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Committee of the Global Engineers & Technologists Review Chief Editor Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, MALAYSIA Managing Editor Mohd Zulkifli Ibrahim, MALAYSIA Editorial Board Dr. Arsen Adamyan Yerevan State University ARMENIA

Prof. Dr. Ravindra S. Goonetilleke The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HONG KONG

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gasham Zeynalov Khazar University AZERBAIJAN

Prof. Dr. Qeethara Kadhim Abdulrahman Al-Shayea Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan JORDAN

Assistant Prof. Dr. Tatjana Konjić University of Tuzla Bosnia and Herzegovina BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA

Prof. Yousef S.H. Najjar Jordan University of Science and Technology JORDAN

Assistant Prof. Dr. Muriel de Oliveira Gavira State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) BRAZIL

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Al-Tahat D. Mohammad University of Jordan JORDAN

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Plamen Mateev Sofia University of St. Kliment Ohridsky BULGARIA

Assoc. Prof. Dr. John Ndichu Nder Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT) KENYA

Dr. Zainab Fatimah Syed The University of Calgary CANADA Assistant Prof. Dr. Jennifer Percival University of Ontario Institute of Technology CANADA Prof. Dr. Sc. Igor Kuzle University of Zagreb CROATIA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Milan Hutyra VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava CZECH

Prof. Dr. Megat Mohamad Hamdan Megat Ahmad The National Defence University of Malaysia MALAYSIA Prof. Dr. Rachid Touzani Université Mohammed 1er MOROCCO Prof. Dr. José Luis López-Bonilla Instituto Politécnico Nacional MEXICO Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ramsés Rodríguez-Rocha IPN Avenida Juan de Dios Batiz MEXICO

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abas Kotb Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport EGYPT

Dr. Bharat Raj Pahari Tribhuvan University NEPAL

Prof. Dr. Laurent Vercouter INSA de Rouen FRANCE

Prof. Dr. Abdullah Saand Quaid-e-Awam University College of Eng. Sc. & Tech. PAKISTAN


Prof. Dr. Naji Qatanani An-Najah National University PALESTINE Prof. Dr. Anita Grozdanov University Ss Cyril and Methodius REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Prof. Dr. Vladimir A. Katić University of Novi Sad SERBIA Prof. Dr. Aleksandar M. Jovović Belgrade University SERBIA Prof. Dr. A.K.W. Jayawardane University of Moratuwa SRI LANKA Prof. Dr. Gunnar Bolmsjö University West SWEDEN Prof. Dr. Peng S. Wei National Sun Yat-sen University at Kaohsiung. TAIWAN

Prof. Dr. Ing. Alfonse M. Dubi University of Dar es Salaam TANZANIA Assoc. Prof. Chotchai Charoenngam Asian Institut of Tecnology THAILAND Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Çimenoğlu Instanbul Technical University (İTÜ) TURKEY Assistant Prof. Dr. Zeynep Eren Ataturk University TURKEY Dr. Mahmoud Chizari The University of Manchester UNITED KINGDOM Prof. Dr. David Hui University of New Orleans USA Prof. Dr. Pham Hung Viet Hanoi University of Science VIETNAM Prof. Dr. Raphael Muzondiwa Jingura Chinhoyi University of Technology ZIMBABWE


Dear the Seeker of Truth and Knowledge, As we entered 2012, we’re surely hopes with a few wishes for a significant improvement as where a few signs for 2012 will be better. Although a new year is filled and always brings new challenges, and we know that will be the case in 2012, but a new year is coloured also with opportunities. We hopes that whatever challenges face us as individuals, a state or a nation, we will greet them with grace and determination to move forward and make things better. A bright and shiny new year always brings the promise that this time we can succeed on a higher level of our optimism and enthusiasm for life. As also the Global Engineers and Technologist Review; a forum for the publication and dissemination of original work which contributes to the understanding of multi-disciplinary underpinning in the fields of engineering, technology, chemistry, environmental sciences, management and economics, physics, mathematics and statistics, computer and information sciences, geology and biology, by now has been in 2nd year. Although the GETview is still young and always keeping her path and existence as a peer-reviewed journal - open access journal, close partnerships with others in the academic community, including libraries, universities, scholarly societies, faculty, and students through collaborative efforts for highquality research platforms, however, will play an important role of this community combination to improve and sustain high-quality journal publication in where the GETview take to stand for it. Therefore, the GETview always look forward to receive the scholarly and original contributions giving insight into case study, practices and fundamental in multidisciplinary form the core of the journal contents. The GETview will always striving for to play a key role in the broad dissemination of highquality journals

Happy New Year! Assoc. Prof. Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, PhD Chief Editor The Global Engineers and Technologists Review


ŠPUBLISHED 2012

Global Engineers and Technologists Review GETview ISSN: 2231-9700 (ONLINE) Volume 2 Number 2 February 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Publisher.

Printed and Published in Malaysia


CONTENTS Vol.2, No.2, 2012 1.

THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON HEXAGONAL RING UNDER SIMPLE LATERAL LOADING SAID, M.R., YUHAZRI, M.Y. and SAIJOD LAU

8.

