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A Practical Guide To Inclusion A Manual For Implementation And Delivery

Mr D Campbell

A Practical Guide To Inclusion

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Title: A Practical Guide To Inclusion: A Manual For Implementation And Delivery First Edition 2011 Copyright © 2011 Daniel Campbell All right reserved Designed by Daniel Campbell Printed by CreateSpace

Interior Print: Black & White ISBN-13: 978-1456583651 ISBN-10: 1456583654 Copyright Notice All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced in any form or by any means (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means) without the written permission of the copyright owner, except in accordance with the provision of the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Acknowledgements The kind permission of David Fulton Publishers to reproduce the ‘Copying In School Survey,’ see page106 for the full book reference. Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders of materials reproduced in this book. Any omissions will be rectified in subsequent printings if notice is given to the publishers.

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Dedication I would like to dedicate the book to those who rebuilt my life after my road traffic accident. Pauline Grocott

The first aider, who stopped and helped me when I was having a little rest in the road.

Mr Neal Medical Team

The people who to turned me into the bionic man that I am today.

Ward Staff

The staff of Ward 19, for bringing my mind back to reality and encouraging me to walk again

Physiotherapist

The people who enjoyed making my body do things that created mind numbing pain, but it worked as I’m walking!

Norman and Dorothy Gosling and their family

A fellow hospital inmate, for making me laugh and realise that life was not that bad even though I had lost everything that I held dear to me.

Tim Campbell and Judy Hall

My brother and partner, for helping me to leave hospital by plumbing, building walls, and decorating the house, but I think next time I will pay someone rather than having a car crash! But most importantly for bringing me a hot water flask and sandwiches every morning when I was unable to leave my bed.

Ann Campbell

For being my mum and doing all the things that mums do

Kate Davies (Campbell)

For helping me rebuild my life and achieve my aims and dreams.

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Acknowledgements This book is grounded in the professional development of the schools inclusion team and is based on practical solutions and systems which were developed by the frontline workers. Frontline Workers • • • • • •

Miss D Downs Miss D Newbon Mr P Hardcastle Miss J Jones Mrs L Shaw Mr T Campbell

Mentor and Home School Link Worker Mentor and Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO) Behaviour Improvement Programme Manager (BIP) Teacher Mentor, Learning Support Unit (LSU) Manager, and Head Of Year Seven Mentor and Widening Participation

Others Contributors • • • • •

Mr S French Mrs K Hunter Mr J Casey Mr S Bloor Ms J Clark

Inclusion Manager and Deputy Head Education Welfare Officer Mentor Student (Target Card) Winner of the mentoring logo competition

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Forward The Birth Of The Book: The book started life as a reflective review and development exercise, of the school’s operational processes directly relating to mentoring intervention for students with behavioural concerns at Key Stage Three. As I started to add more information about the structure and the crossover of the processes into internationally recognised psychological models such as Emotional Intelligence and the level of readiness to change (Change Stage Model) it took on a new life. More and more people were asking about different aspects of our mentoring processes when I was in attendance on training and development courses, which led to even more integration of our mentoring process to professionally recognised models of intervention. Then one day my partner said, as a joke ‘you may as well write a book!’ The Nature and Purpose Of The Book: The book aims to provide a quick reference to key concepts in mentoring students who show negative behaviour and/or low self efficacy levels. It identifies key concepts of intervention and explains them in a reflective and hands on way for practitioners, in relation to the school’s intervention model. The style is non-academic and makes use of tables rather than pages and pages of writing. A lack of references aims to reduce the level of complexity and to support a more reflective approach. This is a summary/ applied approach to what tend to be very complex theories and so the information in this book is more useful, linking directly to our working practices. In addition, this approach differentiates to accommodate the different ways in which we (reader) assimilate information. Who Is This Book Aimed At: It is my hope that this book will guide, inspire and offer insight to all educational workplaces that work with students who have low or negative self efficacy within (i.e. students who struggle!). Most of the operational processes that are outlined are based on one-to-one mentoring and general intervention around school. As my own role has increasingly been around supporting my difficult students within the classroom, I have tried to link these practices directly to the classroom as well as other earning environments that our students are using. I have listed below, four possible groups of people who would potentially benefit from accessing this book. 1. Support staff such as learning mentors who work in small groups or on a one-to-one basis with students who have behavioural concerns and self-efficacy issues. The information provided will aid them in the development of their working practice, as it provides insights around process and policy decision-making. It also illustrates how a particular school has approached mentoring and the assessment of intervention impact. 2. Other support staff, such as Learning Support Assistants or Teacher’s Assistants, will be linking into theories and topics covered in this book during their working week. Theories that relate to emotional intelligence and positive learning, or the assessment of the student Learning Styles are addressed, to aid the staff in the planning and development of their students’ educational needs. 3. Teachers who want to know more about positive learning, emotional intelligence, or action planning within school; and how support staff or themselves can promote this within their lessons or teaching practices. 4. For schools that are implementing or developing whole school behaviour intervention systems, this book offers a possible benchmark alongside an insight into processes and procedures that they will need to consider and develop as the school moves through their change model.

