Verb to be ( present )
Verb to have ( present )
Plurals & Uncountable Nouns
Verb to do ( present )
Helping Verbs Uses
If / Unless
Expressing Regret / Far wish
Passive Voice & Causative
Direct & Indirect Speech
Present Perfect Continuous
Prefixes and Suffixes
Present Perfect ( Exercises)
Parts of Speech ( exercises)
Types of sentences
To + inf. / V+ ing
Personal Pronouns First person متكلم
Second person مخاطب
me hit you
First person متكلم
) غير عاقل/ ضربهم ( عاقل
تأتي ضمائر المفعول بعد الفعل أو بعد حرف جر
صفات الملكية غائب
his ball كرته
our our ball
hit him ضربهhit her ضربتها
Ex: Ali gave me a pen last day. 3
you hit you
us hit us
) هن ( للعاقل والغير عاقل/ هم
تأتي ضمائر الفاعل قبل الفعل أو بعد الفعل المساعد في السؤال 2
Ex: I get up early.
your ball كرتكم
Ex: I lost my bag last day.
her her ball كرتها
its its ball كرته
their their ball
) غير عاقل/ ملكهم ( عاقل
تأتي صفات الملكية قبل اسم الشئ الممتلك 1
4 First person متكلم
This ball is mine. This ball is yours. ours
Ex: This car is mine.
This ball is theirs.
تعبر ضمائر الملكية عن الملكية ولكن ال يأتي بعدها االسم الممتلك 5
First person متكلم
This ball is his. This ball is hers.
This ball is yours.
This ball is ours.
بنفسها/ نفسها see herself
themselve s بأنفسهم/أنفسهم see themselves )غيرعاقل/(عاقل
. تعبر الضمائر المنعكسة عن أن الفاعل هو نفسه المفعول أو الفاعل قام بالحدث بنفسه Ex: I hurt myself. / I did the homework myself.
Pronouns Subj. PNs Obj. PNs I me
Poss. Adj. my _____
Poss. PNs mine
Ref. PNs myself
Exercises (Pronouns) Complete with: me / my / myself / I I am a boy. .....…… have two brothers. ……….…. father is a doctor. He helps ………. in my homework but sometimes I do it ……………… . Complete with: his / he / himself / him This is Ali. .....…… is a boy. ………. eyes are small. All boys love ………. He always does his homework ……………. Complete with: herself / she / her / her This is Reem. .....…… is a girl. ………. eyes are small. All girls love ……… She always does her homework …………… Complete with: it / its / itself / it This is my cat. ……. is very cute. ……… tail is short. I usually give ………. milk to drink. It drinks the milk ………. Complete with: us / we / ourselves / our We are nice boys. .....…… are so happy. We love …….… teachers who teach ……… useful things. We care for ………….. to have good health. Complete with: your / your / you / yourself You are Reem. .....…… are a clever student. ………. mark is good. I love ……. because you study your lessons ………. Complete with: their / themselves / they / them They are boys. .....…… are twins. They love …….….. school. All teachers love ……….. . They do their homework …………. Find the mistakes and correct them: ( four mistakes ) 1) I study mine lessons myself. 2) My mom hurt her with a knife. 3) I love my friends because she are kind. 4) We’re going to the park. Would you like to come with we? 3
am (‘m) / is (‘s) / are (‘re)
Verb to be ( فعل يكونPresent ) المضارع V. to be I am (I’m) He is (He’s)
PN+ V. to be I am not I’m not He is not He’s not He isn’t
Sentence Am I eating? Yes, you are./ No,you aren’t. Is he eating? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.
She is (She’s)
She is not She’s not She isn’t
Is she eating? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.
It is ( It’s )
It is not It’s not It isn’t We are not We’re not We aren’t You are not You’re not You aren’t They are not They’re not They aren’t
Is it eating? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t. Are we eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you eating? Yes, I am. / Yes, we are. No, I am not./ No, we aren't. Are they eating? Yes, they are. No, they aren't.
We are (We’re) You are (You’re ) They are (They’re)
Demonstrative Pronouns ضمائر األشارة Near
This is a flower. This is not a vase. Is this a flower? Yes, it is. Is this a vase? No, it isn't.
Those are flowers. These are flowers. Those aren't vases. These aren't vases. Are these flowers?Yes,they are. Are those flowers?Yes,they are. Are these vases?No,they aren't. Are those flowers?No,they aren't.
There is / There isn’t + اسم مفرد There is a flower in the vase. Is there a flower ..? Yes, there is. Is there a pen ….? No, there isn’t. 4
That is a flower. That is not a vase. Is that a flower? Yes, it is. Is that a vase? No, it isn't.
There are / There aren’t + اسم جمع There are flowers in the vase. Are there flowers..?Yes, there are. Are there pens..? No,there aren’t.
Verb to be ( فعل يكونPast ) الماضي PN I was
was / were
PN + V. to be I was not I wasn’t He was not He wasn’t She was not She wasn’t
Sentence Was I playing? Yes, you were./ No, you weren’t. Was he playing? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t. Was she playing? Yes, she was. / No, she wasn’t.
It was not It wasn’t We were not We weren’t
Was it playing? Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t. Were we playing? Yes, you were./ No, you weren’t.
You were not You weren’t
They were not They weren’t
Were you playing? Yes, I was. / Yes, we were. No, I wasn’t. / No, we weren’t. Were they playing? Yes,they were./No,they weren’t.
He was She was It was We were
There يوجد Affirmative إثبات There was كان يوجد للمفرد There was a flower in the vase.
Negative نفي There was not There wasn't a flower in the vase.
There were كان يوجد للجمعThere were not There were two flowers in the vase.
Question سؤال Was there….? هل كان يوجد Was there a flower in the vase? -Yes, there was. Was there a pen in the vase? - No, there wasn't. Were there..? هل كان يوجد
There weren't any Were there flowers in flowers in the vase. the vase? -Yes, there were. Were there pens in the vase? -No, there weren't.
Exercises (v. to be) Write what comes before each boat: am ….
…… …… …… …….
…… …… …… …….
Ali Ali and Omar
Answer the following questions: 1) What's your name? 2) Where are you from? 3) How old are you? 4) What's your father's job? 5) When were you born? 6) Where were you born? 7) What's the weather like today? 8) What was the weather like last day?
1) My name ………………. 2) I ……from……………… 3) I……………..years old. 4) He ……………………… 5) I ……born in …………. 6) I ………born in ………… 7) It ……………………….. 8) It ………………………..
