Page 1

Adj.

N. V.

Adv.


Index Structure

Page

Structure

Page

Personal Pronouns

1-3

Adverbs

42

Verb to be ( present )

4-6

Noun Types

43

Verb to have ( present )

7-9

Plurals & Uncountable Nouns

44-46

Noun Determiners

47-49

Verb to do ( present )

10-13

Helping Verbs Uses

14

a-an -the

50-52

Negative Sentence

15

Relative Pronouns

53-54

Asking Questions

16-18

Connectors (and/but..)

55-56

Tag Questions

19-20

Conjunctions (because..)

57-58

Irregular Verbs

21

If / Unless

59-60

Present Simple

22-23

Expressing Regret / Far wish

Past Simple

24-25

Prepositions

62-63

Future Simple

26-27

Modal Verbs

64-67

Present Continuous

28-29

Passive Voice & Causative

68-70

Past Continuous

30-31

Direct & Indirect Speech

71-72

Present Perfect

32-33

Sentence Structure

73

61

Present Perfect Continuous

34

Prefixes and Suffixes

74

Present Perfect ( Exercises)

34

Parts of Speech ( exercises)

75

Past Perfect

35-36

Types of sentences

76

To + inf. / V+ ing

37-38

Online Quizzes

77

Expressing habit

39

Adjectives

40-41


Personal Pronouns First person ‫متكلم‬

Second person ‫مخاطب‬

You

He

She

‫أنا‬

‫ أنتي‬/ ‫أنت‬

‫هو‬

‫هي‬

We

You

‫نحن‬

‫ أنتن‬/ ‫أنتم‬

me hit you

‫ضربنا‬

‫ضربتك‬

First person ‫متكلم‬

‫ضربتكم‬

my ball

‫كرتي‬

your ball

‫كرتنا‬

hit it

) ‫ غير عاقل‬/ ‫ضربهم ( عاقل‬

‫ تأتي ضمائر المفعول بعد الفعل أو بعد حرف جر‬

Possessive Adjectives

‫صفات الملكية‬ ‫غائب‬

Third person

his

your ‫كرتك‬

his ball ‫كرته‬

your

our our ball

hit him ‫ ضربه‬hit her ‫ضربتها‬

hit them

Second person

my

it

her

them

Ex: Ali gave me a pen last day. 3

‫غائب‬

him

you hit you

‫ضمائرالمفعول‬

Third person

you

us hit us

‫غير عاقل‬

) ‫ هن ( للعاقل والغير عاقل‬/ ‫هم‬

Object Pronouns

‫ متكلم‬Second person

‫ضربني‬

They

It

‫ تأتي ضمائر الفاعل قبل الفعل أو بعد الفعل المساعد في السؤال‬ 2

hit me

‫غائب‬

Third person

I

Ex: I get up early.

First person

‫ضمائرالفاعل‬

Subject Pronouns

1

your ball ‫كرتكم‬

Ex: I lost my bag last day.

her her ball ‫كرتها‬

its its ball ‫كرته‬

their their ball

) ‫ غير عاقل‬/ ‫ملكهم ( عاقل‬

‫ تأتي صفات الملكية قبل اسم الشئ الممتلك‬ 1


Possessive Pronouns

4 First person ‫متكلم‬

Second person

‫ضمائرالملكية‬ ‫غائب‬

Third person

mine

yours

his

hers

‫ملكي‬

‫ملكك‬

‫ملكه‬

‫ملكها‬

This ball is mine. This ball is yours. ours

yours

‫ملكنا‬

‫ملككم‬

Ex: This car is mine.

theirs

This ball is theirs.

Reflexive Pronouns

Second person

‫ضمائراألنعكاس‬ ‫غائب‬

Third person

myself

yourself

himself

‫ بنفسي‬/‫نفسي‬

‫ بنفسك‬/ ‫نفسك‬

‫ بنفسه‬/ ‫نفسه‬

see myself

‫ملكهم‬

‫ تعبر ضمائر الملكية عن الملكية ولكن ال يأتي بعدها االسم الممتلك‬ 5

First person ‫متكلم‬

This ball is his. This ball is hers.

This ball is yours.

This ball is ours.

its

see yourself

see himself

ourselves

yourselves

‫ بأنفسنا‬/ ‫أنفسنا‬

‫ بأنفسكم‬/ ‫أنفسكم‬

see ourselves

see yourselves

herself

itself

‫ بنفسها‬/ ‫نفسها‬ see herself

themselve s ‫ بأنفسهم‬/‫أنفسهم‬ see themselves )‫غيرعاقل‬/‫(عاقل‬

.‫ تعبر الضمائر المنعكسة عن أن الفاعل هو نفسه المفعول أو الفاعل قام بالحدث بنفسه‬ Ex: I hurt myself. / I did the homework myself.

Pronouns Subj. PNs Obj. PNs I me

Poss. Adj. my _____

Poss. PNs mine

Ref. PNs myself

He

him

his _____

his

himself

She

her

her _____

hers

herself

It

it

its _____

its

itself

We

us

our _____

ours

ourselves

You

you

your _____

yours

yourself yourselves

They

them

their _____

theirs

themselves

2


Exercises (Pronouns) Complete with: me / my / myself / I I am a boy. .....…… have two brothers. ……….…. father is a doctor. He helps ………. in my homework but sometimes I do it ……………… . Complete with: his / he / himself / him This is Ali. .....…… is a boy. ………. eyes are small. All boys love ………. He always does his homework ……………. Complete with: herself / she / her / her This is Reem. .....…… is a girl. ………. eyes are small. All girls love ……… She always does her homework …………… Complete with: it / its / itself / it This is my cat. ……. is very cute. ……… tail is short. I usually give ………. milk to drink. It drinks the milk ………. Complete with: us / we / ourselves / our We are nice boys. .....…… are so happy. We love …….… teachers who teach ……… useful things. We care for ………….. to have good health. Complete with: your / your / you / yourself You are Reem. .....…… are a clever student. ………. mark is good. I love ……. because you study your lessons ………. Complete with: their / themselves / they / them They are boys. .....…… are twins. They love …….….. school. All teachers love ……….. . They do their homework …………. Find the mistakes and correct them: ( four mistakes ) 1) I study mine lessons myself. 2) My mom hurt her with a knife. 3) I love my friends because she are kind. 4) We’re going to the park. Would you like to come with we? 3


am (‘m) / is (‘s) / are (‘re)

Verb to be ‫ ( فعل يكون‬Present ‫) المضارع‬ V. to be I am (I’m) He is (He’s)

PN+ V. to be I am not I’m not He is not He’s not He isn’t

Sentence Am I eating? Yes, you are./ No,you aren’t. Is he eating? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.

She is (She’s)

She is not She’s not She isn’t

Is she eating? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.

It is ( It’s )

It is not It’s not It isn’t We are not We’re not We aren’t You are not You’re not You aren’t They are not They’re not They aren’t

Is it eating? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t. Are we eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you eating? Yes, I am. / Yes, we are. No, I am not./ No, we aren't. Are they eating? Yes, they are. No, they aren't.

We are (We’re) You are (You’re ) They are (They’re)

Demonstrative Pronouns ‫ضمائر األشارة‬ Near

‫ قريب‬Far

‫بعيد‬

Sing. ‫مفرد‬

This is a flower. This is not a vase. Is this a flower? Yes, it is. Is this a vase? No, it isn't.

Plural ‫جمع‬

Those are flowers. These are flowers. Those aren't vases. These aren't vases. Are these flowers?Yes,they are. Are those flowers?Yes,they are. Are these vases?No,they aren't. Are those flowers?No,they aren't.

There is / There isn’t + ‫اسم مفرد‬ There is a flower in the vase. Is there a flower ..? Yes, there is. Is there a pen ….? No, there isn’t. 4

That is a flower. That is not a vase. Is that a flower? Yes, it is. Is that a vase? No, it isn't.

There are / There aren’t + ‫اسم جمع‬ There are flowers in the vase. Are there flowers..?Yes, there are. Are there pens..? No,there aren’t.


Verb to be ‫ ( فعل يكون‬Past ‫) الماضي‬ PN I was

was / were

PN + V. to be I was not I wasn’t He was not He wasn’t She was not She wasn’t

Sentence Was I playing? Yes, you were./ No, you weren’t. Was he playing? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t. Was she playing? Yes, she was. / No, she wasn’t.

It was not It wasn’t We were not We weren’t

Was it playing? Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t. Were we playing? Yes, you were./ No, you weren’t.

You were

You were not You weren’t

They were

They were not They weren’t

Were you playing? Yes, I was. / Yes, we were. No, I wasn’t. / No, we weren’t. Were they playing? Yes,they were./No,they weren’t.

He was She was It was We were

There ‫يوجد‬ Affirmative ‫إثبات‬ There was ‫كان يوجد للمفرد‬ There was a flower in the vase.

Negative ‫نفي‬ There was not There wasn't a flower in the vase.

There were ‫ كان يوجد للجمع‬There were not There were two flowers in the vase.

Question ‫سؤال‬ Was there….? ‫هل كان يوجد‬ Was there a flower in the vase? -Yes, there was. Was there a pen in the vase? - No, there wasn't. Were there..? ‫هل كان يوجد‬

There weren't any Were there flowers in flowers in the vase. the vase? -Yes, there were. Were there pens in the vase? -No, there weren't.

5


Exercises (v. to be) Write what comes before each boat: am ….

‘m

was

is

…… …… …… …….

She

Water

Boys

We

…… …… …… …….

was

‘s

They It

You

A boy

He

I

are ‘re

were

Ali Ali and Omar

Answer the following questions: 1) What's your name? 2) Where are you from? 3) How old are you? 4) What's your father's job? 5) When were you born? 6) Where were you born? 7) What's the weather like today? 8) What was the weather like last day?

1) My name ………………. 2) I ……from……………… 3) I……………..years old. 4) He ……………………… 5) I ……born in …………. 6) I ………born in ………… 7) It ……………………….. 8) It ………………………..

Complete with (am / is / are / was / were): 1) My brother ……....…… fine today. He ……..…. sick yesterday. 2) I …….. studying at 6:00 last day. Now I ……… playing tennis. 3) The boys …… watching TV now. Last night they ……….. sleeping. 4) There ………… some water in the bottle. Do you want to drink? 5) My cat ………..… small now. Last year it ……………. big. 6) The weather ………….. hot today but last night it …………….. rainy. 7) My sister ….… studying now but she ….…. playing at 5:00 p.m. last day. 8) When I saw them, they ……… not studying. They ……….. playing. 9) My father ………… not sleeping now. He ……………. at work. 10) There …... many boys in the class today but there ..…. few boys last week. Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 7 mistakes ) I is Omar. My brothers is Ali and Saif. Saif am younger than Ali. Now we were playing football. All day yesterday, we was studying our lessons so I am very sad yesterday and also my brothers are sad. 6


Verb to have ‫ ( فعل يمتلك‬Present ‫) المضارع‬ V. to have I have I’ve He has He’s

PN+ V. to have I have not I’ve not I haven’t He has not He’s not He hasn’t

have (‘ve) / has (‘s)

Sentence Have I got a ball? - Yes, you have. - No, you haven't. Has he got a ball? - Yes, he has. - No, he hasn't.

She has She’s

She has not Has she got a ball? She’s not - Yes, she has. She hasn’t - No, she hasn't. It has It has not Has it got a ball? It’s It’s not - Yes, it has. It hasn’t - No, it hasn't. We have We have not Have we got a ball? We’ve We’ve not - Yes, you have. We haven’t - No, you haven't. You have You have not Have you got a ball? You’ve You’ve not - Yes, I have. / Yes, we have. You haven’t - No, I haven't. / No, we haven't. They have They have not Have they got a ball? They’ve They’ve not - Yes, they have. They haven't - No, they haven't. They ‫إلي ليس‬ ‫( هم‬haven’t (Have you ….?) I have / We have) ‫ عند السؤال غالبا نحول‬ ‫معهم‬

Have (‘ve )

Has (‘s ) 7


had ( 'd )

Verb to have ‫ ( فعل يمتلك‬Past ‫) الماضي‬ PN + had

Sentence

I had

I’d

I had got a car.

I'd got a car.

He had I’ve She had

He’d She’d

He had got a car. She had got a car.

He'd got a car. She'd got a car.

It had We had You had

It’d We’d You’d

It had got a car. We had got a car. You had got a car.

It'd got a car. We'd got a car. You'd got a car.

They had

They’d

They had got a car. They'd got a car. Negative ‫النفي‬

had not / hadn't

PN+ had not I had not He had not I’ve had not She It had not

I'd not He'd not I’ve not She'd It'd not

I hadn't He hadn't I’ve hadn't She It hadn't

Sentence I hadn't got a car. He hadn't got a car. She hadn't got a car. It hadn't got a car.

We had not You had not

We'd not You'd not

We hadn't You hadn't

We hadn't got a car. You hadn't got a car.

They had not They'd not They hadn't Question ‫السؤال‬

They hadn't got a car. Had ….. ? Yes,…. had. No, …. hadn't.

Question Had I? Had he? I’ve Had she?

Question with short answers Had I got a car? Yes, you had. Had he got a car? Yes, he had.

No, you hadn't. No, he hadn't.

Had she got a car?

Yes, she had.

No, she hadn't.

Had it? Had we? Had you?

Had it got a car? Had we got a car? Had you got a car?

Yes, it had. Yes, you had. Yes, I had.

No, it hadn't. No, you hadn't. No, I hadn't.

Had they?

Had they got a car? Yes, they had. No, they hadn't.

8


Exercises (v. to have) Complete with: have / has / had 1) My brother …….…… a car now. He ………………. a bike last year. 2) I …..... a pet dog these days. I …..….. a pet cat three weeks ago. 3) The boys …….. nice shoes today. Last week they …..... old shoes. 4) My sister …..... long hair last year. Now, she …..... short hair. 5) My cat ………… a long tail now. Last year it …………... a short tail. Complete with: He/A boy / We /You / She /They / Boys / I

Abbreviate : I have He has She has It has We have You have They have

…………….. …………….. …………….. .................... .................... .................... ....................

I have not He has not We have not

…………… …………... ……………

complete the sentences with (have / haven't/has/hasn't): 1) Ali …….. got a ball in his hands. He ….…… got a racket. 2) He …..… got sandals in his leg. He ….…… got sneakers. 3) Has Ali got a watch in his hand? No, he ……………. 4) Has Ali got a T-shirt? Yes, he ………….. 5) The boys ……… got TV. They ……….. got a fridge. 6) They …….. got an oven. They …… got a cupboard. 7) Have they got a window? Yes, they ………….. 8) Have they got a desk? No, they ……………. Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 7 mistakes ) I has a big family. We has a big house. My father is a doctor. He have a car. My mother is a teacher. She also have a car. I usually visit my friends and play with them. They has nice games. On my birthdays, I has many gifts. Last year, I have a toy car and I love it very much. 9


Verb to do

/

‫ ( فعل يعمل‬Present ‫) المضارع‬ What do they do every day?

He does ‫هو يعمل‬

He does not He doesn’t ‫هو ال يعمل‬

Sentence Do I do my homework? Yes, you do. No, you don't. Does he do his homework? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.

She does ‫هي تعمل‬

She does not She doesn’t ‫هي ال تعمل‬

Does she do her homework? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.

It does ‫هي تعمل‬

It does not It doesn’t ‫هي ال تعمل‬

Does the cat do harm to us? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.

We do ‫نحن نعمل‬

We do not We don’t

Do we do our homework? Yes, you do. No, you don't.

You do ‫أنت تعمل‬

You do not You don’t

Do you do your homework? Yes, I do. / Yes, we do. No, I don't. / No, we don't.

You do ‫أنتم تعملون‬

You do not You don’t

Do you do your homework? Yes, we do. No, we don't.

They do ‫هم يعملون‬

They do not They don’t ‫هم ال يعملون‬

Do they do their homework? Yes, they do. No, they don't.

I do ‫أنا أعمل‬

PN+ do/does I do not I don’t

(Do you ….?) ‫ ( إلي‬I do / We do) ‫ عند السؤال غالبا نحول‬ I/We/You/They/My friends/Ali and Omar He/She/It/A boy/My friend/Ali/Water

10

do / do not ( don't ) does/does not (doesn't )


Verb to do

‫ ( فعل يعمل‬Past ‫) الماضي‬

PN + did

Sentence

I did ‫أنا عملت‬ He did ‫هو عمل‬ She did ‫هي عملت‬ I’ve It did ‫هي عملت‬/‫هو عمل‬ We did ‫نحن عملنا‬ You did ‫أنت عملت‬

I did my homework. He did his homework. She did her homework.

They did

They did their homework.

‫هم عملوا‬

It did harm to people. We did our homework. You did your homework.

Negative ‫النفي‬

did not / didn't

PN+ did not I did not We did not I’ve did not You He did not

I didn't We didn't I’ve didn't You He didn't

Sentence I didn't do my homework. We didn't do our homework. You didn't do your homework. He didn't do his homework.

She did not

She didn't

She didn't do her homework.

It did not

It didn't

It didn't do any harm.

They did not They didn't

They didn't do their homework.

Question ‫السؤال‬

Did ….. ? Yes,…. did. No, …. didn't.

Question Did I ?

Question with short answers Did I play last day? Yes, you did.

No, you didn't.

Did we? I’ve Did you ? Did he?

Did we play last day?

Yes, you did.

No, you didn't.

Did you play last day? Did he play last day?

Yes, I did. Yes, he did.

No, I didn't. No, he didn't.

Did she?

Did she play last day?

Yes, she did.

No, she didn't.

Did it?

Did it play last day?

Yes, it did.

No, it didn't.

Did they?

Did they play last day? Yes,they did.

No, they didn't.

(Did you ….?) ‫ ( إلي‬I did / We did) ‫ عند السؤال غالبا نحول‬

11 1


Exercises (v. to do) Complete with: It / We / A boy / They / He / Boys / She / You / I

Complete the sentences with (don't /doesn't /didn't):

Ali goes to the park every day. He ………….. go to the cinema.

Ali and Hamad study every day. They ……………….. play football.

The crocodile lives in water. It ……………….. live on land.

Elephants live on land. They …………….. live in water.

Omar watched TV yesterday. He ……………….. listen to music.

Saif played football yesterday. He ………………….. play tennis.