Mentoring and Schools: One of the most important factors behind the success of any mentoring and behaviour intervention is that every school views mentoring differently, which allows mentoring to achieve its fullest potential for the individual school. For example, the use of mentoring is very much dependent on the level of student/ parent engagement. In the school where I work a very high proportion of its students bring their planners to school every day, whereas in another school the focus may be to get the students to bring A Practical Guide To Inclusion

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something to write with. In other words, there is no point in operating a school intervention profile that relies on the students carrying a planner on a day-to-day basis if the vast majority of students are not actually doing this. Consequently the intervention profiles and ideas outlined in this book are not there as blanket approaches to mentoring and behaviour intervention but rather as a tool kit from which to borrow ideas and to modify them to meet the particular needs of your own workplace. The concept of an outcome vision or aims and objectives targeted our mentoring and behaviour intervention and was critical to its successful development. We used clear aims that we wanted to achieve from the intervention and job roles were created and modified to achieve those aims. This provided clear direction and professionalism for the intervention team and other professionals, as we all clearly understood what we wanted to achieve both on a daily and yearly basis. Finally: I hope that this book provides you with ideas and options ‌ or possible new ways of approaching how you provide support and intervention for the students you are engaged with. But most of all I hope that you can use this book to help you in your continuing quest for self-achievement and professional development.

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Contents Summary

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Summary of Contents Chapter 1 : Simple Concepts And Definitions .................................................................................. 20  Chapter 2 : Key Background Knowledge ......................................................................................... 34  Chapter 3 : An Operational Framework at Risk ............................................................................... 52  Chapter 4 : Adding Transparency To Intervention .......................................................................... 70  Chapter 5 : Paperwork And mentoring .......................................................................................... 100  Chapter 6 : Informal Learning and Interview Techniques ............................................................ 136  Chapter 7 : Intervention Through Key Activities ........................................................................... 164  Chapter 8 : Intervention Profile..................................................................................................... 180  Chapter 9 : Appendices .................................................................................................................. 204  Chapter 10 : List Of Tables And Figures ......................................................................................... 286 

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Contents In Detail

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Chapter 1 : Simple Concepts And Definitions .................................................................................. 20  1.1) Definitions of Mentoring ............................................................................................................. 20  1.2) Aims and Objectives of A Mentor ................................................................................................ 21  1.3) A Simple Overview of Behaviour ................................................................................................. 25  1.4) 10 Things to do as a Mentor....................................................................................................... 29  Chapter 2 : Key Background Knowledge ......................................................................................... 34  2.1) Every Child Matters (schools) and The Child Concern Model .......................................................... 34  2.2) Accelerated Learning ................................................................................................................. 37  2.2-1) Background to Accelerated Learning .................................................................................. 37  2.2-2) Accelerated Learning and Our Mentoring Process................................................................ 37  2.3) Emotional Intelligence ............................................................................................................... 42  2.3-1) Background to Emotional Intelligence ................................................................................ 42  2.3-2) Emotional Intelligence and Our Mentoring Process .............................................................. 42  Chapter 3 : An Operational Framework at Risk ............................................................................... 52  3.1) Aims/ Principles......................................................................................................................... 52  3.2) Overview of Process .................................................................................................................. 52  3.3) The Management of Transferred Students and Mentoring ............................................................. 59  Chapter 4 : Adding Transparency To Intervention .......................................................................... 70  4.1) Background to the Six Stages to Change ..................................................................................... 70  4.2) How the Stage Change Model fits into the System........................................................................ 70  4.3) Stages Of Change Overview ....................................................................................................... 72  4.3-1) Summary Profile Of Each Stage ......................................................................................... 73  4.4) Stage One – Denial ................................................................................................................... 75  4.5) Stage Two – Realisation............................................................................................................. 79  4.6) Stage Three – Recognition ......................................................................................................... 82  4.7) Stage Four – Addressing It ......................................................................................................... 85  4.8) Stage Five – Doing It ................................................................................................................. 89  4.9) Stage Six – Self Reliance ............................................................................................................ 92  4.10) What Will It Look Like? ............................................................................................................ 95  Chapter 5 : Paperwork And mentoring .......................................................................................... 100  5.1) Overview/ introduction ............................................................................................................ 100  5.2) Student Mentoring Folder ......................................................................................................... 101  5.2-1) School Master Files ........................................................................................................ 101  5.2-2) Staff Feedback .............................................................................................................. 102  5.2-3) Attendance Profile ......................................................................................................... 103  5.2-4) Sleuth (Behaviour) Profile ............................................................................................... 104  5.2-5) Student Summary .......................................................................................................... 105  5.3) Assessment Of Students .......................................................................................................... 106  A Practical Guide To Inclusion