Complete with (am / is / are / was / were): 1) My brother ……....…… fine today. He ……..…. sick yesterday. 2) I …….. studying at 6:00 last day. Now I ……… playing tennis. 3) The boys …… watching TV now. Last night they ……….. sleeping. 4) There ………… some water in the bottle. Do you want to drink? 5) My cat ………..… small now. Last year it ……………. big. 6) The weather ………….. hot today but last night it …………….. rainy. 7) My sister ….… studying now but she ….…. playing at 5:00 p.m. last day. 8) When I saw them, they ……… not studying. They ……….. playing. 9) My father ………… not sleeping now. He ……………. at work. 10) There …... many boys in the class today but there ..…. few boys last week. Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 7 mistakes ) I is Omar. My brothers is Ali and Saif. Saif am younger than Ali. Now we were playing football. All day yesterday, we was studying our lessons so I am very sad yesterday and also my brothers are sad. 6
Verb to have ( فعل يمتلكPresent ) المضارع V. to have I have I’ve He has He’s
PN+ V. to have I have not I’ve not I haven’t He has not He’s not He hasn’t
have (‘ve) / has (‘s)
Sentence Have I got a ball? - Yes, you have. - No, you haven't. Has he got a ball? - Yes, he has. - No, he hasn't.
She has She’s
She has not Has she got a ball? She’s not - Yes, she has. She hasn’t - No, she hasn't. It has It has not Has it got a ball? It’s It’s not - Yes, it has. It hasn’t - No, it hasn't. We have We have not Have we got a ball? We’ve We’ve not - Yes, you have. We haven’t - No, you haven't. You have You have not Have you got a ball? You’ve You’ve not - Yes, I have. / Yes, we have. You haven’t - No, I haven't. / No, we haven't. They have They have not Have they got a ball? They’ve They’ve not - Yes, they have. They haven't - No, they haven't. They إلي ليس ( همhaven’t (Have you ….?) I have / We have) عند السؤال غالبا نحول معهم
Have (‘ve )
Has (‘s ) 7
had ( 'd )
Verb to have ( فعل يمتلكPast ) الماضي PN + had
I had got a car.
I'd got a car.
He had I’ve She had
He had got a car. She had got a car.
He'd got a car. She'd got a car.
It had We had You had
It’d We’d You’d
It had got a car. We had got a car. You had got a car.
It'd got a car. We'd got a car. You'd got a car.
They had got a car. They'd got a car. Negative النفي
had not / hadn't
PN+ had not I had not He had not I’ve had not She It had not
I'd not He'd not I’ve not She'd It'd not
I hadn't He hadn't I’ve hadn't She It hadn't
Sentence I hadn't got a car. He hadn't got a car. She hadn't got a car. It hadn't got a car.
We had not You had not
We'd not You'd not
We hadn't You hadn't
We hadn't got a car. You hadn't got a car.
They had not They'd not They hadn't Question السؤال
They hadn't got a car. Had ….. ? Yes,…. had. No, …. hadn't.
Question Had I? Had he? I’ve Had she?
Question with short answers Had I got a car? Yes, you had. Had he got a car? Yes, he had.
No, you hadn't. No, he hadn't.
Had she got a car?
Yes, she had.
No, she hadn't.
Had it? Had we? Had you?
Had it got a car? Had we got a car? Had you got a car?
Yes, it had. Yes, you had. Yes, I had.
No, it hadn't. No, you hadn't. No, I hadn't.
Had they got a car? Yes, they had. No, they hadn't.
Exercises (v. to have) Complete with: have / has / had 1) My brother …….…… a car now. He ………………. a bike last year. 2) I …..... a pet dog these days. I …..….. a pet cat three weeks ago. 3) The boys …….. nice shoes today. Last week they …..... old shoes. 4) My sister …..... long hair last year. Now, she …..... short hair. 5) My cat ………… a long tail now. Last year it …………... a short tail. Complete with: He/A boy / We /You / She /They / Boys / I
Abbreviate : I have He has She has It has We have You have They have
…………….. …………….. …………….. .................... .................... .................... ....................
I have not He has not We have not
…………… …………... ……………
complete the sentences with (have / haven't/has/hasn't): 1) Ali …….. got a ball in his hands. He ….…… got a racket. 2) He …..… got sandals in his leg. He ….…… got sneakers. 3) Has Ali got a watch in his hand? No, he ……………. 4) Has Ali got a T-shirt? Yes, he ………….. 5) The boys ……… got TV. They ……….. got a fridge. 6) They …….. got an oven. They …… got a cupboard. 7) Have they got a window? Yes, they ………….. 8) Have they got a desk? No, they ……………. Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 7 mistakes ) I has a big family. We has a big house. My father is a doctor. He have a car. My mother is a teacher. She also have a car. I usually visit my friends and play with them. They has nice games. On my birthdays, I has many gifts. Last year, I have a toy car and I love it very much. 9
Verb to do
( فعل يعملPresent ) المضارع What do they do every day?
He does هو يعمل
He does not He doesn’t هو ال يعمل
Sentence Do I do my homework? Yes, you do. No, you don't. Does he do his homework? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
She does هي تعمل
She does not She doesn’t هي ال تعمل
Does she do her homework? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
It does هي تعمل
It does not It doesn’t هي ال تعمل
Does the cat do harm to us? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.
We do نحن نعمل
We do not We don’t
Do we do our homework? Yes, you do. No, you don't.
You do أنت تعمل
You do not You don’t
Do you do your homework? Yes, I do. / Yes, we do. No, I don't. / No, we don't.
You do أنتم تعملون
You do not You don’t
Do you do your homework? Yes, we do. No, we don't.
They do هم يعملون
They do not They don’t هم ال يعملون
Do they do their homework? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
I do أنا أعمل
PN+ do/does I do not I don’t
(Do you ….?) ( إليI do / We do) عند السؤال غالبا نحول I/We/You/They/My friends/Ali and Omar He/She/It/A boy/My friend/Ali/Water
do / do not ( don't ) does/does not (doesn't )
Verb to do
( فعل يعملPast ) الماضي
PN + did
I did أنا عملت He did هو عمل She did هي عملت I’ve It did هي عملت/هو عمل We did نحن عملنا You did أنت عملت
I did my homework. He did his homework. She did her homework.
They did their homework.
It did harm to people. We did our homework. You did your homework.
did not / didn't
PN+ did not I did not We did not I’ve did not You He did not
I didn't We didn't I’ve didn't You He didn't
Sentence I didn't do my homework. We didn't do our homework. You didn't do your homework. He didn't do his homework.
She did not
She didn't do her homework.
It did not
It didn't do any harm.
They did not They didn't
They didn't do their homework.
Did ….. ? Yes,…. did. No, …. didn't.
Question Did I ?
Question with short answers Did I play last day? Yes, you did.
No, you didn't.
Did we? I’ve Did you ? Did he?
Did we play last day?
Yes, you did.
No, you didn't.
Did you play last day? Did he play last day?
Yes, I did. Yes, he did.
No, I didn't. No, he didn't.
Did she play last day?
Yes, she did.
No, she didn't.
Did it play last day?
Yes, it did.
No, it didn't.
Did they play last day? Yes,they did.
No, they didn't.
(Did you ….?) ( إليI did / We did) عند السؤال غالبا نحول
Exercises (v. to do) Complete with: It / We / A boy / They / He / Boys / She / You / I
Complete the sentences with (don't /doesn't /didn't):
Ali goes to the park every day. He ………….. go to the cinema.
Ali and Hamad study every day. They ……………….. play football.