SOLID FUEL FROM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER AND WASTE PAPERS PART 2: GAS EMISSION FROM COMBUSTION TEST YUHAZRI, M.Y., HAERYIP SIHOMBING, YAHAYA, S.H., SAID, M.R., UMAR NIRMAL, SAIJOD LAU and PHONGSAKORN PRAK TOM

© 2012 GETview Limited. All right reserved

ISSN 2231-9700 (online)


GLOBAL ENGINEERS & TECHNOLOGISTS REVIEW www.getview.org

THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON HEXAGONAL RING UNDER SIMPLE LATERAL LOADING SAID1, M.R., YUHAZRI2, M.Y. and SAIJOD LAU3 1

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, MALAYSIA. 1 radzai@utem.edu.my 2 yuhazri@utem.edu.my 2

3

Faculty of Engineering and Technology Multimedia University Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka, MALAYSIA. 3 twlau@mmu.edu.my ABSTRACT Lateral crushing of hexagonal ring under quasi-static loading were analysed using ABAQUS/Standard Finite Element (FE) Method package. The modes of deformation and loaddisplacement characteristics were predicted and the same were compared with experimental results. The material modelling of elastic-perfectly plastic and nominal stress-plastic strain were compared. The experimental results found that the quarter model using CPE6H with elastic-perfectly plastic material is good enough to obtain a satisfactory result. Keywords: Lateral Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Absorbing Mechanism.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Impact energy absorption (IEA) has been studied by many researchers. Recently Olabi et al. (2007) have reviewed IEA with respect to metallic tube. However, very recent paper reviewed by Saijod et al. (2012), on the composite material. There many types of IEA devices used, one them are a ring subjected to lateral loading. The energy absorption capacity of a ring under lateral compression was first addressed by Mutchler (1960). Two different kinematically admissible collapse mechanism that produce the same post-collapse load-deflection characteristic when employing a rigid perfectly-plastic material model were put forward by DeRuntz and Hodge (1963) and Burton and Craig (1963). Careful and exhaustive experiments on the crushing of tubes and rings done by Reddy and Reid (1980) led to the formation of a model that is based on the classical elastica theory that used a rigid linear strain hardening material behaviour, Reid and Reddy (1978). As a result of this analysis, loaddeflection curves were seen in very good agreement with experimental observations. This analysis has since come to be known as “plastica" after being addressed by several authors starting with Yu and Johnson (1982). Reddy and Reid (1979) examined the behaviour of laterally compressed tubes under transverse constraints and noticed that the collapse load increased by a factor approximately 2.4 and the energy absorbed increased by a factor of 3 in comparison with transversely unrestrained tubes. An excellent review of the energy absorbing systems, that use the lateral compression of metal tubes is given by Reid (1983, 1985). Plastic collapse of square tubes compressed laterally between two plates was studied by Sinha and Chitkara (1982) who produced plastic collapse mechanisms. Gupta and Ray (1998) have performed experiments on this-walled empty and filled square tubes laterally compressed by using a rigid platen. They analysed the problem with the Sinha and Chitkara (1982) mechanisms and assumed plastic hinges occurred at only at mid section of vertical side, while in horizontal side to be elastic bending. These analyses used plastic hinges and could be modified by replacing plastic hinges with plastic zones (Reddy, 1978). Gupta and Sinha (1990) have studied the post-collapse behaviour of square tubes under transverse loads applied by flat short-width indenters as well as considering tubes compressed between an indenter and a rigid platen. Johnson and Reid (1978) cited the energy absorbing devices with hexagonal shapes referring to an article of Fuse and Fukuda, 1973 (in Japanese) where in hexagonal tubes under quasi-static compression across faces were studied. The mechanism of collapse has hinges at the side corners and at the centres of loaded faces. Although the collapse load is in good agreement with experiment, the theory overestimates the post collapse loads. No alternatives collapse mechanisms appears to have been considered. The case of hexagonal ring loaded -

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across its diagonal has not been studied numerically so far. This paper presents the Finite Element Method to study the accuracy with experimental results done by Said and Reddy (2002).

2.0

MODELLING OF HEXAGONAL RINGS

Two material models were used for as-received material. First, the nominal stress-plastic strain data from the tensile test were used to describe the material. Secondly, the material was modelled as elastic-perfectly plastic. The results of the two materials were compared. For the annealed material, the nominal stress-plastic strain data from tensile tests were used to adequately model the strain hardening effects. The stress-strain data used are graphically shown in Figure 1.

(a) (b) Figure 1: Material properties used in ABAQUS analyses model (a) As-received material, (b) Annealed material.

Taking advantage of symmetry about two axes, only one quarter of the ring was modelled. Simple and side constraints lateral compression were examined for both across faces and corners loading. However, in this paper, simple lateral compression is only considered. Typical geometry and element mesh for several cases are shown in Figure 2. The depth of the model considered was 10 mm and thickness was 1.87 mm. The case of ground corners in solid elements model (Figure 2b) were also examined. Beam elements with quarter, half and full ring model were also used in the case of loading across faces to study the accuracy of ABAQUS/Standard Finite Element code. top rigid platen (IRS22) ground corners

initially horizontal inner surface

vertical rigid surface

bottom rigid surface (a)

(b)

beam element

(c)

(d)

Figure 2: Typical geometry and mesh of quasi-static analysis using ABAQUS with solid and beam elements (a) non-ground corners model compressed across faces, (b) ground corner model compressed across faces, (c) ground corners model, side constraints and compresses across faces, (d) beam element model compressed across faces.