Change into negative using (don't / doesn't / didn't): 1) I go (……………………..) 2) He watches (…………………) 3) You study (…………………)

4) She played (…………………..) 5) They studied (…………………) 6) We went (………………………)

Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 5 mistakes ) My name is Ali. I play football every day but I doesn’t play tennis. My younger brother don’t go to school. My mother don’t work. I like eating fish but my sisters doesn’t like fish. We all love going to the park.Yesterday, we went to the park but my father don’t come with us. 12 1


Complete the sentences with (do/ don't /does/doesn't /did/ didn't): 1) Where ………………… your father work? – He works in a bank. 2) What ………………….. you eat every day? – I eat fish. 3) Do you go to school? Yes, I ……………….. 4) Does your mother cook tasty food? Yes, she ……………. 5) Do your friends play tennis? No, they ………….. 6) Does your sister sleep early? No, she ……………… 7) Did your friends go to the club last week? No, they …………. 8) Did your friend study yesterday? Yes, he ……………. 9) Where …………………. you go yesterday? – I went to the park. 10) Did your brother play football yesterday? No, he………….. Answer the following questions: 1) When do you get up? …………………………………………...….……… 2) What foods don't you like? ………………………………..….…………... 3) What sport doesn't your friend play? ……………...………………….… 4) What didn't you do yesterday? ………………………………………….. 5) Where does your father work? …………………..………..……..………. 6) What subject don't you like? ……………………………...……..……….. Complete the sentences with (don't /doesn't /didn't): 1) I go to the park everyday but yesterday I ………… go to the park. 2) My brother always watches TV but last night he ….…. watch TV. 3) My friends don't like fish. Also, I ……………. like fish. 4) I don't play tennis. Also, my brother …..…..….. play tennis. 5) I do my homework but my sister ………….. do her homework. Reorder to make sentences: 1) your – father – does – Where – work ? 2) eat – fish – yesterday – you – Did ? I- No – didn't. 3) does – My - mother - a car – not- drive – work – to - her Choose the correct verb: 1) My brother doesn’t ……………. ( studying / studies / study ) English. 2) They didn’t ………….. ( went / go / going ) to school last week. 3) Does your friend ………….. ( sleep / sleeping / sleeps ) early? 13 1


Uses of Helping Verbs ‫استخدامات األفعال المساعدة‬ Helping Verb V. to be am/ is/are was /were

V. to have have/ has had

V. to do do/ does did

Uses

‫األستخدامات‬

)‫ للتعريف (اسم شخص أو أوشئ‬‫ للتعبير عن الوظيفة والعمر‬‫ الطقس‬‫ الوقت‬‫ لون‬‫ صفة‬)V+ing ‫ أحداث مستمرة (بعده‬) V3 ‫ مبني للمجهول ( بعده‬) ‫ للملكية (يأتي بعده األسم الممتلك‬‫ بمعنى يشرب‬‫ بمعنى يأكل‬‫ بمعنى يأخذ‬‫ بمعنى يقضي أو يستمتع‬) V3 ‫ أحداث تامة ( بعده‬‫ بمعنى يفعل‬‫ في النفي ( زمني المضارع البسيط‬. ‫والماضي البسيط ) وبعده مصدر الفعل‬ ‫ في السؤال ( زمني المضارع البسيط‬. ‫والماضي البسيط ) وبعده مصدر الفعل‬

Sentences - He is Ali. / It is a cat. - He is a doctor. He is 45. - It is hot today. - It is three O'clock now. - My hair is black. - I am happy today. - They are playing now. - Football is played. - I have got a nice cat. - I have milk every day. - I have fish for my lunch. - He has a bath daily. - We had nice time. - They have watched TV. - I do my homework. - I don't play football. - They didn't come. - Where does he work? - Did you watch TV?

Exercises (Helping Verbs) Choose the correct answer:

1) My mom ……… beautiful. ( have / has / is / am ) 2) We …… listen to music yesterday. (didn't /aren't / haven't / don't ) 3) My brother ……. studying his lessons now. ( does / is / has / are ) 4) I usually ……… tea before I study. ( am / does / has / have ) 5) The weather ……… very cold today. ( has / is / was / do ) 6) My sister ………… long hair. ( does / is / has / have ) 7) …….. you go to school yesterday ? ( Did / Were / Do / Had ) 8) ……. you sleeping when I phoned you? ( Had / Was / Were / Did ) 9) There ……… many girls in the class. ( do / have / are / is ) 10) These ………… my shoes. ( is / have / do / are ) 11) My sister ……….. go to school. ( don't /isn't /hasn't /doesn't) 12) My mother ………. a teacher. ( are / does / has / is ) 13) I …….. study English every day. ( am not /haven't / don't / isn't) 14) Where ……… your friend live? ( do / does / has / is ) 14 1


Negative Sentence ‫الجملة المنفية‬

‫ فعل مساعد‬+ not +‫فعل أساسي‬ Ex: I haven’t eaten fish.

‫ بعد الفعل المساعد أو الناقص ونترك الفعل األساسي‬not ‫في حالة وجود أفعال مساعدة أو ناقصة ( نضع‬ ) ‫كما هو‬ 1) I’m eating some fish now. 1) I’m not eating any fish now. 2) He’s playing tennis now. 2) He’s not playing tennis now. 3) They were sleeping. 3) They were not sleeping. 4) She has just studied. 4) She has not studied yet. 5) I will come tomorrow. 5) I won’t come tomorrow. )not ( ‫نضع‬ ‫) حسب زمن الحدث ثم‬do/does/did ( ‫مساعدة نستخدم‬ ‫أفعال‬ ‫ في حالة عدم وجود‬6).‫والمصدر‬ You should sleep 6) You shouldn’t sleep late. He, ‫ اسم مفرد‬,‫ ) بعد ( أسم غير معدود‬does( ‫ ) و‬I, We ,You ,They , ‫ ) بعد (األسم الجمع‬do ( ‫ نستخدم‬early. . ‫ ) تستخدم مع الكل في زمن الماضي البسيط‬did ( ‫) وذلك في زمن المضارع البسيط أما‬She , It ,

1) I drive my car every day. 1) I don’t drive my car every day. 2) He drives a car every day. 2) He doesn’t drive a car every day. 3) She drove a car last day. 3) She didn’t drive a car last day. .‫) والمصدر‬not ( ‫) ثم نضع‬do/does /did ( ‫ عند استخدام األفعال المساعدة كأفعال أساسية نستخدم‬-

1) I have a car. 1) I don’t have a car. 2) He has curly hair. 2) He doesn’t have curly hair. 3) I had some friends. 3) I didn’t have any friends. 4) He has to get up early. 4) He doesn’t have to get up late. 5) They had to play well. 5) They didn’t have to play badly. 6) I do my homework. 6) I don’t do my homework. 7) He does his homework. 7) He doesn’t do his homework. 8) They .did all‫أتوا‬ their best. 8) They didn’t( ‫مع‬ do) do/does/did) all their best.‫ ال نستخدم‬‫بمفردهم‬ ‫حتى إذا‬ ) am /is /are/ was/were 1) I am a boy. 2) She was ill.

1) I am not a boy. 2) She wasn’t ill. .‫ ) ونكتب الفعل كما هو في المصدر‬had better / would rather ( ‫ بعد‬not ‫نضع‬

1) You’d better play. 1) You’d better not play. 2) I’d rather have tea. 2) I’d rather not have tea. .) never ,nothing , nobody, no one ,neither ,nor ( ‫هناك كلمات تعبر عن النفي‬ 1) He usually plays tennis. 1) He never plays tennis. 2) I can see something. 2) I can see nothing. 3) There was somebody at 3) There was nobody (no one/none) at the door. the door. 4) I like fish and rice. 4) I don’t like fish or rice. I like neither fish nor rice. 5) Both of them love reading. 5) Neither of them loves reading. 6) All of them like Math. 6) None of them (like/likes) Math. 15 5


Asking Questions ) ‫) السؤال بهل ( بفعل مساعد أو ناقص‬1( "Yes / No" questions

‫ ) السؤال بأداة إستفهام‬2( " Wh- / How " questions

) ‫) إستفهام بهل ( بفعل مساعد أو ناقص‬1( ‫فعل مساعد أو ناقص‬

‫فعل رئيسي‬

‫فاعل‬

‫تكوين األسئلة‬

Yes ‫ أو‬No ‫نجيب عليه ب‬ ‫تكملة الجملة‬

. )‫ ( نسبق الفعل المساعد أو الناقص علي الفاعل ثم نترك الفعل الرئيسي كما هو‬: ‫◄ في حالة وجود فعل مساعد اوناقص‬ ‫الجملة الخبرية‬

‫الجملة األستفهامية‬

‫األجابة‬ Yes, they are./No, they aren’t.

They are playing. I am eating fish.

Are they playing? Are you eating fish?

I was sleeping.

Were you sleeping?

Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.

We were studying.

Were you studying?

Yes,we were./ No,we weren’t.

I have got a car.

Have you got a car?

Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.

He has got a car .

Has he got a car?

Yes, he has. / No,he hasn’t.

We had got a car.

Had you got a car?

Yes,we had./No,we hadn’t.

I will play tennis. I can swim.

Will you play tennis? Can you swim?

Yes, I will. / No, I won’t.

You should eat.

Should I eat?

Yes, I am. / No, I am not.

Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.

Yes, you should. No, you shouldn’t. .‫) ثم مصدرالفعل‬not ( ‫ ) ثم نضع‬do , does , did) ‫◄ في حالة عدم وجود فعل مساعد نستخدم‬

.) I, We , You , They , ‫) بعد ( األسم الجمع‬do( ‫ ) نستخدم‬eat ( ‫ مع المصدر‬.) He , She, It ,‫ اسم مفرد‬,‫) بعد (اسم ال يعد‬does( ‫ ) نستخدم‬eats ( s ‫ مع الفعل المنتهي ب‬. ‫ ) مع الكل‬did ( ‫) نستخدم‬ate / played( ‫ مع الماضي‬Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. I eat fish. Do you eat fish? Yes, he does./No,he doesn’t. He eats fish. Does he eat fish? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. I ate fish. Did you eat fish? : ) do , does , did ( ‫◄ اذا أستخدمنا األفعال المساعدة كأفعال رئيسية فأننا نستخدم‬

He has a car. -I had to go. I did well in the test.

Does he have a car? Yes, he does. /No, he doesn’t. Did you have to go? Did you do well in the test?

16 1

Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.


‫( ) السؤال بأداة إستفهام‬ " ‫فعل مساعد‬

‫أداة استفهام‬ ‫أداة االستفهام‬ Who’m’ ‫من‬ When ‫متى‬ Where ‫أين‬ Which ‫أي‬

‫فاعل‬

‫تسأل عن‬ ‫األشخاص‬ ‫الوقت او الزمن‬ ) to school) ‫المكان‬ ‫االختيار أو التفضيل‬

What Why

‫ ماذا‬car / dog ( ‫غيرالعاقل‬ ) .. ‫) لماذا‬because-as( ‫السبب‬ ) to +‫الغرض (المصدر‬ Whose ‫لمن‬ )Ali’s / his ( ‫الملكية‬ ‫الحال أو المواصالت‬ How ‫كيف‬ )‫كم عمر (العمر‬ How old How many ) two/ three... ( ‫العدد‬ ‫كم عدد‬ ) 2 Dollars ( ‫الثمن‬ How much ‫ كم كمية‬/ ‫ ) كم ثمن‬liter/milliliter ( ‫كمية‬ How far ‫ما بعد‬

‫البعد او المسافة‬

‫فعل رئيسي‬ Examples

‫تكملة الجملة‬ ‫أمثلة‬

Who are you? I’m Ali. When will you go? Tomorrow. Where do you live? In Paris. Which car do you like?-The red car. Which boy is taller:Ali or Saif? Ali What did you buy? A car. Why was he absent? As he was ill. Why do you go to the club? To play. Whose book is this? It’s Ali’s book. How do you go to work? By car. How old are you? I'm 10 years old. - How many boys are there? There are three boys. How much is this dress? $ 40. How much sugar do you want? I want one spoon. How far is your house? 2 km far.

.. m long ‫ طول األشياء‬- How long is this bridge? 13 m long. How long ‫ كم طول‬for/since ‫المدة الزمنية‬- How long will you stay? For 2 days. ..cm ‫ كم طول األشخاص‬How tall is your father? 150 cm. How tall )g / kg ( ‫ كم حجم‬How big is an elephant? 4000 kg.

How big How big How often ‫كم مرة‬

cm/m/ km ‫ كم مساحة‬How big is Egypt? 1.01 million Km². ‫ عدد مرات حدوث الفعل‬How often do you swim? Once a day

.‫ اذا أستخدمنا أداة األستفهام في منتصف الجملة فال نضع بعدها فعل مساعد أو ناقص مباشرة‬-: ‫ملحوظة‬ Ex : Can you tell me where the bank is , please? How + adj. (‫ = )صفة‬What + n (‫)اسم‬ How What

old big age Size

big far much tall/high long area distance price/quantity height length ? )At two thirty( .)When / What time?)‫للسؤال عن وقت (فيه ساعة) نستخدم‬ What time is it? It’s two thirty. :)What time? ( ‫للسؤال عن الساعة نستخدم‬ ) On Friday / next week ( )When?( ‫للسؤال عن وقت ليس فيه ساعة نستخدم‬ 17 1


Exercises (Asking Questions) Choose the correct answer:

1) _________________ time does your class start? a) What

b) When

c) Where

d) How

2) _______________ sugar do you want in your tea? a) How many

b) How often

c) How far

d) How much

3) _______________ is your friend? - 18 years old. a) How many

b) How long

c) How far

d) How old

4) _____________ broke this window? - The children. a) What

b) Whose

c) Who

d) Whom

5) _____________ do you plan to stay in Paris? For two weeks. a) How much

b) How many

c) How long

d) How far

6) _______________was he absent? - Because of his illness. a) Where

b) When

c) How

d) Why

7) _______________ car is this? - It's my brother's. a) Whose

b) who

c) which

d) whom

8_______________ is the weather like in Cairo? - Very fine. a) When

b) What

c) Where

d) Why

9) _______________did the car accident take place? - Last night. a) How

b) Why

c) Where

d) When

10) _______________is Ali fond of? - Collecting stamps. a) What

b) Where

c) When

d) Why

11) _______________does Mary go to the library? - Twice a week. a) How often

b) How many

c) How much

d) How far

12) _______________is the capital from this village? - 50 kilometers a) How much

b) How big

c) How long

Reorder to make sentences: 1) many – cars- have- does – How – father – your ? 2) this – How – dress – cost – much – does ? 3) stay – long- you – How – will – London – in ? 18 1

d) How far


Questions Tags

‫األسئلة المذيلة‬

. ‫ نكون السؤال المذيل بإستخدام فعل مساعد أو ناقص ثم ضمير يعود علي الفاعل‬)do , does ( ‫أفعال مساعدة نستخدم‬.‫) في حالة عدم وجود فعل مساعد‬do,does,did ( ‫ نستخدم‬‫اثبات‬

. ‫ ) للماضي البسيط‬did ( ‫للمضارع البسيط و‬

‫نفي‬

‫نفي‬

‫اثبات‬

Sentence

Q. Tag

Sentence

Q. Tag

It is very cold , They will come,

isn’t it? won’t they?

They aren't playing, My friend hasn't come,

are they? has he ?

He can drive a car,

can’t he ?

He can't ride a horse,

can he?

I’m a good student,

aren’t I ? am I not ?

I’m not fine today ,

am I ?

They play tennis,

don’t they ?

They don't like fish,

do they?

She watches TV,

doesn’t she?

My sister doesn't watch TV,

does she?

Everyone loves joy,

don't they?

Every one doesn't love you ,

do they?

Ali broke his leg,

didn’t he ?

You didn't come,

did you?

He has to study,

doesn’t he?

He doesn't have to study,

does he?

I did my homework,

didn't I ?

I didn't do my homework,

did I ?

Ex: Everyone is here, aren't they? (everyone /everybody) ‫) بعد‬They) ‫نستخدم الضمير‬ Ex: Everything is clear, isn't it?

(everything) ‫( بعد‬it)‫نستخدم الضمير‬

Sentence

Q. Tag

Sentence

Q. Tag

You’d better study,

hadn’t you ?

You’d better not play , You’d rather not be late,

had you? would you?

You’d rather come, wouldn’t you? ) will you? ( ‫مع األمر والنهي واألذن نستخدم‬ will you ? ‫أمر‬ Open the door, will you ? ‫نهي‬ Don’t come late, 'd better ( had better) ‫يجب‬

) shall we? ( ‫ ) نستخدم‬let's ( ‫مع األقتراح‬ will you ? ‫أذن‬ Let me go out , shall we? ‫اقتراح‬ Let’s play soccer,

/ 'd rather ( would rather ) ‫يفضل‬

: ‫هناك بعض الكلمات تعبر عن النفي وعند وجودها في الجملة نضع الفعل المساعد مثبت ومنها‬ scarcely - seldom-rarely- hardly –never – neither – nor – none – no one – no body – nothing – nowhere – little – few Ex: ( I ate little fish, did I?) Ex: I ate a little fish, didn't I?

(a little / a few) ‫كلمات تعطي معنى ايجابي‬

19 1


Exercises (Question Tags) Choose the correct answer: 1) The little girl’s playing with her sister, _____________ she?

a) hasn’t

b) has

c) isn’t

d) is

2) He never helps the poor, _____________ he ? a) does

b) doesn't

c) is

d) isn't

3) Reem ate little food, _____________ she ? a) did

b) didn't

c) does

d) doesn't

4) You’d better study, _____________ you ? a) had

b) would

c) hadn't

d) wouldn't

5) You’d rather come early, _____________ you ? a) would

b) wouldn't

c) had

d) hadn't

6) I'm studying my lessons now, _____________ I ? a) am

b) amn't

c) aren't

d) wasn't

7) I'm not playing now, _____________ I ? a) am

b) amn't

c) are

d) aren't

8) Your sister watches TV every day, _____________ she? a) does

b) doesn't

c) is

d) did

c) do we

d) don't we

9) Let's go to the park, _____________ ? a) will we

b) shall we

10) Open the door please, _____________ ? a) shall we

b) are you

c) will you

d) have you

Write the complete form of the abbreviated helping or modal verbs:

1) 'm …………..… 2) 's eating …..…... 3) 's sad …………. 4) 's Ali ………….. 5) 's eaten……….

6) 're …………..… 7) 've…..…………... 8) 'd like ………..…. 9) 'd played ..…….. 10) 'd better…..….

20

11) 'd rather……..…..… 12) 'd prefer…..……... 13) 'll………………….…. 14) won’t ..…………….. 15) can’t …………....….