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5.3-1) Background of the Coping In School Survey ..................................................................... 106  5.3-2) The CISS Assessment..................................................................................................... 107  5.4) The Learning Style Assessment ................................................................................................ 109  5.5) The Change Stage Assessment ................................................................................................. 111  5.6) The Self-Esteem Assessment .................................................................................................... 116  5.7) The Action Plan ....................................................................................................................... 117  5.8) Mutual Contracts ..................................................................................................................... 120  5.9) Why We Use Mentoring Credits ................................................................................................ 122  5.9-1) Initial Integration Of Mentoring Credits ............................................................................ 122  5.9-2) Daily Mentoring Cards .................................................................................................... 124  5.10) Why We Use Activities ........................................................................................................... 126  5.11) Proving Mentoring Impact By Numbers .................................................................................... 127  Chapter 6 : Informal Learning and Interview Techniques ............................................................ 136  6.1) An Informal Process For Challenging ......................................................................................... 136  6.1-1) Mentoring and The Classroom......................................................................................... 138  6.1-2) School Rules and Their Use ............................................................................................ 140  6.1-3) Simple Intervention Practices .......................................................................................... 142  6.1-4) Student Observation and Recording Of Data .................................................................... 146  6.2) Mentoring and Interviewing Techniques .................................................................................... 152  6.2-1) Assessing Readiness ...................................................................................................... 153  6.2-2) Background to Interviewing and Creating Change ............................................................. 154  6.2-3) Challenging changing & Perceptions Through Interviews ................................................... 154  Chapter 7 : Intervention Through Key Activities ........................................................................... 164  7.1) Motivational Activities .............................................................................................................. 164  7.1-1) Reviewing The Number Of Sleuth Reports ........................................................................ 167  7.1-2) Achievement Of Targets On A Weekly Basis ..................................................................... 168  7.1-3) Weekly Data Gathering................................................................................................... 168  7.1-4) Paper-based Activities .................................................................................................... 169  7.1-5) Role Play....................................................................................................................... 169  7.1-6) Discussions ................................................................................................................... 169  7.1-7) Motivational Talk ........................................................................................................... 170  7.1-8) Merits ........................................................................................................................... 170  7.1-9) The Planner .................................................................................................................. 171  7.1-10) Targets ....................................................................................................................... 172  7.1-11) Good Comments/ Bad Comments .................................................................................. 172  7.1-12) School Books And Pen .................................................................................................. 173  7.1-13) Attendance .................................................................................................................. 173  7.1-14) Catch Me Card ............................................................................................................. 174  A Practical Guide To Inclusion