2.1 Solid Elements. Forty eight six-noded elements (CPE6H), quadratic plane strain triangle and hybrid made up a quadrant of the specimen without ground corners. It was found that typically a mesh consisting of 5 mm base by 0.935 mm height triangular element was good enough to accurately predict experimentally results. The typical mesh for non-ground and ground models is shown in Figures 2a and 2b, respectively for the case of simple compression across faces. The model (with ground corner) for the case of simple compression across corners is shown in Figure 2c. The mesh and geometry used to model compression across faces was employed. A rigid surface element (IRS22) monitored the contact between the flat, horizontal rigid surface (top and bottom platen) and the specimen, in the case of simple compression (Figure 2a and 2b). The rigid platen was modelled as a rigid surface with the *RIGID SURFACE and located on the top model surface. *SURFACE DEFINITION option was used to define outer surface of model. The *CONTACT PAIR option then was used to model the contact between the outer surface and rigid platen. The inner surface of the specimen that came into contact with the central rigid platen (axis of symmetry) was defined by means of an interface element (IRS22) to avoid penetration. The effect of friction was considered by taking the coefficient of friction,¾ as 0 and 0.3. Another element (CPE4H) was also used in the analysis for comparison with CPE6H. Š 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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In modelling the ground corners, the corner lines were chamfered to thickness, which was the same as side thickness. The typical mesh of ground corners model is shown in Figure 2b. The corner was modelled with smaller solid elements of CPE6H. The element size except at the corners was 5 mm base by 0.935 mm height. The total number of CPE6H elements and nodes were 65 and 207, respectively, which is shown in Figure 2b. 2.2 Beam Elements. The B22 beam element used had a three-noded quadratic. Each side wall had 4 elements of 10 mm length, and hence there were 24 elements in the model of full hexagonal ring. A typical quarter model is shown in Figure 2d for loading across faces. As in the solid element, the rigid platen was modelled as *RIGID SURFACE, but its location was in mid-section of the hexagonal ring. This three noded quadratic beam element uses Timoshenko beam theory, which allows large strain deformation and includes transverse shear deformation.

3.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The load-displacement curves are shown in Figure 3(a) until Figure 3(h). The deforming meshes are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 (for solid elements) meanwhile in Figure 6 and Figure 7 is for beam elements.

NOTE : EPP for elastic-perfectly plastic, NSPS - nominal stress-plastic strain, NG - non-ground and G- ground Figure 3: Load-displacement curve of hexagonal rings laterally compressed across faces (a) Solid elements (CPE6H and CPE4H), beam element (B22) and experiment, (b) Quarter, half and full model, ABAQUS analysis with B22 element, (c) Elastic perfectly-plastic, nominal stress-plastic strain material model with ABAQUS and experiment, (d) ABAQUS (CPE6H) and experiment for annealed material, (e) ABAQUS ( m=0 and m=0.3) and experiment, (f) ABAQUS (CPE6H) and experiment for NG corners, (g) ABAQUS (CPE6H) and experiment for G corners, (h) ABAQUS and experiment for loading across faces and across corners ( b = 40 mm, t = 1.87 mm, and w = 10 mm). Š 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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Figure 4: Deformation of a ring (non-ground corners) compressed across faces predicted by ABAQUS with solid elements (CPE6H) and elastic perfectly plastic material.Only quarter of the ring shown.

Figure 5: Deformation of a ring (ground corners) compressed across faces predicted by ABAQUS with solid elements (CPE6H) and elastic perfectly plastic material. Only quarter of the ring shown

Figure 6: Deformation of a ring (ground corners) compressed across faces predicted by ABAQUS with beam elements (B22) and elastic perfectly plastic material. Only quarter of the ring shown Š 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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Figure 7: Deformation of a ring compressed across faces predicted by ABAQUS with beam elements (B22) and elastic perfectly plastic material. A full model of the ring shown

A summary of FEM results of rings compressed across faces is as presented in Table 1. The summary results include the collapse load, Fc displacement when the top and bottom ring faces touch, δtb and energy absorbed, W of experimental results. Table 1: A summary of FEM results of lateral compression on hexagonal rings (simple lateral compression and side constraints compression). (model dimensions: b=40 mm, t=1.87 mm, w=10 mm) Type of Element type, Ground *EPP or NSPS model Collapse DisplaceEnergy lateral or Non-ground and coefficient load, Fc ment, absorbed,W loading corners and asof friction (kN) *δtb at δtb received or annealed. (mm) ( Nm) CPE6H, Non-ground corners, (as-received)

NSPS

µ =0

0.88

49

34.4

µ =0.3

0.86

47

31.4

0.85

47

31.2

Experiment(H1)

0.83

48

29.8

EPP (µ =0.3)

0.74

50

29.2

Experiment(H1)

0.8

46

28.4

Experiment(H1)

0.28 0.28

49 49

11.6 8.63

EPP (µ =0.3)

1.06

46

36

quarter

0.7

46

23

half

0.67

51

25.2

full

0.67

51

25.2

EPP(µ =0.3)

Simple lateral compression across faces

CPE6H, Ground corners, (as-received)

CPE6H, Non-ground corners, (annealed) CPE4H, Non-ground, (as-received) B22 (as-received)

NSPS (µ =0.3)

EPP (µ =0.3)

NOTE : *EPP-elastic perfectly plastic, NSPS-nominal stress-plastic strain, H1-compression at 20 mm/min δtb- displacement when specimen model in contact with bottom rigid platen contact.

