻳﺤﻀﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )‪http://www.mjhar.com/ar-sy/NewsView/81/372/٠وظفو_أورينت_يØضرون_استقالة_جÙ‬‬ ‫‪ ،(اعية.aspx‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﺮ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [162‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ )‪ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxxE_kEW_Rk‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‬ ‫]‪ [163‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/24348‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [164‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺁﻻﻥ ﻧﻴﻤﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺮﻭﺕ ‪ ،1997‬ﺹ‪77.‬‬ ‫]‪ [165‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺁﻻﻥ ﻧﻴﻤﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺮﻭﺕ ‪ ،1997‬ﺹ‪79.‬‬ ‫]‪ [166‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/27201‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [167‬ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ 164 :‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼً ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/26078‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪.2012 ،‬‬ ‫]‪ [168‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﻭﺍﺩﺓ )‪ ،(ChannelId=46463&EditionId=1966&http://assafir.com/Article.aspx?ArticleId=17‬ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [169‬ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻛﺘﻠﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/23456‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [170‬ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ ،(http://aljazeera.net/news/pages/a60a5353-7663-42cc-a24c-e633b57172b0‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [171‬ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﻮ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=83799‬ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪Abuse of the opposition forces, "ethnic cleansing" of Christians in Homs, where Jesuits remains “ [172‬‬ ‫)‪ .”(lan=eng&http://www.fides.org/aree/news/newsdet.php?idnews=31228‬ﻭُﺻِﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪.April 02, 2012‬‬ ‫]‪Fides .(lan=eng&http://www.fides.org/aree/news/newsdet.php?idnews=31308) ASIA/SYRIA - Christians being targeted by armed Islamist gangs [173‬‬ ‫‪Agenzia‬‬

‫)‪.March 2012). accessed April 07, 2012 30‬‬ ‫]‪ [174‬ﻫﻮﺍﺟﺲ ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻷﻗﺒﺎﻁ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ )‪،(ChannelId=47623&EditionId=2010&http://assafir.com/Article.aspx?ArticleId=2353‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [175‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﺼﻠﻮﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﺷﺘﺎﺋﻪ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/45202‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 11 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [176‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ )‪ ،(http://www.aljazeera.net/programs/pages/762654be-64b3-4690-893e-d85be23b688b‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ 13 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [177‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻃﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﺏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/02/11/399630.htm‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [178‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺎﻛﺮﺯ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺨﺘﺮﻕ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻋﻮﺭ )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=133256‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [179‬ﺑﺪء ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻳﻀﻢ ‪ 300‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=133291‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [180‬ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻟﻺﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻭﻛﺴﻞ )‪ ،(http://news.swaidaplus.com/?p=1308‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﺍء‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [181‬ﻟﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ »ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ« ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮ »ﻹﻧﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻲ« ﻭﻳﺮﻓﺾ »ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ« )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=134318‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [182‬ﺑﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ‪ 60‬ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ ..‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﻟﻘﺎء »ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ« ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=134626‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺄ‪12 ،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [183‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﺇﻫﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=134563‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [184‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻮﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ )‪ ،(http://www.nabd-sy.net/index.php/syasia/10097-2011-07-08-07-46-09.html‬ﻧﺒﺾ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 13 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [185‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻋﺼﺮﻱ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ ،(/http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/562122‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [186‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ ،(lc=2&&http://www.aljadeed.tv/wsg/newsdetails.aspx?ln=12879‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪[187‬‬ ‫‪http://aaram.net/article/30966/0/‬‬ ‫]‪[187‬‬ ‫]‪ [188‬ﺃﻭﺑﺎﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺭﺣﻴﻞ ﺯﻋﻤﺎء )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/56105332-03B3-4D5E-8C93-BFAA4AA22389.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ ‪ .2011-5-20‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 9‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫]‪ [189‬ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ )‪ .(http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/05/110523_syria_eu_sanctions.shtml‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .2011-5-23‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 6‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [190‬ﺃﻭﺑﺎﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭ‪ 6‬ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﻧﻴﻴﻦ )‪ .(http://arabic.cnn.com/2011/syria.2011/5/18/usa.syria_sanctions/index.html‬ﺳﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺇﻥ‪ .2011-6-9 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [191‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺳﻴﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ )‪ ،(id=73340&http://www.rtv.gov.sy/index.php?d=13‬ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻺﺫﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [192‬ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ »ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ« ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .2011-4-6 .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/28C6EB66-1709-43F5-85B4-3A1AA6434861.htm‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 11‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬ ‫‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [193‬ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻓﻈﺎﺋﻊ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ .(http://aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/2BFB198D-213B-4C5C-9D71-ACB9C2491482.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-6-10 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪10‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [194‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﻧﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ ،(/http://arabic.rt.com/news_all_news/news/556548‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [195‬ﻃﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/7713E80B-4510-4091-99E7-21B29EBF2C01.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-4-12 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪ 6‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [196‬ﺷﺎﻓﻴﺰ ﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﻳﻬﺎﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/145C58EE-5A69-49D3-A6A0-176469DD1011.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-4-26 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [197‬ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻳﺸﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻟﺪﻋﻤﻪ )‪ .(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5FA16BF9-FCEF-4BF2-AE85-9386BE45EAAE.htm‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ .2011-5-25 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 5‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [198‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺑﻼﺩﻩ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﻬﺎ )‪ (http://www.dp-news.com/pages/detail.aspx?articleid=79188‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﻠﻢ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﻦ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=131256‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺑﻼﺩﻩ ﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=132361‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﺗﺨﺬﺕ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺿﻮﺍء ﺟﺎءﺕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﻦ )‪ ،(http://www.champress.net/index.php?q=ar/Article/view/91523‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻳﻌﺮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻋﻤﻪ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺯﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=130642‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﺱ ﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺱ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [199‬ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=132161‬ﻭ]ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻳﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻑ ﺑﻼﺩﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=131819‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [200‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ »ﻣﻤﻨﻬﺠﺔ« )‪ .(http://arabic.cnn.com/2011/syria.2011/6/2/hrw.syria_abuse/index.html‬ﺳﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺇﻥ‪ .2011-6-5 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 11‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1&cat=0&http://aaram.net/article.aspx?id=30650 [201‬ﻫﻴﻼﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻴﻨﺘﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻛﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫]‪artid=144142&http://www.alarab.qa/mobile/details.php?issueId=1324 [202‬‬ ‫]‪ [203‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﺑﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪(http://aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/90CF7852-E1EB-47AB-AAE8-218AC5AFF7FE.html) .‬‬ ‫]‪ [204‬ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﺿﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=131339‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪15 ،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [205‬ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻳﻮﻡ _ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺑﺮ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺠﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻮﺭ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﺣﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=133808‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪15 ،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [206‬ﺟﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ )‪ ،(ArticleId=242&ChannelId=43231&http://www.assafir.com/Article.aspx?EditionId=1837‬ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [207‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪http://www.alwafd.org/أخبار-وتقارير/18-عربى وعال٠ى/164647-الاسد-هناك-Ù‬‬ ‫‪ ،(§Ø¤Ø§Ù رة-تهدف-إلى-تقسي٠-سوريØ‬ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺪ‪ 16 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [208‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺓ ﺟﻴﺪًﺍ )‪ ،(http://diyar.charlesayoub.com/index.php/visitor-article-details/1456‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ‪ 16 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [209‬ﺳﻼﺡ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪،(cad=rja&usg=AFQjCNG_mqXt155kAxK-9fqtj4CD8fmqnw&ei=bnJjT7nlI8ewhAebroiICA&https://www.al-akhbar.com/node/44629‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 16 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [210‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﻭﺣﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﻳﺤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﻛﻤﺎﻝ )‪http://www.syria-online.net/٠جÙ‬‬ ‫‪ ،(وعات-يطالبون-بالØرية-عن-طريق-التخر.html‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭﻧﻼﻳﻦ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [211‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺎﻭﻯ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺩﺕ ﺑﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=132711‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 15 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [212‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺒﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺇﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ )‪ ،(http://syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=133602‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪15 ،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [213‬ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻓﺒﺮﻛﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻙ ﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻼﻓﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ )‪ .(http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2011/04/30/344174.htm‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .2011-4-30‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [214‬ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻓﺒﺮﻛﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻸﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻌﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻢ )‪ .(http://www.sana.sy/ara/336/2011/05/02/344277.htm‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء‪ .2011-5-2 ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [215‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻼﻫﺎ ﻳﻔﻨﺪﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،2011‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪.11124‬‬ ‫]‪ [216‬ﻣﺠﺰﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ )‪ ،(id=71206&http://jordanzad.com/index.php?page=article‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [217‬ﻓﻴﺴﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻮﺡ ﺑﺄﻓﻖ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ؟ )‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/6FA487F3-5418-41CE-AFA6-E02810C49FC5.htm?GoogleStatID=9‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 27/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [218‬ﺳﻤﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻴﺮ )‪ ،(http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/8921‬ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [219‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻳﺠﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧّﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺷﻌﺒﻪ‬ ‫)‪ ،(http://syrian-es.com/2011-05-12-12-15-11/2011-05-12-12-19-00/93-2011-05-18-15-17-18.html‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬ﻭﻳﻜﻴﺒﻴﺪﻳﺎ‪:‬ﻭﺻﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫]‪ [220‬ﻧﻮﺑﻠﺰﻧﻴﻮﺯ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻳﺼﻌﻖ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻓﻜﻢ‬ ‫)‪ ،(http://syrian-es.com/2011-05-12-12-15-11/2011-05-12-12-19-00/89-2011-05-17-19-38-50.html‬ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬ﻭﻳﻜﻴﺒﻴﺪﻳﺎ‪:‬ﻭﺻﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫‪20‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫]‪ [221‬ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺕ ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺍﻣﺮﺍﺕ )‪ ،(http://www.syria-news.com/readnews.php?sy_seq=134032‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [222‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺳﻮﺭﻱ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺃﺗﻮﺳﺘﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺓ ﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﻼء )‪ ،(http://www.fmsyria.com/view-2557.html‬ﺇﻑ ﺇﻡ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [223‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻑ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻗﻠﻌﺔ ﺣﻠﺐ )‪ ،(http://www.shahbapress.com/news/8573.html‬ﺷﻬﺒﺎ ﺑﺮﺱ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [224‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﺍً ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ )‪ ،(newsid=10016#content&http://news.csyria.net/news.php?newsaction=fullnews‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ 12 ،‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ‬ ‫‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [225‬ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮﺍً ﻋﻦ ﺗﻼﺣﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪ ..‬ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ )‪ ،(http://www.shahbapress.com/news/8573.html‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪20 ،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ 360 [226‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺮﺓ ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫)‪ ،(Itemid=82&catid=61:econmic&-------id=913:360&view=article&http://www.ahllan.com/adrenaline/index.php?option=com_content‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻫﻠﻦ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [227‬ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ )‪ ،(http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2011/06/19/353570.htm‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪ 20 ،‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪.2011‬‬ ‫]‪ [228‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ ،(http://www.elaph.com/Web/news/2012/3/723029.html‬ﺇﻳﻼﻑ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [229‬ﻭﻋﻮﺩ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﻏﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺭﻋﺎ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/7F55050A-5E60-4114-954F-C329E23E1346.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪24/3/2011 ،‬‬ ‫]‪ [230‬ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺲ ﺃﻛﺮﺍﺩ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺮﻗﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/multimedia/2011/04/110407_syria_kurd_nationality.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ 7/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [231‬ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎء ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110421_syria_legislation.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ 21/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [232‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ‪ ،(http://www.sana.sy/ara/367/2011/12/31/391546.htm) 2011‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء ‪ -‬ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [233‬ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻣًﺎ ﺑﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/02/29/pr-403099.htm‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﺎء ﺳﺎﻧﺎ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [234‬ﺩﻋﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻲ ﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9E4795EC-DF17-4080-AE06-8F85EAE19C76.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ 6/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [235‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺏ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/C0DE1E42-8D42-4C74-8169-87DBB8949BE6.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪ 6/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [236‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺪﻳﻦ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/worldnews/2011/03/110324_syria_reforms.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ 24/3/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [237‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻬﺎﺟﻢ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﺓ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/56300AB2-399E-40BB-9B03-396969617886.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 26/3/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [238‬ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺳﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/ED5366DD-F627-4023-84F9-01C1824379A5.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 14/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [239‬ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻳﺨﻔﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫)‪ ،(https://www.amnesty.org/ar/news-and-updates/syria-‘general-amnesty’-fails-free-hundreds-detained-after-protests-2011-06-21‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ 18 ،‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫‪.2012‬‬ ‫]‪ [240‬ﺣﺸﻮﺩ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﻴﻞ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/BFDB3BA6-65E3-40C0-8720-86AD229B44A8.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 29/3/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [241‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺪ ﻳﻌﻴﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺭﺍء‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110403_syria_new_pm.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ 3/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [242‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ :‬ﻋﻔﻮ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110414_syria_deal.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ 14/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [243‬ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/53053807-50E4-4317-B3B0-49C5D4ED4AB9.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 1/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [244‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﻨﻲ ﺑﺤﻤﺺ ﻭﺗﺄﻫﺐ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﺔ‪ (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/220443EA-23C6-45F1-BB39-B9848793D74A.htm?GoogleStatID=9) ..‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 21/4/2011‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [245‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﺎﺱ‪ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/04/110420_syria_banias_security.shtml) ..‬ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪ 20/4/2011 ،‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪ [246‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪..‬ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭ‪ 28‬ﻗﺘﻴﻼ ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ »ﺟﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﺭﺣﻞ « )‪ ،(http://www.alyaum.com/News/art/17411.html‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ 16 ،‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ‪.2011،‬‬ ‫]‪ [247‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺷﻬﺪﺍء ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ )‪ .(/http://syrianshuhada.com‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ‪.25-05-2012 :‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ )‪ - (http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/CCCF5458-4D79-4BB6-AFB8-804911C7DA52.htm‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 15‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪/‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 15‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪/‬ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻧﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻭﺛﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻓﺎﺯ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪..‬‬ ‫)‪.(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/EXERES/F494C899-DF9C-4DC9-B678-8B8AA6EA6E8B.htm‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻜﺮ ﻫﻴﺜﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪..‬‬ ‫)‪.(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/1E262ECC-4455-4BD1-8699-5E5A1A21996C.htm?GoogleStatID=1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻜﺮ ﺃﻣﺠﺪ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻬﺎﻭﺕ ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻴﻞ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺮﺍءﺓ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ »ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ« ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺰﺍ ﻭﺍﺩﻳﻦ‪..‬‬ ‫)‪.(http://www.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/DC111200-1E3D-438A-8CB9-B54AE60C27F1.htm?GoogleStatID=21‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮﺯ ﺳﻨﺘﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ؟ )‪.(http://www.scn-sy.net/ar/news/view/6953.html‬‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ..‬ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻃﻦ ﻏﺮﺱ ﺍﻷﺟﺪﺍﺩ‪ ..‬ﻭﻣﻠﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻔﺎﺩ – ﺩﻣﺎء ﺯﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺪﻓﻖ‪ ..‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻖ – ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫)‪.(http://www.ayyam.org/arabic/?p=15695‬‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬


‫ﺃﻭﺗﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﺗﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (Autocracy :‬ﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻁ"‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻧﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ )ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫"ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩﻳﺔ" ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮّﺏ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﻞﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻘﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1923‬ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺮﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﻮﺭﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺍﻷﺑﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻘﺐ "ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ"‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﺣﻜﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﻔﻮﺫﻫﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻼﺷﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﻭ ﺃﻗﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻋﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﻳﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﻜﻢ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺔ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺴﻄﻮﺍ ﻧﻔﻮﺫﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻳﺰﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼء‪ ،‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺒﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺘﻠﻮﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺜﻴﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ )‪:/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki‬ﺃﻭﺗﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺇﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪23‬‬