Irregular Verbs ‫أفعال شاذة‬ Present ‫مضارع‬ cost ‫يكلف‬ cut ‫ يجرح‬/ ‫يقطع‬ hit ‫ يصطدم‬/ ‫يضرب‬ hurt ‫ يصيب‬/ ‫يؤذي‬ let ‫ يسمح‬/ ‫يترك‬ put ‫يضع‬ shut ‫يغلق‬ lend ‫يسلف‬ send ‫يرسل‬ spend ‫ ينفق‬/ ‫يقضي‬ build ‫يبني‬ burn ‫ يحترق‬/ ‫يحرق‬ learn ‫يتعلم‬ smell ‫يشم‬ lose ‫ يخسر‬/ ‫يفقد‬ get ‫ يحصل‬/ ‫يصبح‬ sit ‫يجلس‬ keep ‫يحفظ‬ sleep ‫ينام‬ feel ‫ يحس‬/ ‫يشعر‬ leave ‫يترك‬ meet ‫يقابل‬ dream ‫يحلم‬ mean ‫ يقصد‬/ ‫يعني‬ bring ‫يحضر‬ buy ‫يشتري‬ fight ‫ يتشاجر‬/ ‫يحارب‬ think ‫ يعتقد‬/ ‫يفكر‬ catch ‫ يصطاد‬/ ‫يمسك‬ teach ‫ يعلم‬/ ‫يدرس‬ sell ‫يبيع‬ tell ‫ يحكي‬/ ‫يخبر‬ find ‫يجد‬ hear ‫يسمع‬ hold ‫ يعقد‬/ ‫يمسك‬ read ‫يقرأ‬ say ‫يقول‬ pay ‫ يسدد‬/ ‫يدفع‬ make ‫ يصنع‬/ ‫يجعل‬

Past cost cut hit hurt let put shut lent sent spent built burnt learnt smelt lost got sat kept slept felt left met dreamt meant brought bought fought thought caught taught sold told found heard held read said paid made

stand ‫ يقف‬stood understand ‫ يفهم‬understood Present

will

P.P. ( V3) cost cut hit hurt let put shut lent sent spent built burnt learnt smelt lost got sat kept slept felt left met dreamt meant brought bought fought thought caught taught sold told found heard held read said paid made stood understood

shall

Present ‫مضارع‬ break ‫يكسر‬ choose ‫يختار‬ speak ‫ يتحدث‬/ ‫يتكلم‬ steal ‫يسرق‬ wake ‫يوقظ‬

Past broke chose spoke stole woke

P.P. ( V3) broken chosen spoken stolen woken

drive ride rise write

‫يسوق‬ ‫يركب‬ ‫ يشرق‬/ ‫يرتفع‬ ‫يكتب‬

drove rode rose wrote

driven ridden risen written

beat bite hide

‫ يضرب‬/ ‫ يهزم‬beat ‫ يعض‬bit ‫ يختبأ‬/ ‫ يخفي‬hid

eat fall forget give see blow take grow Know throw fly draw begin drink show swim ring sing

‫يأكل‬ ‫ يقع‬/ ‫يسقط‬ ‫ينسى‬ ‫يعطي‬ ‫يري‬ ‫ ينفخ‬/ ‫يهب‬ ‫ يزرع‬/ ‫يأخذ‬ ‫يكبر‬ ‫ يعلم‬/ ‫يعرف‬ ‫ يقذف‬/ ‫يرمي‬ ‫يطير‬ ‫يرسم‬ ‫يبدأ‬ ‫يشرب يوضح‬ / ‫يبين‬ ‫يسبح‬ ‫ يدق‬/ ‫يرن‬ ‫يغني‬

ate fell forgot gave saw took blew grew knew threw flew drew began showed drank swam rang sang ‫ يأتي‬ran came ‫ يصبح‬became ‫يجري‬ ‫ يذهب‬went

come run become go

beaten bitten hidden eaten fallen forgotten given seen taken blown grown known thrown flown drawn begun shown drunk swum rung sung run come become gone

Helping ( Aux. ) Verbs ‫األفعال المساعدة‬ Inf. be have do

am / is are have / has do / does

Modal Verbs

can may

Past

Present

must

was were had did

P.P ( V3) been had done

‫األفعال الناقصة‬ have to

ought to

Past would should could might had to had to P.P (V3) (would / should / could / might / must / ought to ) + have + V3

21 1


Present Simple Affirmative

‫مصدر‬ live go watch cross relax play study

‫زمن المضارع البسيط‬

‫ األثبات‬Negative

‫ فعل‬+ s lives goes watches crosses relaxes plays studies

‫النفي‬

don’t doesn’t

‫المصدر‬

‫الفعل في التصريف األول‬ ( s ) ‫( المصدر) أو مضاف له‬ Question Do Does Do/Does

‫السؤال‬

‫الفاعل‬

Subj.

inf.. ?

live go

do not (don’t) live Yes,…...….. ( do/ does) does not (doesn’t) go No, ….( don’t / doesn’t)

I ‫المصدر‬ We You live They go ‫اسم جمع‬ ( Boys) He ‫ فعل‬+ s She It ‫اسم مفرد‬ lives ( A boy ) goes ‫اسم ال يعد‬ ( Water) I usually go to school.

I ‫المصدر‬ We do not You live They don't go ‫اسم جمع‬ ( Boys) He ‫المصدر‬ She It does not live ‫اسم مفرد‬ go (A boy) doesn't ‫اسم ال يعد‬ (Water) I don't go to school.

Ali often plays tennis.

Ali doesn't play tennis.

Does Ali play tennis? Yes, he does. /No,he doesn't.

She always eats fish.

She doesn't eat fish.

What does she always eat? She eats fish.

Do

I we you they ‫اسم جمع‬

‫المصدر‬ live go

( boys)

Does

he ‫المصدر‬ she it live ‫اسم مفرد‬ go (a boy) ‫اسم ال يعد‬ (water)

Do you go to school? Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

Time Words : ‫◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع البسيط‬ always ‫ دائما‬- usually ‫عادة‬- sometimes ‫أحيانا‬- often ‫غالبا‬- never ‫أبدا‬ seldom/scarcely/rarely ‫ نادرا‬-Every/Each (day / week …) day/week.. Once/Twice/Three times a - I usually go to the park. ‫) عادة منتظمة‬1 : ‫◄ يعبر المضارع البسيط عن‬ - The sun rises in the east. ‫( حقيقة علمية‬2 - The train leaves at 7:00 a.m. every day. ‫) حقيقة يومية‬3 : ‫◄نستخدمه بعد الروابط الزمنية للتعبيرعن المستقبل‬ Ex : When I travel abroad, I will buy gifts.

22


Exercises (Present Simple) Add ( s / es ) to the following verbs:

live (…………….) watch (…………… ) play (…………..…)

read wash study

(…..……….) (……………) (…..…...….)

relax cross go

( …………. ) (……………) (……………)

Change into negative with (don't / doesn't):

go watches studies play

(….……….) (………..…) (………….) (…….…… )

I go to school every day. ( ……………………………………………..……. ) My sister watches TV every day. (…………..…………………………………….… )

Complete the sentences with (play/watch/listen/go) in the correct form: Affirmative

Negative

‫اثبات‬

‫نفي‬

1)Ali usually..................… football. 3) My mother always ……………… TV at home.

2) He …………………… tennis. 4) She …………………...... to music.

5) My friends …………… to the park every day.

6) They ……………… to the cinema every day.

Complete the sentences with (do / don't / does / doesn't): Affirmative

Negative

‫اثبات‬

‫نفي‬

1) …….. Ali usually play football? Yes, he ……….

2) ………. Ali play tennis? No, he ……………

3) ……. your mother watch TV? Yes, she ….…..

4) …… your mother listen to music? No, she …………

5) …… your friends go to the park?Yes, they ….

6) …… your friends go to the cinema? No, they …….

Choose the correct answer: 6) Where …. he live?(is/do/ does) 4) Does he ... tea? (drink/drinks) 5) She doesn't ….. (swim/ swims)

1) I ……. English. (like/likes) 2) He ..….. golf. (play/plays) 3) They don't ... fish.( eat/eats)

Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 6 mistakes ) I has a friend called Ali. He live in a small house. His father work in a bank but his mother don’t work. They is a happy family. They spends funny time together.

23


Past Simple Affirmative ‫منتظم‬ lived watched listened played studied

‫ األثبات‬Negative ‫شاذ‬ went saw ate drank slept

I went to the club last day.

‫الفعل في التصريف الثاني‬

‫زمن الماضي البسيط‬

‫ النفي‬Question

did not didn’t

Did

‫المصدر‬

did not

live go

didn't

I didn't go to the club last day.

‫السؤال‬ ‫الفاعل‬

inf.. ?

Yes, ….. ( did) No, …….( didn’t) Did you go to the club? -Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

Ali played football Ali didn't play football Did Ali play football? yesterday. yesterday. Yes, he did./No,he didn't. They traveled to Paris last week.

They didn't travel to Paris last week.

When did they travel to Paris? - Last week.

Time Words : ‫الكلمات الدالة على زمن الماضي البسيط‬ yesterday ‫ أمس‬- last ‫( الماضي‬day-week…)- ago ‫( منذ‬two days ago) In 1990 - Our grandfathers - In the past ‫ في الماضي‬- Once ‫ذات مرة‬ One day ‫ ذات يوم‬- Once upon a time ‫يحكى أن‬ Uses

: ‫يعبر الماضي البسيط عن حدث تم في الماضي وأنتهي تماما‬

- I watched a good film on TV last night. - My friend bought a new car last week. - My sister swam in the sea three weeks ago. - I saw many monkeys when I went to the zoo. - I didn’t come because I was ill. : ‫يعبر الماضي البسيط عن عادة في الماضي‬ - When I was young, I always ate my meals at home. - My father played the piano in his childhood. : ‫يستخدم الماضي البسيط مع مدة زمنية للتعبير عن حدث دام مدة طويلة وانتهى‬ - My father worked in a bank for forty years. Now, he is retired.

What did the boy do yesterday?

He played football.

Did the boy play football yesterday?

Yes, he did.

Did the boy play tennis yesterday?

No, he didn't.

24


Exercises (Past Simple) Write the past: live (………...…….) go (…………..……… ) play (…...…...…..…)

watch ( …....……. ) listen (……………) write (…….………)

read (…..……….) eat (……………) study (…..….....….)

Change into negative with (didn't): drank (……….……….) climbed (…………..…) drove (….………….) painted (...….……… )

I saw my friend in the park yesterday. ( I ……… my friend in the park yesterday). My brother rode his bike yesterday. ( He ……………….…… his bike yesterday).

Complete with (drive/ ride / study/ play /go) in the past: Affirmative

Negative

‫اثبات‬

‫نفي‬

1) My father...............… his car to his work yesterday. 3) My brother …………….. his lessons yesterday.

2) He ……………….… a bike to his work yesterday. 4) He ………………….... tennis yesterday.

5) We ……………… to school last day.

6) We ………...……… to the park last day.

Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with (did /didn't): Affirmative

1) ……. your brother draw yesterday? Yes, he ………….

Negative ‫نفي‬ 2) …… your brother watch TV yesterday? No, he………

3) …… your sister ride a bike last week? Yes, she …….…..

4) …… your sister drive a car? No, she .…..

5) …... they see a giraffe in the zoo? Yes, they ………

6) …... they see a plane in the zoo? No, they ……

‫اثبات‬

Choose the correct answer: 1) I …. Math last day.(study/studied) 4) I …. see him last night? (don’t/didn’t) 2) They didn't ….. fish. (eat/ate) 5) I didn't….. him yesterday. (saw/sees/see ) 3) Did he …. tea? (drank/drink) 6) Did Ali come ? No, he (did/don’t /didn't) Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 11 mistakes ) Yesterday, I do many things. First, I get up early. Then, I have a bath, wash my face, comb my hair and brush my teeth. Next, I go to school. I meet my friends. After school, I eat my lunch. After that, I go to the park and smell fresh air there.

25


Future Simple Affirmative

Will ('ll)

‫زمن المستقبل البسيط‬

‫ األثبات‬Negative

‫المصدر‬

‫النفي‬

will not won’t

‫المصدر‬

will go ('ll go) will meet ('ll meet)

will not

I will go to the park tomorrow.

I won't go to the park tomorrow.

am is going to are

INF .

I'm going to study today.

watch go

won't

‫حدث في المستقبل‬

Question

Will

‫السؤال‬

‫الفاعل‬

inf.. ? watch go

Yes, ….. ( will) No, …….( won’t) Will you go to the park? -Yes, I will. / No, I won't.

am Am is not going to INF Is Subj. going to are . Are

INF . ?

I'm not going to Are you going to study? study today. Yes, I am. /No,I'm not. ) will + inf. ( ‫المستقبل مع‬

:‫خطط مستقبلية‬ I promise I will come with you. : ‫ وعد‬I will study English today. It's hot. I will turn on the AC. : ‫ قرار مفاجئ‬I will be thirty next month. : ‫حقيقية مستقبلية‬ I'll open the door for you. : ‫ عرض خدمة‬It will be a nice day tomorrow. :‫تنبؤ‬ Will you give me a chair? : ‫ طلب‬Perhaps we will travel next week. :‫توقع‬ Respect yourself or I will hit you. : ‫ تهديد‬I hope we will win the next match. : ‫تمني‬ Study or you'll fail the exam. :‫تحذير‬ : )if( ‫الحالة األولى في‬ If you study hard,you'll get high marks.

) going to + inf. ( ‫المستقبل مع‬ : ‫خطة أو نية‬ :‫فعل على وشك الحدوث مع وجود دليل‬ Ex: I'm going to study today. Ex: It's cloudy. It's going to rain. The train arrives at 6.30 a.m.

:).. ‫نستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن مواعيد منظمة ( قطارات‬

‫( للتعبير عن المستقبل‬am / is / are + ‫ فعل‬+ ing ( ‫◄ نستخدم زمن المضارع المستمر‬ :) ‫) عندما يكون تم الترتيب له بشكل مؤكد‬ Ex: My father has got a ticket. He is traveling next week. : ‫◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المستقبل البسيط‬ tomorrow ‫ غدا‬/ hope-wish ‫ يتمني‬- ‫ يأمل‬/ soon ‫ قريبا‬/next (day-week…) / In the future ‫ في المستقبل‬- In 2050 - in + ( period)… in (two weeks) ‫في خالل أسبوعين‬ ) suppose ( ‫ يفترض‬/ ) expect ( ‫ يتوقع‬/ ) think-believe ( ‫ يعتقد‬/ )predict ( ‫يتنبؤ‬ ) I'm afraid ( ‫أنا أخشى‬/ )I'm sure( ‫ أنا متأكد‬/ )possibly( ‫) محتمل‬perhaps( ‫ربما‬

When I travel to Paris, I will buy gifts. :‫نستخدم المضارع البسيط بعد الروابط الزمنية‬ . ‫( للتعبير عن المستقبل‬I , we) ‫( فقط بعد‬shall +‫يمكن أن نستخدم (المصدر‬

26


Exercises (Future Simple) Choose the correct answer: 1) Khalid ____________ skiing with his classmates next weekend. a) went

b) going

c) is going

d) has gone

2) Ali ___________ swimming with Badr and Hassan next Friday . a) has gone

b) went

c) is going

d) going

3) What ____________ tonight? Anything special? a) have you doing b) are you done

c) are you doing

d) do you

4) It’s so hot in here. I ____________ turn the air-conditioning on. a) will

b) will be

c) am

d) am going to

5) I think that my father ____________ next week. a) will come

b) comes

c) is going to come

d) comes

6) I think I ____________ the exam tomorrow. a) pass

b) would pass

c) will pass

d) passing

7) Will your father travel next week? Yes, he ____________ a) will

b) won't

c) is

d) does

8) The boy is climbing a high tree. He ____________ to the ground. a) going fall

b) is going to fall c) will fall

d) is falling

9) The plane ____________ off in a few minutes. a) will take

b) would take

c) to take

d) taking

10) I am ____________ for the airport at two o’clock. a) left

b) leave

c) leaves

d) leaving

11) Study well or you ____________ fail the exam. a) are going to

b) will

c) going to

d) will to

12) My sister hopes that she ____________ a doctor in the future. a) be

b) going to be

c) will be

d) will

13) Will your mother go shopping tomorrow? No, she ____________ a) will

b) won't

c) doesn't

d) isn't

14) When you ____________ high marks, I will buy you a new car. a) will get

b) gets

c) is going to get

27

d) get


Present Continuous Affirmative am is are

‫األثبات‬

‫ فعل‬+ing

riding writing

am/is/are I He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬ We You They ‫اسم جمع‬

am

is

are

V+ing

V+ing

V+ing

Negative

am is are

‫النفي‬

‫ فعل‬+ing

not

am/is/are not I He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬ We You They ‫اسم جمع‬

‫نشاط مستمر في الحاضر‬

‫زمن المضارع المستمر‬

riding writing

am not

V+ing

is not V+ing

Question Am Is Are

V+ing

aren't

‫الفاعل‬

‫ فعل‬+ing riding writing

Yes, ….. ( am / is / are) No, ...( am not /isn't /aren't). Am

is

isn't

are not

‫السؤال‬

Are

I he she it ‫اسم مفرد‬

V+ing V+ing

we V+ing you they ‫اسم جمع‬

I’m eating fish now.

I am not eating fish.

Are you eating fish? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.

Look! Ali is playing football.

Ali isn’t playing football.

Is Ali playing football? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.

Listen! They're singing.

They aren’t singing.

Are they singing? Yes,they are/No,they aren’t.

Uses

: ‫◄ يعبر زمن المضارع المستمر عن فعل يحدث األن ( لحظة الكالم ) أو حدث مؤقت‬ 1) My father is sleeping so he can't come. 2) We are studying about planets this week. : ‫◄ يعبر زمن المضارع المستمر عن فعل يحدث تدريجيا‬ 1) He is growing quickly. 2) My English is improving these days. : ‫◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع المستمر‬ now ‫ األن‬/ at the moment ‫ في تلك اللحظة‬/ Look! ‫ انظر‬/ Listen ! ‫ أستمع‬/ today ‫اليوم‬ This ( day – week ……) ) ...... ‫ هذا ( اليوم – األسبوع‬/ at the present time ‫في الوقت الحالي‬ Be quiet ! ‫ كن هادئا‬/ Watch out ! ‫ أحترس‬/ Be careful ! ‫كن حريصا‬ )ing ‫◄ أفعال الشعوروالحواس والملكية واألعتقاد واالدراك ال يمكن أن نستخدمها في األزمنة المستمرة ( ال نضيف لها‬ Ex: I hear a loud sound now. : ) ‫ألنها ال ارادية ( بدون مجهود‬ ) ing( ‫األفعال التي ال نضيف لها‬ like- love ‫يحب‬/ see ‫ يري‬/ hear ‫ يسمع‬/ have-own ‫ يمتلك‬/ think-believe ‫ يعتقد‬/ feel ‫ يشعر‬/ prefer ‫ يفضل‬/ hope -wish ‫ يتمني‬/ seem - appear ‫ يبدو من شكله‬/ smell ‫ يشم‬/ taste ‫يتذوق‬ want ‫ يريد‬/ need ‫ يحتاج‬/ know ‫ يعرف‬/ cost ‫ يكلف‬/ sound ‫ يبدو من صوته‬/understand ‫يفهم‬

28


: ‫◄اذا كان هناك مجهود أو ارادة نستخدم مضارع مستمر‬ The food tastes delicious. )‫ ( بدون مجهود‬/ The cook is tasting the food. (‫)يوجد مجهود‬ I hear a loud sound now. (‫)ال إرادي‬ / I'm listening to the music. ( ‫)إرادي‬

Exercises (Present Continuous) Complete the sentences with (play/study/watch/listen) in the correct form: Affirmative

Negative

‫اثبات‬

1) The boy .............................… football now.

2) He ……………………….… tennis now.

3) My brother ……….………..... his lessons at this moment.

4) He ……………………….... TV at this moment.

5) They …………………….. a giraffe in the zoo now.

6) They …………....……….… to music now.

‫نفي‬

Complete the sentences with ( is /isn't /are/aren't ): Affirmative ‫اثبات‬ 1) …….. your brother drawing now? Yes, he ………….