Four parameters are discussed in this section to check the accuracy of FEM. Those are geometric modelling, material modelling, friction and corner grinding effect (i)

Geometric modelling. a) Solid element CPE6H, CPE4H and beam elements (B22). Figure 3(a) illustrates a comparison of experiment with the load-displacement curves produced by the FEA using solid elements (CPE6H and CPE4H) and beam elements (B22). In all cases, non-ground corners © 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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and quarter models were used. A coefficient of friction, 0.3 was used and the material was assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. It is seen that the curve produced with six noded, quadratic, triangular plane strain hybrid pressure elements (type CPE6H) is in close agreement with the experiment, the difference <10%. Bending in elements is dominant in the CPE6H quadratic element, which is important in the present deformation process. This can also be seen in deforming mesh shown in Figure 4a-b. This is not the case with the CPE4H model. As a result, load-displacement curve predicted by CPE4H elements overestimates the experiment by about >30% at collapse (Figure 3a) and the difference gradually decreases to about 10% when central sections of the ring come into contact with each other. This may be due to the fact that no bending effects are allowed in the bilinear element CPE4H, thus enhancing the load. The agreement may be closer with a finer element mesh. On the other hand, beam element (B22) underestimates the experimental results by ranging from about 20% at collapse and 40% at the onset of contact. This may be also due to fact that, the beam element is one dimensional and the variables (such as stresses, strains) are functions of position along the beam axis only. b) Quarter, half and full models with beam elements. Figure 3b shows the load-displacement curves obtained using quarter, half and full ring models employing beam element (B22) in the ABAQUS package using an elastic-perfectly plastic material model for all cases. All the models produce identical characteristics except that the inner upper part come into contact with rigid body in the quarter model at a displacement of 23 mm (total 46 mm) and with the inner lower part in case of half and full ring models, at a displacement of 52 mm. The deformation patterns produced by the quarter and full model analyses are shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. A ‘bulging’ begin to form at the side corners at a displacement of 29 mm in all three cases, it continues until the model is completely crushed. The reason for this ‘bulging’ is not clear and is not explored. The half and full ring models produced identical behaviours throughout the displacement regime. This analysis indicates that the quarter ring model is good enough to obtain results that agrees well enough with the experiment. (ii)

Material modelling. a) Elastic-perfectly plastic and nominal stress-plastic strain curve for as-received material. Figure 3c shows the two load-displacement curves predicted using the two material models, i.e. elasticperfectly plastic and nominal stress-plastic strain curve for the case of as-received material along with the experimental characteristic. The analysis was carried out using solid elements (CPE6H) and non-ground corners with µ =0.3. The predictions of the two material models are identical. Table 1 shows that the collapse load and energy absorbed are the same for both cases. Hence, it may be inferred that the elasticperfectly plastic model produces results as accurate as the nominal stress- plastic strain curve for the asreceived material. This is also good enough to predict the experimental result by using elastic-perfectly plastic model. However, the differences between prediction and observation in the elastic region are slightly higher than in the post collapse regime. This might be due to small curvatures at corners and any non-uniformities in thickness in the experimental specimen The deformed shapes predicted with the elastic-perfectly plastic material model are plotted in Figure 4. b) A nominal stress-plastic strain curve for annealed material. Figure 3d shows the predictions using nominal stress-strain curve for an annealed mild steel ring along with the experimental characteristics. The analysis used CPE6H solid element and non-ground corners in the model with µ =0.3. The numerical load-displacement characteristic shows close agreement with the experimental results. The collapse load, Fc and displacement, δtb where the load begins to steeply increase, for both cases are the same, which is about 0.28 kN and 49 mm, respectively (row 3 in Table 1). There are also no significant differences in the predicted and observed deforming patterns.

(iii)

Frictional effects. The FE model used CPE6H element and non-ground corner case. Nominal stress-plastic strain curve was used for the as-received material of the ring. Figure 3e shows the of load-displacement curves with coefficient of friction values of 0 and 0.3 and indicates that friction has negligible effect on the collapse load and has marginal effect (maximum of 5%) on the post collapse loads. However, in the frictionless model, the inner central faces come into contact at a displacement of 47 mm, 2 mm smaller than that when friction is included. These are shown as points c and c’ in Figure 3e.

(iv)

Influence of corner grinding. Figure 3f and Figure 3g illustrate the load-displacement curves for rings with non-ground and ground corners crushed across the faces. CPE6H elements with µ =0.3 are used in the FE analysis, which is compared with experimental results. The slope of the elastic line in load-displacement curve for ground corners model is closer to the experiment curve, as seen in Figure 3g. There was a slight blip that appears in the case of ground corners (at about 30 mm displacement) on curve at ‘k’, as the rigid platen came into contact with the chamfered surface. The deforming mesh at this instant is shown in Figure 5 at δ=30mm. © 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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The inner mid face came into contact with the bottom rigid surface at a displacement of 50 mm in ground case, while in non-ground case this was at 47 mm (Figure 3f and Table 1). The deforming meshes at these displacements are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5. In general, the load-displacement curve for nonground model is slightly higher by a maximum of approximately 10% compared with experimental curve while for ground cases, they are in close agreement.

4.0 CONCLUSION Experiment suggests that the elastic-perfectly plastic model produces results as accurate as the nominal stressplastic strain curve for the as received material and the quarter ring model is good enough to obtain a satisfactory result. It shows that solid element, CPE6H produced the best results. The friction has negligible effect on the collapse load and has marginal effect on the post collapse loads.