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7.1-15) Mentoring Credits......................................................................................................... 175  Chapter 8 : Intervention Profile..................................................................................................... 180  8.1) Formal and Informal Processes ................................................................................................. 180  8.1-1) The Student’s Perception of Own Classroom Strategies ..................................................... 181  8.2) Staff and Student Perceptions of Behaviour and Learning Strategies ............................................ 184  8.3) Learning Style Assessment ....................................................................................................... 188  8.4) Individual Behaviour Plan ......................................................................................................... 189  8.5) Stage of Change Assessment ................................................................................................... 192  8.6) Action Plans ............................................................................................................................ 194  8.7) Mentor’s Weekly Data Gathering ............................................................................................... 197  8.8) What Have We Learnt? ............................................................................................................ 198  8.9) Overall Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 201  Chapter 9 : Appendices .................................................................................................................. 204  9.1) Appendix One : Information Recording...................................................................................... 206  9.1-1) Student Information Request From Staff .......................................................................... 207  9.1-2) Student Information Feedback to Staff ............................................................................ 209  9.1-3) Student Summary .......................................................................................................... 210  9.1-4) Intervention Summary ................................................................................................... 212  9.1-5) Parent Contact Record Sheet .......................................................................................... 214  9.1-6) School Induction Pack .................................................................................................... 215  9.1-7) Student Observation Form .............................................................................................. 221  9.2) Appendix Two: Weekly Mentoring ............................................................................................. 225  9.2-1) Multi Action Plan ............................................................................................................ 226  9.2-2) Single Action Plan .......................................................................................................... 228  9.2-3) Mentor’s Weekly Data Gathering ..................................................................................... 229  9.2-4) Paper Based Activities .................................................................................................... 230  9.2-5) Mentoring Credits .......................................................................................................... 231  9.2-6) Mentoring Credits – Cashed In Whole Caseload ................................................................ 232  9.2-7) Mentoring Credits – League Table ................................................................................... 234  9.2-8) Mentoring Card.............................................................................................................. 235  9.2-9) Words and Questions Displayed on the Walls in the Mentoring Room ................................. 238  9.3) Appendix Three: Computer Based Assessments ......................................................................... 274  9.3-1) Coping In School Scale Or CISS Assessment..................................................................... 275  9.3-2) Learning Style Assessment ............................................................................................. 278  9.3-3) Sleuth Form .................................................................................................................. 281  Chapter 10 : List Of Tables And Figures ......................................................................................... 286  10.1) List of Tables ........................................................................................................................ 288  10.2) List of Figures ....................................................................................................................... 289  A Practical Guide To Inclusion

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Chapter Ten Chapter 10 : List Of Tables And Figures

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Chapter Index Chapter 10 : List Of Tables And Figures

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10.1) List of Tables A list of all the tables used

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10.2) List of Figures A list of all the charts and figures used