The crocodile lives in water. It ……………….. live on land.
Elephants live on land. They …………….. live in water.
Omar watched TV yesterday. He ……………….. listen to music.
Saif played football yesterday. He ………………….. play tennis.
Change into negative using (don't / doesn't / didn't): 1) I go (……………………..) 2) He watches (…………………) 3) You study (…………………)
4) She played (…………………..) 5) They studied (…………………) 6) We went (………………………)
Find the mistakes and correct them and correct them: ( 5 mistakes ) My name is Ali. I play football every day but I doesn’t play tennis. My younger brother don’t go to school. My mother don’t work. I like eating fish but my sisters doesn’t like fish. We all love going to the park.Yesterday, we went to the park but my father don’t come with us. 12 1
Complete the sentences with (do/ don't /does/doesn't /did/ didn't): 1) Where ………………… your father work? – He works in a bank. 2) What ………………….. you eat every day? – I eat fish. 3) Do you go to school? Yes, I ……………….. 4) Does your mother cook tasty food? Yes, she ……………. 5) Do your friends play tennis? No, they ………….. 6) Does your sister sleep early? No, she ……………… 7) Did your friends go to the club last week? No, they …………. 8) Did your friend study yesterday? Yes, he ……………. 9) Where …………………. you go yesterday? – I went to the park. 10) Did your brother play football yesterday? No, he………….. Answer the following questions: 1) When do you get up? …………………………………………...….……… 2) What foods don't you like? ………………………………..….…………... 3) What sport doesn't your friend play? ……………...………………….… 4) What didn't you do yesterday? ………………………………………….. 5) Where does your father work? …………………..………..……..………. 6) What subject don't you like? ……………………………...……..……….. Complete the sentences with (don't /doesn't /didn't): 1) I go to the park everyday but yesterday I ………… go to the park. 2) My brother always watches TV but last night he ….…. watch TV. 3) My friends don't like fish. Also, I ……………. like fish. 4) I don't play tennis. Also, my brother …..…..….. play tennis. 5) I do my homework but my sister ………….. do her homework. Reorder to make sentences: 1) your – father – does – Where – work ? 2) eat – fish – yesterday – you – Did ? I- No – didn't. 3) does – My - mother - a car – not- drive – work – to - her Choose the correct verb: 1) My brother doesn’t ……………. ( studying / studies / study ) English. 2) They didn’t ………….. ( went / go / going ) to school last week. 3) Does your friend ………….. ( sleep / sleeping / sleeps ) early? 13 1
Uses of Helping Verbs استخدامات األفعال المساعدة Helping Verb V. to be am/ is/are was /were
V. to have have/ has had
V. to do do/ does did
) للتعريف (اسم شخص أو أوشئ للتعبير عن الوظيفة والعمر الطقس الوقت لون صفة)V+ing أحداث مستمرة (بعده) V3 مبني للمجهول ( بعده) للملكية (يأتي بعده األسم الممتلك بمعنى يشرب بمعنى يأكل بمعنى يأخذ بمعنى يقضي أو يستمتع) V3 أحداث تامة ( بعده بمعنى يفعل في النفي ( زمني المضارع البسيط. والماضي البسيط ) وبعده مصدر الفعل في السؤال ( زمني المضارع البسيط. والماضي البسيط ) وبعده مصدر الفعل
Sentences - He is Ali. / It is a cat. - He is a doctor. He is 45. - It is hot today. - It is three O'clock now. - My hair is black. - I am happy today. - They are playing now. - Football is played. - I have got a nice cat. - I have milk every day. - I have fish for my lunch. - He has a bath daily. - We had nice time. - They have watched TV. - I do my homework. - I don't play football. - They didn't come. - Where does he work? - Did you watch TV?
Exercises (Helping Verbs) Choose the correct answer:
1) My mom ……… beautiful. ( have / has / is / am ) 2) We …… listen to music yesterday. (didn't /aren't / haven't / don't ) 3) My brother ……. studying his lessons now. ( does / is / has / are ) 4) I usually ……… tea before I study. ( am / does / has / have ) 5) The weather ……… very cold today. ( has / is / was / do ) 6) My sister ………… long hair. ( does / is / has / have ) 7) …….. you go to school yesterday ? ( Did / Were / Do / Had ) 8) ……. you sleeping when I phoned you? ( Had / Was / Were / Did ) 9) There ……… many girls in the class. ( do / have / are / is ) 10) These ………… my shoes. ( is / have / do / are ) 11) My sister ……….. go to school. ( don't /isn't /hasn't /doesn't) 12) My mother ………. a teacher. ( are / does / has / is ) 13) I …….. study English every day. ( am not /haven't / don't / isn't) 14) Where ……… your friend live? ( do / does / has / is ) 14 1
Negative Sentence الجملة المنفية
فعل مساعد+ not +فعل أساسي Ex: I haven’t eaten fish.
بعد الفعل المساعد أو الناقص ونترك الفعل األساسيnot في حالة وجود أفعال مساعدة أو ناقصة ( نضع ) كما هو 1) I’m eating some fish now. 1) I’m not eating any fish now. 2) He’s playing tennis now. 2) He’s not playing tennis now. 3) They were sleeping. 3) They were not sleeping. 4) She has just studied. 4) She has not studied yet. 5) I will come tomorrow. 5) I won’t come tomorrow. )not ( نضع ) حسب زمن الحدث ثمdo/does/did ( مساعدة نستخدم أفعال في حالة عدم وجود6).والمصدر You should sleep 6) You shouldn’t sleep late. He, اسم مفرد, ) بعد ( أسم غير معدودdoes( ) وI, We ,You ,They , ) بعد (األسم الجمعdo ( نستخدمearly. . ) تستخدم مع الكل في زمن الماضي البسيطdid ( ) وذلك في زمن المضارع البسيط أماShe , It ,
1) I drive my car every day. 1) I don’t drive my car every day. 2) He drives a car every day. 2) He doesn’t drive a car every day. 3) She drove a car last day. 3) She didn’t drive a car last day. .) والمصدرnot ( ) ثم نضعdo/does /did ( عند استخدام األفعال المساعدة كأفعال أساسية نستخدم-
1) I have a car. 1) I don’t have a car. 2) He has curly hair. 2) He doesn’t have curly hair. 3) I had some friends. 3) I didn’t have any friends. 4) He has to get up early. 4) He doesn’t have to get up late. 5) They had to play well. 5) They didn’t have to play badly. 6) I do my homework. 6) I don’t do my homework. 7) He does his homework. 7) He doesn’t do his homework. 8) They .did allأتوا their best. 8) They didn’t( مع do) do/does/did) all their best. ال نستخدمبمفردهم حتى إذا ) am /is /are/ was/were 1) I am a boy. 2) She was ill.