REFERENCES

[1] Burton, R.H. and Craig, J.M. (1963): An Investigation Into The Energy Absorbing Properties Of Metal Tubes Loaded In The Transverse Direction. Thesis for B.Sc., University of Bristol. [2] DeRuntz, J.A. and Hodge, P.G. (1963): Crushing of a Tube between Rigid Plates. J.Appl. Mech., vol.30, pp.391395. [3] Fuse, H. and Fukuda, H. (1973): Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of Polygonal Cross Section Cylinders. Meiji University Department of Engineering, Report No. 26-27, I-62, 31. [3] Gupta, N.K. and Sinha, S.K. (1990): Collapse of a Laterally Compressed Square Tube Resting On a Flat Base. Int. J. Solid Structure, vol.26, no.5/6, pp.601-615. [4] Gupta, N.K. and Ray, P. (1998): Collapse of Thin-Walled Empty And Filled Square Tubes Under Lateral Loading Between Rigid Plates. International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol.3, No.3, pp.265-285. [5] Johnson, W. and Reid, S.R. (1978): Metallic Energy Dissipating Systems. Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol.31, No.3, pp.277-288. [6] Mutchler, L.D. (1960): Energy Absorption in Aluminium Tubing. J.Applied Mech., vol.27, pp.740-743. [7] Olabi, A.G., Morris, E. and Hashmi, M.S.J. (2007): Metallic Tube Type Energy Absorbers: A Synopsis. Thinwalled structure, vol.45, pp.706-726. [8] Reddy, T.Y. and Reid, S.R. (1980): Phenomena Associated With the Crushing Of Metal Tubes between Rigid Plates, International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol.16, p.545. [9] Reddy, T.Y. and Reid, S.R. (1979): Lateral Compression of Tubes and Tube-Systems with Side Constraints. Int. J of Mech. Sci., vol.21, p.187. [10] Reddy, T.Y. (1978): Impact Energy Absorption Using Laterally Compressed Metal Tubes. Thesis for PhD, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, England. [11] Reid, S.R. (1983): Laterally Compressed Metal Tubes As Impact Energy Absorber. in Structural Crashworthiness (ed) Jones, N. and Wierzbicki, T. (Butterworth),pp.1-43. [12] Reid, S.R. (1985): Metal Tubes as Impact Absorbers. in Metal Forming and Impact Mechanics (ed) Reid, S.R. (Pergamon Press), Chapter 14, pp.249-269. [13] Reid, S.R. and Reddy, T.Y. (1978): Effect of Strain Hardening on the Lateral Compression of Tubes between Rigid Plates. Int. J. Solid and Structures, Vol.14, pp.213-225. [14] Said, M.R. and Reddy, T.Y. (2002): Quasi-Static Response Of Laterally Simple Compressed Hexagonal Rings. Int. Journal Crashworthiness, vol.7, No.3, pp.345-363. [15] Sinha, D.K. and Chitkara, N.R. (1982): Plastic Collapse of Square Rings. Int. J. Solid. Structure., vol.18, no.18, pp.819-826. [16] WiesĹ&#x201A;aw, B., Pawel, D., Tadeusz, N. and Robert, P. (2011): Application of Composites to Impact Energy Absorption. Computational Materials Science, vol.50, pp.1233-1237. [17] Yu, T.X. and Johnson, W. (1982): The Plastica: The Large Elastic-Plastic Deflection of A Cantilever. Acta Linear Mech. vol.17, pp.195-209.

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SOLID FUEL FROM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER AND WASTE PAPERS PART 2: GAS EMISSION FROM COMBUSTION TEST YUHAZRI1, M.Y., HAERYIP SIHOMBING2, YAHAYA3, S.H., SAID4, M.R., UMAR NIRMAL5, SAIJOD LAU6 and PHONGSAKORN PRAK TOM7 1, 2, 3

Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, MALAYSIA 1 yuhazri@utem.edu.my 2 iphaery@ utem.edu.my 4

5, 6

Faculty of Engineering and Technology Multimedia University Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka, MALAYSIA 3 nirmal@mmu.edu.my 4 twlau@mmu.edu.my 7

Nuclear Power Division Malaysia Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000, Kajang, MALAYSIA 5 phongsakorn@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my ABSTRACT This research discussed on the results obtained for each sample that have been conducted to the solid fuel briquettes made of empty fruit bunch fiber and waste papers from view of gas emission content during combustion test. A good and quality briquette is the one that contained high oxygen and small amount of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulphur gases which released during the combustion. This is because, all these gases can cause air pollution and it is hazardous to human health. Low sulphur content is desirable in order to make this form renewable energy more environments friendly as compared to combustion of fossil fuels because combustion of agricultural wastes types will emit less sulphur oxide and react with water, oxygen and oxidants in forming the acidic compound that formed acid rain. Hence, the possibility result in this research is the development of solid fuel briquette by mixing the empty fruit bunch with a waste paper can be one sources of fuel energy. From the combustion analysis showed sample briquette of S/N 1 was found to be the best ratio as the amount that met the good environmental friendly aspects. Keywords: Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber, Waste Papers, Gas Emission Content.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Producing energy from renewable biomass is only one of the various ways of responding to the challenges of the energy crisis. Since the oil crisis in 1970’s the use of biomass as a source of energy is a topic of growing interest and debate as agreed by Gómez-Loscos (2012), Tong and Li (2012), Arias (2011), Vaclav (2010), Fernando (2009), Kaygusuz and Keles (2008). Corley and Tinker (2008) in their book discuss in detail about oil palm in Malaysia. In 2004, Malaysia had about 3.87 million hectares of land under oil palm cultivation. Currently, more than 80 percent of the oil palm produced is used for food applications like cooking oil, frying oil and many others. Oil palm is a perennial crop. It has an economic life span of about 25 years. Traditionally, oil palm is grown for its oil example like palm oil, palm kernel oil, and palm kernel cake as the community products. Besides palm oil and palm kernel, oil palm industry generates large quantity of biomass residue which is side products as stated before like fronds, trunks, EFB, palm oil mill effluent, palm fibre and shell that have not been fully commercially exploited. Through concerted research and development efforts by many research organizations including Malaysian Oil Palm Board, this co – products from palm oil industry have been found to be good resources for many application such as palm oil fuel ash a biomass residue (Brown et al., 2011), oil palm as a viable concrete pozzalanic material (Foo and Hameed, 2009), Oil palm ash as partial replacement of cement for solidification/stabilization of nickel hydroxide sludge (Chun et al., 2008), oil palm ash in concrete (Tangchirapat -