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10.1) List of Tables TABLE 1.2:1) AIMS OF MENTORING LINKED TO THE CHANGE STAGE MODEL .......................................................................................... 21  TABLE 1.2:2) ACHIEVING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT .............................................................................................................................. 22  TABLE 1.3:1) A POSSIBLE GROUPING OF BEHAVIOUR .......................................................................................................................... 25  TABLE 1.3:2) MENTORING AND BEHAVIOUR INTERVENTION ................................................................................................................. 26  TABLE 2.1:1) GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MENTORING ..................................................................................... 35  TABLE 2.2:1) ACCELERATED LEARNING AND THE APPLICATION OF KOLB’S LEARNING CYCLE ........................................................................ 39  TABLE 2.3:1) MENTORING AIMS, STAGE OF CHANGE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE .............................................................................. 43  TABLE 2.3:2) EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND MENTORING .................................................................................................................. 44  TABLE 3.2:1) KEY TO FLOW CHART DESCRIPTION OF THE MENTORING PROCESS...................................................................................... 54  TABLE 3.3:1) THREE TYPES OF TRANSFER MANAGED STUDENTS ............................................................................................................ 61  TABLE 3.3:2) A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGED TRANSFER STUDENTS ......................................... 62  TABLE 4.3‐1:1) STAGE OF CHANGE ASSESSMENT – VERBAL INDICATORS ................................................................................................ 73  TABLE 4.4:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE ONE – DENIAL .................................................................................................................... 75  TABLE 4.5:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE TWO – REALISATION ............................................................................................................ 79  TABLE 4.6:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE THREE – RECOGNITION ......................................................................................................... 82  TABLE 4.7:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE FOUR – ADDRESSING IT ........................................................................................................ 85  TABLE 4.8:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE FIVE – DOING IT .................................................................................................................. 89  TABLE 4.9:1) PROFILE OF CHANGE STAGE SIX – SELF RELIANCE ............................................................................................................ 92  TABLE 5.5:1) READINESS TO CHANGE ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................................................... 113  TABLE 5.5:2) A SAMPLE OF QUESTIONS FROM CHANGE STAGE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................................. 115  TABLE 5.7:1) WEEKLY DATA HIGHLIGHTED ON ACTION PLAIN .............................................................................................................. 118  TABLE 5.9:1) SAMPLE OF CASHED CREDIT RECORD SHEET ................................................................................................................. 123  TABLE 5.9:2) SAMPLE OF PERFORMANCE CHART USED WITH MENTORING CREDITS ............................................................................... 123  TABLE 5.11:1) MENTORING AND DATA ANALYSIS TO PROVE IMPACT ................................................................................................... 127  TABLE 5.11:2) INDICATORS USED TO PROVE MENTORING IMPACT ...................................................................................................... 128  TABLE 6.1:1) APPLIED KOLB LEARNING CYCLE ................................................................................................................................. 137  TABLE 6.1:2) AN OVERVIEW OF SIMPLE CLASSROOM INTERVENTION TECHNIQUES ................................................................................. 143  TABLE 6.1:3) A POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO STUDENT OBSERVATION .................................................................................................... 147  TABLE 6.1:4) STUDENT OBSERVATION FORM – LAYOUT .................................................................................................................... 150  TABLE 6.1:5) STUDENT OBSERVATION FORM – TRIGGERS .................................................................................................................. 151  TABLE 6.2:1) STYLE OF INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES ......................................................................................................................... 152  TABLE 6.2:2) INTERVIEWING AND THE STUDENT STAGE OF CHANGE .................................................................................................... 155  TABLE 6.2:3) EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS USED TO CHALLENGE SELF MOTIVATING STATEMENT .................................................................. 157  TABLE 6.2:4) DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESPONSES TO PROVOKE CHANGE ........................................................................... 158  TABLE 6.2:5) DESCRIPTION OF THE FOUR ‘R’ OF DENIAL .................................................................................................................. 158  TABLE 7.1:1) SUMMARY TABLE OF OUTCOMES AND ACTIVITIES .......................................................................................................... 166  TABLE 7.1:2) WEEKLY DATA HIGHLIGHTED ON ACTION PLAIN ............................................................................................................ 168  TABLE 7.1:3) MOTIVATIONAL TALK AND THE OPPORTUNITIES IT OFFERS .............................................................................................. 170  TABLE 8.1:1) A OVERVIEW OF THE FORMAL AND INFORMAL PROCESS ................................................................................................. 180  TABLE 8.1:2) STUDENT’S SELF PERCEPTION ..................................................................................................................................... 182  TABLE 8.2:1) STAFF AND STUDENT CISS ASSESSMENT SUMMERY ....................................................................................................... 185  TABLE 8.2:2) STAFF CISS PERCEPTION OF STUDENT ......................................................................................................................... 186  TABLE 8.4:1) IDENTIFICATION OF CISS RESPONSE AND REOCCURRING SLEUTH ....................................................................................... 189  TABLE 8.4:2) CREATING IBP TARGETS ............................................................................................................................................ 190  TABLE 8.7:1) THE MENTOR’S WEEKLY DATA GATHERING SHEET ......................................................................................................... 197  TABLE 8.8:1) BACKGROUND INFORMATION ..................................................................................................................................... 198  TABLE 8.8:2) MENTORING OBJECTIVES OF THE CISS ASSESSMENT COMPARISON ................................................................................... 199  TABLE 8.9:1) A FOUR WEEK SUMMARY OF STUDENT ASSESSMENT AND ACHIEVE OUTCOME ................................................................... 201 