‫ﺇﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺛﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺗﺤﺪﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﻩ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻐﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻌﺾ]ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ؟["ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﻪ‪ ".‬ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻪ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻇﻞ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺭﺧﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻻﻧﺜﺮﻭﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺛﻘﺖ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﻨﻴﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﻨﺤﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺑﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﺣﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻟﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺇﺛﻨﻴﺔ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪-:‬‬ ‫==ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ‪ crisis Management‬ﻻ ﻳﺨﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻟﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء‪ ,‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍءﺓ ﻣﺘﺄﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﻔﻀﻲ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻤﺲ ﺧﻴﻂ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻧﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻛﻔﻮءﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺻﻠﺐ ﻋﻮﺩﺍ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺠﺖ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﺍ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺆﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﻜﻜﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮء ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﻘﺎء ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺤﺪﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ‪ ,‬ﻓﺒﻴﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺛﻤﺔ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺸﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﺤﻔﺰ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎءﺍﺕ ﺑٍﻜﺮ ﺗﻤﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ,‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﻄﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻘﺒﻼ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻀﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺨﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ )‪ (scher mehorn‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺮ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺯﻱ( ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺼﺮ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪abomisbah‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺟﺒﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎً ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ "ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍً ﺧﻄﺮًﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌًﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ")‪ .(81‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔًﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺗﻪ ﻣﻨﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺪﺭًﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻋﺮّﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮﻩ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﺩ ﺑﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻱ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺟﺒﺮ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.3‬ﺗﻬﺪﺩ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.4‬ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.5‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻮﻩ ﺳﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎً ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ "ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺠﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺠﻨّﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ")‪ .(46‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮﻩ ﻓﻌﺮّﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ "ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺑﺤﺚ ﺃﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ")‪ .(25‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺤﻒ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ " ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻬﺪﺩ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺧﻄﻴﺮﺓ ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﻘﺎءﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ")‪ .(20‬ﻭﻋﺮّﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼً‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﺆ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﺑﻬﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺲ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺲ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺒﺊ ﺑﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﻼﻝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.3‬ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍء ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻄﻂ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻠﻮﻟﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.4‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺒّﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻖ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻻﺣﻘًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻛﻤﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻛﻤﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﻭﻱ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﺷﺘّﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤُـﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻓﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺄﺯﻡ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻄﺎء ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﻭﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻼً ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺧﻄﻂ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻨﻬﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺮﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻧﺤﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳُـﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠّﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻼﻓﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﻓﻌّﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺟﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ‪ KANPAN‬ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺟﺒﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ‪ Stimulate the crisis‬ﻭﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤّﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺋﻤًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﺐ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﻦ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻮﺳﻌﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ ,‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﻣﻔﻌﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺪﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ‪ ,‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺋﻖ")‪ .(92‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺟﺒﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻼً " ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ ,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳُـﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺭًﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺨﺎﻭﻑ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ")‪ .(93‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﺪﻗﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻤّﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ "ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻤّﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‪ ,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭُﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ )ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍء ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ( ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻤّﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻫﻲ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﻬﻮﺩًﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ")‪ .(798-799‬ﻭﻋﺰﻯ ﺩﻗﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ "ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﻋﺎﺕ" ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻼ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻗﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻠﻖ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻓﻼ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻴﻎ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪًﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣًﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪24‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻓﻌّﺎﻝ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻲ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭًﺍ ﻭﺍﺳﻌًﺎ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻌًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ"‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺒًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻨﺒﺌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺻﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﺐ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ ,‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ)‪ (2019‬ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2006‬ﻋﻦ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﺎﺣﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻔﻲ ﺳﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻓﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﻭﺍﺟﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺃﻏﻨﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺤﺮﻙ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎً ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺇﺧﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﻣًﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺴﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﻭﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﻮﻝ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻹﺧﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺗﻄﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﺭﺍﻣﻜﻮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺴﺮﺏ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺨﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻤﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺳﺒّﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺍً ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ )ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺩﻳًﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺗﻮﻋﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺮﻱ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﺗﻤﺎﻣًﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺭﻣﻲ ﺟﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺍ ﺩﻗﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻤّﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﻳﻤﻜّﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.2‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺟﺰءًﺍ ﻫﺎﻣًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.3‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺭﺵ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.4‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.5‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻌّﺎﻝ ﻟﻺﻧﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻟﻤُﺴﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺭﺵ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﻳﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻴﻢ ﺍﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ‪ ,‬ﻭﺍﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺻﻼﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻱ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺑﺎء ﺍﻭﺍﻱ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺻﺤﻲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪25‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫• ﻛﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﺧﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺯﻣﻮﻱ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺑﺨﺲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻠﻮﻟﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻣﺎﻡ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﺟﻬﺪﻩ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺸﺄﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻧﺒﺜﻘﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻻﺟﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ؟‪،،‬‬ ‫• ﻋﺰﻝ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺻﺪ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﺰﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪-:،‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻬﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﺗﻌﺒﻮﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺑﺸﺮﻱ‪.‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺅﻭﺳﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻮﺍء‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺿﻴﻖ ﻭﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪.،‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻜﺘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻔﻚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺠﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻓﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻬﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺰﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻮﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺧﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺿﺮﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺯﻋﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﺘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻜﻤﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﺪﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻔﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍء ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍء ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻄﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﺩ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺈﺑﺪﺍء ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﺧﺘﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎﻩ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺩﻟﻴﻼ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺑﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺬ ﺑﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺰﻝ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺤﺎﻝ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻤﻨﺄﻯ ﻭﻣﻌﺰﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﺮّﺿﺔ ﻟﺤﺪﻭﺙ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ "ﺇﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺗﻤﺎﻣًﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﺔ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ")‪ .(59‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ "ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀًﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒًﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺴﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻣﺎ")‪ .(85‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻳﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺿﻌﻔﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻊ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺳﺖ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﻂ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﻧﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ)‪ (72.4%‬ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻓﻖ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﻟﻤﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻭﺣﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺻﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﺗﺘﻼءﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎء ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺒًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺼﺮ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪ 72.4%‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻈﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤُـﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ "ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ ‪risk‬‬ ‫‪ avoider‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﻴﺆ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻓﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﺑﻬﺘﻬﺎ ‪ risk taker‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ")‪.(37‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻤﻌﻬﺪ ﺧﺎﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ "ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺺ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ ,‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻨﻮﻱ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻭﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺿﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 362‬ﻟﻘﻮﺍ ﺣﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺮﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1423‬ﻫـ )‪ (4%‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ )‪ (3%‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1424‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﺎﺝ )ﻭﺍﺣﺪ( ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺗﺠﻨﺒﺎً ﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺑﻮﻗﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎً ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎً ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﺃﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1959‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻱ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎً‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻳﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺝ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺁﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻧﺪﻭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ‪ ((virtual reality tour‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﻣًﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺝ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﺔ ﻷﺩﺍء ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻮﺩﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼً‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻣﺠﺴﻢ ﻟﻠﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺭﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﺮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻱ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺭﺏ ﻋﻤﻠﻴًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﻫﻤﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﻴﻦ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻺﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍء ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎً ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﺍً ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻋﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺒﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺑﻬﺎﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮﻥ ‪07903357918‬ﻧﺮﺟﻮ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭ ﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺧﺘﺎﻣًﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻬﺎ؟ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻴﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﻜﻴﺘﺶ ﻟﺨﺺ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ( ﺣﻴﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ "ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ"‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻳُـﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻛﻔﺎء ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﻹﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟّﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻔﻌﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺪﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻀًﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ‪ CRISIS PRONE‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ‪ .CRISIS PREPARED‬ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺏ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﺠﻴﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻨﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪28‬‬


‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺟﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،1999،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ 3.‬ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻀﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،1992 ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫‪ 4.‬ﺍﻻﻋﺮﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،1995 ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫‪ 5.‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‪/‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺨﻤﻴﺲ ‪ 15‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ‪/8 - 2008/‬ﺟﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪1429/‬‬ ‫‪ 6.‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺤﻒ‪ ,‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪.1999 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 7.‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻬﺎ؟‪ 30 .‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪) .2006‬ﻟﻢ ﻳُـﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ(‪http://www.al-jazirah.com.sa/magazine/29102002/aj7.htm .‬‬ ‫‪ 8.‬ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ‪ ,‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ‪" .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ )ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ(‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ‪ 39‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪.1999‬‬ ‫‪ 9.‬ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﺷﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺑﻮﻇﺒﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.1997 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 10.‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺤﻲ‪ ,‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻼﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺤﻴﺔ‪ 2 .‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪.2006‬‬ ‫‪prog=ARP&yr=22&http://www.srdb.org/Arabic/printer1.asp?ID=83‬‬ ‫‪ 11.‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ‪ ,‬ﺭﺟﺎء ﻳﺤﻴﻰ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪) .‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺍﺕ( ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺧﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﻷﺑﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ‪ 30 .‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪2006‬‬ ‫‪http://www.minshawi.com/other/r.shareef.htm‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴﻞ‪ ,‬ﺑﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯَﻣَﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪ 30 .‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪2006‬‬ ‫‪artid=5221&catid=99&http://www.islamtoday.net/articles/show_articles_content.cfm?id=98‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺑﻌﻴﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.1991 ،‬‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺟﺒﺮ‪ ,‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ‪" .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ"‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 21‬ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ 76‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪.1999‬‬ ‫‪ 3.‬ﺣﻮﺍﺵ‪ ,‬ﺟﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‪.1999 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 4.‬ﺩﻗﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺟﻲ‪" .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻤّﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ"‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ‪ 39‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪.2000‬‬ ‫‪ 5.‬ﺷﺮﻳﻒ‪ ,‬ﻣﻨﻰ ﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻘﺎء‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.1998 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 6.‬ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪ ,‬ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.2002 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 7.‬ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ )‪ 11 .(2019‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪http://www.alwatan.com.sa/daily/2006-04-10/first_page/first_page12.htm .2006‬‬ ‫‪ 8.‬ﺻﺪﺍﻡ‪ ,‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 26‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ 97‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.2004‬‬ ‫‪ 9.‬ﻋﻠﻴﻮﻩ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ)‪ .(2‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪.2004 ,‬‬ ‫‪ 10.‬ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪) http://dssworld.jeeran.com/new_page_11.htm .‬ﻟﻢ ﻳُـﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء‪) http://www.moqatel.com/openshare/Behoth/Ektesad8/azamat/index.htm .‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻤﻴﻞ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﺰﻭﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻌﺔ(‬

‫‪29‬‬


‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪Narcoterrorism‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪Anarchist‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫‪Eco-terrorism‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻴﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Hijacking‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺨﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻄﺎﻑ‬ ‫‪Bioterrorism‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪Fronts‬‬ ‫‪Lone-wolf‬‬

‫ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫]‪[5][4][3][2][1‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺷﻌﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫]‪[9][8][7][6‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ "ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ" ﻭ "ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺭﺍء‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﻒ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻇﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ".‬ﻭﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ "ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻋﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺿﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻤﻦ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺿﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻏﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺎﻩ‪ .[10].‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫]‪[11‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﺗﻦ ﻏﻮﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺻﺪ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ "ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻋﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫ﺏﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺇﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‪" .‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪2nd ed.). Cambridge) (pg=PA265&http://books.google.com/books?id=74Zmct-7hGIC) Handbook of International Law .(Aust, Anthony (2010 [1‬‬ ‫‪ .University Press‬ﺹ‪. .9780521133494 ISBN .265 .‬‬ ‫]‪.Encyclopædia Britannica .(http://www.wip.britannica.com/eb/article-217762/terrorism) Terrorism [2‬‬ ‫]‪(pg=PA4&http://books.google.com/books?id=D0icvm2EQLIC) p. 4 :Seldin & So, 2003 [3‬‬ ‫]‪Martin, 2006: p. 111[4‬‬ ‫]‪The provisional Irish Republican Army and the morality of terrorism .(Shanahan, Timothy (2009 [5‬‬ ‫)‪ .Edinburgh University Press .(pg=PA195&http://books.google.com/books?id=pBRhmBsVrHMC‬ﺹ‪. .9780748635306 ISBN .195 .‬‬ ‫]‪http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=29633[6‬‬ ‫]‪http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=31267[7‬‬ ‫]‪http://english.pravda.ru/opinion/columnists/01-12-2010/116016-UN_unable_to_define_terrorism-0/[8‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.un.org/terrorism/ruperez-article.html[9‬‬

‫]‪[4‬‬

‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬ ‫]‪[8‬‬ ‫]‪[9‬‬

‫]‪The Claremont ,By Harvey C. Mansfield (http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.762/article_detail.asp) "Those Hell-Hounds Called Terrorists" [10‬‬ ‫‪Institute,' posted November 28, 2001‬‬ ‫]‪Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy in the (/http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/terrorism) "Terrorism" ;(Primoratz, Igor (2007 [11‬‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫‪Martin, 2006: p. 83‬‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻮﻳﻜﻴﺒﻴﺪﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﻮﻳﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎء ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻚ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻤﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ_‪2011‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ‪ Strategy‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻭﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣُﺴﺒﻘﺎً ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮء ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ‪ ،Strategy‬ﻫﻲ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ‪ Strato‬ﻭ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ‪ Strategos‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﻦ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺘﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺻﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ‪...‬ﺍﻟﺦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺒﺖ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎً ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻮﺫﺕ ‪-‬ﻛﺴﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻧﻤﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﻛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺮﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻏﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺭﻭﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺮﺏ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻧﺸﻮء ﻓﺮﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺻﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ )ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ( ﺃﻭ )ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺑﻲ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﻪ ﻫﻲ ‪ -1 :‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪-2 .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ -3 .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ )ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺍ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺁﻧﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻳﻪ ﺑﻮﻓﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻛﻼﻭﺗﺰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ )ﻓﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻙ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ( ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ )ﺍﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ( ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ )ﻓﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ(*‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ )ﻓﻦ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ _ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ_ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺪﺍءﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﻴﻴﻦ *(ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺍﻧﺪﺭﻳﻪ ﺑﻮﻓﺮ ﺑﻨﻬﺎ )ﻓﻦ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺗﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺒﻠﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻔﻜﺮﻳﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺣﺪﺍﺛﺔ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﺤﻖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﻩ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔً ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻴﺮ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﻧﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻂ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ _ﺍﻱ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ _ ﺑﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻂ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫¬¬¬¬ ¬¬_ﺍﻱ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ _ﺑﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺳﻮﺍء ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ* ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺘﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺛﻤﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺳﺒﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺣﺴﻤﺎً ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻑ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ )ﻓﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺭﻳﻪ ﺑﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻭ )ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻙ(ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻱ ﺍﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻢ )ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻦ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ )ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺼﻔﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻴﻦ ﻟﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻓﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻟﻨﺨﻄﻄﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ * ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺛﻤﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻓﺜﻤﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺷـﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺁﻧﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓٌ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﺗﻀﺨﻢ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻧﺪ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻀﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎً ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻲ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻬﺎ‪*.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻼً ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻨﻜﺐ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﺰﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﺸﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺍﺯﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ ﻭﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﺘﻰ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺧﻄﻄﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻻﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻃﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﻘﺐ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺢ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩٌ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪33‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻹﺣﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺨﻄﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺠﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯً ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻤﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﺼﺮ ﻭﺃﻳﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺭﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﻭﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﻣﻌﺎً ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﻙ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻧﻤﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﻫﻞ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺍً ﺃﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻴﺎً ﻣﺨﺎﺗﻼً‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻴﻚ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺎً ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺎﺳـﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻻ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﻲ ﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻭﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻛﺎﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻭﻛﺒﻴﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻥ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺣﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻺﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎء ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻼﻭﺯﻓﺘﺰ ﺑﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺛﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺍﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻭﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻱ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺪﻯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻼﺋﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ ﻟﺰﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﻴﺖ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﻭﻋﺰﻳﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺮ ﻧﺪﺭﻳﻪ ﺑﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ )ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ‪:‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﺑﺨﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻑ ﻳﺠﺒﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ(*‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺎ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺸﺘﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻗﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻛﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺰﺍء ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺂﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺟﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﻓﺮ )ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻼﺋﻤﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺘﻼﺋﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺻﺎﺋﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺆﺭ ﺻﺎﺋﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﻴﻦ ﻭﺯﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻃﻼﻣﺰﻓﺘﺰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ -1 :‬ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‪ -2 .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‪ -3 .‬ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ -1 :‬ﻣﻜﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ -2 .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺿﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ -3 .‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎ‪ -4 .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺿﻌﻒ‪ -5 .‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺑﺔ‪ -6 .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻼﺋﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪-7 .‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﺝ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﺍﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﺳﺎ‪ -8 .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺴﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺨﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪34‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺎﻭﺗﺲ ﺗﻮﻧﻎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ -1 :‬ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻣﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‪ -2 .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪ -3 .‬ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ‪ -4 .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ -5 .‬ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ -6 .‬ﺗﻼﺣﻢ ﺗﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ -1 :‬ﺗﻼﺣﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ -2 .‬ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺧﺮﺍﺕ‪ -3 .‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪء ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺣﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﺒﺪﺃﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻫﻤﺎ‪-1 :‬‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻉ ﻣﺘﺪﺭﺝ‪ -2 .‬ﺭﺩﻉ ﻣﺮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺪﺃﻳﻦ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ -1 :‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ -2 .‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺁﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺎﺳﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺿﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻧﻠﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺭﻭﺛﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺖ ﻛﻔﺎﺡ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﺍﻥ ﻛﻼﻭﺯ ﻓﺘﺰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺩءﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﺒﺮﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺩء ﻟﻴﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﻋﻲ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻣﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻻ ﻣﺒﺮﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺎﺓ ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻣﺎﻭﺗﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻨﻜﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻗﺪﻣﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻣﺜﺎﻝ )ﺻﻦ ﺗﺴﻮ( ﻭﻋﻜﺴﺘﻔﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺠﺎﺭﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺫﻭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﺷﻌﺐ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻣﺎﻡ ﺟﺬﻭﺓ ﻫﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻧﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﻌﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺼﺖ ﺯﺧﻤﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻨﻔﻮﺍﻧﻬﻢ ﻓﺒﻞ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺨﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻃﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺩﺉ ﺁﻧﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﺛﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻋﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻢ ﻭﺍﻧﻬﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ *‪ ,‬ﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺧﺰ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺑﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺧﺰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺗﻴﺔ‪) :‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪ -‬ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ(‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ‪ /‬ﺍﺳﺎﻣﻪ ﺻﻼﺡ ﻗﺮﺍﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻴﺮﻧﻲّ )ﻣﻨﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ( ﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻲّ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻱ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎً ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺎً ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻧﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪(a‬ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ )ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ( ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻲ )ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻲّ( ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ )ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻓﺮﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻼﺗﻬﺎ( ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ )ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻮﻱ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ )ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻮﻳﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻲ )ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ( ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ )ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺻﻐﺮﻯ ﺍﻭﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺻﻐﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣﺪﻯ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ( ﺃﻭ )ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻲ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻠﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﺟﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺤﺴﻮﻡ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﻋﺒﺎء ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‪ ..‬ﺣﺘﻲ‬