1) I am not a boy. 2) She wasn’t ill. . ) ونكتب الفعل كما هو في المصدرhad better / would rather ( بعدnot نضع
1) You’d better play. 1) You’d better not play. 2) I’d rather have tea. 2) I’d rather not have tea. .) never ,nothing , nobody, no one ,neither ,nor ( هناك كلمات تعبر عن النفي 1) He usually plays tennis. 1) He never plays tennis. 2) I can see something. 2) I can see nothing. 3) There was somebody at 3) There was nobody (no one/none) at the door. the door. 4) I like fish and rice. 4) I don’t like fish or rice. I like neither fish nor rice. 5) Both of them love reading. 5) Neither of them loves reading. 6) All of them like Math. 6) None of them (like/likes) Math. 15 5
Asking Questions ) ) السؤال بهل ( بفعل مساعد أو ناقص1( "Yes / No" questions
) السؤال بأداة إستفهام2( " Wh- / How " questions
) ) إستفهام بهل ( بفعل مساعد أو ناقص1( فعل مساعد أو ناقص
Yes أوNo نجيب عليه ب تكملة الجملة
. ) ( نسبق الفعل المساعد أو الناقص علي الفاعل ثم نترك الفعل الرئيسي كما هو: ◄ في حالة وجود فعل مساعد اوناقص الجملة الخبرية
األجابة Yes, they are./No, they aren’t.
They are playing. I am eating fish.
Are they playing? Are you eating fish?
I was sleeping.
Were you sleeping?
Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.
We were studying.
Were you studying?
Yes,we were./ No,we weren’t.
I have got a car.
Have you got a car?
Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
He has got a car .
Has he got a car?
Yes, he has. / No,he hasn’t.
We had got a car.
Had you got a car?
Yes,we had./No,we hadn’t.
I will play tennis. I can swim.
Will you play tennis? Can you swim?
Yes, I will. / No, I won’t.
You should eat.
Should I eat?
Yes, I am. / No, I am not.
Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.
Yes, you should. No, you shouldn’t. .) ثم مصدرالفعلnot ( ) ثم نضعdo , does , did) ◄ في حالة عدم وجود فعل مساعد نستخدم
.) I, We , You , They , ) بعد ( األسم الجمعdo( ) نستخدمeat ( مع المصدر.) He , She, It , اسم مفرد,) بعد (اسم ال يعدdoes( ) نستخدمeats ( s مع الفعل المنتهي ب. ) مع الكلdid ( ) نستخدمate / played( مع الماضيYes, I do. / No, I don’t. I eat fish. Do you eat fish? Yes, he does./No,he doesn’t. He eats fish. Does he eat fish? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. I ate fish. Did you eat fish? : ) do , does , did ( ◄ اذا أستخدمنا األفعال المساعدة كأفعال رئيسية فأننا نستخدم
He has a car. -I had to go. I did well in the test.
Does he have a car? Yes, he does. /No, he doesn’t. Did you have to go? Did you do well in the test?
Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.
( ) السؤال بأداة إستفهام " فعل مساعد
أداة استفهام أداة االستفهام Who’m’ من When متى Where أين Which أي
تسأل عن األشخاص الوقت او الزمن ) to school) المكان االختيار أو التفضيل
ماذاcar / dog ( غيرالعاقل ) .. ) لماذاbecause-as( السبب ) to +الغرض (المصدر Whose لمن )Ali’s / his ( الملكية الحال أو المواصالت How كيف )كم عمر (العمر How old How many ) two/ three... ( العدد كم عدد ) 2 Dollars ( الثمن How much كم كمية/ ) كم ثمنliter/milliliter ( كمية How far ما بعد
البعد او المسافة
فعل رئيسي Examples
تكملة الجملة أمثلة
Who are you? I’m Ali. When will you go? Tomorrow. Where do you live? In Paris. Which car do you like?-The red car. Which boy is taller:Ali or Saif? Ali What did you buy? A car. Why was he absent? As he was ill. Why do you go to the club? To play. Whose book is this? It’s Ali’s book. How do you go to work? By car. How old are you? I'm 10 years old. - How many boys are there? There are three boys. How much is this dress? $ 40. How much sugar do you want? I want one spoon. How far is your house? 2 km far.
.. m long طول األشياء- How long is this bridge? 13 m long. How long كم طولfor/since المدة الزمنية- How long will you stay? For 2 days. ..cm كم طول األشخاصHow tall is your father? 150 cm. How tall )g / kg ( كم حجمHow big is an elephant? 4000 kg.
How big How big How often كم مرة
cm/m/ km كم مساحةHow big is Egypt? 1.01 million Km². عدد مرات حدوث الفعلHow often do you swim? Once a day
. اذا أستخدمنا أداة األستفهام في منتصف الجملة فال نضع بعدها فعل مساعد أو ناقص مباشرة-: ملحوظة Ex : Can you tell me where the bank is , please? How + adj. ( = )صفةWhat + n ()اسم How What
old big age Size
big far much tall/high long area distance price/quantity height length ? )At two thirty( .)When / What time?)للسؤال عن وقت (فيه ساعة) نستخدم What time is it? It’s two thirty. :)What time? ( للسؤال عن الساعة نستخدم ) On Friday / next week ( )When?( للسؤال عن وقت ليس فيه ساعة نستخدم 17 1
Exercises (Asking Questions) Choose the correct answer:
1) _________________ time does your class start? a) What
2) _______________ sugar do you want in your tea? a) How many
b) How often
c) How far
d) How much
3) _______________ is your friend? - 18 years old. a) How many
b) How long
c) How far
d) How old
4) _____________ broke this window? - The children. a) What
5) _____________ do you plan to stay in Paris? For two weeks. a) How much
b) How many
c) How long
d) How far
6) _______________was he absent? - Because of his illness. a) Where
7) _______________ car is this? - It's my brother's. a) Whose
8_______________ is the weather like in Cairo? - Very fine. a) When
9) _______________did the car accident take place? - Last night. a) How
10) _______________is Ali fond of? - Collecting stamps. a) What
11) _______________does Mary go to the library? - Twice a week. a) How often
b) How many
c) How much
d) How far
12) _______________is the capital from this village? - 50 kilometers a) How much
b) How big
c) How long
Reorder to make sentences: 1) many – cars- have- does – How – father – your ? 2) this – How – dress – cost – much – does ? 3) stay – long- you – How – will – London – in ? 18 1
d) How far
. نكون السؤال المذيل بإستخدام فعل مساعد أو ناقص ثم ضمير يعود علي الفاعل)do , does ( أفعال مساعدة نستخدم.) في حالة عدم وجود فعل مساعدdo,does,did ( نستخدماثبات
. ) للماضي البسيطdid ( للمضارع البسيط و
It is very cold , They will come,
isn’t it? won’t they?
They aren't playing, My friend hasn't come,
are they? has he ?
He can drive a car,
can’t he ?
He can't ride a horse,
I’m a good student,
aren’t I ? am I not ?
I’m not fine today ,
am I ?
They play tennis,
don’t they ?
They don't like fish,
She watches TV,
My sister doesn't watch TV,
Everyone loves joy,
Every one doesn't love you ,
Ali broke his leg,
didn’t he ?
You didn't come,
He has to study,
He doesn't have to study,
I did my homework,
didn't I ?