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10.2) List of Figures FIGURE 1.1:1) A MENTOR’S METAPHOR .......................................................................................................................................... 20  FIGURE 1.2:1) NORMAL DISTRIBUTION AND MENTORS AIMS ............................................................................................................... 23  FIGURE 1.2:2) NORMAL DISTRIBUTION, MENTOR’S AIMS, AND CHANGE READINESS ................................................................................. 24  FIGURE 1.3:1) PROFILE OF MENTORING AND BEHAVIOUR INTERVENTION ............................................................................................... 28  FIGURE 2.1:1) GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ................................................................................................... 34  FIGURE 2.2:1) APPLIED KOLB LEARNING CYCLE AND THE FOUR ACCELERATED LEARNING MODEL ................................................................ 38  FIGURE 2.3:1) WHAT WE WANT FROM EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ........................................................................................................ 42  FIGURE 3.2:1) CURRENT FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................................................. 53  FIGURE 4.2:1) PLANNING AND ASSESSING INTERVENTION .................................................................................................................... 71  FIGURE 4.3:1) OVERVIEW OF PROPOSED LEVELS OF INTERVENTION ....................................................................................................... 72  FIGURE 4.10:1) A MAP OF INTERVENTION ........................................................................................................................................ 95  FIGURE 5.3:1) THE CISS AND SLEUTH RELATIONSHIP ........................................................................................................................ 107  FIGURE 5.4:1) TOMMY YOU TINKER ‐ LEARNING STYLES ASSESSMENT .................................................................................................. 109  FIGURE 5.5:1) STAGE CHANGE ASSESSMENT AND THE TYPE AND AIM OF INTERVENTION ......................................................................... 112  FIGURE 5.9:1) MENTORING CREDIT CHEQUE ................................................................................................................................... 122  FIGURE 5.9:2) DAILY MENTORING CARD ........................................................................................................................................ 124  FIGURE 5.9:3) DAILY MENTORING CARD ‐ ADAPTATION TWO ............................................................................................................ 124  FIGURE 5.9:4) DAILY MENTORING CARD ‐ ADAPTATION THREE .......................................................................................................... 125  FIGURE 5.9:5) DAILY MENTORING CARD ‐ ADAPTATION FOUR............................................................................................................ 125  FIGURE 5.11:1) OVERVIEW OF MENTORING AND DATA GATHERING ................................................................................................... 129  FIGURE 5.11:2) AVERAGE INTERVENTION GAINS OVER EIGHT WEEKS – MEAN CENTRAL TENDENCIES........................................................ 130  FIGURE 5.11:3) AVERAGE INTERVENTION GAINS OVER EIGHT WEEKS – MODE CENTRAL TENDENCIES ....................................................... 131  FIGURE 6.1:1) APPLIED KOLB LEARNING CYCLE ................................................................................................................................ 136  FIGURE 6.1:2) SELF RATING SCALE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET ..................................................................................................... 139  FIGURE 6.1:3) A GENERIC WHOLE SCHOOL PRAISE AND SANCTION SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 140  FIGURE 6.1:4) BOUNDARIES OF OPERATION AND DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE CLASSROOM .............................................................................. 142  FIGURE 6.1:5) STUDENT OBSERVATION CONTINUUM ........................................................................................................................ 146  FIGURE 6.1:6) APPROACH ONE – BASED ON THE FIVE ELEMENTS OF THE CISS ASSESSMENT .................................................................. 149  FIGURE 6.1:7) APPROACH TWO – BASED ON COMMON RECURRING ISSUES OF SUPPORTED STUDENTS ..................................................... 150  FIGURE 6.2:1) POSSIBLE REASONS FOR NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR ........................................................................................................... 154  FIGURE 6.2:2) AN OVERVIEW OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVENING TECHNIQUE USED TO PROVOKE CHANGE .................................................. 156  FIGURE 7.1:1) MENTORING AND ACTIVITIES: A 5 STEP MODEL .......................................................................................................... 164  FIGURE 7.1:2: MENTORING CREDIT EXAMPLE .................................................................................................................................. 175  FIGURE 8.1:1) INDICATES THE STUDENT’S SELF PERCEPTION WITHIN THE EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT ....................................................... 183  FIGURE 8.2:1) INDICATES THE STUDENT AND STAFF RESPONSE TO THE CISS ASSESSMENT ...................................................................... 187  FIGURE 8.3:1) TOMMY YOU TINKER ‐ LEARNING STYLES ASSESSMENT .................................................................................................. 188  FIGURE 8.4:1) BEHAVIOURAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN .......................................................................................................................... 191  FIGURE 8.5:1) STAGE CHANGE ASSESSMENT PROFILE OF A STUDENT – PRE MENTORING ......................................................................... 192  FIGURE 8.5:2) STAGE CHANGE ASSESSMENT PROFILE OF A STUDENT – POST MENTORING ....................................................................... 193 

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A Practical Guide To Inclusion Index Tables Figures