‫‪35‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺟﻨﺪﻱ )ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ(‪ ..‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﺘﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻻ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﺧﺮ‪ ،، ،‬ﺗﻌﺒﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻻﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺳﺮﺍﻃﻲّ(‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (b‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﺠﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻮﺵ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻱ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺮﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻻﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺮﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺗﻤﻨﻊ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻄﻂ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻭﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(c‬ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻱ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻠﺘﺼﻖ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺨﻄﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲّ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (d‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺆﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻟﻼﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ( ﻻ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺍﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺨﻄﺔ ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺿﻔﻨﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ( ﻻﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﻓﻌﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻻﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻟﻤﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻃﺊ ﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫)ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ( ﻳﻔﻘﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻣﺪﻟﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻳﺨﻠﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ ‪،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ )ﺧﻄﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ( ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻓﺮﻉ ﻭﺍﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ )ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ – ﺃﺑﻨﻴﺔ – ﺻﺤﺔ – ﺍﻣﻦ – ﺷﺆﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ( ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺨﺼﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺧﻄﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲ ﺗﺎﻟﻲ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ )ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ )ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ( ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﻂ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻜﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻀﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﺎً ﺑﺎﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻭﺇﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻪ؛ ﻹﻟﻤﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍً ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺎً‪ :‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪء ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪36‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪37‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ‪ :‬ﺇﺫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺠﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ :‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺨﺪﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻤﺘﺪ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫• ﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ" ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ..‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ"‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪2012 ،‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ـ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‬ ‫• ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫• ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ )‪(id=8&http://www.t1t.net/index.php?action=cat‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪38‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪ · ‬ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء‪ · ‬ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺋﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﺎﻥ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪ · ‬ﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨّﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ · ‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‪ · ‬ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﺎء ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻭﻥ‪ · ‬ﺍﻷﺋﻤّﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨّﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻌﺔ ‪ · ‬ﺍﻹﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺯ‪ · ‬ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﺪﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻡ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻃﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‪ · ‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪ · ‬ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻝ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻄﻨﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪39‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬

‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺏﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ "ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ"‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ "ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﻴﻦ" ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ "ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻣﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﻓﻀﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻮﺿﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻬﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺧﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ "ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺛﻴﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺬﺍﻓﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎً‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺷﺄﻧﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﻤﻜﻨﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺏ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺠﺤﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪ 2001‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ "ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺰﺍً ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﺧﺼﺔ ﻟﺤﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﺃﻗﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻄﺮﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻲ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (Islamic Fundamentalism :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ "ﺇﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ" ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1994‬ﻡ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ " ﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ" ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﺸﺮ "ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ" ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ]‪ [1‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻴﺎً ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺧﻀﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ "ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﺮﻓﻮﻥ" ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪ 2001‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﻮء ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﻧﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻛﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻧﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺩﻋﺖ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ" ]‪ [2‬ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻏﺰﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﻮء ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ "ﻣﺠﺤﻔﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻜﻴﺎﻟﻴﻦ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺳﺒﻴﻨﺴﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﻻﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻩ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎً ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ" ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﻴﻨﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﻪ "ﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺴﻂ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍً ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻤﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺗﺎﺗﻮﺭﻙ ﺑﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺋﻪ ﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1924‬ﻡ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺑﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ "ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻜﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ" ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻧﺸﻮء ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺟﺎءﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻲ ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﻋﻈﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ]‪ [4‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫]‪[5‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻭﺇﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺎﻧﺪﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺎﻧﺪﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺩﻳﺎﺑﻮﻧﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ‪ 150‬ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﺩﻟﻬﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ )‪ (1898 - 1817‬ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻨﻔﻲ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﺍً ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎً ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1866‬ﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪ ,‬ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ,‬ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ,‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﻮء ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻗﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻧﺼﺢ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﺑﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺨﻄﻂ ﻹﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﺒﺮﻳﺪﺝ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ" ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻴﺎً ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1876‬ﻡ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﺭﺩﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺻﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻭﺱ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻤﻨﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﺍً ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﻮء ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ )‪ (1979 - 1903‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺍً ﺑﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﺎﻧﺪﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1941‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ "ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺖِ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﯽ" ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 53‬ﻣﻘﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪ 272‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻧﻲ‪].‬ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ[ ﻭﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺭﺧﻴﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺄﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻗﻄﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﺗﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ "ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1956‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1974‬ﻡ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻼﺕ ﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺟﺪﺓ‬ ‫]ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ[‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻁ ﻭﺇﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻭﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻮﺭﻭﻧﺘﻮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎً ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﻬﺪﻓﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺿﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪّﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺣﻤﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ]‪ [9][8‬ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺸﺪﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺳﺘﺎﺫﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻭﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻸﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ "ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻗﺪﻭﺗﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﺳﻤﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎ"‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪41‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ‪ 7‬ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺠﺮ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ ‪ 29‬ﺍﻏﺴﻄﺲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1966‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮء ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻴﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺝ ﻧﻬﺞ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻝ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ ]‪ [10‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺘﺒﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻭﻣﻬﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺸﻮء ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻨﺖ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺃﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻲ ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻋﺎﻃﻒ ﺻﺪﻗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1993‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪1995‬ﻡ ﻭﺳﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1998‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮﻱ ﺯﻋﻴﻤًﺎ ﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﻀﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ [11].‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺸﻮء ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻋﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﻋﺮﻓﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1953‬ﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺘﻤﺴﻜﺎُ ﺑﺄﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺨﺮﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪A.K.F .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺢ ﺿﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪1979‬ﻭ ‪ 1982‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺑﻤﺠﺰﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1992‬ﻭ‪ 2002‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍء‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻫﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺿﻴﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺸﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﻻ‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺮﺳﻚ ﻭﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺎً ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻧﻴﺠﻴﺮﻳﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﻦ ﻳُﻮﺻﻔﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ "ﻣﻼﺫﺍً ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ" ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻻﺩﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻓﺎﺯ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺑﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻃﻴﺐ ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2002‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪2001‬‬ ‫]ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪ 2001‬ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ[ ﻓﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺈﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﺎً ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎً ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻏﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2003‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻃﺎﺑﻌﺎً ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻨﻔﺎً‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﻬﻤﺎً‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻤﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺑﺪﻯ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺎً ﺟﺪﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺘﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺣﺐ ﺑﻬﺎ!‬

‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ "ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻱ" ﺃﻭ "ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻣﻲ" ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺼﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ"‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﺍﻡ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﺓ‪].‬ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ[ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻌﺒﺎً ﺟﺪﺍً ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻼً ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺑﺎﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻼﻋﻨﻒ‪ [13].‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ "ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻲ" ﻫﻮ "ﺻﻨﻴﻌﺔ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ" ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ "ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻛﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ" ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻮﺯ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ "ﺍﻻ ﺍﻋﻼﻧﺎ ﻣﺪﻭﻳﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍ ﺳﺎﺣﻘﺎ ﻟﻪ" ﻣﺸﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻃﻴﺐ ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻮﺷﻲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺠﻪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﺳﻴﻠﺴﻲ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻏﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ "ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﻮﻧﺎ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻧﺤﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻧﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺻﻔﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻨﺎ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫]‪[14‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0994/9409021.htm[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫]‪[5‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ )‪ (http://www.marxists.de/religion/harman/index.htm‬ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ﻛﺮﻳﺲ ﻫﺎﺭﻣﻦ‪) .‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ )‪ (/http://jihadwatch.org‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺗﺶ‪) .‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ )‪ (http://saaid.net/monawein/t/7.htm#3‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺑﻴﺔ" ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (http://www.alriyadh.com/2005/04/29/article60499.html‬ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪13458‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ )‪ (http://www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P001‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ‪) .‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ )‪ (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4424208.stm‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ‪) .‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬

‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬ ‫]‪ [8‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻟﻄﺮﺩ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ )‪ ،(http://www.islamtoday.net/nawafeth/artshow-89-9158.htm‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ 5 ،‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ‪2006‬ﻡ‬ ‫]‪" [9‬ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ" ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻨﻮﺏ ﻭﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ )‪ ،(http://www.islamonline.net/Arabic/news/2006-07/28/06.shtml‬ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻭﻥ ﻻﻳﻦ‪ 28 ،‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪2006‬‬ ‫]‪ [10‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ‪(Lang=E&System=PressR&http://www.ikhwanweb.com/Home.asp?zPage=Systems) .‬‬ ‫]‪[11‬‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫]‪[13‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ )‪) (http://www.newyorker.com/printables/fact/020916fa_fact2‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ )‪ (http://www.danielpipes.org/article/304‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺩﺍﻧﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺒﺲ‪) .‬ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ(‬ ‫‪filetype=html&filename=7273&leaf=06&http://www.epw.org.in/showArticles.php?root=2004‬‬

‫]‪ [14‬ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺔ‪ ..‬ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ )‪ - (http://ara.reuters.com/article/entertainmentNews/idARACAE54P0AT20090526?sp=true‬ﺭﻭﻳﺘﺮﺯ ‪ -‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ‫‪ 26‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‪ - 2009-‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ‪ 27‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‪2009-‬‬


‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫)‪،(cid=1122528601008&http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-Arabic-Ask_Scholar/FatwaA/FatwaA‬‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻭﻥ ﻻﻳﻦ‪ 4 ،‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﺒﺮ ‪2006‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ‪:‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ )‪ ،(http://www.saaid.net/Warathah/Alkharashy/m/55.htm‬ﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻣﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻰ )‪ ،(http://www.dr-emara.com/Books/112.pdf‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground‬‬ ‫)‪(http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1475928‬‬

‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺮﺍء‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﻟﻒ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﺟﺮﺍء ﻛﺈﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻭﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺟﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺴﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻟﻺﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻋﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ 1152‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﺿﺪ ﺭﻣﺴﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1768‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎء‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1917‬‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﻴﺮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻞ ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺛﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻀﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻓﻀﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺏ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺟﻠﻮﺱ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.(Sit-down strike :‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،(work-to-rule :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﺩﺍء ﻣﻬﺎﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻓﻀﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ " ﺃﻭ " ﺗﺒﺎﻃﺆ "‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﻖ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﻣﻘﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻘﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺏ " ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،(sympathy strike :‬ﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻒ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ ﺳﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺎﺗﺸﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1980‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻃﻼﺑﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ )ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ( ﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﺒﺪ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺳﻤﻌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻃﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍ ﺏ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﻛﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺑﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﺩﻋﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،(sickout :‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﻔﺎء‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪43‬‬


‫ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺨﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﺒﺎء ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺭﺉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻀﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻋﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺩﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻭﺑﺎﻏﻨﺪﺍ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫• ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1919‬‬ ‫• ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻹﻳﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫• ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫• ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻮﺱ‬ ‫• ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻃﻼﺑﻲ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ )ﺏﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،(La Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﺁﺏ‪/‬ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ‪ .1789‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺗُﻌﺮَّﻑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﺄﺛّﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻙ ﺭﻭﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﻥ ﻟﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻟﺘﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻧﺘﻴﺴﻜﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﺪّﺩ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء )ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ( ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺻﺎﻍ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﻴﺰ ﺩﻱ ﻻﻓﺎﻳﺖ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭُﺿِﻊ ﻛﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻫﺪﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎء ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴّﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻮّﻟﺖ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮّﻓﻪ ﺭﻭﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺴﻜﻴﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ‪ 3‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ ‪ /‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪ 1776‬ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﻓﺮﺟﻴﻨﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ‪ 12 ,‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪ /‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪ 1776‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﺎﻏﻪ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻣﺎﻳﺴﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫]]ﻣﻴﺪﻳﺎ‪[[:‬‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻮﻱ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻧﻮﺍﺓ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﻟﻲ‪ 6 .‬ﺃﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﺘﻴﻞ ﻭ‪ 3‬ﺃﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎء ﺍﻹﻗﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺑﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ‪:‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ - " .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﺘُﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ‪.‬‬


‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫"ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍً ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻭﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺗﺐ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﻀﻞ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻔﻀﻴﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ‪ - ".‬ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ )ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼء ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺘﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼء ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻨﺤﻪ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﺎ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ "ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪ ...،‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﻖ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ"‪ .‬ﻳﺪّﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻦ "‪...‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺣﺪًَ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ ".‬ﻓﺒﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﺎ "ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺭ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺁﻟﻴّﺎﺕ ﺷﺒﻴﻬﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻭﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﺮّﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺤﺪّﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ )ﻓﺮﻕ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻼء‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻌﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ(‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻳﺌﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺇﺩﺍﻧﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ "‪...‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺨﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ"‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫"ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗُﻨﻘﺾ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎءً ﺻﺮﻳﺤﺎً ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳُﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗُﻨﺰﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎً ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎً‪".‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﻂ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎء ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 5‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ ،1789‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺮﺳﺎﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻧﺴﺎء ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ "ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ" ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎء‪ .‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1791‬ﺗﻢ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1946‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪّﻣﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺴﺔ )ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﻓﻲ ‪ 4‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪ ،1958‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻐﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﺴّﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ 1789‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﻴّﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻧﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻠﻐﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﻟﻞﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻹﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗُﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻟﻼﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻷﻥ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺣﻖ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫• ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ]‪[1‬‬

‫ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺣﻤﻮﺭﺍﺑﻲ | ﻣﺎﺟﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺗﺎ | ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ | ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ | ﺍﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ | ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ | ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ | ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ | ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ | ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ | ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻲ | ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ | ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ | ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ | ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ | ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ | ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ | ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ | ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ | ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻭﺣﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ | ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ | ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍءﺓ | ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ | ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ | ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻝ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ | ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ | ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ | ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ | ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ | ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ | ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ | ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ | ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ | ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ‬


‫ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺇﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‪ ἰδέα :‬ﺇﻳﺪﻳﺎ‪ » ,‬ﻓﻜﺮﺓ«‪ ,‬ﻭ ‪ λόγος‬ﻟﻮﻏﻮﺱ‪ » ,‬ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ,‬ﺧﻄﺎﺏ«( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺟﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ]‪ [1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻜﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﻨﺎﺣﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻤﺜﻼً ﻳﻌﺮّﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻛﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﺴﻘﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ )ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ( ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﻳﺒﺴﻂ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺒﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ,‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻙ‪ -‬ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺰﻋﺔ ﻣﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﻔﻜﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻛﻘﻨﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻙﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﻜﺴﻪ ﻭﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻐﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺗﻄﻠﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺁﻣﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺭﻣﺰﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻮّﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﻄﺌﻪ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻤﺲ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻖ ﻳﻀﻢ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺇﻟﺦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺜﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﺍً ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﺩﻋﺎءﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﻤﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻌﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻸﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﺧﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﻭِﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻷﻧﻤﺎﻁ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺁﺧﺬﺍً ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺍً ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺎً ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﺍً ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺎً ﻭﺣﻀﺎﺭﻳﺎً ﻭﻓﻜﺮﻳﺎً‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﻳﻼﺭﺩﺍ‪.‬ﻣﻮﻟﻨﺰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻫﻴﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻜﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻭﺑﺴﺘﺮ )‪(http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Arabic/%D9%81%D9%83%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9‬‬