Negative ‫نفي‬ 2) … your brother watching TV now? No, he ………

3) ……. your sister riding a bike now? Yes, she …….….. 5) …… the boys studying their lessons? Yes, they …………

4) ……. your sister driving a car now? No, she ……… 6) …….. the boys playing football? No, they …….……

Choose the correct answer: 1) Look! The car …….…. very fast. 2) My friend ………... tennis now. 3) What is he ………….at the moment? 4) I ………………. English these days. 5) He can't come because he ……… 6) Don't make noise. Your father ..……. 7) Watch out! It …………… heavily. 8) The pollution ……….……. these days.

(comes/coming/ is coming/came) (playing/ is playing / plays / play) (eat / eats / ate / eating ) (am studying/studying/study/studies) (sleeping/is sleeping/sleeps/sleep) (works /working /is working/ work) (snowing / snows / snow / is snowing ) (rising/ is rising / rises / rise )

Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 10 mistakes ) 1) Look! The boys climb a tree. 2) Listen! My sister sing a beautiful song. 3) Watch out! The car coming very fast. 4) My friends is play football now. 5) We study about animals this week. 6) The rate of pollution rise these days. 7) What do you doing now? 8) Does your father sleeping now? 9) Are your friends study at this moment? 10) I am seeing a bird in the sky.

29


Past Continuous Affirmative was were

‫األثبات‬

was/were

He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬ We You They ‫اسم جمع‬

was were

V+ing

was

were

V+ing

‫ النفي‬Question

not

He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬ We You They ‫اسم جمع‬

riding writing

‫الفاعل‬

‫ فعل‬+ing

Yes, ….. ( was / were) No, …….( wasn’t /weren't).

V+ing

was not wasn’t

Was

V+ing

I

V+ing

V+ing

Was

he she V+ing it ‫اسم مفرد‬

Were

we V+ing you they ‫اسم جمع‬

were not weren't

‫السؤال‬

riding

was not

I

was were

‫ فعل‬+ing

was/were not

V+ing

was

I

Negative

‫ فعل‬+ing riding writing

‫نشاط كان مستمر في الماضي‬

‫زمن الماضي المستمر‬

I was studying at 6:00 yesterday.

I was not studying at 6:00 Were you studying ….? yesterday. Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.

They were playing when it rained.

They weren't playing when it rained.

Were they playing …..? Yes, they were. No,they weren’t.

Uses

: ‫يعبر زمن الماضي المستمر عن حدث كان مستمر في وقت معين في الماضي‬ It was raining all night yesterday. / I didn't see my uncle as I was sleeping. :‫الكلمات الدالة على الماضي المستمر‬ at 5:00 yesterday /all day yesterday/While-As-Just as/When While - As ‫ بينما‬/ When ‫عندما‬ While/As

‫ماضي مستمر‬

,

When

‫ماضي بسيط‬

While I was running, I fell down. ‫ماضي بسيط‬

While/As

‫ماضي بسيط‬

,

◄ ◄

‫ماضي مستمر‬

When I fell down, I was running. ‫ماضي مستمر‬

‫ماضي مستمر‬

I fell down while I was running.

When

‫ماضي بسيط‬

I was running when I fell down.

: ‫مالحظات‬ . ‫ ) ممكن نستخدم الماضي المستمر أو الماضي البسيط‬When ( ‫) نستخدم الماضي المستمراما بعد‬While/ As) ‫◄بعد‬ Ex: When I was running, I fell down. / When I fell down, I was running. .)‫◄ الماضي المستمر يعبر عن حث استمر مدة طويلة و الماضي البسيط يعبر عن حدث مفاجئ ( قطع الحدث المستمر‬ . ‫◄ اذا كان هناك حدثان مستمران في نفس الوقت فنستخدم زمن الماضي المستمر‬ Ex: While I was studying, my sisters were playing.

30


Exercises (Past Continuous) Look at the pictures and complete the sentences: walk

- The boy ….……. a snake while he …..….….…. in the street.

see

- While the boy …………. in the street, he ….......… a snake. - The boy .…………. in the street when he ..…….… a snake. - When the boy …...... a snake, he …….....…… in the street.

drive make

- The man ……..…. an accident while he ………….……. fast. - While the man ……....……. fast, he …..........… an accident. - The man .……………… fast when he ..……… an accident. - When the man ….……... an accident, he ………..…… fast.

study

-The father …….…… the room while the children ………....…

enter

-While the children ……………, the father ……..…. the room. -The children ….….……. when the father…........… the room. -When the father ……….. the room, the children……..…..….

read draw

-While the girl ……….………… a book, the boy ……………..…. a flower.

Complete with (watch/ listen /study /play) in the correct form: Affirmative ‫اثبات‬ 1) My father...............……… TV all night yesterday.

Negative ‫نفي‬ 2) My father ………….… to music all night yesterday.

3) My brother ……….…….. his lessons when I saw him.

4) My brother …………….... tennis when I saw him.

Complete the sentences with (was /wasn't / were / weren't): Affirmative ‫اثبات‬ 1) …….. your brother studying at

Negative

‫نفي‬

2) .… your brother watching TV? No, he …………

5:00 yesterday? Yes, he ………. 3) …….. the kids playing when it rained? Yes, they …….…..

4) …….. the kids swimming when it rained? No, they …..

Choose the correct answer: 1) It …. heavily all day yesterday. ( rained / was raining / was rain / were raining) 2) The students …. when the teacher came in . (wrote /was writing /were writing ) 3) While we were walking, we ….. an accident. ( saw /seeing /was seeing / see ) 4) He couldn't answer the phone as he ……… (slept /were sleeping/was sleeping) 5) When he …….. down, he was running very fast. (was falling/ fell/ falls/ fall)

31


Present Perfect Affirmative

‫ األثبات‬Negative

have has

V3

have ('ve) has ('s)

played eaten

I We You They ‫اسم جمع‬ He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬

have

has

have has

V3

V3

‫نشاط بدأ في الماضي وأنتهى قبل‬ ‫لحظات ( له أثر) أو قد يستمر للمستقبل‬

‫زمن المضارع التام‬

haven’t hasn’t I We You They ‫اسم جمع‬ He She It ‫اسم مفرد‬

Question

‫النفي‬ V3

not

played eaten

haven't

hasn't

‫السؤال‬

Have Has

‫الفاعل‬

Have

I we you + they ‫اسم جمع‬

V3

he she + it ‫اسم مفرد‬

V3

V3

played eaten Yes, … (have / has) No, … (haven’t/ hasn’t)

V3

Has

V3

I have already studied.

I haven’t studied yet.

Have you already studied? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.

My father has just come.

My father hasn’t come yet.

Has your father come? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t.

Have gone / Have been

have gone / has gone ( went but didn’t return ) Ex: My father has gone to Paris. ( He is still in Paris )

‫ذهب ولم يعد‬

have been / has been ( went and returned ) Ex : My father has been to Paris . ( He isn’t in Paris now )

‫ذهب وعاد‬

: ‫◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع التام‬ just ‫ حاال‬/ already ‫ بالفعل‬/ for ‫ لمدة‬/ since ‫ منذ‬/ever ‫ من قبل‬/ never ‫ أبدا‬/ yet ‫حتي األن‬ so far-up till now ‫حتي األن‬/ lately-recently ‫ منذ فترة بسيطة‬/ several-many times ‫مرات عديدة‬ ‫◄ يستخدم هذا الزمن للتعبير عن حدث حصل في الماضي و انتهى قبل لحظات أو انتهى في الماضي و الزالت آثاره‬ :‫موجودة حتى اآلن أو قد يستمر للمستقبل‬ - I have lived in Cairo for six years. - The street is wet. It has rained heavily. - My country has made many projects. - I haven't studied yet. I will study tomorrow. - I have washed my car. ( It looks lovely now ) - He is very hungry. He hasn’t eaten anything since morning.

32


‫الكلمات الدالة على زمن المضارع التام‬ Usage ‫األستخدام‬ Word have/ has ‫◄نستخدمهم في األثبات ( بين‬ just ‫ حاال‬/ ‫توا‬ ) ‫والتصريف الثالث‬ already ‫ في السؤال‬already ‫◄ يمكن أن نستخدم‬ )‫(لألستغراب عن سرعة أنتهاء الحدث‬ ‫بالفعل‬

Example ‫أمثلة‬ - He has just /already gone out. - Have you already studied your lessons? / Have you studied your lessons already?

. ‫ في صيغة التفضيل‬ever ‫◄ نستخدم‬ ‫ في السؤال ( بين الفاعل‬ever ‫◄ نستخدم‬ ) ‫و التصريف الثالث‬ ‫ في األجابة المنفية‬never ‫◄ نستخدم‬ ) ever ‫( للرد علي سؤال‬ )never( ‫ قبل‬not (n't) ‫◄ ال نستخدم‬

It is the best meal I’ve ever eaten. Have you ever been to Paris?

ever ‫من قبل‬ never ‫أبدا‬

yet ‫حتى األن‬

No, I have never been to Paris. Yes, I went there last year. ‫أذا أستخدمنا كلمات دالة علي زمن‬ ‫الماضي البسيط فأننا نستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط‬

‫ في نهاية الجمل األستفهامية أو‬yet ‫ ◄ نستخدم‬Have you finished yet? . ‫ المنفية‬No,I haven’t finished yet./Not yet.

For

Since

since 6 : 00 for an hour (one hour)/ two hours since Monday for a day (one day) / two days since 2003 for five years. since yesterday for a day (one day). since last (day/week/month..) for a (day /week/ month /year ) since last decade for ten years since last century for 100 years for a long time ‫لمدة طويلة‬ since my birthday since world war ‫׀׀‬ for ages ‫لمدة طويلة‬ for a while /a moment ‫للحظة‬ since morning for a minute ‫لدقيقة‬ since he traveled I haven't seen him for ages. ) ‫ ) نستخدم مدة زمنية غير محددة ( ال نعرف بدايتها أو نهايتها‬For ( ‫◄ بعد‬ I have known him since 1995 . : ‫ ) نستخدم زمن محدد‬Since ( ‫◄ بعد‬ Since ‫قاعدة‬

‫مضارع تام‬

)

Since

(

‫ماضي بسيط‬

I haven't seen him since he traveled. ) Since ( ‫ ماضي بسيط‬, ‫مضارع تام‬ Since he traveled, I haven't seen him. . ) Since ( ‫◄ أذا كنا نتحدث عن فترة زمنية لم تنتهي بعد فأننا نستخدم زمن المضارع التام قبل وبعد‬ ‫مضارع تام‬ ) Since ( ‫مضارع تام‬ Ex: He has missed his friends since he has traveled abroad. ( He is still abroad ) ) How long ( ‫ ) نستخدم‬Since , For ( ‫◄ للسؤال عن‬ Ex: How long have you visited Paris? For ten years. / Since 2007.

33


Present Perfect Continuous ‫مضارع تام مستمر‬ Affirmative

Negative

‫اثبات‬

( have / has ) + been + V+ing

Question

‫نفي‬

‫سؤال‬

(Have /Has) + ‫ الفاعل‬+ been+ V+ ing

(have /has)+ not + been+ V+ing

I have been playing for I haven’t been playing Have you been playing for 2 hours. for 2 hours. 2 hours? just-already-ever-never- for - since- yet - several times - so far - lately - recently ?

Present Perfect & Present Perfect Continuous

‫مضارع تام ومضارع تام مستمر‬

.‫نستخدم المضارع التام للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي وانتهي في الحاضر ( له أثر ) وقد يستمر في المستقبل‬ The road is wet. It has rained./I haven't bought a car yet. I will buy one next year. :)see ( ‫المضارع التام المستمر يعبر عن مدة استمرار الحدث ( يركز على النشاط) وال نستخدمه مع األفعال األرادية‬ She's been studying for two hours. She's studied three lessons for two hours. : ‫المضارع التام يعبر عن نتيجة الحدث‬ ‫) أو األفعال التي ال يوجد بها‬see - hear ‫ تذكر أننا ال نسخدم األزمنة المستمرة مع األفعال اللحظية ( الالإرادية مثل‬ .)Ex: I have already drunk two cups of coffee. ( .‫) أو عندما يكون هناك أرقام‬believe ( ‫مجهود‬

Exercises (Present Perfect) Choose the correct answer: 1) The train ………… the station yet.

( hasn’t left / has left / leaves / leave)

2) I …… Ali since his arrival last month.

(don't see/haven't seen/ didn't see)

3) This is the best pizza I …. (have ever had/am ever having/ have been had) 4) We …..… all our money already.

(spend / spends / spent / have spent )

5) She..… the house since 9:00. (is cleaning/has cleaning/has been cleaning) 6) …….… everyone finished the exercise?

(Was / Does / Did / Has )

7) I …...… my homework. (have just done / just have done / have done just ) 8) How long ……… collected stamps?

(have he / has he / he has / did he )

9) I can’t have dinner. I ……… already.

(eaten / ate / have eaten /eat)

10) They ……… married for 3 years.

(are / have / have been / has been)

11) Ali ……… had three accidents.

(has/is/have/was)

12) Mouza is ill. She has been ill …… the last few days. (for / till / since / just) 13) ------------- you ever -------------- Mount Everest ? ) Has ---- climbed / Did ---- climb / Have ---- climbed

/ Do ---- climb )

Complete with: for / since ……. two days / ……. yesterday / …..….. 1990 / ……. Last day / ……… four years / …. Monday/ ……. ages / .…… three months / ……….. April

34 4


Past Perfect Affirmative

‫حدث تم قبل حدث أخر في الماضي‬

‫زمن الماضي التام‬

‫ األثبات‬Negative

had

V3

had

played eaten

had

I had studied before I went out.

had

‫النفي‬

Question Had

not

V3

not

played eaten

I had studied before I went out.

‫السؤال‬ V3

‫الفاعل‬

Yes, ….. ( had) No, ..….. ( hadn't).

played eaten

Had you studied ….? Yes, I had. / No, I hadn't.

: ‫◄ نستخدم زمن الماضي التام للتعبير عن حدث تم قبل حدث ّأخر في الماضي‬ - He was hungry because he hadn’t eaten his breakfast. - He hadn’t eaten his breakfast so he was hungry. - I found the key which I had lost. - I had hardly / scarcely done my homework when I went to the club. - I had no sooner done my homework than I went to the club. : ) said/ told) ‫◄ نستخدم الماضي التام للتعبير عن أحداث سابقة في الكالم الغير مباشر وفعل القول يكون ماضي‬ Ex: He told me that he had done his homework. :‫◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن الماضي التام‬ hardly-scarcely ‫ بصعوبة‬- ‫ بالكاد‬/ No sooner ‫ بمجرد أن‬/ as soon as ‫ بمجرد أن‬/ till - until ‫ حتي‬/ after ‫ بعد‬/ when ‫ عندما‬/ before - by the time ‫قبل‬ : ) had + P.P ( ‫◄ روابط زمنية ياتي بعدها ماضي تام‬ : ‫◄ روابط زمنية ياتي بعدها ماضي بسيط‬ After / As soon as / No sooner / Before / By the time ‫قبل‬ hardly- scarcely / till-until After

‫ماضي تام‬

,

Before ‫ماضي بسيط‬

‫ماضي بسيط‬

After I had studied, I went out. ‫ماضي بسيط‬

After

,

‫ماضي تام‬

Before I went out, I had studied.

‫ماضي تام‬

‫ماضي تام‬

I went out after I had studied.

Before

‫ماضي بسيط‬

I had studied before I went out.

: ‫مالحظات‬ ) had + V3 ( ‫) وبعدها ماضي تام‬didn’t + ‫ ) نستخدم ماضي بسيط منفي ( المصدر‬Till/Until ( ‫◄ قبل‬ - My father didn’t buy a new car till / until he had got money. ‫ ) يمكن أن نستخدم الماضي البسيط أو الماضي التام‬When ( ‫◄ بعد‬ - When I had finished my homework, I went to the club. - When I went to the club, I had finished my homework. : ‫◄ يمكن أستخدام زمن الماضي البسيط في كال الجملتين مع كل الروابط السابقة‬ Ex: I waited till the train came. / After I studied, I went out.

35


Exercises (Past Perfect) Complete the sentences with the verbs in the first column: 1) eat 2) go

1) study 2) play

- I …..…….. to school after I ……….………. my breakfast. - After I ……………. my breakfast, I …............… to school. - I.…………. my breakfast before I ….......… to school. - Before I …......… to school, I …….………. my breakfast. - I …..….….. tennis as soon as I ………..…..…. my lessons. - As soon as I …...........…. my lessons, I …...…..….. tennis. - I ….……......…. my lessons by the time I …….….. tennis. - By the time I ……….. tennis , I …….....…..…. my lessons.

Choose the correct answer: 1) I didn’t go with them to the cinema because I _________ the movie already. a) had seen

b) was seeing

c) see

d) am seeing

2) By the time I got home, they _______________ dinner. a) are eating

b) ate

c) had eaten

d) eating

3) Jane _____________ worked for that company for 15 years when she retired. a) had

b) would

c) has

d) was

4) The play_______________ before we got to the theatre. a) was starting

b) had started

c) has started

d) starts

5) After the exam _______________, the students discussed the answers. a) finishes

b) was finishing

c) had finished

d) finishing

6) My brother went to the stadium after he ----------------- his homework. a) had done

b) did

c) does

d) doing

7) Mustafa ___________ driven for 6 hours before he arrived in Cairo last night. a) has

b) would

c) had

d) was

8) He __________ there for 20 years when he heard that he’d lost his job. a) has worked

b) works

c) had worked

d) would work

9) Even before she finished her job search, she _______ a number of job offers. a) has

b) had have

c) had had

d) was having

10) The Smiths ______________ a new house a month after their son was born. a) have bought

b) bought

c) will buy

36 6

d) were buying


To + inf. / V+ ing Verbs

To + inf. / V+ ing to + ‫مصدر الفعل‬

want - need - would like - hope – plan - try afford- fail- refuse – arrange- tend- decide-

- Does he want to play tennis?

forget- learn-promise - offer – manage

- I decided to stop smoking.

( ask - tell – advise – teach - persuade encourage – help – remind ... ) + ‫مفعول‬expect

- My father told me to study. - He advises me to sleep early.

to + ‫مصدر الفعل‬

It's + adj. (important / vital /necessary/easy..)

- It's important to play sports.

to ‫مصدر الفعل بدون‬

(make / let) – (had better / would rather) (Let's / Why not / Why don't you? )

- Plays make me laugh. -You’d better study well

(go/like/prefer/hate/appreciate/enjoy/avoid/ keep/ complete / finish /stop/quit/give up/ mind/ suggest/imagine/ fear/miss/ practice/ deny/ involve/ risk/ fancy/can't stand/can't help/ regret/ look forward to /It’s no use good / It's worth ….. ( in , on , at , of , for , about , by , with , without , through , ….. ) ‫حروف الجر‬ :‫الروابط الزمنية اذا حذفنا الفاعل‬ (After , Before, when, while, As soon as…..)