I didn't do my homework,
did I ?
Ex: Everyone is here, aren't they? (everyone /everybody) ) بعدThey) نستخدم الضمير Ex: Everything is clear, isn't it?
(everything) ( بعدit)نستخدم الضمير
You’d better study,
hadn’t you ?
You’d better not play , You’d rather not be late,
had you? would you?
You’d rather come, wouldn’t you? ) will you? ( مع األمر والنهي واألذن نستخدم will you ? أمر Open the door, will you ? نهي Don’t come late, 'd better ( had better) يجب
) shall we? ( ) نستخدمlet's ( مع األقتراح will you ? أذن Let me go out , shall we? اقتراح Let’s play soccer,
/ 'd rather ( would rather ) يفضل
: هناك بعض الكلمات تعبر عن النفي وعند وجودها في الجملة نضع الفعل المساعد مثبت ومنها scarcely - seldom-rarely- hardly –never – neither – nor – none – no one – no body – nothing – nowhere – little – few Ex: ( I ate little fish, did I?) Ex: I ate a little fish, didn't I?
(a little / a few) كلمات تعطي معنى ايجابي
Exercises (Question Tags) Choose the correct answer: 1) The little girl’s playing with her sister, _____________ she?
2) He never helps the poor, _____________ he ? a) does
3) Reem ate little food, _____________ she ? a) did
4) You’d better study, _____________ you ? a) had
5) You’d rather come early, _____________ you ? a) would
6) I'm studying my lessons now, _____________ I ? a) am
7) I'm not playing now, _____________ I ? a) am
8) Your sister watches TV every day, _____________ she? a) does
c) do we
d) don't we
9) Let's go to the park, _____________ ? a) will we
b) shall we
10) Open the door please, _____________ ? a) shall we
b) are you
c) will you
d) have you
Write the complete form of the abbreviated helping or modal verbs:
1) 'm …………..… 2) 's eating …..…... 3) 's sad …………. 4) 's Ali ………….. 5) 's eaten……….
6) 're …………..… 7) 've…..…………... 8) 'd like ………..…. 9) 'd played ..…….. 10) 'd better…..….
11) 'd rather……..…..… 12) 'd prefer…..……... 13) 'll………………….…. 14) won’t ..…………….. 15) can’t …………....….
Irregular Verbs أفعال شاذة Present مضارع cost يكلف cut يجرح/ يقطع hit يصطدم/ يضرب hurt يصيب/ يؤذي let يسمح/ يترك put يضع shut يغلق lend يسلف send يرسل spend ينفق/ يقضي build يبني burn يحترق/ يحرق learn يتعلم smell يشم lose يخسر/ يفقد get يحصل/ يصبح sit يجلس keep يحفظ sleep ينام feel يحس/ يشعر leave يترك meet يقابل dream يحلم mean يقصد/ يعني bring يحضر buy يشتري fight يتشاجر/ يحارب think يعتقد/ يفكر catch يصطاد/ يمسك teach يعلم/ يدرس sell يبيع tell يحكي/ يخبر find يجد hear يسمع hold يعقد/ يمسك read يقرأ say يقول pay يسدد/ يدفع make يصنع/ يجعل
Past cost cut hit hurt let put shut lent sent spent built burnt learnt smelt lost got sat kept slept felt left met dreamt meant brought bought fought thought caught taught sold told found heard held read said paid made
stand يقفstood understand يفهمunderstood Present
P.P. ( V3) cost cut hit hurt let put shut lent sent spent built burnt learnt smelt lost got sat kept slept felt left met dreamt meant brought bought fought thought caught taught sold told found heard held read said paid made stood understood
Present مضارع break يكسر choose يختار speak يتحدث/ يتكلم steal يسرق wake يوقظ
Past broke chose spoke stole woke
P.P. ( V3) broken chosen spoken stolen woken
drive ride rise write
يسوق يركب يشرق/ يرتفع يكتب
drove rode rose wrote
driven ridden risen written
beat bite hide
يضرب/ يهزمbeat يعضbit يختبأ/ يخفيhid
eat fall forget give see blow take grow Know throw fly draw begin drink show swim ring sing
يأكل يقع/ يسقط ينسى يعطي يري ينفخ/ يهب يزرع/ يأخذ يكبر يعلم/ يعرف يقذف/ يرمي يطير يرسم يبدأ يشرب يوضح / يبين يسبح يدق/ يرن يغني
ate fell forgot gave saw took blew grew knew threw flew drew began showed drank swam rang sang يأتيran came يصبحbecame يجري يذهبwent
come run become go
beaten bitten hidden eaten fallen forgotten given seen taken blown grown known thrown flown drawn begun shown drunk swum rung sung run come become gone
Helping ( Aux. ) Verbs األفعال المساعدة Inf. be have do
am / is are have / has do / does
was were had did
P.P ( V3) been had done
األفعال الناقصة have to
Past would should could might had to had to P.P (V3) (would / should / could / might / must / ought to ) + have + V3
Present Simple Affirmative
مصدر live go watch cross relax play study
زمن المضارع البسيط
فعل+ s lives goes watches crosses relaxes plays studies
الفعل في التصريف األول ( s ) ( المصدر) أو مضاف له Question Do Does Do/Does
do not (don’t) live Yes,…...….. ( do/ does) does not (doesn’t) go No, ….( don’t / doesn’t)
I المصدر We You live They go اسم جمع ( Boys) He فعل+ s She It اسم مفرد lives ( A boy ) goes اسم ال يعد ( Water) I usually go to school.
I المصدر We do not You live They don't go اسم جمع ( Boys) He المصدر She It does not live اسم مفرد go (A boy) doesn't اسم ال يعد (Water) I don't go to school.
Ali often plays tennis.
Ali doesn't play tennis.
Does Ali play tennis? Yes, he does. /No,he doesn't.
She always eats fish.
She doesn't eat fish.
What does she always eat? She eats fish.
I we you they اسم جمع
المصدر live go
he المصدر she it live اسم مفرد go (a boy) اسم ال يعد (water)
Do you go to school? Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
Time Words : ◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع البسيط always دائما- usually عادة- sometimes أحيانا- often غالبا- never أبدا seldom/scarcely/rarely نادرا-Every/Each (day / week …) day/week.. Once/Twice/Three times a - I usually go to the park. ) عادة منتظمة1 : ◄ يعبر المضارع البسيط عن - The sun rises in the east. ( حقيقة علمية2 - The train leaves at 7:00 a.m. every day. ) حقيقة يومية3 : ◄نستخدمه بعد الروابط الزمنية للتعبيرعن المستقبل Ex : When I travel abroad, I will buy gifts.
Exercises (Present Simple) Add ( s / es ) to the following verbs:
live (…………….) watch (…………… ) play (…………..…)
read wash study
(…..……….) (……………) (…..…...….)
relax cross go
( …………. ) (……………) (……………)
Change into negative with (don't / doesn't):
go watches studies play
(….……….) (………..…) (………….) (…….…… )
I go to school every day. ( ……………………………………………..……. ) My sister watches TV every day. (…………..…………………………………….… )
Complete the sentences with (play/watch/listen/go) in the correct form: Affirmative
1)Ali usually..................… football. 3) My mother always ……………… TV at home.