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et al., 2007).There are many competitive uses of these materials. One of them is to utilize them as a fuel for energy production but in term of biodiesel fuel. In fact, Malaysian government has identified biomass as fifth fuel resource to compliment the petroleum, gas, coal, and hydro as energy resources, while palm biomass has been identified as a single most important energy source as stated by Sumiani (2006). On the other hands, the main sources of biomass in Malaysia are domestic wastes, agricultural wastes, effluent sludge and wood chips (Yuhazri et al., 2011) and (Yuhazri et al., 2010). Biomass energy systems can be based on a wide range of feedstock like food and garden wastes (Romeela and Ackmez, 2012), solid wastes and sewage sludge (Despina et al., 2012), cellulosic ethanol (Gonzalez, 2011), coal and cattle biomass (Carlin et al., 2011) and many more. They use many different conversion technologies to produce solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. These can then be used to provide heat, electricity and fuels to power vehicles; using burners, boilers, generators, internal combustion engines, turbine or fuel cells. Power can be generated by co – firing a small portion of biomass on existing power plant, burning biomass in conventional steam boilers, biomass gasification and anaerobic digestion. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value as reported by (Sławomir, 2012), (De et al., 2012), (Nasrin et al., 2011), (Chuen-Shii, 2009). Biomass briquette is the process of converting low bulk density biomass into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes. Biomass briquette plant is of various sizes which converts biomass into a solid fuel. Briquettes are ready substitute of coal or wood in industrial boiler and brick kiln for thermal application. Biomass briquettes are non conventional source of energy, renewable in nature, eco – friendly, non polluting and economical. Process of converting biomass into solid fuel is non polluting process. It involves drying, cutting, grinding, and pressing with or without the aid of a binder. Malaysia has involved in palm oil industry over the last four decades and since then it has generated vast quantities of palm biomass, mainly from milling and crushing palm kernel. Empty fruit bunch is the main solid waste from oil palm obtained from milling process. This biomass can be used as an alternative energy for combustion purposes especially in industry. Unfortunately, due to its poor physical properties EFB is not normally utilized as fuel. However, it can be use in optimise by upgrading and treating its properties. The method that can be used is the briquetting technique. Briquetting is the alternative method in upgrading biomass into a useful solid fuel that can be done through various technologies. In this research, EFB material will be mixed up with the recycled papers and it will be turned into solid briquette through the briquetting process. The used of recycle papers in this research is to utilized the abundant papers into something useful, thus helps in reducing the number of municipal wastes generated every year. Papers are selected as a material to be used compared to the other types of recycled wastes such as glass and plastic because it is known to be a good material for a combustion ignition. As for plastics, it may be compatible to papers to be used as ignition material in combustion, but it will spread a toxic gas while it is burn. The scope of this research is mainly focusing on the mixing of the empty fruit bunch, EFB and the recycled papers. All these palm oil mills is to be obtained, mixed up and to be develop as a fuel briquette at a certain ratio or percentage with the EFB as the major element. This fuel briquette is to be carried out with the performance tests and comparison tests in terms of its calorific values (Yuhazri et al., 2012), stability, and durability, proximate, ultimate, immerse and crack, but in this paper (part 2) only discuss on gas emission released after combustion test.

2.0

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) supplied by Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) from one of plantation in Malaysia was used as reinforced material in this green composites fabrication. The EFB used in the composites was in a chopped strand form. The EFB type used was shown in the Figure 1(a) and the Table 1 is the basic properties of EFB used for the fabrication of the composites based on study done by (Nasrin et al., 2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 1: (a) EFB in fibrous form, (b) Shredded paper in shredder machine.

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Recycled papers are use as a matrix material in the solid fuel briquette fabrication. The reason to choose papers as recycled waste in this research is because due to the properties of papers which can provide good properties for combustion. Furthermore, it can act as a binder during the blending of papers and EFB during fabrication stage. The papers are obtained from waste papers of the paper shredder machine. This is because the crushing papers have a standard size and dimension after is shredded inside the crushing machine. The standard size and dimension helps to ensure that the blending of papers and EFB is uniform. Table 1: Properties of EFB as raw materials. (Nasrin et al., 2008) Raw Material

Pulverized EFB EFB Fibre EFB Fibre

Average size of Materials

Calorific Value kJ/kg

<212Âľm 3 cm 2.5 mm

Moisture Content %

17000 16641 16641

12.0 16.0 14.0

Ash Content % 2.41 4.70 4.60

The dimension of sample briquette produced during sample preparation is 40 mm in diameter and 73 mm in length with average weight about 67.64 grams. The ratio of briquette produced is presented in Table 2 and Figure 2 is actual specimens. Table 2: Sample ratio and its serial number Ratio of EFB to Paper 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 50:50 40:60