V+ ing - Did you go swimming? - Do you mind eating with me? - Fancy seeing you today.

V+ ing - I'm fond of reading stories. - While running, he fell down.

V+ ing

( There is / are + object ) (Verb + object )

-There is a man waiting for you. - I see a bird flying in the sky.

Exercises (To + inf. / V+ ing) Choose the correct answer: 1) I’d be happy ___________ you with that. a) help

b) to help

c) helps

d) helped

2) Her mother told her ___________ her room. a) clean

b) cleans

c) cleaned

d) to clean

3) I like cooking but I hate ___________ the dishes. a) wash

b) washing

c) washes

d) washed

c) ran

d) running

4) He prefers ___________ to walking. a) run

b) runs

37


5) I decided ___________ a course in English soon. a) to take

b) to taking

c) taking

d) will take

6) Let me ___________ you. a) help

b) helping

c) to help

d) helps

7) The teacher asked Mona ___________ carefully. a) listened

b) listening

c) to listen

d) listens

c) to come

d) came

c) to lend

d) lend

c) to take

d) taking

c) solve

d) solved

8) Would you like ___________? a) come

b) coming

9) He refused ___________ me the car. a) lent

b) lending

10) Do you mind ___________ it with you? a) take

b) took

11) We are trying ___________ this problem. a) to solve

b) solving

12) He stopped ___________ when he got married. a) to smoke

b) smoking

c) smoked

d) smoke

13) She made us___________ the whole house. a) cleaning

b) clean

c) to clean

d) cleaned

14) I advise you to avoid ___________ too fast. a) drive

b) to drive

c) drove

d) driving

15) I can't stand___________ any person bleeding too much. a) seeing

b) saw

c) to see

d) seen

16) You had better ___________ well before going to the interview. a) dressed

b) dress

c) to dress

d) dressing

17) I look forward to ___________ my family. a) met

b) meet

c) meeting

d) meets

18) I regret not ___________ your party yesterday. a) attending

b) attend

c) attended

d) attends

Fill the following table with the following verbs: Suggest / tend / promise / hate / fancy / decide / want / refuse / enjoy / avoid To + inf. V+ing.

38


Expressing habit

‫التعبير عن العادة‬

Present

Past

would (not) + inf. When I was in Paris, I would watch Eiffel Tower every day. Used to + inf. / didn't use to + inf. When I was young, I used to ride a bike. Now I drive a car. was / were ( not ) + used to + V+ ing In my childhood, I was used to writing with a pencil. got + used to + V+ ing When I was young, I got used to swimming in the sea.

am / is / are (not ) + used to + V+ ing

I am used to waking up early for my new job. get/ gets + used to + V+ ing I couldn’t ride a bike. Now I am used to riding it.

Be used to = be accustomed to (An action that was strange and unusual, but now it has become familiar.)

‫نشاط كان غريب واألن أصبح مألوف‬

Exercises (Expressing habit) Choose the correct answer: 1) I _______________ a lot before I got married, but now I don't. a) am used to travelling b) am used to travel c) use to travel d) used to travel 2) Every January during my childhood, my family __________ camping. a) had gone

b) had went

c) would go

d) was go

3) In the past, people ______________ in tents, but now they don’t. a) to live

b) lives

c) lived

d) used to live

4) Last week I _______________video games the whole night, but now I don’t. a) played

b) used to play

c) playing

d) play

c) isn't

d) hasn't

5) He _______________use to smoke. a) didn't

b) doesn't

6) Hatem ______________ crying when his father shouts at him. a) used to

b) uses to

c) was use to

d) is used to

7) I _______________sleeping at ten when I was a kid. a) is used to

b) use to

c) got used to

39

d) used to


Adjectives Positive

‫كلمات تصف األسماء‬

‫الصفات‬

old nice

Comparative older than nicer than

Superlative the oldest the nicest

big

bigger than

the biggest

.‫) للصفة‬er( ‫) نضيف‬1 : ‫* عند المقارنة بين أثنين في صفة قصيرة المقطع‬ .‫) بعد الصفة‬than( ‫) نضع‬2 Ex: The elephant is bigger than the lion. .‫ ) قبل الصفة‬the ( ‫) نضع‬1 : ‫* عند المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين في صفة قصيرة المقطع‬ .‫ ( للصفة‬est ( ‫( نضيف‬2 Ex: The blue whale is the biggest animal. exciting

(more / less) exciting than the (most / least) exciting

beautiful

(more/less) beautiful than

the (most/least) beautiful

.‫) قبل الصفة‬more / less( ‫) نضع‬1 : ‫* عند المقارنة بين أثنين في صفة طويلة المقطع‬ .‫ ) بعد الصفة‬than ( ‫) نضع‬2 Ex: Football is more exciting than handball. .‫ ) قبل الصفة‬the most /the least( ‫ نضيف‬- : ‫* عند المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين في صفة طويلة المقطع‬

Ex: Football is the most exciting sport.

‫الصفات الشاذة‬ Positive bad / ill good / well

Comparative ‫ مريض‬/ ‫ سئ‬worse than ‫أسوأ من‬ ‫ بخير‬/ ‫ جيد‬better

many ‫ كثيرللعدد‬/much ‫كثير للكمية‬

more

little

less

‫قليل للكمية‬

far

‫بعيد‬

than than than

Superlative the worst ‫األسوأ‬

‫أفضل من‬

the best

‫األفضل‬

‫أكثر من‬

the most

‫األكثر‬

‫أقل من‬

the least

‫األقل‬

farther than )‫أبعد من ) للمسافة‬ further than )‫أبعد من ( للوقت‬

‫التساوي في الصفات‬ Ali is as fat as Amr.

the farthest )‫األبعد (مسافة‬ the furthest ) ‫األبعد ( للوقت‬

‫عدم التساوي في الصفات‬ Saif isn't as fat as Ali. Saif isn’t so fat as Ali.

Saif

Ali

Ali is fatter than Saif. Saif is thinner than Ali.

Amr

40


( The …. er / more ) , ( the …. er / more )

:‫عند التعبير عن المقارنة المتوازية نستخدم‬

Ex: The more you study, the higher marks you will get. ‫يمكن أن نستخدم زمن المضارع التام مع صفة المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين‬ It is the highest mountain I have ever seen. / It is the best meal I have ever eaten. (much taller/much more interesting( )much/ little( ‫قبل صفة المقارنة بين اثنين يمكن أن نستخدم‬ Ex: My father is much older than me. / Football is much more exciting than tennis.

Exercises (Adjectives) Complete the sentences with: short / tall / taller / tallest

1) Ali is …………………. than Omar. 2) Omar is as ……………… as Hany. 3) Ali is not so ……………….. as Saif. 4) Saif is the ……………….. boy. Complete the sentences with:

most / least / as / more / less

1) Tennis is ………… exciting as basketball. 2) Volleyball is …………. exciting than basketball. 3) Basketball is ………….. exciting than volleyball. 4) Football is the ……………… exciting sport. 5) Tennis and basketball are the ……… exciting sports. Choose the correct answer: 1) That movie was the…… movie I've ever seen. 2) My car is ………… expensive than your car. 4) Planes are ……..… than cars.

(bad /worse /worst/ badest ) ( too / more / as / very) ( fast / faster / fastest / the fastest )

5) Ali is the ………. boy in the class.

( good / better / best / better than )

6) Everest is the ------ summit on the earth. 7) It's ……….than I thought.

(higher than /higher/high/highest ) ( good / better / gooder / best )

8) Brazil is ……….England.

( big than / bigger / bigger than / big as )

9) My room is as ……… as your room.

( bigger / big / biggest / bigger than )

10) My sister is ……….girl in the class. a) the most intelligent

b) more intelligent c) the intelligent

41

d) intelligent


Adverbs ‫ظروف شاذة‬

‫) للصفة‬ly( ‫نكون الظرف بإضافة‬ ‫الصفة‬ quick

‫الظرف‬ ‫سريع‬

quickly

careful

‫حريص‬

carefully

simple

‫بسيط‬

simply

happy

‫سعيد‬

happily

dramatic

‫هائل‬

‫الصفة‬

‫الظرف‬

good

‫ جيد‬well

‫بحرص‬

early

‫ مبكر‬early

‫ببساطة‬

late

‫متأخر‬

late

‫بسعادة‬

hard

‫صعب‬

hard

dramatically ‫بشكل هائل‬

fast

‫سريع‬

fast

‫بسرعة‬

‫بطريقة جيدة‬ ‫مبكرا‬ ‫متأخرا‬ ‫بجد‬ ‫بسرعة‬

(lovely, friendly , motherly , brotherly ). ‫) إلسم فتعتبر الكلمة صفة‬ly( ‫◄ إذا اضفنا‬

Adverb

Adjective

‫الظرف‬

‫الصفة‬

: ‫◄ الظرف يصف‬ : ‫◄ الصفة تصف األسم وتأتي قبله‬ He can run very quickly. ‫( الفعل األساسي‬1 Ex: He is a rich man. He is very happy today. ‫) الصفة‬2 :‫◄الصفة تأتي أيضا بعد‬ Really, it is a nice city. ‫) الجملة الكاملة‬3 ( be /am /is/are/was/were ( ‫( فعل يكون‬1 Ex: My friend was happy yesterday. :‫◄ الظرف يأتي قبل أو بعد الفعل األساسي‬ : ‫) أفعال الحواس‬2 ) run quickly / quickly run( seem / look / appear / smell / taste / ( ) very happy( ‫أو قبل الصفة‬ ) sound / feel )Really,you’re kind. ( ‫ أو بداية الجملة‬Ex: The food tastes delicious. ) He solved it easily. ) ‫أونهاية الجملة‬ : ( become / get ( ‫( فعل يصبح‬3 : ‫ ◄ ال نستخدم الظرف بعد‬Ex: My friend got ill yesterday. Look / ‫ أو أفعال الحواس‬Be ‫( فعل يكون‬ : ( make ( ‫( فعل يعمل‬4 . ) become / get ‫ أو فعل يصبح‬seem.. Ex: The film made me happy. . ‫وانما نستخدم صفة‬ : ( find ( ‫) فعل يجد‬5 Ex: He seems happy today. Ex: I found the film interesting.

‫ترتيب الصفات‬ Opinion ‫رأي‬ silly beautiful difficult

Size ‫حجم‬ tiny small little

Age ‫عمر‬ new young old

Shape ‫شكل‬ square round oval

Color ‫لون‬ blue pink grey

Nationality ‫ جنسية‬/ ‫أصل‬ French (origin ) American Egyptian

Material ‫مادة‬ wooden metal paper

Purpose ‫الغرض‬ sleeping roasting

: ‫يمكن أن نستخدم الكلمات التالية قبل الصفات‬ ( very , so , extremely , too / fairly, quite, pretty, rather, a bit and a little ).

42


Nouns

‫كلمات تعبر عن األشخاص أو الحيوانات‬ ‫أو النباتات أو الجماد أو أسماء مجردة‬

‫األسماء‬

‫أنواع األسماء‬

Noun Types Common

country

city

language continent laptop

Proper

Egypt

Cairo

English

Africa

HP

.‫ هي األسماء بشكل عام وال نكتب بدايتها بحرف كبير إال في بداية الجملة‬:( Common nouns ( ‫◄األسماء العامة‬ Ali , Cairo .‫هي األسماء بشكل خاص و نكتب بدايتها بحرف كبير‬ :( Proper nouns( ‫◄األسماء الخاصة‬

Countable Nouns

‫ أسماء معدودة‬Uncountable Nouns

Singular

Plural

‫مفرد‬ a boy / a man

boys / men

‫أسماء غير معدودة‬

‫ليس لها صيغ مفرد أو جمع‬

‫جمع‬

water / tea / coffee / money / grass

:‫) في زمن المضارع البسيط‬s( ‫◄ األسماء المفردة واألسماء الغير معدودة يأتي بعدها فعل منتهي ب‬ Ex: My friend goes to the club every day. / Water is very important in our life. :‫) في زمن المضارع البسيط‬s( ‫◄األسماء الجمع يأتي بعدها فعل في المصدر اي فعل بدون‬ Ex: My friends go to the club every day. :‫◄ إذا وضعنا كلمات تدل على الكمية قبل االسم الغير معدود فأن الفعل يأتي حسب لفظ الكمية أو التجزئة‬ Ex: Two cups of tea are not enough for me. / A cup of tea is enough for me.

Exercises (Nouns) Classify the nouns in the table: person / April / day / Omar / month / city / Sunday / Cairo Common Proper

tea / egg / children / grass / desk / boys / books / milk / pen singular plural uncountable

43


Plurals

‫جمع االسماء‬ ) es ( ‫) نضيف لها‬s, sh, ch, x, z( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بالحروف‬ ) k ( ‫ ) تنطق‬c ( ‫ ألن‬stomach – stomachs : ‫شواذ‬

‫) للمفرد‬s( ‫نكون الجمع بإضافة‬

‫ مفرد‬cat

car

pen

‫ مفرد‬beach

‫ جمع‬cats

cars

pens

‫ جمع‬beaches dishes

) y ( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف‬ ‫ نترك ال‬, ‫وسبقها حرف متحرك‬ .)s( ‫( ثم نضيف‬y) ‫ مفرد‬boy

ray

day

‫ جمع‬boys

rays days

dish

bus

box

quiz

buses

boxes

quizzes

‫ نحذف ال‬, ‫ ) وسبقها حرف ساكن‬y ( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف‬ . ) ies ( ‫ ) ثم نضيف‬y ( ‫ مفرد‬city

country

body

baby

‫ جمع‬cities

countries

bodies

babies

)o( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف‬ )s( ‫ نضيف‬, ‫وسبقها حرف متحرك‬

‫ نضيف‬, ‫ ) وسبقها حرف ساكن‬o ( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف‬ . ) es (

‫ مفرد‬zoo

radio

‫ مفرد‬potato

tomato

hero

zero

‫ جمع‬zoos

radios

‫ جمع‬potatoes

tomatoes

heroes

zeros

: ‫شواذ‬

photo – photos / piano – pianos / volcano (volcanos - volcanoes)) : ‫شواذ‬ scarf (scarfs / scarves) dwarf (dwarfs /dwarves ) cliff (cliffs ) / roof (roofs) / chef (chefs)/chief(chiefs)

‫ ) الي‬fe ( ‫) أو‬f ( ‫ ) نقلب ال‬fe ( ‫ ) أو‬f ( ‫األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف‬ . ) es ( ‫ ) ثم نضيف‬v ( ‫مفرد‬

shelf

knife

thief

wife

‫جمع‬

shelves

knives

thieves

wives

‫شواذ الجمع المنتظم‬ SING phenomenon .Plural phenomena

curriculum

criterion

oasis

analysis

cactus

curricula

criteria

oases

analyses

cacti

‫أسماء لها نفس صيغة المفرد وصيغة الجمع‬ SING.

sheep

deer

fish

series

species

Plural

sheep

deer

fish

series

species

44 4


Irregular Plurals Singular man

‫أسماء جمع شاذة‬

Plural

‫تحفظ كما هي‬

Singular

Plural

men

‫رجال‬

tooth

‫سنة‬

teeth

‫أمرأة‬

women

‫نساء‬

goose

‫وزة‬

geese

child

‫طفل‬

children

‫أطفال‬

ox

‫ثور‬

oxen

‫ثيران‬

person

‫شخص‬

people ( persons)

‫فأر‬

mice

‫فئران‬

foot

‫قدم‬

feet

‫قملة‬

lice

‫قمل‬

woman

‫رجل‬

Uncountable Nouns General Quantity

‫ناس‬ ‫أقدام‬

mouse louse

‫أسماء غير معدودة‬

‫أسنان‬ ‫أوز‬

(a/an( ‫ال نضع قبلها‬ (s) ‫وال نزيد عليها‬

homework / equipment /baggage / luggage / clothing / furniture / jewelry / perfume / soap / petrol / traffic dust / sand / grass / sugar / salt / powder / / money / hair

materials

gold / silver / wood / wool / paper / leather / cotton / glass / plastic / rubber / stone/ oil

Abstract

advice / help / fun / enjoyment / information / knowledge / news / joy / happiness / sadness / progress / trust / education / intelligence / space / energy / peace / pride / wisdom

Food

food / flour/ meat / wheat / rice / cake /bread / pasta / fish/ fruit / cream / toast/ butter / oil / cheese / honey / soup

Liquids

milk / water / tea / coffee / Pepsi

Weather

weather / climate / thunder / lightning / snow / rain / ice / heat / wind / pollution

Languages

English / Arabic / French / Italian / Chinese

Subjects

English / history / geography / physics / music / grammar

Sports

tennis / baseball / basketball / football / hockey / chess

Activities

swimming / walking / driving / speaking / cooking / sleeping

Possessive ‫الملكية‬ ‫ ) للتعبير‬Children’s books ( ‫ ) أو أسماء الجمع الشاذ‬The boy’s book( ‫‘) بعد األسماء المفردة‬s( ‫نضع‬ .‫عن الملكية‬ .) The boys’ books ( )s( ‫نضع فاصلة (‘) فقط بعد أسماء الجمع المنتظم أي المنتهية ب‬ :‫أمثلة على الجمع الشاذ‬ Man / men woman / women child / children foot / feet tooth / teeth

45 4


Exercises (Nouns) Write the plurals: man ………………….

loaf ……………….

photo ………….…..

tomato …………..

child ………………….

watch …………….

city ……………..

Key ……………..…..

woman ……………….

Wife ……….………

zoo ……………….

class ………..……..

Choose the correct answer: 1) There’s a big sale on _________________ clothes at Carrefour. a) child

b) child’s

c) children

d) children’s

2) Please buy me some __________________ at the store. a) pen

b) a pen

c) pens

d) the pens

3) There's a big sale on ______________ hats. a) men

b) man

c) man's

d) men's

4) At least 10 ____________ work in this office. a) peoples

b) people

c) person

d) a person

5) The student didn’t have _______________ for the teacher. a) answer

b) some answer

c) an answer

d) an answers

6) We need to buy _______________ for our living room. a) chair

b) some chair

c) a chair

d) a chairs

7) My sister would like to be ____________. a) writer

b) write

c) writes

d) a writer

8) Mohammed and Moataz went shopping last Friday without their ____________.. a) wifes

b) wife

c) wive

d) wives

9) She got some_________ fore her wedding present. a) a gold

b) gold

c) the gold

d) golds

10) This is my ____________car. He drives it every day. a) father's

b) father

c) fathers

d) father'

11) These are my ____________bikes. They ride them every day. a) friends

b) friend

c) friend's

d) friends'

12) There are my ____________clothes. I have to wash them. a) children

b) childrens

c) children's

46 4

d) children '


Noun Determiners Singular

‫مفرد‬

‫ما يأتي قبل األسماء‬

‫محددات األسماء‬

Plural

‫جمع‬

Uncountable

‫ال يعد‬

The

boy

The

boys

A

boy

Both

boys

An

egg

Both

eggs

This That

boy

These Those

boys

This That

water

boy

All Most

boys

All Most

water

boys

Other The other

water

boys

Much More Plenty of A lot of Lots of

Every Each

Another The other

boy

Other The other Many More Several A lot of Lots of

A few Few Fewer

some any enough

boys

boys

47 4

The

A little Little Less

some any enough

water

water

water

water


(Another / Other(

)‫ أخرون‬/ ‫(أخر‬

‫اسم مفرد‬ ‫ غير محدد‬Another boy

‫اسم جمع‬ Other boys / others

‫اسم ال يعد‬ Other water

Ex:

Some people are rich but other people are poor. The other boys / The others I see only six boys in the class. Where are the other boys?