2) He …………………… tennis. 4) She …………………...... to music.
5) My friends …………… to the park every day.
6) They ……………… to the cinema every day.
Complete the sentences with (do / don't / does / doesn't): Affirmative
1) …….. Ali usually play football? Yes, he ……….
2) ………. Ali play tennis? No, he ……………
3) ……. your mother watch TV? Yes, she ….…..
4) …… your mother listen to music? No, she …………
5) …… your friends go to the park?Yes, they ….
6) …… your friends go to the cinema? No, they …….
Choose the correct answer: 6) Where …. he live?(is/do/ does) 4) Does he ... tea? (drink/drinks) 5) She doesn't ….. (swim/ swims)
1) I ……. English. (like/likes) 2) He ..….. golf. (play/plays) 3) They don't ... fish.( eat/eats)
Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 6 mistakes ) I has a friend called Ali. He live in a small house. His father work in a bank but his mother don’t work. They is a happy family. They spends funny time together.
Past Simple Affirmative منتظم lived watched listened played studied
األثباتNegative شاذ went saw ate drank slept
I went to the club last day.
الفعل في التصريف الثاني
زمن الماضي البسيط
did not didn’t
I didn't go to the club last day.
Yes, ….. ( did) No, …….( didn’t) Did you go to the club? -Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.
Ali played football Ali didn't play football Did Ali play football? yesterday. yesterday. Yes, he did./No,he didn't. They traveled to Paris last week.
They didn't travel to Paris last week.
When did they travel to Paris? - Last week.
Time Words : الكلمات الدالة على زمن الماضي البسيط yesterday أمس- last ( الماضيday-week…)- ago ( منذtwo days ago) In 1990 - Our grandfathers - In the past في الماضي- Once ذات مرة One day ذات يوم- Once upon a time يحكى أن Uses
: يعبر الماضي البسيط عن حدث تم في الماضي وأنتهي تماما
- I watched a good film on TV last night. - My friend bought a new car last week. - My sister swam in the sea three weeks ago. - I saw many monkeys when I went to the zoo. - I didn’t come because I was ill. : يعبر الماضي البسيط عن عادة في الماضي - When I was young, I always ate my meals at home. - My father played the piano in his childhood. : يستخدم الماضي البسيط مع مدة زمنية للتعبير عن حدث دام مدة طويلة وانتهى - My father worked in a bank for forty years. Now, he is retired.
What did the boy do yesterday?
He played football.
Did the boy play football yesterday?
Yes, he did.
Did the boy play tennis yesterday?
No, he didn't.
Exercises (Past Simple) Write the past: live (………...…….) go (…………..……… ) play (…...…...…..…)
watch ( …....……. ) listen (……………) write (…….………)
read (…..……….) eat (……………) study (…..….....….)
Change into negative with (didn't): drank (……….……….) climbed (…………..…) drove (….………….) painted (...….……… )
I saw my friend in the park yesterday. ( I ……… my friend in the park yesterday). My brother rode his bike yesterday. ( He ……………….…… his bike yesterday).
Complete with (drive/ ride / study/ play /go) in the past: Affirmative
1) My father...............… his car to his work yesterday. 3) My brother …………….. his lessons yesterday.
2) He ……………….… a bike to his work yesterday. 4) He ………………….... tennis yesterday.
5) We ……………… to school last day.
6) We ………...……… to the park last day.
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with (did /didn't): Affirmative
1) ……. your brother draw yesterday? Yes, he ………….
Negative نفي 2) …… your brother watch TV yesterday? No, he………
3) …… your sister ride a bike last week? Yes, she …….…..
4) …… your sister drive a car? No, she .…..
5) …... they see a giraffe in the zoo? Yes, they ………
6) …... they see a plane in the zoo? No, they ……
Choose the correct answer: 1) I …. Math last day.(study/studied) 4) I …. see him last night? (don’t/didn’t) 2) They didn't ….. fish. (eat/ate) 5) I didn't….. him yesterday. (saw/sees/see ) 3) Did he …. tea? (drank/drink) 6) Did Ali come ? No, he (did/don’t /didn't) Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 11 mistakes ) Yesterday, I do many things. First, I get up early. Then, I have a bath, wash my face, comb my hair and brush my teeth. Next, I go to school. I meet my friends. After school, I eat my lunch. After that, I go to the park and smell fresh air there.
Future Simple Affirmative
زمن المستقبل البسيط
will not won’t
will go ('ll go) will meet ('ll meet)
I will go to the park tomorrow.
I won't go to the park tomorrow.
am is going to are
I'm going to study today.
حدث في المستقبل
inf.. ? watch go
Yes, ….. ( will) No, …….( won’t) Will you go to the park? -Yes, I will. / No, I won't.
am Am is not going to INF Is Subj. going to are . Are
INF . ?
I'm not going to Are you going to study? study today. Yes, I am. /No,I'm not. ) will + inf. ( المستقبل مع
:خطط مستقبلية I promise I will come with you. : وعدI will study English today. It's hot. I will turn on the AC. : قرار مفاجئI will be thirty next month. : حقيقية مستقبلية I'll open the door for you. : عرض خدمةIt will be a nice day tomorrow. :تنبؤ Will you give me a chair? : طلبPerhaps we will travel next week. :توقع Respect yourself or I will hit you. : تهديدI hope we will win the next match. : تمني Study or you'll fail the exam. :تحذير : )if( الحالة األولى في If you study hard,you'll get high marks.
) going to + inf. ( المستقبل مع : خطة أو نية :فعل على وشك الحدوث مع وجود دليل Ex: I'm going to study today. Ex: It's cloudy. It's going to rain. The train arrives at 6.30 a.m.