‫‪http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281943/ideology‬‬


‫ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺄﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻀﻄﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﻒ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻄﺮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﻒ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍً ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔً ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻷﻱ ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻹﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻷﻱ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 45‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻜﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻜﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﻪ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1977‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺝ‪.1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺝ‪.1‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ )‪:/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki‬ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻼء ﺟﻴﺶ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻏﺰﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪.‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺎً ﻭﺍﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺛﺎﺭﺓً ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫• ﻧﺎﻏﻮﺭﻧﻲ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﺑﺎﺥ ‪ -‬ﻣﺤﺘﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻣﻴﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺫﺭﺑﻴﺠﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫• ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻜﺒﺔ ‪ 1948‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺴﺔ ‪ 1967‬ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻻﻥ‪:‬ﻫﻀﺒﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺴﺔ ‪ 1967‬ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺠﺮﻱ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻻﺳﻌﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫• ﺳﻴﻨﺎء‪ :‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺪﺕ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺪﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﺐ ﺩﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻮﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﺘﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺟﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻻً‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﻠﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﻜﻠﺘﺮﺍ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫• ﻛﺸﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫• ﻗﺒﺮﺹ‬ ‫• ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺷﻌﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻃﺎ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻭﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻫﺪﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺠﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﻧﺸﻮﺏ ﺃﻱ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﺴﻠﺢ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻞﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺼﻪ ﺑﻤﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻻﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺟﻴﺒﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ " ﺍﺿﻤﺤﻼﻝ ﻭﺳﻘﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ " ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1776‬ﺗﻠﺨﺺ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ )ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺣﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﺑﻼ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ(ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻟﻤﺪﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺒﻬﻢ ﺃﻣﺮﺍً ﺻﻌﺒﺎً‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺑﺮﻭﺯﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﺻُﻤﻤﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻮﺿﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂﺕ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺗﺐ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺟﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼً ﻫﻲ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ( ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﻘﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎء ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺐ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ "ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ" ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﺒﻘﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺒﻬﻢ ﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺗﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﻟـ"ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ" ﻓﺈﻥ ﻻﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻴﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻼً ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﺪﺩﺍً ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻛﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ‪ 15‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻹﻓﻼﺱ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﻘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺇﺟﺘﺎﺯﻭﺍ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ )ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ( ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‬

‫‪49‬‬

‫ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺁﻝ ﻏﻮﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺟﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﻮﺵ ﻟﻼﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻪ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎً ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺇﺗﺨﺬﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍً ﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﻬﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻫﻼ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﺪﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﺴﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪ 96‬ﻭ ‪ 100‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ .1867‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺣﻖ ﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ )ﺭﻏﻢ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺇﺫ ﺗﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﻦ ‪ 75‬ﺳﻨﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﺗﺤﺪﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ )ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ(‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1982‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺇﺳﺘﻘﺎﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ )ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ )‪ (11‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻻﻙ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1985‬ﺇﺗﻀﺢ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 1997‬ﺗﺤﻮﻻً ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺆﻫﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺮﻓﺎً ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺎً ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻭﻥ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺑﻤﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺿﻤﻨﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﺒﺎﺟﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ .1867‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫] ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ‪)[http://www.hrinfo.net/egypt/easd/‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪(.11/2/2006،‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺧﻀﺮﺍء‪ · ‬ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ · ‬ﻃﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪50‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ )ﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻴﻦ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ )ﻛﻮﻣﻨﺘﺮﻥ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺫﻳﺔ‪ · ‬ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻻﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺃﻣﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ · ‬ﻧﻔﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ؛ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻷﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ]‪.[1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ )ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ(؛ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ]‪ .[3‬ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺗﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺣﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎً ﺑﺪﻳﻼً ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎً ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻏﻮﺳﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻣﺞ ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ )ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ(]‪.[4‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ )ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ( ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻳُﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪ [5].‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﻰ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﺳﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻨﺴﺎﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻮﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﻫﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺘﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺛﺮﻭﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻐﻼﻟﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺨﻠﻖ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻃﺒﻘﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ]‪ ،[6‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ]‪ ،[7‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺿﺎء ﻭﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻛﻢ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺆﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎء ﻭﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺒﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺨﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ]‪ .[8‬ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﻜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻷﺟﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻹﺭﺿﺎءﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﻳﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻴﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻭﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﺑﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ)ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺎً‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،Mutualism‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻻﻧﺠﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ‪.20‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺪﻳﻼ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ )ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ( ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﻤﻴﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺕ ﺗﺤﻘﻘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﺎﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ )ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﺳﺒﻖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝﺑﺮﻭﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﻳﺲ ﺑﻮﻧﺎﺑﺮﺕﻏﺮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ )‪(1844‬ﺃﻃﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻓﻮﻳﺮﺑﺎﺥ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻻﻏﺘﺮﺍﺏ‪ · ‬ﺑﺮﺟﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪Base and superstructure‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫‪Commodity fetishism‬‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ · Exploitation‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ · Ideology‬ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫‪ · Reification‬ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻧﻤﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪(Commodity (Marxism‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ )ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ(‬ ‫‪Capitalist mode of production‬‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ · ‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ · ‬ﻓﺎﺋﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺄﺟﻮﺭ‪Immiseration · ‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻂ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Stateless communism‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Libertarian Marxism‬‬ ‫‪Marxist autonomism‬‬ ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺑﻲ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺷﺎﺑﺎ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪53‬‬

‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ‪ · ‬ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻛﺎﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ‪ · ‬ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺴﺘﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﻠﻴﺨﺎﻧﻮﻑ‪ · ‬ﺭﻭﺯﺍ ﻟﻮﻛﺴﻤﺒﻮﺭﻍ‬ ‫ﻓﻼﺩﻳﻤﻴﺮ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ‪ · ‬ﺟﻮﺯﻑ ﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ‪ · ‬ﻣﺎﻭﺗﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﻧﻎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﻜﻔﻮﺭﺕ ‪ · ‬ﻟﻮﻱ ﺃﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻟﻮﻛﺎﺵ ‪Karl Korsch · ‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻄﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺸﻲ ‪Antonie Pannekoek · ‬‬ ‫ﻏﻲ ﺩﻳﺒﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪more‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫‪All categorised articles‬‬

‫•‬

‫‪Categories‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍً‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺃﻧﺠﻠﺰ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻭﻋﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﺐ )ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ( ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺐ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺟﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﺰﻉ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎً ﻵﺭﺍء ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻭﺃﻧﺠﻠﺰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎء ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬٍ ﺳﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‪) :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﺤﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﺤﺪﺩ‬ ‫]‪[9‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻴﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ )ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻪ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ (1871‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻴﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺃﻧﺠﻠﺰ ﻭﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ "ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ‪ ".‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ "ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‪ ".‬ﻭﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫]‪[11][10‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗُﺴﺎﻕ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ( ﺃﻧﺸﺄﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﺳﻠﻊ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ )ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫]‪[12‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺠﻠﺐ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﺒﺮﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻭ "‪-‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺟﻼً ﺃﻡ ﺁﺟﻼً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ".‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺴﻴﻨﻬﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺘﻨﺪﺛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﻣﺎﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺇﻣﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻛﺎﻳﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺠﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮﺍً ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ "ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻻﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ"‪ .‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻛﺎﻳﻢ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺮﻓﺾ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻰ ﺗﺸﻲ ﺟﻴﻔﺎﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﻀﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻹﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﻓﻼﺣﻲ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﻔﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻴﻔﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ " :1956‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﻱ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫]‪[13‬‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑُﻨﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻰ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪".‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻃﻮﺑﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﺤﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔً ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺍﻧﻐﻠﺰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ" ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﺃﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪-‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﺏ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺯﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻹﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺒﻘﺎً ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ‪" ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺟﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺣﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻘﺒﺮﻩ"‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻴﺮﻧﺸﺘﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﺘﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺠﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺸﻌﻼً ﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺛﻮﺭﺷﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻠﺒﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻤﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﻰ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤُﺜﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻼً ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻻً ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ )ﻧﻴﻮ ﻫﺎﺭﻣﻮﻧﻲ ‪.(New Harmony‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﻮﻥ ‪-‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺍﻣﻰ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺳﺘﻔﺸﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺠﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﺩ ﻋﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻓﺎً ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻩ ﺛﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻻﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺠﺪﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎً ﻹﺭﺳﺎء ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﺧﻼﻓﺎً ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ -‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﺷﻮﻣﺒﻴﺘﺮ ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﺒﻠﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎً ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎً ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺠﺰء ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﺂﻛﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻳُﻬﺠﺮ ﻭﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺭﺍﻏﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﻮﺭﺷﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﺒﻠﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﻋﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﻭﻓﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻦ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺜﻞ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﺘﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺪﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺎﻟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪54‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪55‬‬

‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﻟﻲ ﺟﺪﺍً ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺭﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﺪ ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻜﻔﺎءﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻸﺳﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻄﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻮﻱ ﻓﺮﺹ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺎً ﺑﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﻨﺢ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩﺍً ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺕ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻻﻳﻤﻨﺢ ﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﻠﻲ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻤﺜﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺂﺭﺍء‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﺿﺪﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻱ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻭﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻻﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﻮﻥ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ‪ .‬ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻮﺭﻱ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ "ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ‪ ,‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻛﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﺎً ﻭﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ )ﺑﻨﺎء ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﻮﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﺠﺤﺖ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻭﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﻃﻠﻴﻌﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻩ ﺛﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺳﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻘﻮﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻹﺭﺳﺎء ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ )ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻼ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ(‪ .‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺣﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻫﺮﻣﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺑﻼ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻼﺩﻳﻤﻴﺮ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺓ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﺟﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﺍ ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻀﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻴﻮﻻً ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺎً ﻛﺎﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﻣﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﻮﻧﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (Communalism :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺗﺴﻴﺒﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (Participism‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻳُﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﻴﺮﻭ ﻭﻟﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﻳﺒﺎﻭﺩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻝﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،1827‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺼﻮﺭ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃَﻗَﺮَ ﻣﺰﺩﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻُﺮﺡَ ‪-‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ -‬ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺍﻣﻰ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺟﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺗﻜﻨﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻮﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻍ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻊ ﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺣﺒﺬ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﻜﺎﻓﺄ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﺎً ﻟﻠﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﻣُﺴﺎﻕ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺠﺴﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻃﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﻫﻮﺩﺟﻜﻦ ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻟﺰ ﻫﺎﻝ ﺃﺭﺳﻮﺍ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺭﻳﻜﺎﺭﺩﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺗُﻘﺮﺏ ﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺴﺪﺓ‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺗﺐ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎً( ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﻊ ﻛﺨﺼﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ‪-‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻝ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻴﺮ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﺑﺮﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﺑﻼﻧﻚ ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻟﺰ ﻫﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ‪ -‬ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻗﻊ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺒﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻛﺮﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﺤﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻧﻤﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﺭﻝ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻟﻨﺴﺘﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﺘﺮﻡ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻤﺘﻌﺎً ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﺟُﺮﺑﺖ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻳﻦ ﻭﻓﻮﺭﻳﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻤﺪﺓ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪Intentioanal :‬‬ ‫‪ (communties‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﻗﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺎً‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻭﺷﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﺪ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﺴﺘﺎﻧﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺎً ﻭﺳﻤﻌﻴﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺛﻮﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﺳﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1848‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻧﻐﻠﺰ " ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ".‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻳﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﺘﺮﻣﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ "ﺗﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ" ﻳﺸﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺑﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﻓﻴﻠﻬﻠﻢ ﻓﺎﻳﺘﻠﻴﻨﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪56‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪57‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ( ﺻﺎﻏﻪ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺧُﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺗﻀﺨﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺑﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻼً ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1864‬ﻋُﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1865‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺠﻴﻨﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍً ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺟﺎءﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻖ ﻣﻴﺨﺎﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻛﻮﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ )ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ( ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1868‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻄﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻛﻮﻧﻴﻦ ﻛﺮﺅﻭﺱ ﻟﻠﻤُﻌَﺴﻜﺮَﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎً ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻄﻄﻬﻢ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﺗﻬﻢ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺴﺪﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻭﺃﻧﻐﻠﺰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1889‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ 384‬ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎً ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ ‪ 300‬ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺻﻴﻐﺖ "ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ" ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﺃﻧﻐﻠﺰ ﻛﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1893‬ﻃﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1917‬ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ‪1936‬‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1917‬ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺷﺒﺎﻁ‪/‬ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ‬ ‫‪ ،1917‬ﺗﻔﺠﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻭﺳﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺖ )ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ(‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﻓﻼﺩﻳﻤﻴﺮ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎ ﻣُﻨﺎﺩﻳﺎً "ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴُﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻓﻴﺖ‪ ".‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪/‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ ﺣﺰﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺷﻔﺔ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ )ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ( ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﺩ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ﻣﻌﺎً ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪/‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻨﻮﻉٍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋَﻜَﺲَ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤُﺘﻤﺮﺳﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﺗُﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪/‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1918‬ﺻﺮﺡ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘﺮﺳﺒﻴﺮﺝ " ﻓﻠﺘﺤﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ!" ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣُﻼﻙ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻳﺮﺓ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻼﺩﻳﻤﻴﺮ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ‪ 26‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪/‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1918‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡٍ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﻢ "ﺗُﻄﻮﻯ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤُﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ"‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤُﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤُﻨﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺸﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﻠﻔﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﺎﻧﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻢ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻓﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻓﻴﻜﺘﻮﺭ ﺗﺸﻴﺮﻧﻮﻑ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎً ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺸﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻻﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺖ ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺖ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺷﻔﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺃُﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺣﺰﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ ﺣﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﺪﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺸﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪/‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪ 1918‬ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎً‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤُﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 1917‬ﻟـ ‪ .1923‬ﺷﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ‪ ،1919‬ﻧﻈﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﻻﺣﺰﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1920‬ﻫﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻭﺗﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳُﻤﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻇﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋَﻠِﻢ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﺓ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ )ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ( ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﺭﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎء ﻟﻴﻔﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺗﻬﻢ‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1922‬ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺟﺒﻬﺔ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﺘﺄﻫﺒﻴﻦ ﻟﻘﺎﺩﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃُﻧﺘﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﺑﺨﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻺﺯﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺣﻘﺎً ﻧﻤﻮ ﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1920‬ﺗﻢ ﺭﻓﻀﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1923‬ﺑﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺑﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺟﺒﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻀﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﻵﻟﺔ ﻗﻴﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﺟﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ ".‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺕ ﻟﻴﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪/‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪ ،1924‬ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻺﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ‪-‬ﻭﺑﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻦ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻻﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻨﻰ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤُﻬﻤﺶ ﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺭ ﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻦ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﺍﻧﺖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﺳﺘﻜﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺸﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪/‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1917‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﺳﺘﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻠﺖ ﻣﻌﺰﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣُﻌﺘﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺳﻴﺮﻻﻧﻜﺎ ﺟﻴﺚ ﺟَﻨَﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﺳﺘﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﻃُﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1951‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻼً " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺇﺗﺠﻬﺖ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺗﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍً‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ‪".‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1951‬ﺍﻋﺎﺩ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺮﺣﺖ "ﺷَﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﺍء ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪ ...‬ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻐﺎﻟﻄﺔً ﺃﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺳﻬﻤﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔً ﺷﻮﻫﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻻﻫﻮﺗﺎً ﺟﺎﻣﺪﺍً ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‪".‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﻤﺖ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺑﺄﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻣﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُﻼﻙ ﺃﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻋﻈﻤﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻪ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤُﺨﻄﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻭﻗﻌﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﺨﻄﻄﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺤﺘﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤُﺮﺷﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻﺣﻘﺎً ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪58‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪59‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1891‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1904‬ﺇﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﻋﻀﻮ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ؛ ﻛﺮﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻃﺴﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1945‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻠﻴﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘُﺨﺐ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻣﺘﺸﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﻴﻜﻮﺳﻠﻮﻓﺎﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺠﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﺗﻘﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1936‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1976‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ 1982‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1991‬ﻭﻣﻦ ‪ 1994‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .2006‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻُﺮﺡ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺎﺯ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﺮﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻃﺴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﺻﻼﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻔﺮﻳﺪﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1945‬ﺃﻧﻮﺭﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻔﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1948‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻃﻠﻲ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻭﺑﻨﻚ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻤﺖ ﺧﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1987‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃُﻣﻢ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪،1951‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻼﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﻨﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1974‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ .1979‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻄﻮﻧﻲ ﻛﺮﻭﺳﻼﻧﺪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1965‬ﺃﻥ ‪ 25‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃُﻣﻤﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﻣﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻮﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﺇﻧﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻤﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1967‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺼﺨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥ ﻭﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1977‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﻤﻴﻨﺖ ﺃﻃﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1945‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪1951‬‬