Some water is salt but other water is fresh.

‫محدد‬ Ex:

I want another cup of tea. The other ( boy ) I've two pens. I'll have one and you can take the other (one).

The other water They have drunk all the juice. Can you bring the other juice in the fridge?

( many / much / a lot of ( ) a lot of (

) many / much ( ‫النفي‬

‫أثبات‬

) many / much ( ‫السؤال‬

I have a lot of pens.

I don’t have many pens.

Do you have many pens?

I’d like a lot of tea.

I wouldn’t like much tea.

Do you have much tea?

too many / too much ) too ( ‫ ) في األثبات بعد كلمة‬many / much ( ‫◄ يمكن أن نستخدم‬ Many boys are absent today. ‫) في األثبات في بداية الجملة‬many/much( ‫◄ يمكن أن نستخدم‬

( some / any( ) some (

) any ( ‫النفي‬

‫أثبات‬

I have some books.

) ‫السؤال ( حسب نوع السؤال‬

I don’t have any books.

Do you have any books?

I’d like some tea.

I wouldn’t like any tea.

. ‫ ) في النفي و السؤال العام‬any ( ‫◄ نستخدم‬ Would you like some tea?

I want some milk.

I don’t want any milk. Can I have some milk? . ‫ ) في األثبات و سؤال الطلب أو العرض‬some ( ‫◄ نستخدم‬

Exercises (Nouns Determiners) Choose the correct answer: 1) We arrived before all the _______ guests at the party. a) other

b) others

c) another

d) one other

2) Would you like _______ book to read? a) some

b) other

c) others

d) another

3) I got two presents: one from my mother and _______ from my friend. a) other

b) others

c) the other

48 8

d) the others


4) I invited four guests. Two are present. Where are _______ guests? a) others

b) other

c) another

d) the other

5) Reem and Moza are old friends. They try to see each _______ at least once a week. a) another

b) the other

c) other

d) others

6) Give me _______ loaf of bread, please. a) another

b) the others

c) other

d) others

7) She returned three of my six books and promised to bring_______ on Friday. a) other

b) another

c) others

d) the others

8) We’ll take three cars. You go in one and we’ll take _______ a) others

b) the others

c) other

d) another

9) Some people prefer vegetables while_______ prefer meat. a) other

b) another

c) others

d) the others

10) Call me if you want some help. I have ________ ideas that you might like. a) few

b) little

c) a few

d) a little

c) some

d) none

11) There isn’t _______ milk in the fridge. a) many

b) any

12) I have never read _______ of these books. a) some

b) any

c) much

d) a little

13) I saw _______ students on my way to the mall. a) lots

b) a little

c) any

d) several

14) Pass me _______ salt if you don't mind. a) lot

b) a lot

c) some

d) many

c) lots

d) little

15) He always eats too _______ oranges. a) many

b) much

16) There is _______ milk left in the refrigerator. I need to buy some. a) little

b) a little

c) many

49 4

d) a few


Definite & Indefinite Articles

‫أدوات التعريف و النكرة‬

.‫ ) تستخدم كأداة للتعريف‬The (

.‫ ) تستخدمان كأدوات نكرة‬a / an ( ◄

a pen – a tree – a car – a man - a girl .‫( قبل األسماء التي تبدأ بحرف ساكن‬a ( ‫◄ نضع‬ an apple – an egg )a , e , i , o , u ) ‫( قبل األسماء التي تبدأ بحرف متحرك‬an) ‫◄ نضع‬ : ‫ ) فقط حسب النطق‬a / an ( ‫◄ نضع‬ an hour /an honest man ) an umbrella ( an ‫( نضع‬a) ) a university / a European city ( a ‫( نضع‬y)

: ) h ( ‫◄حروف صامتة‬ (u) ‫◄ أذا نطقنا‬ ‫( كما هي‬u) ‫◄أذا نطقنا‬

)a / an ( ‫إستخدام‬ a table - an egg

‫قبل األسماء المفردة المعدودة‬

He is an engineer. She is an English woman.

‫قبل الوظيفة‬ ‫قبل الجنسية‬

He visits his uncle four times a week.

“‫بمعني ”كل‬

)The ( ‫إستخدام‬ The sun / The earth / The universe / The sky ...

.‫االسم الذي ال يوجد منه سوى نوع واحد قط‬

The Arabian Gulf / The River Nile / The Red Sea / The Pacific Ocean / The Alps

‫أسماء األنهار و البحار والمحيطات والخلجان‬ .… ‫والجبال والصحاري والجزر‬

The north / the south / The east / The west

The top / The bottom / The left / The right / The center / The middle / The corner I saw a man. The man was young.

‫مع األتجهات‬ ‫مع ظروف المكان‬ ‫نستخدم مع االسم الذي ذكر للمرة الثانية‬

The president / The manager / The ground / The roof / The door / The police / The army

‫مع األشياء المعروفة‬

The airport / The museum / The club ….

‫مع األماكن المشهورة‬

The piano / The drum / The oud / The guitar I know the boy who took your bike.

.‫أسماء اآلالت الموسيقية‬ )‫قبل جملة الوصل ( التي تحتوي علي ضمير وصل‬

The name of / The winner of/ The capital of The tallest / The most beautiful

‫ ) أو الجملة الوصفية‬Of ( ‫قبل‬ )‫قبل الصفات (المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين‬

The first / The second /The third / The fourth ...

‫مع أرقام الترتيب‬

The radio/ The internet / The end / The same

‫مع بعض الكلمات‬

50 4


)The ( ‫حاالت عدم إستخدام‬ ) ‫قبل بعض األماكن (بشكل عام‬

home /bed / hospital / school / college

: ) The ( ‫◄ أذا استخدمنا هذه األماكن بشكل خاص فأننا نستخدم‬ I go to school. ) ‫ ( بشكل عام‬/ My father came to the school yesterday. )‫(بشكل خاص‬ ) ‫قبل الوجبات الغذائية ( بشكل عام‬

breakfast / lunch / dinner

: )The ( ‫◄اذا كنا نتحدث عن وجبة معينة فأننا نستخدم‬ The lunch in this restaurant will be very delicious. ‫قبل الدول والمدن والقارات‬

France / Egypt / Cairo / Dubai / Africa

: ‫ ) قبل أسماء الواليات والجمهوريات والممالك‬The ( ‫◄ نستخدم‬ The U.A.E. / The K.S.A. / The U.S.A. / The U.K. ( The united kingdom ) Times Square / Hope Street / Union Road

‫قبل أسماء الشوارع والميادين والطرق‬

English / Math / IT / Arabic / History ….

‫قبل المواد الدراسية‬

tomorrow /yesterday / last (day )/next (day)

‫قبل الظروف الزمنية‬ ‫قبل الرياضات‬

football / tennis ……..

‫قبل أيام األسبوع وشهور السنة‬

Monday / June / October ……… Music / water / work / life / weather / fish ….

)‫قبل األسماء الغير معدودة (بشكل عام‬

: ) The ( ‫◄ أذا أستخدمنا األسماء الغير معدودة بشكل خاص ( محدد ) فأننا نستخدم‬ I don’t like cold weather. ) ‫ ) بشكل عام‬/ The weather is cold today.

) ‫) بشكل خاص‬

Exercises (Articles) Choose the correct answer: 1) Really he is ____________ honest man. a) an

b) a

c) the

d) one

2) You have got to buy ____________ uniform for your new job. a) an

b) a

c) __

d) the

3) Ahmed usually has ____________ with his friends in the cafeteria. a) the lunch

b) the lunches

c) lunch

51

d) a lunch


4) Princess Rania has become famous for her work with____________ children. a) a

b) the

c) an

d) __

5) Nelson Mandela was born in ____________ South Africa. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) __

6) ____________ K.S.A is a country in Asia. a) A

b) The

c) __

d) An

7) Last summer we spent a few days at ___________ very nice hotel by the sea. a) the

b) an

c) a

d) so

8) She works as ____________ teacher in a private school. a) the

b) a

c) an

d) some

9) Bill is good at playing ____________ piano. a) an

b) a

c) the

d) __

10) I saw a man in the park. ____________ man was playing with his children. a) the

b) a

c) an

d) __

11) I'd like to travel all over ____________ world. a) a

b) the

c) an

d) __

12) Teachers don't like ____________ children who make noise. a) an

b) the

13)

watermelon that I bought yesterday was very tasty.

____________

a) a

b) the

c) a c) an

d) __ d) __

14) There are many stars in ____________ sky. a) a 15) Egypt is in a) an

b) an ____________ b) the

c) the

d) __

of Africa. c) a

d) __

Choose the following table with: A / An / The / …… apple

….. book

.. president of

….. USA.

…. Math

……. car

….. university

…. capital of

….. KSA.

…. orange

…… Red Sea

….. first

… teacher

…… Egypt

….. people

….. north of

……. last

…. engineer

……. umbrella

….. thief

…….. hour

…… desk

… oud

… honest man

….. smallest

…… paino

….. same as

…. Sunday

… honest men

…. River Nile

52


Relative Pronouns ‫ضمائر الوصل‬ . ‫نستخدم ضمير الوصل ليحل محل األسم أو الضمير في الجملة الثانية‬ The boy was tall. He broke the glass. / The boy, who broke the glass, was tall. Relative PN.

Who Whom Which That Whose When Where Why How What

‫أشخاص ( فاعل‬ )

Usage

Example

‫ للعاقل ( فاعل أو‬The boy, (who) I met, was playing. ) ‫ مفعول‬The boy, who studies hard, gets high marks. ) ‫ للعاقل ( مفعول فقط‬The boy, (whom) I met, was playing. ‫ لغير العاقل‬I drove the car which my father bought me. The house which we rented in London was nice. ‫ للعاقل وغير العاقل‬The boy, (that) won the race, is my cousin. The car ,that my father drives, is old. ‫ للملكية (مع العاقل‬This is the woman whose son died. ) ‫ وغير العاقل‬The dog, whose leg was broken, was small. ‫ للوقت‬The fall is a time when leaves turn brown. ‫ للمكان‬This is the school where we learn. ‫ للسبب‬I don’t know the reason why he was absent. ‫ للكيفية أو الحال‬He told me how to face challenges. ‫ لألشياء وغالبا مسبوقة‬This is all what I have.

all ‫ ب‬I don't know what he is looking for.

who

Verb

noun

whose

noun

‫مالحظات‬ ‫هامة‬ : ‫( مع غير العاقل‬Which) ‫( مع العاقل و‬Whom) ‫إذا سبق الضمير حرف جر فأننا نستخدم‬ Ex: The boy, with whom I played yesterday, made an accident. This is the school in which I learnt. :‫( عند أستخدامهم مكان المفعول‬who , whom , which , that( ‫ يمكن أن نحذف‬ Ex: The boy I met yesterday was playing. I drove the car my dad bought me. . ‫الحظ وجود فاعل اخر في الجملة‬ : ‫ال يجوز أن نحذف ضمير الوصل اذا أتي مكان الفاعل في الجملة الثانية‬ Ex: The boy, who studies hard, gets high marks. I ate the apple that was on the table. Ex: This is the house where I was born. (house - place) :‫نضع ضمير الوصل حسب معنى الجملة‬ The house that we bought last year is very big. ( house - thing )

53


Exercises (Relative Pronouns) Choose the correct answer: 1) I prefer travelling in the winter ________ the weather is more comfortable. a) who

b) where

c) which

d) when

2) I’m going to Kenya, ________________ I hope to go on safari. a) who

b) whom

c) which

d) where

3) The lady ________________ car was damaged in the accident is very sad. a) who

b) whose

c) whom

d) which

4) The person ______________ visited your house was very nice. a) who

b) which

c) what

d) where

5) The shop owner wondered ____________I was looking for. a) what

b) how

c) why

d) when

6) Children _____________ eat a lot of sugar often get fat. a) which

b) who

c) whose

d) whom

c) which

d) where

7) This is the house in ________ I live. a) who

b) whose

8) Fatima, ________ mother makes lovely cakes, has invited us to tea. a) who

b) whose

c) which

d) where

9) This is the house ________ my grandfather was born. a) which

b) when

c) who

d) where

10) The teacher ________ we all like is ill today. a) how

b) whom

c) whose

d) which

11) The house________ they have rented is in the center of town. a) who

b) where

c) which

d) whose

12) He bought all the books ________are required for the course. a) that

b) who

c) where

d) whose

13) A dictionary is a book _____________ we can find meanings of words. a) who

b) where

c) when

d) which

14) The boy didn’t understand _________ his friend was crying. a) who

b) which

c) why

54

d) what


Connectors Connectors ‫الروابط‬ For ) ‫ألن ( سبب‬

‫الروابط‬

‫كلمات تربط بين جمل أو عبارات‬

Examples ‫أمثلة‬ He loves science for he wants to be a scientist.

And )‫ و ( اضافة معلومات‬She went shopping and she bought vegetables. Nor ) ‫ وال ( نفي‬They haven’t relaxed nor have they studied. But ) ‫ ولكن ( تناقض‬He studied hard but he failed the exam. Or )‫ تحذير‬/‫ أو (اختيار‬You can join a university or you can have a job. Yet ) ‫ ولكن ( تناقض‬He slept early yet he got up late. So ) ‫ ولذلك ( نتيجة‬He studied hard so he got high marks.

‫جمل مثبتة‬ Both ….. and ‫كال من‬ )play) ‫دائما يأتي بعدهم فعل لصيغة الجمع‬

- Both Reem and her sisters play tennis. - Both Ali and Saif play soccer.

Not only … but also /as well -Not only Reem but also her sisters play tennis. ‫ ولكن أيضا‬....... ‫ ليس فقط‬-Not only has she succeeded but also / as well not only ‫ نكتب الفعل المساعد بعد‬- she has got high marks. And also ( ‫ فعل مساعد مثبت‬+ ‫) فاعل‬

- Reem plays tennis and also do her sisters.

And ( ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ ) فعل مساعد مثبت‬too

- Reem plays tennis and her sisters do too.

‫جمل منفية‬ Neither …. nor ‫ وال‬..... ‫ليس‬ ( nor ) ‫الفعل يأتي حسب الفاعل بعد‬ And neither (‫فعل مساعد مثبت‬+‫) فاعل‬ ) neither ( ‫( بدال من‬nor) ‫يمكن استخدام‬

- Neither Reem nor her sisters swim in the sea. - Neither Reem nor Mona swims in the sea. -Reem doesn’t swim and neither do her sisters. - Reem doesn’t swim and neither does Mona.

and ( ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل مساعد‬+ not ) either

- Reem doesn’t swim and Mona doesn’t either.

‫جمل للتعبير عن خيارين‬ Either ….. or ‫ أو‬...... ‫اما‬ ( or ) ‫الفعل يأتي حسب الفاعل بعد‬

Either Moza or her sister feeds the cat.

‫جمل للتعبير عن التحذير‬ Or / Otherwise

None (not one / no one / nothing)

‫ وإال‬Hurry up, or / otherwise you will miss the bus.

-None of the students want/wants to take exams. - I wanted some coffee, but there was none left.

Neither of my parents lives with me.

‫( للتحدث عن اثنين‬None) ‫( وال نستخدم‬Neither) ‫نستخدم‬

55


Exercises (Connectors) Choose the correct answer: 1) All of his brothers became doctors, _____________ he wants to be a teacher. a) yet

b) and

c) for

d) or

2) I would like to see you tonight, _______________ I’m too busy with work. a) so

b) and

c) but

d) nor

3) Ali wants to lose weight, _________________ he exercises daily. a) so

b) and

c) yet

d) but

4) We played well, _________ we lost the match. a) or

b) and

c) but

d) so

5) Pepper and salt are bad for the heart, _________ he doesn’t eat them. a) so

b) but

c) because

d) or

6) Study well _____________ you will get low mark in the exam. a) or

b) and

c) for

d) so

7) Moza is a nice girl, ________________ her sister isn't. a) and

b) but

c) so

d) since

8) My sister didn’t go out and _____________ did my brother. a) either

b) nor

c) neither

d) also

9) My friend speaks English well and_____________ does my sister. a) neither

b) nor

c) too

d) also

10) I haven’t studied yet and my friend _____________ a) haven’t either

b) hasn’t either

c) has either

d) has too

11) My mother works in a bank and also _____________ a) do my father

b) my father does

c) does my father

d) is my father

12) _____________ my mother nor my father traveled abroad. a) Either

b) Not

c) Too

d) Neither

13) _____________ my brother and my sister go to school. a) Neither

b) Both

c) Also

d) Either

14) You can drink _____________ tea or coffee. a) neither

b) either

c) both

56

d) too


‫الروابط‬

Conjunctions

‫كلمات تربط بين جمل أو عبارات‬

‫روابط يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة‬ Reason

‫روابط يأتي بعدها عبارة‬

Because / As / Since / For ‫ألن‬

Because of / Due to / As a result of On account of ‫ نتيجة ل‬/ ‫بسبب‬

He didn’t come because he was ill.

He didn’t come because of ( his illness / being ill).

‫سبب‬ Example

Contrast

Although ‫جملة أساسية‬ Though ‫بالرغم من‬ ‫تناقض‬ Even though Example Although he is poor, he is glad. He is glad although he is poor. Contrast

Nevertheless However ‫مع ذلك‬ ‫تناقض‬ But ‫ولكن‬

Example

Despite / In spite of )‫بالرغم من ( يأتي بعدهم عبارة من الجملة األساسية‬ Despite being poor, he is glad. In spite of his poverty, he is glad.

‫جملة فرعية‬

• He is poor. However, he is glad. • He is poor but he is glad.

While / whereas ‫بينما‬

Ali is clever whereas his sister is lazy. Result

‫النتيجة‬

so ) ‫• ) جملتان متصلتان‬He was ill so he didn’t go to school. Thus /Therefore /As a result / •It was cold. As a result, I didn’t go out. Consequently )‫( جملتان منفصلتان‬ so ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫ صفة عادية‬that + sent. such ‫ صفة عادية‬+ ‫ اسم‬that + sent. too ( adj. ) ‫ صفة‬to + inf. ‫مصدر الفعل‬ ‫ صفة عادية‬enough to + ‫مصدر الفعل‬ ‫ صفة عادية‬enough for + ‫ فعل‬+ ing

The tea was so hot that I couldn’t drink it. It was such hot tea that I couldn’t drink it. The tea is too hot (for me) to drink. He is not old enough to come with us. He is not old enough for coming with us. Purpose ‫الغرض‬

in order that / so that

‫لكي‬

to / in order to / so as to

‫ لكي‬I study hard so as to succeed.

in order not to so as not to For ‫من أجل‬

‫لكي ال‬ ‫عبارة‬ ‫ فعل‬+ ing

I study hard so that I can succeed. I study hard in order not to fail the exam. I study hard for good marks. I study hard for getting good marks.