Serial Number S/N 1 S/N 2 S/N 3 S/N 4 S/N 5 S/N 6

There are several steps involved in producing a single briquette according to its ratio. Firstly, the waste papers need to be immersed in water for 24 hours and then it is blended using a blender to mash up the waste papers. Then, the blended papers it weighed again to get the weight of mashed papers with water. After dividing the EFB and shredded papers according to their ratios, the EFB fiber is mixed up with the shredded paper. Then, the compacting step takes place by compacting the mixing of EFB and waste paper into a solid briquette by using hydraulic press machine and cylinder mold. The size of the mold is 100 mm in length and 40 mm in diameter. The mixing is compressed into the mold until it gets to the desired length which is 73 mm. The amount of pressure applied during compacting process is 3 bars. Finally, the solid briquette is placed inside a drying oven at temperature 100 °C for 24 hours to remove the water obtained during the compacting process.

(a)

(d)

(b)

(c)

(e)

(f)

Figure 2: Samples of solid briquettes in different ratios; (a) S/N 1, (b) S/N 2, (c) S/N 3 (d) S/N 4, (e) S/N 5 and (f) S/N 6.

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Global Engineers & Technologist Review, Vol.2 No.2

3.0

(2012)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the combustion process, gas emission from each sample can also be recorded by using equipment called gas analyzer. The gas emission for each sample is taken during the combustion takes place until the sample burn completely. The purpose to record the gas emission for the sample is to obtain the composition of material in terms of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. The value of each element can be presented in the Table 3. Table 3: Amount of gas emission in sample briquettes Sample Ratio

S/N 1 S/N 2 S/N 3 S/N 4 S/N 5 S/N 6

Gas Emission O2 (%)

CO (ppm)

CO2 (%)

NO(ppm)

NO2 (ppm)

SO2 (ppm)

20.90 20.80 20.00 20.70 20.80 20.80

283.00 376.00 770.00 755.00 79.00 446.00

0.33 0.40 0.80 0.20 0.80 1.00

6.00 10.00 9.00 11.00 7.00 4.00

0.5 0 0 0 0 1.0

10.00 24.00 18.00 21.00 16.00 10.00

Table 3 shown a data on the amount of gas emission of sample briquettes in term of oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. From the table, it can be deduce, briquette with a ratio of 40:60 released the highest percent of carbon dioxide which is 1.00 percent followed by sample with ratio 70:30 and 50:50 with percentage of carbon dioxide 0.80 percent for both samples. Sample briquette that released the least amount of carbon dioxide in percentage is sample ratio of 60:40 with a value of 0.20 percent. This can be further understood by referring to the histogram in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Percentage of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide of sample briquettes

From Figure 3, it is clearly shown that the briquettes tested released a small amount of carbon dioxide into the air during its combustion. This shown that the briquettes does reducing the amount of carbon dioxide released from its combustion compared to conventional combustion process using fossil fuel or coal. Combustion implies the addition of air or oxygen directly to the reactor in sufficient quantity to completely or stoichiometrically oxidize the biomass, usually with the excess of oxygen to ensure burning out. During combustion of biomass, firstly it is pyrolysed to gases and organic vapors which are then burned in flaming combustion. The char burns in glowing combustion after the pyrolysed step (Bridgwater, 2007). A good and quality briquette is the one that contained high oxygen and small amount of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur gases which released during the combustion. This is because, all these gases can cause air pollution and it is hazardous to human health. Low sulfur content is desirable in order to make this form renewable energy more environments friendly as compared to combustion of fossil fuels because combustion of agricultural wastes types will emit less sulfur oxide and react with water, oxygen and oxidants in forming the acidic compound that formed acid rain. This is supported by a study on woody biomass briquette conducted by Loo and Koppejan (2008) which stated that oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are the main components of biomass fuels. Carbon and hydrogen become oxidized during combustion by exothermic reaction (formation of carbon dioxide and water) and therefore influence the gross calorific value of the fuel. The amounts of volatile matter also influence the combustion behavior of the solid fuels. Didar and Kashyap (1997) in the study of paddy husk briquette stated that increase in the amount of air resulted in an increased amount of carbon dioxide up to 40 to 50 % excess air, but beyond this limit, increase in excess air resulted in decrease of carbon dioxide in the combustion. The result on amount of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen obtained can be compared with the journal conducted by Yaman et al., (2000) which recorded 39 % of carbon and 1.5 percent of nitrogen gases during the combustion of olive refuse and paper mill waste briquettes. Compared to the result in Table 3, the amount of gas emission obtained in the study is relatively higher. This shown that the amount of gas emission of EFB and waste paper briquettes Š 2012 GETview Limited. All rights reserved

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recorded a better value of gas emission in which the value is lower compared to the journal mention previously. Meanwhile Demirbas et al., (1997) in their study of waste paper and wheat straw briquettes, the amount of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen gases recorded are 45.4 %, 34.1 % and 1.8 percent respectively. These values are also higher compared to the result obtained in Table 3. This shown that the sample briquettes produced is better in terms of its gas emission in which the amount of carbon and nitrogen gases released is lower compared to the waste paper and wheat straw briquettes. From Table 3, it can be deduce that sample S/N 1 is the best sample for which is gives the highest amount of oxygen gas, and the lowest amount of carbon gases released during its combustion. The comparison can be further explained by the Figure 4.