‫ﺯﻭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎً‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻟﻴﻦ ﻭﻳﻠﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺣﻠﻴﺐ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1946‬ﺑﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ "ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻴﻮﺯﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻮﻛﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﻭﺷﻮﺭﻳﺪﺗﺶ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﻭﻫﺎﺭﻭ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ؟" ﺻﺮﺡ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﺳﻴﺮﺓ ﻛﻠﻴﻤﻴﻨﺖ ﺃﻃﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻼً "ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺿﺨﻢ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻃﻠﻲ‪".‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺃﻳﺴﻠﻨﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻂ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻕ ﻳُﺼﻒ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺭﺧﺎءﺍً ﻭﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔً ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﻴﺔ]‪ .[14‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2008‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 67.5‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﻔﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪ 67.6‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻧﻤﺎﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 68.3‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔً ﺑﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 11.9‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ 7.7‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪ [15].‬ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﺎً ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍً ﺑﻪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ؛ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻴﺮﺍﻧﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ‪-‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ -‬ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺨﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ؛ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﻬﺠﺮ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤُﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1959‬ﺗﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺟﻮﺩﺳﺒﻴﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺾ ﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1980‬ﻣﻊ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﻴﻦ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﺭﻳﺠﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺭﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺗﺎﺗﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﻟﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﺟﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺿُﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺠﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻴﻴﻞ ﻛﻴﻨﻮﻙ ﺑﻬﺠﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻃﻔﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻡ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗَﻨﻜﺮ ﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺰﻭﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤُﻀﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 1984-1985‬ﺿﺪ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺣﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺟﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1989‬ﺑﺴﺘﻮﻛﻬﻮﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻘﺎء ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻣﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﻦ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻫﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‬ ‫]‪[16‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻃﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻠﻴﺮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1995‬ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺇﻱ ﻭﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1995‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺰﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﻳُﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﺳﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﻤﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﻙ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺟﻠﻨﺎ ﻛﻠﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ]‪".[17‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ "ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ".‬ﻭﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﺸﺪ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑـ "ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺆﺍﺧﺎﺓ" ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻛﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺑَﺠَﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﺮﺍﻋﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﺤﺜﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺃُﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 1999‬ﻛﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺗﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻟﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺒﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍً ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺣﺘﻀﻨﺖ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻋﻼﻡٌ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻌﻮﻡ ﺗﺸﻮﻣﺴﻜﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2003‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻗﻀﻴﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2007‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 2010‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻣُﺤِﻘﺎً]‪ [19].[18‬ﻧﺸﺮﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺗﺎﻳﻢ ﻣﻘﺎﻻً ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏُﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺩﺍﻓﻮﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .2009‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 2009‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻲ ﺑﻲ ﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ‪ 23‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﻠﻌﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺎء ﻗﺎﺗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 40‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ؛ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 50‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﻠﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺗُﺼﻠﺢ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﻠﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 22‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫‪61‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻟﻬﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﻟﻴﻮﺱ ﻧﻴﺮﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎً ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺎً ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺭﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺟﺎﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺟﻤﻌﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻘﺎً ﻟﻨﻴﺮﻳﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎً ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻟﻬﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻼ ﻛﻮﺗﻲ ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻯ ﺑﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻣﻴﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺴُﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺖ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺤﺮﺭﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2005‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،2007‬ﻋﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻄﺖ‬ ‫ﺩَﻓﻌَﺔ ﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻮﺍﺥ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﺑﻬﺎﻻﻟﻲ ﺑَﻴﺰﻣﺠﻮﻧﺪﻭﻟﻮ ﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺿﺪ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃُﺗﻬﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﺤﺮﺭﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻻﻭﺱ ﻭﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍً ﻋﻦ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺻﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﻳﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻛﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗُﻮﻇﻔﻬﺎ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺻﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳُﻠﻄﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﺞ ﺷﻴﺎﻭ ﺑﻴﻨﺞ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺴﺤﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻴﺨﺎﺋﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺭﺑﺎﺷﺘﻮﻑ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﺳﺘﺮﻳﻜﺎ( ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺩﻳﻨﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻇﻪ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤُﺮﺷﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻇَﻠَﺖ ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺓ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻭﻧﻴﺒﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎء ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺠﺪﺩ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﺍُﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺎﻛﻮﻣﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻔﺎﺭﺍﺝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2008‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻟﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺍﻣﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻮﺷﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﺔ‪ [20]،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻯ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﺪ ﻧﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﻟﺤﺎﻓﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻷﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ [21].‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻳﺼﺮﺣﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫]‪[22‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍً ﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 0-415-24187-1. "In order of[1‬‬ ‫‪increasing decentralization (at least) three forms of socialized ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or‬‬ ‫‪".socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists, by Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell. 1998. From "The[2‬‬ ‫‪Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism" (P.61-63): "More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is‬‬ ‫‪run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs...Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist‬‬ ‫‪society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under‬‬ ‫‪conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology... It‬‬ ‫‪seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money‬‬ ‫‪,than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication‬‬ ‫‪".would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality‬‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪Roosevelt, Frank; David Belkin (1994). Why Market Socialism?. M.E. Sharpe, Inc.. p. 314. ISBN 1-56324-465-9. "Social democracy[3‬‬ ‫‪achieves greater egalitarianism via ex post government taxes and subsidies, where market socialism does so via ex ante changes in patterns of‬‬ ‫‪".enterprise ownership‬‬ ‫]‪Market socialism," Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford University Press 2002; and "Market socialism" The Concise" [4‬‬ ‫‪Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003. See also Joseph Stiglitz, "Whither‬‬


‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

62

.20th century economists Oskar R–Socialism?" Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995 for a recent analysis of the market socialism model of mid .Lange, Abba P. Lerner, and Fred M. Taylor [5] :Ferri, Enrico, "Socialism and Modern Science", in Evolution and Socialism (1912), p. 79[5] Retrieved 2009-10-14. "Socialists complain http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551569/socialism. .Socialism. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009 [6] that capitalism necessarily leads to unfair and exploitative concentrations of wealth and power in the hands of the relative few who emerge ".people who then use their wealth and power to reinforce their dominance in society—victorious from free-market competition [7] .Marx and Engels Selected Works, Lawrence and Wishart, 1968, p. 40. Capitalist property relations put a "fetter" on the productive forces[7] [8] Marx, Karl Heinrich. Critique of the Gotha Programme, 1875[8] [9] (Marx, Karl. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, (1859[9] .Schaff, Kory (2001). Philosophy and the problems of work: a reader. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 224. ISBN 0-7425-0795-5 [10] [11] :Walicki, Andrzej (1995). Marxism and the leap to the kingdom of freedom: the rise and fall of the Communist utopia. Stanford, Calif [11] .Stanford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-8047-2384-2 [12] Karl Marx, Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859 [12] [13] ,At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria" speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers" [13] Algeria on 24 February 1965 [14] .Esping-Andersen, G. (1991). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press [14] .OECD - StatExtracts. 2009.Stats.oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-10-30 .(http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=UN_DEN) "Trade Union Density" [15] Progressive Politics For A Fairer World – Socialist International [16] .Labour.org.uk. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010 .(http://www.labour.org.uk/labour_policies) "Labour Party Clause Four" [17] [18] Hipwell, Deirdre (21 October 2008). "Karl Marx: did he get it all right?". London: The Times (UK) - Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved [18] .2011-10-30 [19] .Ian Bell (2008-09-17). "Capitalism has proven Karl Marx right again". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 2011-10-30 [19] .Von Mises, Ludwig (1990) (pdf). Economic calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth. Ludwig von Mises Institute [20] Retrieved 8 September 2008 http://mises.org/pdf/econcalc.pdf. .Heilbroner, Robert. "Socialism: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics | Library of Economics and Liberty". Econlib.org [21] .Retrieved 2011-10-30 http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Socialism.html. 119 ‫ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬،‫ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬،‫[ ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﺞ ﻓﻮﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺱ‬22]

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‬ [1]

(2011_‫ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‬.

‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﺫ ] ﻻ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ[ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﺮ ﻳﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺼﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺿﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ‬, ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ .‫ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺎﻟﻲ‬.‫ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ‬.‫ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

[2]

.

‫ ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬،‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬


‫ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‬

‫‪63‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪title=%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%A7%D9%85&listby=suggest,title&interface=en&http://toolserver.org/~lvova/cgi-bin/go.sh?language=ar [1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬ﺍﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻓﺎﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎء ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻛﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﺤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺏﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻜﻮّﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ ﻓﺴﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺣﺮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﻯ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻠﺒﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﻯ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪ .‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻼﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2008‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ( ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻭﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﻭﺳﻄﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬

‫‪64‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎﻥ "ﺃﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﺭﻣﺎﻙ " ﻭﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻼﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ )ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ(‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﺊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺮﺧﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‪" .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺯﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﺬﺍﻙ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺮ ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﺭﻣﺎﻙ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ " ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ "‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺕ ‪ 1957‬ﻣﺎﺳﻜﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎء ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺪﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻌﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﺞ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺗﻌﺰﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺮﺳﻴﺪﺱ ﺑﻨﺰ ﻭﻓﻮﻟﻜﺴﻔﺎﺟﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﻳﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺳﻴﻤﻨﺰ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ...‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 19‬ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻼ ﻧﻮﻭﻳﺎ ﻷﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﻓﻤﻌﻈﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺰﺯﻫﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺏ ‪ 5‬ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺗﻜﺒﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ 200‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﺘﺸﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺮﺳﻴﺪﺱ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺎﺑﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍء‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺎﺙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺰﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮﺍﻣﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﺮﺗﺰﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻓﺘﻜﺒﺮ ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻊ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﺍء ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﻻٍﺳﻤﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻳﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪Duden Wirtschaft von A bis Z: Grundlagenwissen für Schule und Studium, Beruf und Alltag. 4. Aufl. Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut [1‬‬ ‫‪“Soziale Marktwirtschaft„ Stichwort ,Lizenzausgabe Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2009 .2009‬‬ ‫)‪(http://www.bpb.de/popup/popup_lemmata.html?guid=Y0VZ7J‬‬ ‫]‪München : Siedler, 2005 (Biografie). - ISBN .Ludwig Erhard : der Wegbereiter der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft :Alfred C. Mierzejewski [2‬‬ ‫‪.S. 59 .3-88680-823-8‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪Alfred Müller-Armack: Der Moralist und der Ökonom. Zur Frage der Humanisierung der Wirtschaft. In: Ders: Genealogie der Sozialen[3‬‬ ‫‪.Marktwirtschaft. 2. erw. Auflage. Haupt, Bern 1981. Zitiert nach: Lexikon Soziale Marktwirtschaft. Schöningh, Paderborn, S. 386‬‬


‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬

‫‪65‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ )‪:/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ(‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪66‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻓﺎﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎء ﺫﺍﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻛﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﺤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ )ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ (Soziale Marktwirtschaft‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺷﻜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﻔﺾ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﺮﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻢ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﺰﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ "Wirtschaftswunder‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﻨﺘﻪ ﺃﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍُﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺤﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺤﻪ ‪:‬‬


‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪67‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺇﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎﻥ "ﺃﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﺭﻣﺎﻙ " ﻭﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻼﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ )ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ(‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﺊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺮﺧﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‪" .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺯﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﺬﺍﻙ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺮ ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﺭﻣﺎﻙ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ " ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ "‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﻎ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭﺕ ‪ 1957‬ﻣﺎﺳﻜﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎء ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺪﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺒﻌﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻟﻮﺩﻓﻴﺞ ﺇﻳﺮﻫﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺗﻌﺰﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺮﺳﻴﺪﺱ ﺑﻨﺰ ﻭﻓﻮﻟﻜﺴﻔﺎﺟﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﻳﺮ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺳﻴﻤﻨﺰ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ...‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 19‬ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻼ ﻧﻮﻭﻳﺎ ﻷﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﻓﻤﻌﻈﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺰﺯﻫﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺏ ‪ 5‬ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺗﻜﺒﺮ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ 200‬ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﺘﺸﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺮﺳﻴﺪﺱ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺎﺑﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍء‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﺳﻤﺎﻙ ﻣﺜﻠﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺰﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮﺍﻣﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻟﻠﺪﺟﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﺮﺗﺰﻗﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﻓﺘﻜﺒﺮ ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺑﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻊ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻮﺍء ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﻻٍﺳﻤﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻳﻜﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻠﻴﻦ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻮﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺴﺒﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫‪68‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫• ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪Duden Wirtschaft von A bis Z: Grundlagenwissen für Schule und Studium, Beruf und Alltag. 4. Aufl. Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut [1‬‬ ‫‪“Soziale Marktwirtschaft„ Stichwort ,Lizenzausgabe Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2009 .2009‬‬ ‫)‪(http://www.bpb.de/popup/popup_lemmata.html?guid=Y0VZ7J‬‬ ‫]‪München : Siedler, 2005 (Biografie). - ISBN .Ludwig Erhard : der Wegbereiter der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft :Alfred C. Mierzejewski [2‬‬ ‫‪.S. 59 .3-88680-823-8‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪Alfred Müller-Armack: Der Moralist und der Ökonom. Zur Frage der Humanisierung der Wirtschaft. In: Ders: Genealogie der Sozialen[3‬‬ ‫‪.Marktwirtschaft. 2. erw. Auflage. Haupt, Bern 1981. Zitiert nach: Lexikon Soziale Marktwirtschaft. Schöningh, Paderborn, S. 386‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ) ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1952‬ﻡ‪1970-‬ﻡ ( ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻭﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻟﻔﻆ ) ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ( ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺣﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺮﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ‪1972/14/1‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎء ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1976‬ﻡ ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﺻﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻠﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ) ‪1970/2/10‬ﻡ (‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ " :‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﻨﺒﺮ ﻧﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1975‬ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﻪ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﺎﻧﻀﻢ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﻨﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻣﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺤﺰﺏ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ[ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ ‪/18‬ﺷﻮﺍﻝ‪1412/‬ﻫـ ) ‪1992/20/4‬ﻡ ( ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺿﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪4.‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺼﻼﺡ ‪ 920‬ﺍﻟﻒ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻼء ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،1954‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺟﻼء ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.1956‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫)‪ (1958-1961‬ﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﺆﺍﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻹﺟﻬﺎﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺿﺨﻢ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻴﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﺎﺭﻑ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ‪ 16‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪.1964‬‬

‫‪ 5.‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 6.‬ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﻴﺎﺯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻏﻮﺳﻼﻓﻲ ﺗﻴﺘﻮ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻲ ﺳﻮﻛﺎﺭﻧﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻱ ﻧﻬﺮﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 7.‬ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 8.‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻓﻼﺣﻮ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻔﻠﺤﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻤﺌﺘﻲ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪ 9.‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ )‪(1960‬‬ ‫‪ 10.‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ )‪(1961‬‬ ‫‪ 11.‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻼء ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،1954‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺟﻼء ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪.1956‬‬ ‫‪ 12.‬ﺑﻨﺎء ﺇﺳﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﺼﺮ)ﺳﺘﺎﺩ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎً(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 13.‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻛﻮﺭﻧﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 14.‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 15.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 16.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 17.‬ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺅﻩ ﻟﻠﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺗﻴﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻤﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ "ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ" ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪" .‬‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﻫﻢ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1948‬ﻭﺟﺮﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﺮﻗﺎ ﻟﻸﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻰ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺒﺮﺍﻳﺮ ‪ 1958‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻰ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺷﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺗﻠﻲ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺛﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺑﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻴﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1962‬ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 70‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺟﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺼﺮﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻘﻲ ﺩﻋﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﺪ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪ 1958‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺆﺍﺯﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻼﻃﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪.1958‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺴﺔ ﻧﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻫﺘﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻷﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮَّﺝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻌﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﻤﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺑﺘﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪" :‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺼﻼﺡ ‪ 920‬ﺍﻟﻒ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ"‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻓﺪﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻳﺨﻄﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺺ‪1961 ,‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺮﺑﺘﻠﻲ "ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺟﺬﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪314‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1952‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1140‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1965‬ﻭﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1635‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1970‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺮﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪ 34‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1952‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 133‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1970‬ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ" ﺃﻣﺎ ﺩ‪ .‬ﺇﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺻﺒﺮﻱ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ "ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ 282‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1952‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ‪ 2424‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ,1970‬ﻣﺴﺠﻼ ﻧﻤﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ‪ 11.4%‬ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 22%‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1970‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 9%‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪,1952‬ﻭﻭﻓﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺭﺧﻴﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ‪ 991‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 8113‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻭﺍﺕ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪ ".‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺩ‪ .‬ﺻﺒﺮﻱ "ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 75%‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺰﺍﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1.6‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 3.8‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﻋﺪﺍﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 250‬ﺍﻟﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1.500.000‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ 40‬ﺍﻟﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 213‬ﺍﻟﻒ"‪.‬‬