57


Exercises (Conjunctions) Choose the correct answer: 1) She couldn’t travel ________________ the bad weather. a) as

b) since

c) so that

d) because of

2) ________________ his poverty, he didn't ask anyone to help him. a) As

b) Although

c) Despite

d) Because

3) __________ she was ill, she went to the club with us. a) However

b) Although

c) Despite

d) Therefore

4) ________ it was raining, I didn't get wet. a) Although

b) Because

c) Just as

d) If

5) Aliya got the job, ________ she had no experience. a) as

b) whereas

c) even though

d) until

6) I don't drink coffee, ________ it makes me nervous. a) while

b) although

c) when

d) since

7) Surfing is fun ________it can be dangerous. a) as

b) in order to

c) because

d) although

8) ___________ his talent, no body admires him. a) Although

b) Despite

c) However

d) Nevertheless

9) ___________ his illness, Jack didn’t come to school. a) So that

b) In order to

c) Because

d) Due to

10) We lost the match _____________ we didn't train well. a) because

b) due to

c) because of

d) therefore

11) They lost the match __________ the hard training. a) although

b) because

c) despite

d) however

12) I go to the park ___________________ relax under the trees. a) in order that

b) in order to

c) so that

d) for

13) We are trying to save money _________ we can buy a bigger house. a) for

b) in order to

c) to

58

d) so that


) ‫ لو ( الجمل الشرطية‬/ ‫إذا‬

If (Conditional sentences) ‫الحالة‬

‫فعل الشرط‬

‫فعل جواب الشرط‬ ) ‫للتعبير عن شئ حقيقي ( حقيقة علمية أو عادة عامة‬

‫مضارع بسيط‬

O

If

‫مضارع بسيط‬

inf. / V + s don’t / doesn’t + inf. Ex: If I eat fish, I usually get ill. If we heat water, it boils.

inf. / V

don’t / doesn’t + inf.

. ‫للتعبير عن شئ محتمل الحدوث في المستقبل‬

1

If

‫مضارع بسيط‬ inf. / V + s

don’t / doesn’t + inf.

will (’ll ) / won’t can / can’t shall / shan’t may / may not must / mustn’t

inf. )‫( مصدر الفعل‬

Ex: If it rains, I won’t go out. If I have money, I will buy a new car. ‫شواذ‬ )‫) نستخدم المصدرللتعبيرعن األمر في جملة جواب الشرط (والفاعل يكون محذوف‬1 Ex: If you meet Ahmed, tell him about the party. ‫) يمكن أن نعبرعن النصيحة في جملة جواب الشرط بإستخدام أفعال ناقصة في‬2 ( should , have to / has to , ought to , must ) : ‫المضارع مثل‬ Ex: If you are ill, you should go to the doctor. . ‫للتعبير عن مواقف خيالية أو شئ مستبعد الحدوث في المضارع‬

2

If

would(’d )/wouldn’t could / couldn’t V + ed / ‫ شاذ‬didn’t + inf. might / might not Ex: If I were a bird, I would fly. If I had money, I would buy a new car. ‫ماضي بسيط‬

inf. )‫(مصدر الفعل‬

. ‫للتعبير عن اللوم أو العتاب أو عن استبعاد حدوث فعل في الماضي‬

3

If

would (’d )/wouldn’t could /couldn’t have +V3 had + V3 hadn’t+V3 might / might not Ex: If I had studied hard, I would have succeeded. If I had had money, I would have bought a car. ‫ماضي تام‬

Unless

‫إذا لم‬

.) not ( ‫) تشير للنفي أي ال نضع بعدها‬unless ( ‫) ولكن‬unless ( ‫ ) بعد‬if ( ‫يمكن استخدام نفس حاالت‬ Ex: Unless you study, you won’t pass the exam. = If you don’t study, you won’t pass the exam.

59


Exercises (if / unless ) Choose the correct answer: 1) You shouldn’t drive a car _____________ you have a driving license. a) if

b) when

c) since

d) unless

2) If you don’t hurry up, you _______________ miss the bus. a) will

b) would

c) can

d) should

3) If you ___________ faster, we would have arrived on time. a) had driven

b) rive

c) have driven

d) driving

4) Unless he gets up early, he _____________ the school bus. a) would miss

b) will miss

c) missed

d) missing

5) If I _______________ stronger, I'd help you carry the piano. a) am

b) will be

c) were

d) had been

6) I would have bought a new car if I _________________ enough money. a) has

b) will have

c) had

d) had had

7) If you eat much fat, you _____________ weight. a) gaining

b) gained

c) would gain

d) will gain

8) If I __________ a spaceship, I would travel to the moon. a) had

b) has

c) have

d) had had

9) If he had studied well, he _____________ high marks. a) would get

b) would have got

c) will get

d) gets

10) If you came late, you ___________ the interview. a) misses

b) would have missed

c) would miss

d) will miss

11) We would go home if the bell ___________ a) ring

b) rang

c) rings

d) rung

12) If you feel cold, _____________ a jacket. a) wore

b) wearing

c) wear

d) worn

13) If I had enough money, I _____________ a new mobile. a) bought

b) would buy

c) will buy

d) would have bought

14) They will travel abroad if they _____________ enough money. a) had

b) have

c) has

60

d) having


Expressing Regret / Far wish ‫التعبير عن الندم أو التمني المستحيل‬ ‫عند التمني أو الندم في المضارع نستخدم الماضي البسيط‬

‫عند التمني أو الندم في الماضي نستخدم الماضي التام‬

1) I can't fly. I wish I were a bird. / If only I were a bird. 2) I can't drive a car. If only I knew how to drive a car. 3) You always come late. I wish you wouldn’t arrive late all the time.

1) I failed the exam. I wish I had studied my lessons. If only I had studied my lessons. 2) I came late to school yesterday. I wish I had come early to school. If only I had come early to school.

: ‫( للتعبير عن الندم‬regret ’s’ + V+ ing / not+ V+ing ( ‫يمكن استخدام‬ He has cancer. He regrets smoking. / I am very fat. I regret not playing sports.

Exercises (Expressing Regret / Far wish) Choose the correct answer: 1) His mother was at hospital. I wish she _____________ better . a) has been

b) would be

c) had been

d) will be

2) I had an accident. I wish I _____________ carefully. a) drive

b) had driven

c) have driven

d) driving

3) Mike made a horrible mistake. He _____________ deeply. a) thought

b) will think

c) thinks

d) should have thought

4) Jack failed the driving test. I wish he _____________ it a) passes

b) had passed

c) can pass

d) will pass

5) I hope my sister ______________ the university next year. a) has joined

b) joined

c) join

d) will join

6) I feel ill. If only I _____________ in cold water. a) hadn’t swum

b) haven’t swum

c) don’t swim

d) didn’t swim

7) I fell down. I wish _____________ on a banana. a) hadn't stepped b) don't step

c) haven't stepped

d) doesn't stepped

8) My brother travelled abroad. If only I _____________ him. a) meeting

b) meet

c) had met

d) to meet

9) I hope my brother ______________ in the final exam. a) will pass

b) passed

c) has passed

61

d) passing


Prepositions of time in

‫حروف جر للوقت‬

a period of time ) .... ‫ موسم‬/ ‫ شهر‬/ ‫يستخدم للتحدث عن فترة زمنية ( سنة‬ in 2003 / in July / in the winter – summer – spring-fall (autumn) / in the (morning-afternoon-evening) /in the middle of the day / in a few weeks

on For days and dates:

‫لأليام والتواريخ‬ on my birthday / on July 4th / on Saturday / on Tuesday afternoon / on holiday / on the weekend ( U.S) ).... ‫ وجبات يومية‬/ ‫يستخدم للتحدث عن نقطة زمنية (ساعات‬ at A point in time: at 4 o'clock / at 10:45 / at breakfast- lunch – dinner / at the end of : ‫أو مع بعض التعبيرات‬ at the moment/at the same time/at night/at noon/at the weekend(U.K) by By = before ‫ قبل‬x after ‫بعد‬ by 9: 00 / before 9:00 x after 9:00 During ‫( فترة زمنية ( أثناء‬ during summer holiday

Prepositions of place

‫حروف جر للمكان‬

: ‫ أماكن مغلقة ) أو مع األتجاهات‬/ ‫ قارات‬/ ‫ دول‬/ ‫يستخدم للتحدث عن أماكن تحوطنا ) مدن‬ in a room/ in the kitchen/ in Africa/ in Cairo / in Egypt / in a garden / in the river / in the sea/ in a pool / in a shop / in a bank / in a factory/ in the east of / in the west of / in the north of / in the south of : ‫للتحدث عن أشياء فوق أشياء أخري أو للتحدث عن أماكن مفتوحة‬ on

in

on the wall/on the table /on a tree /on the board/on a field/on a plain / on a farm/ on the first floor /on the ground /on the way/on an island

at

‫يستخدم مع العناوين أو مع أحداث أو للتحدث عن أماكن نذهب اليها يوميا لنري الناس أو نفعل شئ‬ at 25 Main street /at the bus stop/at the doctor's/at the post office/ at work/at school /at college /at university/at home/at the mall/at the door /at the butcher's /at the station/at a party/at a meeting

Prepositions of place in over / above behind near / by next to towards inside at the top up

‫ داخل‬/ ‫في‬ ‫فوق‬ ‫خلف‬ ‫قريب‬ ‫بجوار‬ ‫تجاه‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫في األعلي‬ ‫ألعلى‬

‫حروف جر للمكان‬

on ‫على‬ below / under ‫تحت‬ in front of ‫أمام‬ opposite ‫في الجهة المقابلة‬ far away from ‫بعيد عن‬ away from ‫بعيدا عن‬ outside ‫خارج‬ at the bottom ‫في األسفل‬ down ‫ألسفل‬

in the middle / center ‫في الوسط‬ on the corner ‫ في الزاوية‬/ ‫في الركن‬ along ‫على امتداد‬ across from ‫ في الجهة المقابلة‬/ ‫عبر‬ between ‫بين‬ past ‫مارا ب‬

: ‫( للتعبير عن وسائل المواصالت‬by) ‫نستخدم حرف الجر‬ by car ‫ بالسيارة‬/ by taxi ‫ بالتاكسي‬/ by bus ‫ بالباص‬/ on foot ‫سيرا علي األقدام‬

62


Exercises (prepositions ) Complete with (in / on / at): 1) …… night.

2) …… Monday.

3) ……. April.

5) …… the summer. 6) …… university. 7) ……. May first. 9) …… midnight.

10) …… Cairo.

11) …. the center.

4) ……… 1990. 8) … home. 12) ..… college.

13) …… an island. 14) …… holiday 15) …. the butcher's. 16) …… work. Write ( in /on /under /above /between/in front of/behind) under the boxes:

… … …. Choose

… … … … …. the…. correct answer:

…………… ………...

… … ….

… … ….

… … ….

1) Saif and Hissa are planning to have their wedding __________ the summer. a) at

b) to

c) up

d) in

c) on

d) for

2) I get up __________ 7.00 every day. a) at

b) in

3) I usually go out __________ Thursday evenings. a) at

b) from

c) on

d) in

4) David’s new restaurant will be open__________ the 23rd of August. a) in

b) at

c) on

d) to

c) in

d) to

5) Don't sit __________ the grass. It's wet a) at

b) on

6) Look! There's a man __________ the roof. What's he doing? a) on

b) at

c) in

d) from

c) on

d) for

7) Cairo is __________ the north of Egypt. a) at

b) in

8) The mosque is __________ the hospital and the park. a) next

b) under

c) between

63

d) above


Modal Verbs ‫أفعال ناقصة‬

Modals of Ability ‫أفعال ناقصة تدل علي القدرة‬

Affirmative

Negative

Question

can + inf. - He can run fast. (am/is/are) able to+ inf. - He's able to run fast. could + inf. He could run last day.

Cannot (can't) + inf. - He can't run fast. (am/is /are) not able to + inf. He's not able to run fast. could not (couldn't)+ inf He couldn't run last day

Can + ‫ الفاعل‬+ inf.? - Can he run fast? Am / Is / Are + ‫ الفاعل‬+ able to + inf.? - Is he able to run? Could + ‫ الفاعل‬+ inf.? Could he run last day?

(was/were) able to+ inf. - He was able to run. will be able to + inf.

(was / were) not able to + inf. He wasn't able to run. won't be able to + inf.

Was / Were + ‫ الفاعل‬+ able to + inf.? Was he able to run? Will+ ‫الفاعل‬+be able to + inf?

He'll be able to run.

He won't be able to run.

Will he be able to run?

Modals of Obligation Affirmative

Negative

Present must + inf.

mustn’t + inf. - You mustn’t smoke here.

- You must come on time. Past

‫أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن االلزام‬

had to + inf. /must have + V3 -He had to call me last day. - I didn't succeed. I must have studied.

didn’t have + inf. / mustn’t have + V3 - You didn’t have to call me yesterday. - I didn't succeed. I mustn’t have missed my lessons.

Modals of Advice ‫أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن النصح‬ Affirmative

Negative

should + inf. ought to + inf. had better +inf. - You’re tired. You should relax.

shouldn’t + inf. oughtn’t to + inf. had better not + inf. - You’re fat. You shouldn’t drink Pepsi.

should have + V3 ought to have + V3 - He was tired. He should have relaxed. - He was tired. He ought to have relaxed.

shouldn’t have + V3 / oughtn’t to have + V3 - He made an accident. He shouldn’t have driven very fast. - He made an accident. He oughtn’t to have driven very fast.

64 4


Modals of Necessity ‫أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن الضرورة‬ Affirmative

Negative

have to / has to + inf. You are fat. You have to go on a diet. have got to / has got to + inf. You are fat. You have got to go on a diet. need to + inf. There is an exam tomorrow. I need to study my lessons.

(don’t / doesn’t ) have to + inf. -You are thin. You don’t have to go on a diet. haven’t got to / hasn’t got to + inf. You are thin. You haven’t got to go on a diet. needn’t to + inf. / don’t need to + inf. -There is no exam. I needn’t to study. / I don’t need to study.

had to + inf.

didn’t have to+ inf./didn’t need to + inf. He was well. He didn’t have to take medicine. / He didn't need to take … hadn’t got to + inf. He hadn’t got to take medicine. needn’t have +V3 /didn’t need to + inf. - The restaurant is empty. We needn’t have booked a table. - The restaurant is empty. We didn’t need to book a table.

He was ill. He had to take medicine. had got to + inf. He had got to take medicine. need have + V3 The restaurant is full. We need have booked a table.

Modals of Possibility / Probability / deduction ‫أفعال ناقصة تدل علي األستنتاج أو األحتمال‬ Present Very sure ‫متأكد جدا‬

Past

must be He looks tired. He must be ill. may be He isn’t here. He may be at home. might be / could be I’m not sure. He might be ill.

must have been He looked tired. He must have been ill. Quite sure may have been ‫متأكد الي حد ما‬ He didn’t come. He may have been at home. Not sure might have been /could have been ‫غير متأكد‬ Ali didn’t come. He might have been ill. (am/ is / are / was / were ) ‫ فأننا نستخدم فعل يكون‬%100 ‫ عندما نكون متأكدين بنسبة‬.‫ ) لالستنتاج المنفي في الماضي‬can’t have been ( ‫( لالستنتاج المنفي في المضارع و‬can’t be) ‫ نستخدم‬Ex: Ali is in the class. He can’t be absent. Ali was in the class. He can’t have been absent.

65


Modals Of Prediction

‫أفعال ناقصة للتنبؤ‬

Affirmative

Negative

Will (’ll) + inf. I think it will rain. (am / is / are) going to + inf. It’s cloudy. I think it’s going to rain.

won’t + inf. I think it won’t rain. ( am / is / are ) not going to + inf. It’s not cloudy. It’s not going to rain.

Making requests (Modal + you) ‫أفعال ناقصة للطلب‬ Formal

Could you + inf. / Would you+ inf. Could you give me your book, please? Would you give me your book,please? Informal Can you + inf. Can you give me your book?

Modals of Permission (Modal + I / We) ‫أفعال ناقصة لألستئذان‬ Formal / Polite Informal

Could I / May I / Shall I + inf. … ? Could I have some tea, please? / May I have some tea, please? Shall I have some tea, please? Can I + inf. … ? Can I have some tea, please?

Modals to express habits ‫أفعال ناقصة للتعبير عن العادات‬ Present Past

Will (’ll) + inf. When we go to Paris, we will often eat in restaurants. Would (’d ) + inf. When we went to Paris, we would often eat in restaurants.

Exercises (Modal Verbs ) Choose the correct answer: 1) Ahmad ___________ finish all his work today; he’s got all day tomorrow as well. a) not have to

b) must to

c) doesn’t have to

d) should to

2) Drivers __________have sunglasses for driving because they’re not necessary. a) have to

b) don’t have to

c) shouldn’t

d) mustn’t

3) I ____________go to the party but I'm not sure yet. a) can

b) will

c) must

d) might

4) Aysha __________come for dinner this evening although she didn’t promise. a) must

b) shouldn’t

c) might

66

d) can


5) Carol may ____________a movie tonight. a) seen

b) saw

c) sees

d) see

6) ____________they drive in the rush hours? - No, they couldn’t. a) Are

b) Can

c) Could

d) Do

7) The doctor says he will never _________play tennis again after his accident. a) can

b) could

c) be able to

d) is able to

c) wasn’t able

d) can’t

8) I ____________run at all. I’m very unfit. a) can

b) couldn’t

9) He ____________ride a bike when he was young. a) wasn’t able

b) couldn’t

c) can’t

d) was able

10) ____________play a musical instrument? a) Could you

b) Can you

c) Are you able

d) Can’t you

11) I ____________understand why you won’t let me go out. a) couldn’t

b) could

c) be not able to

d) can’t

12) Ali failed the exam. He ___________his lessons hard. a) should study

b) has to study

c) should have studied

d) may study

13) There was a fire in his office but he ____________escape through a window. a) can

b) is able to

c) could to

d) was able to

14) Mariam is so ill that she ____________to the cinema with you. a) can't go

b) not gone

c) couldn’t go

d) hasn’t gone

15) We arrived early so that we ____________the meeting on time. a) could attend

b) may attend

c) attended

d) will attend

16) ____________I have another book, please? a) May

b) Would

c) Will

d) Am

17) He had a lung cancer. He ____________ cigarettes. a) shouldn’t smoke

b) shouldn’t have smoked

c) should have smoked

18) Ali has high marks in all exams so he ____________ be lazy. a) shouldn’t

b) couldn’t

c) may not

d) can’t

19) You ____________ Wear a uniform when you come to our school. a) should

b) must

c) may

d) can

20) I didn’t feel very well yesterday. I ____________ eat anything. a) cannot

b) couldn’t

c) mustn’t

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d) shouldn’t


Passive Voice

‫المبني للمجهول‬

(Passive) ‫( إلي المبني للمجهول‬active( ‫ لتحويل الجملة من مبني للمعلوم‬:‫نتبع الخطوات التالية‬ ‫) نكتب الظروف‬3 .‫) إذا كان هناك أفعال مساعدة أو ناقصة نكتبها بما يناسب المفعول‬2 .‫) نبدأ بالمفعول‬1 .‫) نضع الفعل األساسي في التصريف الثالث‬5 .‫) نكتب فعل يكون مناسب لزمن الجملة‬4 .‫الزمنية‬ .‫) نكمل باقي الجملة‬7 .‫) ويمكن حذف هذه الخطوة‬by( ‫) نكتب الفاعل مسبوقا ب‬6 I have already studied English.