:).. نستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن مواعيد منظمة ( قطارات
( للتعبير عن المستقبلam / is / are + فعل+ ing ( ◄ نستخدم زمن المضارع المستمر :) ) عندما يكون تم الترتيب له بشكل مؤكد Ex: My father has got a ticket. He is traveling next week. : ◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المستقبل البسيط tomorrow غدا/ hope-wish يتمني- يأمل/ soon قريبا/next (day-week…) / In the future في المستقبل- In 2050 - in + ( period)… in (two weeks) في خالل أسبوعين ) suppose ( يفترض/ ) expect ( يتوقع/ ) think-believe ( يعتقد/ )predict ( يتنبؤ ) I'm afraid ( أنا أخشى/ )I'm sure( أنا متأكد/ )possibly( ) محتملperhaps( ربما
When I travel to Paris, I will buy gifts. :نستخدم المضارع البسيط بعد الروابط الزمنية . ( للتعبير عن المستقبلI , we) ( فقط بعدshall +يمكن أن نستخدم (المصدر
Exercises (Future Simple) Choose the correct answer: 1) Khalid ____________ skiing with his classmates next weekend. a) went
c) is going
d) has gone
2) Ali ___________ swimming with Badr and Hassan next Friday . a) has gone
c) is going
3) What ____________ tonight? Anything special? a) have you doing b) are you done
c) are you doing
d) do you
4) Itâ€™s so hot in here. I ____________ turn the air-conditioning on. a) will
b) will be
d) am going to
5) I think that my father ____________ next week. a) will come
c) is going to come
6) I think I ____________ the exam tomorrow. a) pass
b) would pass
c) will pass
7) Will your father travel next week? Yes, he ____________ a) will
8) The boy is climbing a high tree. He ____________ to the ground. a) going fall
b) is going to fall c) will fall
d) is falling
9) The plane ____________ off in a few minutes. a) will take
b) would take
c) to take
10) I am ____________ for the airport at two oâ€™clock. a) left
11) Study well or you ____________ fail the exam. a) are going to
c) going to
d) will to
12) My sister hopes that she ____________ a doctor in the future. a) be
b) going to be
c) will be
13) Will your mother go shopping tomorrow? No, she ____________ a) will
14) When you ____________ high marks, I will buy you a new car. a) will get
c) is going to get
Present Continuous Affirmative am is are
am/is/are I He She It اسم مفرد We You They اسم جمع
am is are
am/is/are not I He She It اسم مفرد We You They اسم جمع
نشاط مستمر في الحاضر
زمن المضارع المستمر
is not V+ing
Question Am Is Are
فعل+ing riding writing
Yes, ….. ( am / is / are) No, ...( am not /isn't /aren't). Am
I he she it اسم مفرد
we V+ing you they اسم جمع
I’m eating fish now.
I am not eating fish.
Are you eating fish? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.
Look! Ali is playing football.
Ali isn’t playing football.
Is Ali playing football? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.
Listen! They're singing.
They aren’t singing.
Are they singing? Yes,they are/No,they aren’t.
: ◄ يعبر زمن المضارع المستمر عن فعل يحدث األن ( لحظة الكالم ) أو حدث مؤقت 1) My father is sleeping so he can't come. 2) We are studying about planets this week. : ◄ يعبر زمن المضارع المستمر عن فعل يحدث تدريجيا 1) He is growing quickly. 2) My English is improving these days. : ◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع المستمر now األن/ at the moment في تلك اللحظة/ Look! انظر/ Listen ! أستمع/ today اليوم This ( day – week ……) ) ...... هذا ( اليوم – األسبوع/ at the present time في الوقت الحالي Be quiet ! كن هادئا/ Watch out ! أحترس/ Be careful ! كن حريصا )ing ◄ أفعال الشعوروالحواس والملكية واألعتقاد واالدراك ال يمكن أن نستخدمها في األزمنة المستمرة ( ال نضيف لها Ex: I hear a loud sound now. : ) ألنها ال ارادية ( بدون مجهود ) ing( األفعال التي ال نضيف لها like- love يحب/ see يري/ hear يسمع/ have-own يمتلك/ think-believe يعتقد/ feel يشعر/ prefer يفضل/ hope -wish يتمني/ seem - appear يبدو من شكله/ smell يشم/ taste يتذوق want يريد/ need يحتاج/ know يعرف/ cost يكلف/ sound يبدو من صوته/understand يفهم
: ◄اذا كان هناك مجهود أو ارادة نستخدم مضارع مستمر The food tastes delicious. ) ( بدون مجهود/ The cook is tasting the food. ()يوجد مجهود I hear a loud sound now. ()ال إرادي / I'm listening to the music. ( )إرادي
Exercises (Present Continuous) Complete the sentences with (play/study/watch/listen) in the correct form: Affirmative
1) The boy .............................… football now.
2) He ……………………….… tennis now.
3) My brother ……….………..... his lessons at this moment.
4) He ……………………….... TV at this moment.
5) They …………………….. a giraffe in the zoo now.
6) They …………....……….… to music now.
Complete the sentences with ( is /isn't /are/aren't ): Affirmative اثبات 1) …….. your brother drawing now? Yes, he ………….
Negative نفي 2) … your brother watching TV now? No, he ………
3) ……. your sister riding a bike now? Yes, she …….….. 5) …… the boys studying their lessons? Yes, they …………
4) ……. your sister driving a car now? No, she ……… 6) …….. the boys playing football? No, they …….……
Choose the correct answer: 1) Look! The car …….…. very fast. 2) My friend ………... tennis now. 3) What is he ………….at the moment? 4) I ………………. English these days. 5) He can't come because he ……… 6) Don't make noise. Your father ..……. 7) Watch out! It …………… heavily. 8) The pollution ……….……. these days.
(comes/coming/ is coming/came) (playing/ is playing / plays / play) (eat / eats / ate / eating ) (am studying/studying/study/studies) (sleeping/is sleeping/sleeps/sleep) (works /working /is working/ work) (snowing / snows / snow / is snowing ) (rising/ is rising / rises / rise )
Find the mistakes and correct them: ( 10 mistakes ) 1) Look! The boys climb a tree. 2) Listen! My sister sing a beautiful song. 3) Watch out! The car coming very fast. 4) My friends is play football now. 5) We study about animals this week. 6) The rate of pollution rise these days. 7) What do you doing now? 8) Does your father sleeping now? 9) Are your friends study at this moment? 10) I am seeing a bird in the sky.
Past Continuous Affirmative was were
He She It اسم مفرد We You They اسم جمع
He She It اسم مفرد We You They اسم جمع
Yes, ….. ( was / were) No, …….( wasn’t /weren't).
was not wasn’t
he she V+ing it اسم مفرد
we V+ing you they اسم جمع
were not weren't
فعل+ing riding writing
نشاط كان مستمر في الماضي
زمن الماضي المستمر
I was studying at 6:00 yesterday.
I was not studying at 6:00 Were you studying ….? yesterday. Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.
They were playing when it rained.
They weren't playing when it rained.
Were they playing …..? Yes, they were. No,they weren’t.
: يعبر زمن الماضي المستمر عن حدث كان مستمر في وقت معين في الماضي It was raining all night yesterday. / I didn't see my uncle as I was sleeping. :الكلمات الدالة على الماضي المستمر at 5:00 yesterday /all day yesterday/While-As-Just as/When While - As بينما/ When عندما While/As
While I was running, I fell down. ماضي بسيط
When I fell down, I was running. ماضي مستمر
I fell down while I was running.
I was running when I fell down.
: مالحظات . ) ممكن نستخدم الماضي المستمر أو الماضي البسيطWhen ( ) نستخدم الماضي المستمراما بعدWhile/ As) ◄بعد Ex: When I was running, I fell down. / When I fell down, I was running. .)◄ الماضي المستمر يعبر عن حث استمر مدة طويلة و الماضي البسيط يعبر عن حدث مفاجئ ( قطع الحدث المستمر . ◄ اذا كان هناك حدثان مستمران في نفس الوقت فنستخدم زمن الماضي المستمر Ex: While I was studying, my sisters were playing.