‫‪69‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻱ‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪.‬‬‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺛﺮﻭﺗﻪ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺮﺗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ ‪ % 99.5‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻓﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻟﻠﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺕ ﺏﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺲ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﻛﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺧﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺗﺨﺒﻄﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻔﺎء‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺯﻋﺰﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ "ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ "‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺏ ‪1948‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﺴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﺮﺑﻴﺎ ﺗﺤﺚ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺜﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﺇﺫﺍﻋﺔ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﻧﻲ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺃﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1941‬ﺑﺈﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺽ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﻣﻨﺒﻬﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺢ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﺑﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﻳﺤﺜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻢ ﻭﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﺩﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﻟﻼﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﻧﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺣﻴﺐ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﻴﻦ‪.‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻄﺮﻭﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺫﺍﻋﺔ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﺛﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﻃﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪ /‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪ ،1952‬ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﺏ ‪1948‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺑﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﺰﺏ ﻧﺎﺻﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫) ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﻑ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺮﺍﻡ ‪5/8/1977‬ﻡ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬

‫‪71‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻻﻃﺮﺵ ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﺟﻨﻮﺩﻩ ﺿﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1926‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﻤّﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪ – 1925‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ‪1927‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺍﺏ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺎﺭﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺲ ﺳﺎﺭﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺟﺮ ﻣﻴﺘﺸﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﺲ ﻏﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻮﻓﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺭﻝ ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺵ‬

‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 1925‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻫﻲ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺛﻮﺍﺭ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻀﻢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻟﻮﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺵ ﻗﺎﺋﺪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻖ ﺛﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺰﺕ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﻛﺒﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﺎﺩﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫• ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺑﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﻫﻢ ﺧﻨﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻃﺮﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺣﻔﻴﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1925‬‬

‫• ﺧﺪﺍﻉ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻷﺭﺍﺿﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻃﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﺤﺜﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻋﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﻄﺎﻉ )ﺳﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﻭﺻﻴﺪﺍ ﻭﺑﻴﺮﻭﺕ ﻭﻃﺮﺑﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ(ﻭﺿﻤﻮﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺘﻤﺰﻳﻖ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ )ﺣﻠﺐ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺯ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﻴﻦ ‪ -‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﺮﺑﻄﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻧﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﻣﺪﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺣﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺵ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻨﺎﻧﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺍﻁ‪ ، ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻟﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻫﺪ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻃﺮﺵ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺬﻛﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﺣﻨﻜﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﺠﺄﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺳﻄﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﺪﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺰﺓ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺋﺮﻳﻦ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺪﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﺎﺟﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻀﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺪﺍﻋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻋﺰﻋﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺮﺿﺦ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺥ ﻷﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻔﺎﻭﺿﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺒﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺩﺭﻋﺎ ﻭﺣﻠﺐ ﻭﻃﺮﻃﻮﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻤﺺ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﺓ ﻭﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﺮﺿﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻢّ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻓﺄﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻻﻃﺮﺵ ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1918‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ / 2000‬ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺳﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﺳﻌﺪ ﺟﻤﻌﺔ‪ ,‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻇﺎﻇﺎ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪ :‬ﺱ‪.‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺟﻤﻌﺔ‪ ,‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﻇﺎﻇﺎ‪.2001 ,‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪ ،7‬ﺹ‪157‬‬ ‫• ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻣﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﺃﺑﺎﻇﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،1986‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻁ‪ ،1‬ﺝ‪ ،1‬ﺹ‪472‬‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫‪72‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ‪ (Transparency International‬ﻳُﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﺧﻨﺼﺎﺭً )‪ (TI‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺸﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎً ﺑﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 100‬ﻓﺮﻉ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻜﺎﺭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺳﺴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1993‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺑﺤﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﻬﺎء ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻭﺍﻻﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 1995‬ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺳﻨﻮﻱ )ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ‪ (Corruption Perceptions Index CPI :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﺸﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﺭﻭﻣﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻟﻢ ﻳُﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﺑﺪﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻳﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻮﻳﻨﻎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﺳُﺠﻦ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ,‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻛﻌﻘﺒﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪,‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ 1990‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﺒﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺩﻭﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ )‪ (OECD‬ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺭﺷﻮﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ )‪ (CPI‬ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍً‪ -‬ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺪﻗﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺴﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻠﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺴﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻳُﺠﺪﻯ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻻﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪73‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪74‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﺪ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆء ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍء ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪GOLDEN RAITO‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺎً ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺖ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻈﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻍ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪.1998‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪ 2008‬ﺍﺛﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻝ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑـ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺰﻭﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﺈﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺰﻭﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﻂ ﻣﻦ ‪ 42‬ﺑﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻃﺊ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺰﻭﻳﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻰ ﻻﺗﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺰﻭﻳﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪TI-USA Newsletters‬‬ ‫• ‪TI-US Introduction‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫]‪[3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫]‪[5‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟـ‪ 13‬ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫• ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ]‪ [8‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﺑﺲ )ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪(2007‬‬

‫•‬


‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪75‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫]‪[5‬‬ ‫]‪[6‬‬ ‫]‪[7‬‬ ‫]‪[8‬‬

‫]‪http://www.transparency-usa.org/news.html[1‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.transparency-usa.org/intro.html[2‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.transparency.org[3‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.transparency.org/contact_us/ti_nc[4‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.globalcorruptionreport.org[5‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.transparency.org/iacc/[6‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.13iacc.org[7‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.forbes.com/business/2007/04/03/corruption-countries-nations-biz-07caphosp-cx_da_0403corrupt.html[8‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻝﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ )‪(1948‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )‪ (1966‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻜﻮﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻠﻂ ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺟﻴﺘﻒ ﺍﻻﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ )‪.(1949‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪76‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫„ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻮﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻭﺿﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻛﻬﺬﺍ “ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ‪ " :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﺩﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﺴﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﻛﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﺻﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﺪ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻔﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ‬ ‫– ﻓﻮﻕ ﺫﻟﻚ – ﺇﻟﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻳﺘﻌﺬﺭ ﺣﺼﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﻔﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍء ﺑﺈﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻫﻠﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﻬﺎ " ‪ ) .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 193‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 19‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 6/5/2000‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‪ ,‬ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺣﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ‪ 40‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ "‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺩﻩ ﺇﻟﻲ ‪.‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﻔﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪ " .‬ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 17‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 14‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 14/1/1995‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺣﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ "‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺤﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻔﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺍء ﺑﺈﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻫﻠﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭ‬ ‫‪ " .‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 39‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 15‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 4/2/1995‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ "‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﺳﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻔﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺣﺼﺮ‬


‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪77‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ " .‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 107‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 20‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 16/3/2003‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﻔﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ "‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺎ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺰﺍﺣﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﻘﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺿﻮء‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻳﻤﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺣﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ " .‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺑﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 163‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 20‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 5/8/2000‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ "‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 40‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺻﺪﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍء ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺩﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﺧﺎﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺗﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﺪ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻏﺪﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻩ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﻟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻠﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﻓﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ " .‬ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 43‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 13‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 6/12/1993‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﻬﺪﺭ "‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻣﺆﺩﺍﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺗﻐﺎﻳﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺭﺍ ﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺭﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﻼ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﺧﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻳﺒﺘﻐﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻻ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺿﻮء ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ..‬ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻼ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﻮﻏﻬﺎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪.‬ﺑﺄﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﺋﻬﺎ – ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺪﺍﻫﺎ – ﻳﺤﺪﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻐﺘﻔﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺎﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﻛﻠﺘﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻌﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪﺍ‬


‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪78‬‬ ‫‪".‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻈﻬﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ‬

‫) ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 87‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 20‬ﻕ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ – ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪( 6/5/2000‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎء ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻚ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪).‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ_‪(2012‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﺫﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺨﻄّﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪..‬ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ" ﺑﺎﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪّ ﺳﻮﺍء‪..‬ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪..‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻝﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻈﺎﻫﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻃﺮﺩﻳﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤّﻰ "ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ"ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﺾ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪..‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ )‪:/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki‬ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ(‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬

‫‪79‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ )ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻮﻟﻚ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺨﺺ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺼﺐ ﺭﺳﻤﻰ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻞء ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻲ‪.‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻤﻸ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﻏﻠﻲ‬

‫‪Leaves the second round of parliamentary‬‬ ‫‪elections in Iran election‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺼﻒ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻳﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺰﺍﻫﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬


‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫‪80‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﻋﺎﻡ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺻﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺗﻜﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻛﺘﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻠﻰ •‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻸﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺐ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﺒﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ · ]‪[1‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺤﻖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻟﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻸﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1920‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﻔﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺮء ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎء ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎء ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﺍﻡ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻫﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺗﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻯ ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫‪81‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﻮّﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﻮِّﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈِّﻢ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻖّ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺠﻞّ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈِّﻤﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﺰﺍﺏ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷَّﺤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﻓﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 2000‬ﺻﻮﺕ‪ ..‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 800‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 700‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 500‬ﺻﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻄﺎﺓ «ﺃﻱ ‪ »1 + ٪50‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ ﻓﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﻮﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﺰﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻨﺸﻂ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﺎﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺹ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺘﻼﺷﻲ ﻓﺮﺹ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻘﻴﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﺐ ﻗﻮﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ «ﻧﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ» ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻧﺒﻴﻞ ﺯﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ «ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺪ» ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﻋﻮﺩ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ ﻣﺪﻱ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻳﻜﺒﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺰﺏ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ «ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ»‪ ..‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﻄﻂ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺮﺍﻋﺎً ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻬﻢ ﺃﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻌﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺷﺮﺍء ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻼءﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ‪ ..‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻼً ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎً ﻟﻼﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻼءﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻳﺘﻼءﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻏﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 6000‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 3000‬ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ 1000‬ﺻﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﺘﻮﺯﻉ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻔﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺴﺘﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ـ ‪ 6‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ‪ 3‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺷﺢ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 1‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺣﺰﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫‪82‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻸﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫]‪[1‬ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.aswatna-eg.net/electoral.aspx[2‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺔ )ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ( ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺍﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1969‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎﺕ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻠﻴﻂ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻼء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﺮﺣﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﺣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻴﻼء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻃﻤﺎﻉ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺨﺐ ﻭﻃﻼﺋﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻘﻔﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﺨﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﻔﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺪﺍﺛﺔً ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺛﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺽ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﺒﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺭﻓﻀﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﺗﺨﺬﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ -:‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﺋﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ " ﺍﺭﻳﻞ ﺷﺎﺭﻭﻥ " ﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺒﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﺤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺰﺍﻉ ﺣﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺑﻘﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫‪83‬‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ,‬ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﻒ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ,‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪.1878‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﺜﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﺻﺢ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ‪.‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮﻓﺎً ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺎً ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮﻓﺎً ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺎً ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺟﻤﺎﺗﻰ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ‘ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﻮﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ’‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﻼﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫• ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻟﺰ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﺭﺯ ﺑﻴﺮﺱ‬ ‫• ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ‬ ‫• ﺟﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺄﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻟﺰ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﺭ ﺑﻴﺮﺱ " ‪ 1839‬ـ ‪ " 1914‬ﻡ‪)،‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺮ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ(ﻓﺒﻴﺮﺱ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1878‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺮﻩ‪-‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪-‬ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ))ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻧﺎ((ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺑﻴﺮﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﻮﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﺿﻊ )ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ( ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻄﻠﻘًﺎ ؛‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ "‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ " ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫﺎﺭﻓﺎﺭﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1870‬ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍً‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍً ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﺒﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺠﻌﻞ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻨﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻔﻆ ‪ pragmatism‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻴﺮﺱ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﻂ ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﻣﺎﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﻳﻮﻱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ " ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻛﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺻﺪﻕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺪﻉُ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ]‪ 1842‬ـ ‪1910‬ﻡ[ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﻱ ]‪1859‬ـ ‪1952‬ﻡ[‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‪ ...‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ "ﻭﻳﻠﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ" ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎء ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﺣﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫‪84‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﻧﻈّﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ " ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ " ‪، Pragmatism‬ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ؛ ﻓﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻠﺖ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﻘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺜﻤﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺰﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ " ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ" )‪ 1842‬ـ ‪ 1910‬ﻡ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ " ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫﺎﺭﻓﺎﺭﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1870‬ﻭﻋﻴﻦ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍً ﻟﻠﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍً ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﺒﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﻪ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮﺓ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻘﺎﻫﺎ " ﺑﻴﺮﺱ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ " ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ " ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺘﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻟﻸﺷﻴﺎء "‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﻧﻈّﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺟﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ " ‪، Pragmatism‬ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ؛ ﻓﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻠﺖ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻘﻮﻟﺘﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﺯﺩﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎً‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ " ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻀﻬﺎ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﺑﻤﺮﺽ ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺑﺠﻬﻮﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﻫﻦ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ " ﺭﻧﻮﻓﻴﻴﺮ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ " ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮء ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺷﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ ﻗﺪ ﻫﺪﺗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺭﺟﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ " ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺖ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺷﻲء ﻛﺎﺋﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻴﺎء ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲء ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ! ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺪﻋﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ـ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺤﻴﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻝ " ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﺎً ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ـ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺻﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﺃﻣﺲ ـ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺣﻘﺎً ـ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ـ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺼﺪﺃ ﻭﺗﻐﺪﻭ ﻋﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ "‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪ [1‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺣﺒﺎﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪57‬‬ ‫]‪w.james,pragmatism,p54-55[2‬‬

‫• ﺳﻤﺎﺡ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺣﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫• ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‬ ‫• ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‬ ‫• ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﻼﻕ‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪85‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺳﺮﻱ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ "ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺨﺴﺘﺎﺝ" ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺒﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ "ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ" ‪" -‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ" ‪" -‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ" ‪" -‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ" ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻰ"‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1118‬‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، 1236‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "parler‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫• ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫• ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻋﻴﻢ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﻢ ﺇﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻫﺎ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺟﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ‬ ‫• ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻐﺮﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺻﺎﺭﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪86‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﻭﺯﻋﻤﺎء ﻭﺃﺳﻴﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺣﻖ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﻀﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ؛ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻬﻢ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺧﻤﺎﺱ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺗﻨﺘﺨﺒﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺗﻨﺘﺨﺒﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺗﻨﺘﺨﺒﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺟﻮﺭﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺪﺩ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻛﻞ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﺘﺨﺒﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺠﺪﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤﺘﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺰﺍﻭﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﺠﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺨﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺑﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﻀﺮﻭﺍ ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﺠﺎﻧﻬﻤﺎ؛ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﺪﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﻨﻮﻧﻬﻢ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻳﻨﺎﻁ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﻘﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻮﺭ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﻴﻴﺮ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺸﺮ ﻣﺤﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫•‬


‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪87‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻪ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺗﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﻳﺨﺘﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺗﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺑﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺩﻩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺑﺈﺻﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ؛‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ؛‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺓ؛‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ؛‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ؛‬‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛‬‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛‬‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‪.‬‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻸﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻇﻬﻴﺮ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ‪ ،81‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺧﻴﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺧﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺧﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﺘﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪.‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪88‬‬

‫ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍء ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺠﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺩﻉ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻗﺸﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺄﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﺿﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺮﻭﺏ ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻊ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺤﺪﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺟﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺠﻮﺍﺑﻬﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻧﺺ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺄﺕ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻳﻨﺎﻁ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻧﺺ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﻴﻦ ﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻧﺺ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺘﻪ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎء ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻤﻼ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪.75‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﻳﺪﺍﻋﻪ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪*.‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺩﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ )ﺩﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﺗﻴﻜﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟّﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺮّﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﻔﻬﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬ ‫)ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ( ﻟﻠﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫» ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺳﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻣﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮﻱ )ﻓﻲ ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ﻣﺎ( ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻱء ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀّﺮ‪ - .‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺏ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺭﻧﻲ ‪ -‬ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻀﺒّﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ«‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻤّﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺴّﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﺍً ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎءً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻖّ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﻥ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (protokollan :‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍء ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﺼﻖ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺨﺘﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺿﻔﻰ ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﻠّﻖ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﺴﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺠﺎﻻ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﺷﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺅﺳﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺩ ﻭﺗﻮﺩﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﻮﺛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺢ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺢ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻌﻮﺛﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺼﻠﻲ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮﺍء ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻔﺎﺩ ﻭﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻨﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﺤﻬﻢ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺮﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪89‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺩﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪90‬‬