English has already been studied by me.

Verb to be ‫فعل يكون‬ Infinitive

Progressive Form

past participle

Present simple

Past simple

be

being

been

am / is / are

was / were

:‫( مع تحويل الفعل المساعد ليناسب المفعول‬be/being/been) ‫إذاكان هناك أفعال مساعدة نستخدم‬ to/will/would/can/could/may be + V3 / might/should /must/have to being + am / is / are V3 was / were

We are eating meat now. Meat is being eaten by us.

have / has had

I have just drunk tea. Tea has just been drunk.

been+ V3

I will study my lessons. My lessons will be studied.

:‫ ) حسب المفعول‬isn’t / aren’t ( ‫) نحذفهم ونستخدم‬don’t / doesn’t ( ‫في حالة وجود‬ don’t/doesn’t + inf. isn’t/aren’t+V3 Ali doesn’t play football. Football isn’t played by Ali. :‫ ) حسب المفعول‬is / are ( ‫) في السؤال نحذفهم ونستخدم‬do / does ( ‫في حالة وجود‬ Do / Does .. + inf..? Is/Are + ..V3..? Does Ali play football? Is football played by Ali? :‫ ) حسب المفعول‬wasn’t / weren’t ( ‫) نحذفها ونستخدم‬didn’t ( ‫في حالة وجود‬ didn’t + inf. Wasn’t / He didn’t study his lessons. weren’t + v3 His lessons weren’t studied. :‫ ) حسب المفعول‬was / were ( ‫) في السؤال نحذفها ونستخدم‬did ( ‫في حالة وجود‬ did + inf.

was / were + Did Ali eat cookies? V3 Were cookies eaten by Ali? ‫( للماضي البسيط‬was/were)‫( للمضارع البسيط و‬am/is/are ( ‫إذا لم يوجد أفعال مساعدة نستخدم‬ Present Simple am/is/are+ V3 I study English every day. (play / plays ) English is studied every day. Past Simple was/were+ V3 The thief stole my money. (played / ate ) My money was stolen. 68


‫تحويالت أخرى للمبني للمجهول‬ Active

Passive

want / tell / ask … + object + to + inf. want /ask… +object + to + be + V3 Ex: I want someone to clean my room. Ex: I want my room to be cleaned. remember / avoid ... + object + V+ ing remember / avoid …. + being + V3 EX:I remember my dad hugging me. EX: I remember being hugged.

‫ فعل أمر‬+ ‫مفعول‬ Ex: Open the door, please. Ex: My dad gave me a pen.

Let + )‫ (المفعول‬+ be + V3 Let the door be opened.

: ‫ مفعولين‬I was given a pen. A pen was given to me.

Causative ‫السببية‬ ‫الجملة العادية‬

) ‫ الفاعل ( صاحب الشئ‬+ have )‫ ( حسب زمن الحدث‬+ ‫ المفعول‬+V3

‫جملة السببية‬

‫الجملة العادية‬

‫جملة السببية‬

Present Has /have + V3 Simple Past Had+V3 Simple Present am/is/are Continuous +having+ V3 Past was / were+ Continuous having+ V3 Will + have +V3 Future S. ( will)

She makes me cake.

I have cake made.

She cleaned his room. She’s tidying my bed.

He had his room cleaned. I’m having my bed tidied.

My mother was cooking me food.

I was having food cooked.

My brother will wash my car.

I will have my car washed.

Future S. ( going to)

am/is/are+going to+have+V3

My sister’s going to clean my room.

I’m going to have my room cleaned.

Modal Verbs

can / should…. + have +V3

I should study my lessons.

I should have my lessons studied.

Present Perfect

Have / has + had+V3

The barber has just cut my hair.

I’ve just had my hair cut.

Past Perfect

had+had+V3

My brother had fixed I had had my watch my watch. fixed. : )have) ‫( بدال من‬get( ‫وأيضا يمكن أن نستخدم‬

‫الجملة العادية‬ My mom cleans my room. The worker painted my house. The barber will cut my hair.

‫جملة السببية‬ I get my room cleaned. I got my house painted. I will get my hair cut.

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Exercises (Passive Voice ) Choose the correct answer: 1) Do you like my new car? It ____________ for me by my father last year. a) is bought

b) are bought

c) was bought

d) bought

2) A new hospital ____________ in each village soon. a) can build

b) will build

c) has built

d) will be built

3) A new hotel ____________ in the center of town. a) is being built

b) built

c) is building

d) building

4) Sorry I'm late. I'm afraid my bike ____________. a) has been stolen

b) were stolen

c) being stolen

d) be stolen

5) This painting ____________ by a great artist. a) has been painted

b) paints

c) painted

d) painting

c) is built

d) built

6) This villa ____________ twenty years ago. a) builds

b) was built

7) We ____________ to the party, but we didn’t go. a) were invited

b) are invited

c) invited

d) invite

8) Important projects ____________ by the government lately. a) have been made

b) have made

c) made

d) make

9) I haven’t ____________ my eyes tested for a long time. a) had

b) have

c) made

d) make

Change from active to passive: Active 1) I will clean my room tomorrow. 2) Ali has just washed the car. 3) My dad sent me a letter yesterday. 4) Many people speak English worldwide. 5) My sister is reading a story now.

Passive ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………

6) Do people grow fruits in your country? 7) Reem doesn’t brush her teeth.

……………………………………………… ………………………………………………

Change from passive to active: Passive 1) Trees are cut down by people. 2) The school was built in 1990. 3) The lessons have been studied by Ali.

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Active ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………


‫الكالم المباشر والغير مباشر‬

Direct & Indirect Speech Direct Ali said, ‘’I studied Math last day.’’ He said,’’ Did you wash the car?’’

Indirect

My dad said,’’ Don’t be late.’’

My dad told me not to be late.

Ali said that he had studied Math the day before.

He asked me if I had washed the car.

‫ الجملة‬-Reem told me (that) she felt ‫ الخبرية‬tired.

.‫( هي الرابط في الجملة الخبرية ويمكن حذفها‬that) .(me) ‫( نستخدمهم قبل مخاطب‬said to/told)

-Ali said to me (that) he had been ill. ‫ جملة‬- I wondered if she had won said (that) she had ‫ األستفهام‬Reem the race. studied. - She asked me whether I would come.

.‫ ( نستخدمها اذا لم يكن هناك مخاطب‬said ) . ‫ ( هما الرابطان في السؤال بهل‬if / whether )

‫لتحويل السؤال فيه أداة استفهام إلى غير المباشر نستخدم‬ .‫أداة األستفهام نفسها كرابط‬ : ‫ لتحويل السؤال إلى غير المباشر نستخدم أفعال القول‬ (asked/wondred)

- He asked me where I was going. ‫ جملة‬- He told me to study.

.‫( هما الرابطان في األمر والنصح‬to/not to+ inf)

‫األمر أو‬ ‫ النصح‬He advised me not to smoke.

.‫( هي أفعال القول ويأتي مخاطب بعدهم‬told/advised)

‫) وذلك في الجمل الخبرية واألستفهامية‬told/said/asked/wondered ( ‫نستخدم أزمنة في الماضي بعد أفعال القول‬ . ( to/not to) ‫ في الجمل األمرية وجمل النصح نستخدم المصدر بعد‬-

: )says / asks / tells …. ( ‫ ال نغير األزمنة اذا كان فعل القول مضارع‬Ex: He says he lives in Cairo. ( says lives ) : ‫ ال نغير في األزمنة إذا كان الكالم يدل علي حقائق يومية أو حقائق علمية أو حكم‬My teacher said time is gold. / It is said that protection is better than cure.

‫تحويل األزمنة في الكالم الغير مباشر‬ ) ‫كل زمن يتحول الي الزمن األقدم منه ( مضارع يتحول الي ماضي والماضي يتحول الي ماضي تام‬ Direct

Indirect

Direct

Indirect

am / is / are am/is/are) eating was / were

was / were was/were) eating had been

didn’t + inf. didn’t eat eat - eats

hadn’t + V3 hadn’t eaten ate

was/were) eating

have / has

had been eating had

ate will/can /may

had eaten would/could/might

( have/has) eaten

had eaten

will play

would play

had

had had

should + inf.

should have + V3

had eaten

had eaten

must + inf.

must have + V3

don’t / doesn’t (don’t/doesn’t) eat

didn’t didn’t eat

ought to + inf. should study

ought to have + V3 should have studied

.‫ ) بدون تغيير‬was eating ( ‫) أو الماضي المستمر‬ate ( ‫يمكن أن نترك الماضي البسيط‬

71


‫تحويل الظروف الزمنية وأسماء األشارة‬ D

This

ID That

These today

tonight now

Yesterday/ last day

Tomorrow / next day

Those That day

That night

The day before / The previous day

The day before after/The following day

then

ago

‫تحويل الضمائر في الكالم الغير مباشر‬ .‫ ) يتحول حسب المخاطب‬you) ‫ ( يتحولوا حسب المتكلم اما الضمير‬I / we) ‫الضمائر‬ Choose the correct answer: 1) John asked if I ____________ then. a) was leaving

b) am leaving

c) will leave

d) leave

2) My friend said that he ____________ me the following day. a) will visit

b) would visit

c) visited

d) visits

3) He expected that he ____________ the work some time the following week. a) will complete

b) completes

c) would complete

d) completed

4) My friend said that he ____________ abroad. a) can travel

b) will travel

c) may travel

d) might travel

5) All the guests confirmed that they _____ to the party the following weekend. a) come

b) would come

c) had come

d) was coming

6) Ali told me that he ____________ with his friends about exams. a) talks

b) will talk

c) would talk

d) talk

7) The lady said that she ____________ a lot of things a) buy

b) bought

c) buying

d) buys

8) My friend said he thought it ____________ the following day. a) will rain

b) would rain

c) rains

d) rain

9) He asked his sister if she ____________ his keys. a) has seen

b) had seen

c) have seen

d) sees

10) The doctor advised me ____________ too much junk food. a) eat

b) to eat

c) not to eat

Change from diect to indirect speech: 1) My mother said, ‘’ Don’t play with matches.’’ 2) Ali asked me,’’ where did you go yesterday?’’ 3) My said,’’ I will play football next week.’’

72

d) eating


Sentence Structure

Subject A An The + adv. + adj. + N Many/Few Much/Little A lot of Several Some My / His.…

Verb

Object

Aux. + Main

A very clever boy

can answer

The boy is running quickly. The boy is quick.

‫تركيبة الجملة‬

A An The + adv. + adj. + N Many/Few Much/Little A lot of Several Some My / His.…

Complement Adv. (easily) Adj. ( easy )

an extremely hard exam easily.

: ‫) إذا سبقه فعل أساسي‬quickly( ‫نكمل الجملة بظرف‬ : ‫) إذا سبقها فعل يكون أو أفعال الحواس‬quick ( ‫نكمل الجملة بصفة‬ .) easy / easily ( : ‫ للصفة‬ly ‫ظرف الحال يتكون باضافة‬ : ‫الظرف يصف ثالثة أشياء‬

:‫) الفعل ويأتي قبله أو بعده‬1 I answered the questions easily./ I easily answered the questions. My friend is extremely tall. : ‫) الصفة ويأتي قبلها‬2 Really, the weather was very nice. : ‫) الجملة كلها‬3

: ‫قبل الصفات والظروف ممكن نضع كلمات مثل‬ ( very , so , extremely , too / fairly, quite, pretty, rather and a bit). Ex: The weather is quite cold.

:‫ الفعل يأتي بعد‬ (to, don't ,doesn't ,didn't , can ,could , will , won't, would, shall, should, may, might, ought to ) Ex: You ought to organize your time.

73


‫اللواحق‬

Suffixes For people

ar ( liar ) / er ( teacher ) / eer ( engineer ) / or ( visitor ) / ist ( scientist ) /ent ( president ) /ant (assistant ) /ian ( musician )

Abstract nouns

tion ( pollution ) / sion ( explosion ) / ssion ( discussion ) / ture ( creature ) / ance ( importance ) / ence ( confidence ) / ment ( development ) / ness ( weakness ) / ship ( friendship ) / dom ( freedom ) / hood ( childhood ) / th ( growth ) / t ( weight ) / ty ( loyalty ) / ity ( ability ) / y ( pity )/al ( arrival ) / ism (criticism )

Verbs

fy ( beautify ) / en ( widen ) / ise ( advise ) / ize ( summarize ) / ate ( create ) / uce ( produce ) / ed ( studied )

Adjectives able ( comfortable ) / ful ( careful )/ less ( careless )/ive (expensive) / ese ( Chinese ) / an (urban ( ian ( Asian ) / ant ( ignorant ) / ent ( different ) / ish ( selfish ) / ous ( obvious ) / y ( windy ) / ly ( lovely ) / ar ( popular ) / al ( normal )

Adverbs

ing ( interesting ) / ed ( interested ) . ‫( لألشياء‬ing( ‫ ( لألشخاص والصفات التي تنتهي ب‬ed ( ‫ الصفات التي تنتهي ب‬Reading is interesting. / I am interested in reading. : ‫) إذا أثروا في الحدث‬ing) ‫ أحيانا األشخاص يأخذون صفات منتهية ب‬The clown was very exciting. He made all people laugh. ly ( slowly - simply - happily- dramatically ) / wards ( forwards backwards- towards )

Prefixes & Suffixes For Adjectives honest

‫صادق‬

loyal il-

legal

im-

dis-

‫بادئات ولواحق للصفات‬

dishonest ‫غيرصادق‬

trustful

‫واثق‬

distrustful ‫غيرواثق‬

‫مخلص‬

disloyal

able

‫قادر‬

disabled

‫قانوني‬

illegal

‫غير مخلص‬

‫عاجز‬

logical ‫منطقي‬

illogical ‫غيرمنطقي‬

modest ‫ متواضع‬immodest ‫غيرمتواضع‬

polite

‫مؤدب‬

impolite ‫غير مؤدب‬

in-

active

‫نشيط‬

direct

‫ مباشر‬indirect ‫غير مباشر‬

un-

happy

‫ سعيد‬unhappy

usual ful

‫عادي‬

inactive unusual

‫غير قانوني‬ ‫كسول‬ ‫غير سعيد‬ ‫غير عادي‬

healthy ‫ صحي‬unhealthy ‫غير صحي‬ careful ‫ حريص‬careless ‫مهمل‬

easy

‫سهل‬

lucky ‫محظوظ‬

uneasy

‫غير سهل‬

unlucky ‫غير محظوظ‬

safe ‫ امن‬unsafe ‫غير امن‬ powerful ‫ قوي‬powerless ‫غير قوي‬

‫يائس‬ useful ‫ مفيد‬useless ‫غير مفيد‬ less hopeful ‫ متفائل‬hopeless able capable‫ قادر‬-knowledgeable ‫مطلع‬-miserable ‫ يائس‬-dependable ‫جدير بالثقة‬

74


Exercises (Parts of Speech) Choose the correct answer: 1) What does that word ________________? a) mean

b) meaning

c) meaningful

d) meaningless

2) My brother has a lot of_____________ in himself a) confide

b) confident

c) confidence

d) confidently

3) Ahmed earned the _________ of the whole school after winning the contest. a) admire

b) admirable

c) admirably

d) admiration

4) The old fort is a famous ________________ of the city. a) attract

b) attractive

c) attraction

d) attractively

5) Swedish cars are known for their ________________ a) safe

b) save

c) safely

d) safety

6) I am ________________ that I will get the job. a) confide

b) confident

c) confidence

d) confidently

7) You must _______________ your bank card before you can use it. a) active

b) actively

c) activity

d) activate

8) The climbers enjoyed their time as the trip was quite _____________. a) exciting

b) excited

c) excites

d) excitement

9) Our English teacher always speaks _____________ to us. a) clearly

b) clear

c) clarity

d) clarify

10) We ran for four kilometers , so my brother was so _____________ a) tired

b) tiring

c) tire

d) tiredness

11) Ali started a training course in Business _____________ a) Manager

b) Manage

c) Management

d) Manageable

12) The government has established _____________ centers. a) educate

b) educational

c) educationally

d) educated

13) People _____________ too much water in summer. a) consumption

b) consumer

c) consume

d) consumptive

14) Oil is not a _____________ resource. a) to renew

b) renewal

c) renew

75

d) renewable


Simple Sentence

‫الجملة البسيطة تحتوي على فاعل وفعل واحد فقط‬

is / are + (V + ing ) - A boy is playing tennis. - Boys are playing tennis.

is / are + (adj.) - The boy is tall. - The boys are tall.

There (is/are) + obj. + (in+place) - There is a boy in the park.

There (is/are) + obj. + V+ ing + (in+ place) - There is a boy playing in the park.

- The boy has a bag./ The boys have bags. Compound Complex

‫الجملة المركبة‬ ‫الجملة المعقدة‬

Subject + Verb Examples

‫رابط‬

: ) have / has( ‫للملكية‬

‫الجملة المركبة والجملة المعقدة يحتويان على جملتين فيهم رابط‬ Subject + Verb

The boy is riding a bike so he is happy. The boy is happy because he is riding a bike. Subject + Verb

‫رابط‬

is / are + (in + place) -The boy is in the zoo. -The boys are in the zoo.

,

( Compound ) ( Complex )

Subject + Verb

Ex: If we go to the park, we will enjoy our time.

(Complex)

‫) عبارة عن جملتين فيهم فاعل وفعل لكل‬complex ( ‫) والجمل المعقدة‬compound ( ‫الجمل المركبة‬ .‫جملة وفيهم رابط‬

‫روابط الجمل المركبة‬ Compound

( FANBOYS ) for / and / nor / but / or / yet / so Ex: There are many dark clouds but there isn't rain.

Complex

‫روابط الجمل المعقدة‬ If/unless/because/although/who/which/when/where/while / After/ Before / till / until Ex: If you study hard, you will get high marks.

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Online Quizzes Prounouns

Helping Verbs

Asking Questions

Tag Questions

Simple Tenses

Progressive Tenses

Perfect Tenses

To+inf. / V+ing

Adjectives

Noun Determiners

Articles

Relative Pronouns

Connectors & Conj.

If & Unless

Prepositions

Modal Verbs

Passive Voice

Direct & Indirect

Parts of Speech

General Quiz

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Adj.

N. V.

Adv.

Super Star English Grammar  

Basics of English Grammar

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Basics of English Grammar

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