Figure 4: Comparison on gas emission of solid briquettes

4.0 CONCLUSION The experiment carried out, it was generally found out that the characteristics of palm biomass briquettes produced from compaction of EFB and waste paper were satisfactory and compatible with the other researches that involved the palm briquettes. For the gas emission released by briquettes from the combustion test, sample S/N 1 was found to produce the least amount of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur into the environment and contained high amount of oxygen. In the nutshells it can be summarized that all samples briquettes have their own strength and weakness when they were subjected to different types of testing, but still all the briquettes were compatible with each others and it is suitable to be commercialized as a new solid fuel sources that can be utilized in many application such as camping, barbeque and for residence utilization energy. The blending of EFB fiber with waste paper can improve its physical, mechanical, and combustion properties.

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[10] Despina, V., Evaggelia, K., Stelios, S. and Piero, S. (2012): Gasification of Waste Biomass Chars by Carbon Dioxide via Thermogravimetry : Effect of Catalysts. Combustion Science and Technology. Vol.184, Iss.1, pp.64-77. [11] Didar, S. and Kashyap, M.M., (1997): Mechanical and Combustion Characteristics of Paddy Husk Briquettes. Journal of Agricultural Waste, pp.189–196. [12] Fernando Galembeck (2009): Synergy in Food, Fuels and Materials Production from Biomass. Energy Environ. Sci., vol.3, iss.4, pp.393-399. [13] Foo, K.Y. and Hameed, B.H. (2009): Value-Added Utilization Of Oil Palm Ash: A Superior Recycling Of The Industrial Agricultural Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.172, Iss.2–3, pp.523-531. [14] Gómez-Loscos, A., María, D.G. and Montañés, A. (2012): Economic Growth, Inflation and Oil Shocks: Are the 1970s Coming Back?. Applied Economics, Vol.44, Iss.35, pp.4575-4589. [15] Gonzalez, R.W. (2011): Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol. Ph.D. Thesis at North Carolina State University. USA. [16] Kaygusuz, K. and Keleş, S. (2008): Use of Biomass as a Transitional Strategy to a Sustainable and Clean Energy System. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Vol.31, Iss.1, pp.8697. [17] Loo, S.V. and Koppejan, J. (2008): The Handbook of Biomass Cumbustion and Co-firing, Earthscan Publisher. ISSN 1844072495, 9781844072491. [18] Nasrin, A.B., Choo, Y.M., Lim, W.S., Joseph, L., Michael, S., Rohaya, M.H. and Astimar, A.A. (2011): Briquetting of Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre and Palm Shell as a Renewable Energy Fuel. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol.6, No.6, pp.446-451. [19] Nasrin, A.B., Ma, A.N., Choo, Y.M., Mohamad, S., Rohaya, M.H., Azali, A. and Zainal, Z. (2008): Oil Palm Biomass as Potential Subtituition Raw Materials for Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production. American Journal of Applied Sciences. [20] Romeela, M. and Ackmez, M. (2012): Energy from Biomass in Mauritius: Overview of Research and Applications, (Waste to Energy). Springer London Publisher. ISBN: 978-1-4471-2306-4. [21] Sławomir, O. (2012): Analysis of Usability of Potato Pulp as Solid Fuel, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol.94, Iss.1, pp.67-74. [22] Sumiani, Y. (2006): Renewable Energy From Palm Oil – Innovation on Effective Utilization of Waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.14, Iss.1, pp.87-93. [23] Tangchirapat, W., Saeting, T., Jaturapitakkul, C., Kiattikomol, K. and Siripanichgorn, A. (2007): Use of Waste Ash From Palm Oil Industry In Concrete. Waste Management, vol.27, pp.81–88. [24] Tong, Z. and Feng, T. (2012): A Study On Energy Saving of LEED-NC Green Building Rating System From Point Analysis. Advanced Materials Research, Vols.374-377, pp.122-126. [25] Vaclav, S. (2010): Energy Myths and Realities: Bringing Science to the Energy Policy Debate. Government Institutes Publisher. [26] Yaman, S., Sahan, M.S., Haykiri, M.H., Sesen, K., Ku’’c,u’’kbayrak, S., (2000): Production Of Fuel Briquettes From Olive Refuse And Paper Mill Waste. Journal of Fuel Processing Technology. pp. 23-31. [27] Yuhazri, M.Y., Sihombing, H., Jeefferie, A.R., Ahmad Mujahid, A.Z., Balamurugan, A.G., Norazman, M.N. and Shohaimi, A. (2011): Optimazation of Coconut Fibers Toward Heat Insulator Applications. Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.1, No.1, pp.35-40. [28] Yuhazri, M.Y., Kamarul, A.M., Haeryip Sihombing, Jeefferie, A.R., Haidir, M.M., Toibah, A.R. and Rahimah, A.H. (2010): The Potential of Agriculture Waste Material for Noise Insulator Application Toward Green Design and Material, International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Vol.10, No.5, pp.16-21. [29] Yuhazri, M.Y., Haeryip Sihombing, Umar, N., Saijod, L. and Phongsakorn, P.T. (2012): Solid Fuel from Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber and Waste Papers Part 1: Heat Released from Combustion Test, Global Engineers and Technologists Review, Vol.2, No.1, pp.7-13.

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