‫ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺼﯩﻠﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻒ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯﻩ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺗﺤﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﺟﺪﺃ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻲء‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﻳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻭﺗﻄﻮّﺭﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺠﻠﺲ ﺃﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻰ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻟﻘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺅﺳﺎﺋﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺍﺅﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺠﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺕ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻌﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺴﺤﺖ ﻣﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻏﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ" ‪ -‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻼء ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ‪ -‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ" ‪ -‬ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ‪، -‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺯﻫﺮﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ" ‪ -‬ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ‪[1] .‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻀﺒّﺎﻁ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬

‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫• ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺿﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻴﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

‫]‪[4‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.moqatel.com/openshare/Behoth/ModoatAma1/Protokoal/sec02.doc_cvt.htm[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.protocolconsultants.org/[2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.state.gov/s/cpr/what/index.htm[3‬‬ ‫]‪8%B1%D9%88%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%83%D9%88%D9%84_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D8%A8%D9%84%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B3.html?id=fNWHQgAACAAJ [4‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ )ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ (proletarius‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻝﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺃﻧﺠﻠﺰ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻤﻠﻚ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﻣﺠﻬﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﺳﻤﻮﺑﻮﻟﻴﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻻﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻭ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻧﻀﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺍ ﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻀﻠﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻤﻠﻚ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻣﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮُﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ]‪ [1‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎً‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻴﺮﻭ )‪ ،(bureau‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻛﺮﺍﺗُﺲ‬ ‫)‪ (κράτος‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﺸﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺼﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺑﻘﺎء ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ؛ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﺟﺰءً ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺟﺰءً ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﻧﻤﻂ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﺑﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ " ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ "‬ ‫؛ ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﻘﻴﻀﺎً ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺗﺘﻼﺷﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﻲ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺗﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺎً ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎً‪ ..‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ..‬ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻴﺮﻭ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻛﺮﺍﺗﺲ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ )ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ( ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﺮﻭ )‪ (Bureau‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )‪(κράτος‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ )ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﻠﺴﻮﻥ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻤﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﻓﻴﺒﺮ )‪ (Weber‬ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ )‪-1864‬‬ ‫‪ (1920‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺎً ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺎً ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮﺍً ﺑﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻓﺎﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3.‬ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺃﺳﺘﻘﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺨﺒﺮﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍً ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻼﺋﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺅﻭﺳﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻘﻨﻨﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻣﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪91‬‬


‫ﺑﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪92‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﻄﺮﻗﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ )ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺲ( ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﺴﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎً‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺅﻭﺳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺍء ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻟﻺﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻤﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺖ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻃﺮﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺘﻪ‪ ..‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﺍﻭﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍء‪!!..‬‬ ‫"ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺒﻨﺖ ﺑﻌﻀﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺨﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺨﻞ ﺑﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻪ ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫• ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺅﻭﺳﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺎً ﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻜﺎﻭﺍﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍً ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺫﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺮﺿﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﺎء ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍً ﺇﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﻓﺎﻳﺒﺮ ﺭﺍﺋﺪﺍً ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻓﺎﻳﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺗﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‪.‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻓﻴﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺻﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺎ ﻣﺘﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﺴﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻋﺘﺰﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﺴﺘﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻟﺪﻟﻚ ﺻﺎﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﺎﻛﺴﻴﻤﻴﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺇﻣﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ‪ 21 Maximilian Carl Emil Weber‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 1864-14‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‪ 1920‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﻰ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺧﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﺴﺘﺎﻧﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻛﻤﻬﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻮﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﺮﻣﻲ ﺗﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﻭﻳﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎءﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪- 1 :‬ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺢ ‪- 4‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ‪- 5‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺎ‪- 6 .‬ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺐ‪- 7 .‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﻣﺠﺰﻱ ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻛﺄﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻴﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻃﻒ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺳﻴﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻓﺮﺽ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫• ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫•‬


‫ﺑﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪93‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻓﺎﻳﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎً ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺮّﺓ ﻛﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔـ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻼﺯﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻃﻮﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺳﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺮﺿﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﺎء ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﺑﻴﺮﻭﺑﺎﺛﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‪.(en) ‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪http://www.alriyadh.com/2010/06/19/article536201.html[1‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻼﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ )‪ ،(1415‬ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ‪(http://wikisum.com/w/Category:Bureaucracy) Abstracts of academic books and article‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫‪94‬‬

‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ )ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﻋﺎﻡ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺻﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺗﻜﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻛﺘﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻠﻰ •‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻸﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺐ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺣﺒﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ · ]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻷﺧﺬ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻗﺎً ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺆﻫﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎء ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻋﺒﺎء ﺗﺴﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻐﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻟﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪ ۱۸‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪۲۰۰٥‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻧﺰﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻞﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺋﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ ﻭﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬


‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫‪95‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ )ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ( ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺮ ﻭﻧﺰﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ( ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﺰﻳﻬﺔ ﻭﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺮ(‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻫﻠﻴﻦ )ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ(‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻝﺻﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺇﻋﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ‪ ... ،‬ﺇﻟﺦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‬ ‫• ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺍﺏ )ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ(‬ ‫• ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫• ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ]‪ [1‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ )ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ( ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪http://www.elections2011.eg[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬


‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫‪96‬‬

‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ )ﻓﻲ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ( ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎً ﺏﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻟﻞﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎً ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍً ﻟﻸﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ [1] .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺤﻖ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ »ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ«‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ »ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ«‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﺎً ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ -‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﻴّﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﺯﻭّﺩ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،١٧٨٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ »ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ«‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ( ﻣﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﻘﺎً ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎً ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻳﻨﻈﻤﻪ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ‪-‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍءﺍً ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩١٤‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ )ﺃﻱ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﻟﻤﺼﺮ ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ١٠‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩١٤‬ﻭﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ١٤‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٢٣‬ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٢٩‬ﻭ‪ -١٩٥٥‬ﺧﻼﺻﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻥّ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻘﻴّﺪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ‪٢٥‬‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ )‪ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NSPtooJ7hPs‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ »ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮﺏ«‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻮﺝ ‪ ١‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﺒﺮ ‪٢٠١١‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‬ ‫• ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ )‪:/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki‬ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ(‪.‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫‪97‬‬

‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ ‪ -‬ﺳﻮﺍء ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻮﺃ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻳﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻴﻦ ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺐ ﻭﻃﻼﺋﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻘﻔﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﺨﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﻔﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﺭﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺪﺍﺛﺔً ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺛﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺗﻪ "ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ" ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺽ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻟﻢ‪.‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1789‬ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1989‬ﻭﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﻛﺮﺍﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ ‪ 2004‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺎﺩﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﺒﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ )‪ .(1954-1962‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺛﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻗﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ ,‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺎﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ )ﺛﻮﺭﺓ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻳﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ )ﺃﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ( ”ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ“ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺄﺳﺲ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺣﺮﻭﺏ ﺛﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﻳﺎء‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺟﺬﺭﻱ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1689‬ﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺏﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1763‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1789‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ‪ 10‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1799‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1917‬‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ‪ 1919‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ‪ 1920‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1954‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1979‬‬


‫‪98‬‬

‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺣﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻴﺮﺓ ﻝﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1949‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻝﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻣﺴﻠﺢ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴَﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻧﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﺎً ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﻴﻦ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﻨﻮ ﺍﻭﻛﺎﻣﺒﻮ‬ ‫• ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﺮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪http://www.icrc.org/ara/war-and-law/international-criminal-jurisdiction/index.jsp[1‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪99‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻈﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷَﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺑﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭﻟﻴﻢ ﻧﺠﻴﺐ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩٌ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔٍ ﻣﺎ ﺿﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻭﺿﻤﻦ ﺧُﻄَّﺔٍ ﻟﻼﺿﻄﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻤَّﺪ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔٍ ﻣﻊ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﻣﺪﻧﻴِّﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌِﺮْﻗﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻷﻳﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏٍ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗُﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕٍ ﻳﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣُﺠْﺮَﻳَﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻨﻔﺬُﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺬﻧﺒﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣُﺼَﺪِّﺭِﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤُﺤَﺮِّﺿﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘْﺘَﺮِﻓﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞٍ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﺨﻄﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﺭَﺱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞٍ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻲٍّ ﺿﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺬﻧﺒًﺎ ﺑﺠﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻟﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍءً ﻭﺍﺣﺪًﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍءﻳﻦ ﻳُﻌﺘﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﺍ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍءﺍﺕ ﺿﺪ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍءﺍﺕ ﺟﺮﺕ ﻛﺠﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻧﻤﻂٍ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞٍ ﻗﺎﺋﻢٍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮء ﺍﻟﻨﻴَّﺔ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻓﻪ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹٌ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺬﻧﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‬ ‫• ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﻳﻨﻮ ﺍﻭﻛﺎﻣﺒﻮ‬ ‫• ﺗﻄﻬﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﻗﻲ‬ ‫• ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ‪http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬


‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ )ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ )ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ‬

‫‪ ‬ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭ‬

‫‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ "ﺭﺋﻴﺲ"‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 4‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪6‬‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﻛﺮﺋﻴﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻲ )ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ(‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ )ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎءﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻀﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎء ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻀﺎﺩ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ‪ cohabitation‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻳﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻛﺄﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﺰﺑﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺴﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ ﻭﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﻨﻮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ‪ .‬ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﺳﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻟﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻲ ‪) consul maior‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ( ﻭﻣﻨﺼﺐ ‪) consul suffectus‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ( ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﺗﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ(‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻟﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻭﺭﺍﺛﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺭﺧﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫"ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺭﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ؟"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺑﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺃﻋﻄﻮﺍ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻴﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻔﺎﺽ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ )"ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻀﻔﺎﺽ ﻫﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻨﻮﻥ ﻗﻮﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ ،(".‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﻨﻒ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺑﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺷﻌﺎﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﻜﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺄﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻓﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﻠﻄﻮﻥ )ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﻮﻥ( ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻢ ﺭﺅﺳﺎء‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻠﻜﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ "ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺜﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪101‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (Nationality :‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﻟﺘﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻨﺲ ﺑﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫• ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻋﺮﻕ )ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ(‬ ‫• ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬


‫‪102‬‬

‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ • ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ • ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ •‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻭﺩ • ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮ • ﺍﻟﺒﺮ • ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ • ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎء • ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﻋﺔ • ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻓﻌﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ • ﺳﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ • ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ • ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ • ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻴﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺰﺍﻑ • ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎﺕ • ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ • ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ • ﺍﻟﺨﻨﺎﺩﻕ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ • ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ • ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ • ﺭﺗﺐ • ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺟﺴﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺍﺕ • ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎﺕ • ﺧﻂ ﺍﻹﻣﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻙ •ﻗﺎﺩﺓ • ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ • ﻣﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ • ﺣﺮﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺣﺮﺏ • ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﻮء ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻻﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺼﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﻖ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺣﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﻠﺖ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1793‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺼﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬


‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺍﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺁﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻬﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﺘﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻤﺰﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻤﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻷﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﻄﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻯ ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺄﺭ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﺩ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻻﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ )ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ(‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺣﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻧﺴﻮ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﻧﺸﻮ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻗﺸﺘﺎﻟﺔ‪1067-1072‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ‪1130-1240‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺩﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮﺍ ‪1455-1485‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻭﻧﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ‪1467-1477‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ‪1562-1598‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ‪1861-1865‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ‪1921- 1917‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﻨﺪﺍ ‪1918‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ ‪1922-1923‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪1945-1949 ,1928-1937‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪1930-1975‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪1936-1939 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪1946-1949 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺟﻮﻳﺔ ‪1947‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎﺭﻳﻜﺎ‪1948 ,‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪1950-1953 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻭﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪1965-1966 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺠﺮﻳﺔ‪*1967-1970 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪1971 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪1990 - 1975 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺯﻣﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪1975-1992‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻏﺴﻼﻓﻴﺔ ‪2001 -1991‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻐﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪1992-2001‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪1992-2002 ،‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫• ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،1990 ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰء ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺹ ‪.181‬‬

‫‪103‬‬


‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪104‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﻻ ﺳﻠﻄﻮﻱ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺏﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﻣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺤــﺮﻳــﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ · ‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ · ‬ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺒﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﺒﻞ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻏﺮﺽ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﻖ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻄﺎﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﻖ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍءﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ,‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪105‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍء ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻣﺎﺷﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ )ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﻣﺜﻼ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫• ﺟﻮﻥ ﻟﻮﻙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻓﻮﻟﺘﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻳﻜﻢ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺳﺄﺻﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻲ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻲ ﻭﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ( ﻷﺻﺒﺢ ﻓﺮﺣﺎ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮﺣﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻﻳﻨﺴﻰ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﺳﺘﻴﻮﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ )ﺟﺰءﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ( ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻋﻀﺎءﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﻝﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ )ﻻ ﺃﻋﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ( ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ )ﺣﻜﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲء(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ( ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻛﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ )ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﺰﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻄﻤﺢ ﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺑﻼﺩﻩ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻌﺒﻪ ﺣﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ" ﻭﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻫﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺤﻀﺮ ﻗﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺃﻟﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻴﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﺘﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ‪ - :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎء ﻣﺜﻼ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ )ﺃﻱ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻟﺔ( ‪ -‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‪ ...‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻹﻛﺮﺍﻫﺎﺕ ﺟﻤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻔﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭ‪...‬‬


‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪106‬‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻛﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻱ‬‫ﻻﻻﻧﺪ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ"‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ )ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﺋﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪(...‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻧﻔﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻮﺥ ﻭﺇﺻﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺯﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻭﻉ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻘﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﺿﻄﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻇﻠﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻳﺄﺱ ﻭﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻌﺪﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺣﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺎ ﺷﺎء ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﻰ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻯ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺟﺰءﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻭﻻﻣﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺘﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،Determinism‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﺭﻳﺸﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻬﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺼﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺒﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ )ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ( ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺤﻮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻟﻖ )ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ( ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ )ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ,‬ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﻳﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﻘﻀﺎء ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺈﻳﺠﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ‪-‬ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺷﻰء ﻋﻠﻴﻢ‪ ,‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ‪ ,‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ‪ ,‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎﻗﺎﻝ ‪-‬ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪):‬ﻭﻫﺪﻳﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺪﻳﻦ(}‪ {10‬ﺃﻯ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪):‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺎء ﻓﻠﻴﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎء ﻓﻠﻴﻜﻔﺮ‪ .{29}(.....‬ﻓﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻰء ﺑﻤﺸﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺨﻄﺌﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺌﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻓﻴﺮﺿﻰ ﻭﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺭﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺣُﺪﺩ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺘﻔﻬﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺼﺐ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﺎﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ,‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﺭﺗﺮ ﻭﺃﻟﺒﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﻗﺪ ﻟﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺷﺎء ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫• ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺛﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫• ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬

‫]‪[2‬‬

‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ]ﻣﻨﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ[‪ http://www.minbaralhurriyya.org/‬ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪[3] .‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪http://www.freedomcost.com[1‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.tadawultube.com/watch/0db309e056e3d2dcd7d6/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9[2‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.minbaralhurriyya.org/[3‬‬

‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬


‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫‪107‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺜﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ )‪(1947–1940‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫)‪(1966–1947‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ )‪–1966‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ )‪–1966‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ(‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫‪  ‬ﺯﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺳﻮﺯﻱ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﺻﻼﺡ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪  ‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬

‫‪  ‬ﻋﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺏ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻓِﻲ ﺳَﺒِﻴﻞِ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫‪The Battle for One Destiny‬‬ ‫‪The Genius of Arabic in its Tongue‬‬


‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫‪108‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ‪ 18‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ‪1963‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪1968‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ‪ 23‬ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ‪1966‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﺔ ‪1970‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ‪2011-2012‬‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺷﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ )ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ · ‬ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ(‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ )ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ · ‬ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ(‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ )ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ(‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ )ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ · ‬ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺎ(‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺻﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫•‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫] ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ [‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ؛ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‪» :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘُﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ«‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ )ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺗﺄﺳﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ [2]1947‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺠﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺒﺮﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ [3].‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1963‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ 17‬ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ‪ /‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪ 1968‬ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 9‬ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ‪ /‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 2003‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻟﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺻﻄﺪﻣﺖ ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ "ﺃﻣﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪﺓ" ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ "ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﻣﺰ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ" ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ‪..‬‬


‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫‪109‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻭﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺤﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻮﺩﺗﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺑﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1933‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﺸﻴﺮ ﺑﺄﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻋﻤﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﻄﺐ ﺣﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩﺍً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.1941‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺒﺜﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺑﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻼﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1941‬ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻼﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﻪ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺴﺖ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ" ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺨﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ‪ 1943‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ "ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ"‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻲ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺯﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺳﻮﺯﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺰﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻝﺯﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺳﻮﺯﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍء ﺍﻻﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺳﻮﺯﻱ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺎً ﻋﻦ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻱ" ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ"]‪.[4‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺿﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1943‬ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺷﺢ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ‪" :‬ﺃﻣﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪﺓ"‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫﺍﻥ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﺘﻔﺮﻏﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺘﺤﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1945‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺣﻔﻠﺔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﺬﺍﻙ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﻤﻮﺯ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ 1946‬ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻓﻲ ‪ 7‬ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ‪1947‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺘﺨﺐ ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻋﻤﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻃﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪ .1946‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺇﻧﺘﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،1952‬ﺇﻧﺪﻣﺞ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺃﺳﻪ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺭﺍﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ "ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ" ﻛﺤﺰﺏ ﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﺨﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 1955‬ﻭ‪ 1958‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .1958‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﺪ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺼﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1961‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺭﺍﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪28/9/1961‬ﻡ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ‪ 8‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ‪ 1963‬ﺣﻴﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ‪ 23‬ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1966‬ﻧﻔﺬ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺑﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬


‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬

‫‪110‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﻓﻴﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻫﺰﺕ ﻛﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺘﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﺒﻘﻲ ﺃﺳﻴﺮ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺎﻃﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺮ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﺍﻧﺸﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻪ ﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺑﻲ ﻟﻤﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺷﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺎﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺯﻳﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻣﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2004‬ﻛﺂﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫‪http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D8%B2%D8%A8_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%AB_%28%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B6%D9%8A%D8%AD%29‬‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫]‪http://www.alhewar.net/Basket/Taha_The_Reality_of_the_Baath_Party.htm#_edn1[2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ )‪ ،(http://www.baath-party.org/identification.asp‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻟﻒ‪ :‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺮﻭﺕ‪1973 ،‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﺑﻌﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ‬ ‫• ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻲ‬ ‫• ﺣﺰﺏ ﻃﻠﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫• ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﻤﺎﻩ ‪.1964‬‬

‫ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ )‪(/http://www.baath-party.org/index.php?lang=ar‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻴﺸﻴﻞ ﻋﻔﻠﻖ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻤﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ )‪(/http://albaath.online.fr‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫‪111‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺷﻴﺢ ﺃﻋﻀﺎء ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺰﺏ ﻟﺨﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺅﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻟﻸﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺎ ﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺗﺮﺷﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪" :‬ﺣﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﺗﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﺘﺨﺬﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪" .‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ‪) Oligarchy‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﺷﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﺪ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ "ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ" ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ὀλιγαρχία :‬ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﺧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻢ ﺗﺴﻤّﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻸ]‪.[1‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺗﻮﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻴﻞ ﻻﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ" ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ "ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺘﻪ" ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ" ﻭﻗﺪﻡ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻀﺞ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺗﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎء ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻗﺪ ﻣﻬّﺪ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻛﻤﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﻝﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳﺎء ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳﺎء‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺍء‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺑﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻐﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺜﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺳﺎﻳﻤﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﻧﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ".‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻴﻔﺮﻱ ﻭﻳﻨﺘﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ "ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻤﻼ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺣﻲ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ"‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻲ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺄﻯ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﻘﺪﺍﻟﻌﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺣﺴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪.‬ﺇﻧﻬﻢ ﻣﺼﻤﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺇﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮﺍﻗﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻳﺠﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺘﻲ ﻫﺎﺭﻓﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﻳﻴﻞ‪ ,‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻳﺠﻲ ﻛﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫﺎﺭﻓﺎﺭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻴﻞ!‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ‪.‬‬

‫•‬


‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪112‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﻗﺼﺔ ﻧﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻗﺼﺺ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء ﻝﻃﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫• ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،1990 ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺰء ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺹ ‪.415‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺬﻳﻦ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻹﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﺮﻭﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫)ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ( ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍءﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫‪4.‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪4.‬‬

‫‪ 5.‬ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺬﻳﻦ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺳﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻹﻟﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﺮﻭﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ( ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺍءﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺬﻳﻦ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻹﻟﻤﺎﻡ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﺮﻭﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ( ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺍءﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻟﺸﺆﻭﻧﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺪﻭء‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻤﻠﻚ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺭﺍﺳﺨﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺍﻻﻟﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬


‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫‪113‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻟﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻻﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻟﺸﻐﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎءﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ‪،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻟﻨﺰﺍﻫﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻤﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ( ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻳﺤﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺰﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 50%‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻨﺎءﺍ ﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ 5%‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻻﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻴﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺲ ﺍﻻﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻻﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺳﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺨﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﻼ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻳﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺮﻏﺒﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﺟﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻤّﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻻﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﺭﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭﺗﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻐﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻧﺎﺭﺷﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻃﺒﻘﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺛﻴﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻓﺎﺷﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ "ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺐ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺰ ﺑﺄﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺈﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻭﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺳﻨﺪﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻴﺸﺎﻝ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1988‬ﻳﻮﻡ ‪22‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻭ ﻏﺰﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺑﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﻳﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻞ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺸﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻞ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻼء ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻹﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬


‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫‪114‬‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ‬

‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻬﺎ "ﻣﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ" ﺍﻭ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺛﻘﺘﻪ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻓﺮﺍﻍ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻪ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎءﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺍﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫• ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺃﻧﺠﻠﺲ ‪ -‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫‪alwazir alawal houwa almouharik arraisi‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﺍﻍ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﺖ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻱ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗُﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺑﺪء ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻝﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﻔﻴﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺍﻓﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺣﻴﺎﺩ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬

‫ﺣﻴﺎﺩ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (positive neutrality :‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ )ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ (ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻭ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺛﺮﻭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪115‬‬


‫‪116‬‬

‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،diploma‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،δίπλωμα‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻗﺔ‪/‬ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻄﻮﻳﺔ( ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ [1] ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺗﻨﺸﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻳُﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻭﺿﻮﻥ ﻳُﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﻤﻘﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺩﻭﻣﺎً ﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﻣﺎء ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻓﻈﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩﻳّﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘُﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺍﺳﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺳﻮﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺭﺧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺩﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺭﻳﺘﺸﻴﻠﻴﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺻﺪﺍﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣًﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻴًﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺆﻻء ﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻓﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻪ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘـﻘﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨـــــﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟـﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺗﻤﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ )ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ ﻭﻗﺼﺪﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ )ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫‪117‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲء ﺫﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﺳﻠﻮﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻫﺆﻻء ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻠﻒ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻔﻴﺮ ﻳﺮﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺽ ﻳﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺼﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺧﺪﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ‪.‬ﻭﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺆﻻء ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺗﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗُﺒﻨﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺣﺼﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺇﻟﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻷﻱ ﺳﺒﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﺳﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‬ ‫• ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻌﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫• ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺿﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫• ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻼﺗﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻔﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪Pearson Education, 2006, p. 1 ,Modern diplomacy ,Ronald Peter Barston‬‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ )ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ (Constitution :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ )ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ( ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ )ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﺃﻡ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ(‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ )ﺭﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ( ﻭﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ))ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ(( ﻭﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺧﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﺧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪُﺳﺘﻮﺭ )ﻣﻦ ﺩَﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﻭَﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ( ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﺣﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻳﺮﺟﺢ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬

‫‪118‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻴﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1776‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺛﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ]‪ [1‬ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻭﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺰﻡ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎء‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1958‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎء ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻀﻮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺭﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻧﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‪ ,‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭﺍﻟﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻮﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1950‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻓﻴﺘﻲ ‪1977‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1961‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻛﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻴﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺁﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺳﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ,‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻣﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻻﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻮﺿﺔ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ ,‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺤﻖ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺺ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻴﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺆﺳِﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺳﺲ ﻭﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ -2 .‬ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺆﺳَﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎءﻫﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬

‫‪119‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﻮء ﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﻃﺊ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﻟﺠﺄﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺾ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬

‫]‪http://binnaman.wwooww.net[1‬‬ ‫]‪http://binnaman.wwooww.net/[2‬‬

‫ﺍﻗﺮﺃﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﺫ ] ﻻ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ[ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫‪) .‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ_‪(2011‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ )ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ (Rechtsstaat :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ"‪" ،‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ"‪" ،‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ "ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ "‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ "ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ " ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،([1] ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻧﺠﻠﻮ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻭﻻ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ]‪ ،[2‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ" ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻻﻟﻤﺎﻧﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ )‪ (1724-1804‬ﺛﻢ ﺗﻼ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ‪.18‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺨﻠﻖ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻓﻜﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻹﺳﻌﺎﺩ ﺷﻌﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﻦِ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺻﺎﻍ ﻛﺎﻧﻂ ﺍﻻﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻼﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ"‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﻂ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ‪.21‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺤﺜﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺟﺰءﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻰ ﺑﺤﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻭﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻳﻀﻢ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﻴﺸﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻳﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫‪120‬‬

‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.[3]" .‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﻓﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﻝ ﻟﻴﻤﻮﺕ ‪Die deutsche Polizeiwissenschaft Grundsätzen nach den‬‬ ‫‪") Grundsätzen des Rechtsstaates‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ"‪ ،(1832-1834 ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﺭﻥ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﺭﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫• ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻭﺗﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ )ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ "ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﺎﻏﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ )ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ( "( ]‪[4‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﺟﺰﺍء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ )ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫• ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫• ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻌﻮﻥ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻬﺮﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫• ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺑﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﺣﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺓ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ‪,Ernst Freund, Felix Frankfurter and the American Rechtsstaat: A Transatlantic Shipwreck – Daniel R. Ernst‬‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫‪.Georgetown Law Faculty Publications, October, 2009 .1932–1894‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫• ‪(Iain Stewart, "From 'Rule of Law' to 'Legal State': a Time of Reincarnation?" (2007‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

‫]‪D9%88%D9%84%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86&listby=suggest,title&interface=en&http://toolserver.org/~lvova/cgi-bin/go.sh?language=ar [1‬‬ ‫]‪context=facpub&http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017 [2‬‬ ‫]‪[3‬‬ ‫]‪http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1056401[3‬‬


‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪121‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻻﺳﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﻓﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫• ﺇﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺃﺭﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ •‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ •‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ •‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫• ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬

‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫• ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫• ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬

‫•‬

‫•‬

‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﺩﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ )ﻻﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ Dictatura :‬ﺩﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﺍ ( ﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫]‪[2‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻛﺤﺰﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ‪ .‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ )ﻻﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ dictātus :‬ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺱ ( ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻳُﻤﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺪﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻮﺓ ﻓﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻷﻱ ﺃﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻸﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ]‪ [3‬ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺩﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﻳﺪﻭﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪﻭﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻮﻕ ﻟﻠﺪﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻳﺪﻭﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻔﻲ ﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‪.‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﻦ )ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻟﻴﻦ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻠﻤﺤﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮﺕ ﺩﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻴﺮﺍﻟﻴﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬


‫ﺩﻳﻜﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪122‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﺴﻠﻂ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻄﺎً ﺷﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻬﻤﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻬﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﺴﻠﻂ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻴﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﻗﺪﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺋﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻐﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﺎﻏﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺰ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺤﻔﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﺮ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺤﺠﺞ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺧﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻲ )ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎً ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻬﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺵ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ 1.‬ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 2.‬ﺇﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺑﻠﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻳﺪﻟﻮﺟﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3.‬ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻘﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﺟﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﻳﺪﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 4.‬ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺗﻜﻔﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 5.‬ﺇﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻌﺪﻭ ﻭﻫﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻳﻬﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻴﺴﻪ ﺿﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 6.‬ﺇﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 7.‬ﺇﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻘﺮ ﻭﻋﻮﺯ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﺪﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﻳﻨﺸﻐﻞ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺃﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 8.‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺫﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 9.‬ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﺳﺮﻳﺎً ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻴﺎً‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 10.‬ﺑﻨﺎء ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻭﻧﺸﻴﻂ ﻳﺘﺨﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪4.‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻧﺰﻳﻬﻪ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻵ ﻛﺎﻣﻶ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫]‪[1‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‪:‬ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻳﺔ=‪action=edit&http://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title‬‬

‫]‪(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/dictate) Dictionary.com, Last Retried Nov.15 2012 [2‬‬ ‫]‪281–Pipes, Richard (1995), Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime, New York: Vintage Books, Random House Inc., ISBN 0-394-50242-6 p.240 [3‬‬ ‫]‪[4‬‬ ‫]‪Sondrol, P. C. (2009). "Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner". Journal of Latin[4‬‬ ‫‪.American Studies 23 (3): 599‬‬


‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪123‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻔﻆ "ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ" ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻄﺎ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺳﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻢٌ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳّﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ]‪ [1‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻰ ﺏﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍُﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺤﺖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺟﺔٍ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺗﻪِ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﻜّﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺃﺧﺮَﻯ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻣﻌﻈﻢُ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔٍ ﺗﺪّﻋﻲ ﻧَﻮﻋﺎً ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺔ )ﻙﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺿﻴﻖ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺔ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨَﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔٍ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴّﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤَﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻻﺣﺰﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﻓﻴﻴﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ · ]‪[2‬‬

‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻟﻐﻮﻳّﺎً‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔٌ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ Δήμος‬ﺃﻭ ‪ Demos‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ Κρατία‬ﺃﻭ ‪kratia‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ‪ Demoacratia‬ﺗَﻌﻨﻲ ﻟﻐﺔً 'ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ' ﺃﻭ 'ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﻟِﻨﻔﺴﻪِ'‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪124‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻗِﻴَﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺣُﻜﻢُ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳّﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ( ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔُ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺠﻠّﻰ ﻛﻞّ ﺭﻛﻦٍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪَﺩٍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩِﺉ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺒﺴُﻄﻬﺎ ﺗﺎﻟﻴﺎً‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺪﺭُ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﻮﺫَ ﺩﻭﻟﺔٌ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊٌ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔً ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺻﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺃﻥّ ﻋﺪَﺩﺍً ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺧِﻼﻓِﻲّ ﻻ ﻳَﻠﻘَﻰ ﺇِﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎً ﺑَﻴﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺮّﺳﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩِﺉ ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔٌ ﺣﺘَّﻰ ﺗﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳّﺔ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌّﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴّﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺷﻠّﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﺠﺰﻱء ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﺃُ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥّ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳّﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻌَﺄﺭﺽُ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻴّﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞٍ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧّﻪُ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ )ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺪَّﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞَ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻴَﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋِﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋِﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻕ )ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳّﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮِﻳّﺔ )ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺭﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﺭﻳﻦ‬ ‫)‪ (Libertarians‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺿﻄﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻙﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻧﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﺒﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴَﻴْﻦ ﻣﺘﺨﺎﺻﻤَﻴْﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ‪ ccording to‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻝ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪Freedom in the World.2009‬‬ ‫‪Not Free ██Partly Free ██Free ██:2009‬‬

‫]‪[3‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﻦ "ﺧﺎﺳﺮ" ﻭ"ﺭﺍﺑﺢ"‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺳﺮ ﻭﻣﺆﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺑﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﻤﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺑﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ "ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ" ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻓﻴّﺔ"‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﺑﺪﺍﻫﺔً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﺘﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺠﺪﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎً‪ :‬ﻓﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻋﺘﺎﺩﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺎً ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﻏﻨﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫‪125‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪: ‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ‪ -‬ﺗﻢ ﻧﺤﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﻳُﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺰ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺰﺍً ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺎً ﻭﻻ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﺒﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻘﺮﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﺣﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻮ ﺃﺛﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﺍﺏ ﻳﻨﻮﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺗﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ "ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ" ﻭﺇﺭﺗﻘﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ "ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ" ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﺑﻮﺫﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟـ ﻣﺎﻫﺎ ﺟﺎﻧﺎﺑﺎﺩﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻳﺸﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻴﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺎﺑﺎﺭﻛﺎﻳﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﻣﺒﺎﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﻜﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‪ " ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺭﺧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎً ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎً"‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮّﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻧﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻣُﺪﻥٍ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﻠﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤَّﻰ ﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺈِﻥّ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻠّﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻹِﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹِﻣﺒﺮﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻀﻢُّ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻀﻰ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻓُﺮﺹ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦَّ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥَّ ﺗﻄَﻮّﺭﺍً ﺑﭑﺗﺠﺎﻩِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦّ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮّﺭ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻣُﺴﺘﻮَﻯ ﺍﻟﻘِﻴَﻢ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻗِﻴَﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﻫﻮﺑﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﻥ ﻟﻮﻙ ﻭﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻫﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕُ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮَﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﺫﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺗَﻮﻃﻴﺪ ﻗِﻴَﻢٍ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕٍ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺷﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺪَﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮَﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑَﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋِﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞٍ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮَﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺟُﺰﺋﻴّﺔً ﺑَﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ ﺑَﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴَﻴﻦ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