Exercises (Past Continuous) Look at the pictures and complete the sentences: walk
- The boy ….……. a snake while he …..….….…. in the street.
- While the boy …………. in the street, he ….......… a snake. - The boy .…………. in the street when he ..…….… a snake. - When the boy …...... a snake, he …….....…… in the street.
- The man ……..…. an accident while he ………….……. fast. - While the man ……....……. fast, he …..........… an accident. - The man .……………… fast when he ..……… an accident. - When the man ….……... an accident, he ………..…… fast.
-The father …….…… the room while the children ………....…
-While the children ……………, the father ……..…. the room. -The children ….….……. when the father…........… the room. -When the father ……….. the room, the children……..…..….
-While the girl ……….………… a book, the boy ……………..…. a flower.
Complete with (watch/ listen /study /play) in the correct form: Affirmative اثبات 1) My father...............……… TV all night yesterday.
Negative نفي 2) My father ………….… to music all night yesterday.
3) My brother ……….…….. his lessons when I saw him.
4) My brother …………….... tennis when I saw him.
Complete the sentences with (was /wasn't / were / weren't): Affirmative اثبات 1) …….. your brother studying at
2) .… your brother watching TV? No, he …………
5:00 yesterday? Yes, he ………. 3) …….. the kids playing when it rained? Yes, they …….…..
4) …….. the kids swimming when it rained? No, they …..
Choose the correct answer: 1) It …. heavily all day yesterday. ( rained / was raining / was rain / were raining) 2) The students …. when the teacher came in . (wrote /was writing /were writing ) 3) While we were walking, we ….. an accident. ( saw /seeing /was seeing / see ) 4) He couldn't answer the phone as he ……… (slept /were sleeping/was sleeping) 5) When he …….. down, he was running very fast. (was falling/ fell/ falls/ fall)
Present Perfect Affirmative
have ('ve) has ('s)
I We You They اسم جمع He She It اسم مفرد
نشاط بدأ في الماضي وأنتهى قبل لحظات ( له أثر) أو قد يستمر للمستقبل
زمن المضارع التام
haven’t hasn’t I We You They اسم جمع He She It اسم مفرد
I we you + they اسم جمع
he she + it اسم مفرد
played eaten Yes, … (have / has) No, … (haven’t/ hasn’t)
I have already studied.
I haven’t studied yet.
Have you already studied? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.
My father has just come.
My father hasn’t come yet.
Has your father come? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t.
Have gone / Have been
have gone / has gone ( went but didn’t return ) Ex: My father has gone to Paris. ( He is still in Paris )
ذهب ولم يعد
have been / has been ( went and returned ) Ex : My father has been to Paris . ( He isn’t in Paris now )
: ◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن المضارع التام just حاال/ already بالفعل/ for لمدة/ since منذ/ever من قبل/ never أبدا/ yet حتي األن so far-up till now حتي األن/ lately-recently منذ فترة بسيطة/ several-many times مرات عديدة ◄ يستخدم هذا الزمن للتعبير عن حدث حصل في الماضي و انتهى قبل لحظات أو انتهى في الماضي و الزالت آثاره :موجودة حتى اآلن أو قد يستمر للمستقبل - I have lived in Cairo for six years. - The street is wet. It has rained heavily. - My country has made many projects. - I haven't studied yet. I will study tomorrow. - I have washed my car. ( It looks lovely now ) - He is very hungry. He hasn’t eaten anything since morning.
الكلمات الدالة على زمن المضارع التام Usage األستخدام Word have/ has ◄نستخدمهم في األثبات ( بين just حاال/ توا ) والتصريف الثالث already في السؤالalready ◄ يمكن أن نستخدم )(لألستغراب عن سرعة أنتهاء الحدث بالفعل
Example أمثلة - He has just /already gone out. - Have you already studied your lessons? / Have you studied your lessons already?
. في صيغة التفضيلever ◄ نستخدم في السؤال ( بين الفاعلever ◄ نستخدم ) و التصريف الثالث في األجابة المنفيةnever ◄ نستخدم ) ever ( للرد علي سؤال )never( قبلnot (n't) ◄ ال نستخدم
It is the best meal I’ve ever eaten. Have you ever been to Paris?
ever من قبل never أبدا
yet حتى األن
No, I have never been to Paris. Yes, I went there last year. أذا أستخدمنا كلمات دالة علي زمن الماضي البسيط فأننا نستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط
في نهاية الجمل األستفهامية أوyet ◄ نستخدمHave you finished yet? . المنفيةNo,I haven’t finished yet./Not yet.
since 6 : 00 for an hour (one hour)/ two hours since Monday for a day (one day) / two days since 2003 for five years. since yesterday for a day (one day). since last (day/week/month..) for a (day /week/ month /year ) since last decade for ten years since last century for 100 years for a long time لمدة طويلة since my birthday since world war ׀׀ for ages لمدة طويلة for a while /a moment للحظة since morning for a minute لدقيقة since he traveled I haven't seen him for ages. ) ) نستخدم مدة زمنية غير محددة ( ال نعرف بدايتها أو نهايتهاFor ( ◄ بعد I have known him since 1995 . : ) نستخدم زمن محددSince ( ◄ بعد Since قاعدة
I haven't seen him since he traveled. ) Since ( ماضي بسيط, مضارع تام Since he traveled, I haven't seen him. . ) Since ( ◄ أذا كنا نتحدث عن فترة زمنية لم تنتهي بعد فأننا نستخدم زمن المضارع التام قبل وبعد مضارع تام ) Since ( مضارع تام Ex: He has missed his friends since he has traveled abroad. ( He is still abroad ) ) How long ( ) نستخدمSince , For ( ◄ للسؤال عن Ex: How long have you visited Paris? For ten years. / Since 2007.
Present Perfect Continuous مضارع تام مستمر Affirmative
( have / has ) + been + V+ing
(Have /Has) + الفاعل+ been+ V+ ing
(have /has)+ not + been+ V+ing
I have been playing for I haven’t been playing Have you been playing for 2 hours. for 2 hours. 2 hours? just-already-ever-never- for - since- yet - several times - so far - lately - recently ?
Present Perfect & Present Perfect Continuous
مضارع تام ومضارع تام مستمر
.نستخدم المضارع التام للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي وانتهي في الحاضر ( له أثر ) وقد يستمر في المستقبل The road is wet. It has rained./I haven't bought a car yet. I will buy one next year. :)see ( المضارع التام المستمر يعبر عن مدة استمرار الحدث ( يركز على النشاط) وال نستخدمه مع األفعال األرادية She's been studying for two hours. She's studied three lessons for two hours. : المضارع التام يعبر عن نتيجة الحدث ) أو األفعال التي ال يوجد بهاsee - hear تذكر أننا ال نسخدم األزمنة المستمرة مع األفعال اللحظية ( الالإرادية مثل .)Ex: I have already drunk two cups of coffee. ( .) أو عندما يكون هناك أرقامbelieve ( مجهود
Exercises (Present Perfect) Choose the correct answer: 1) The train ………… the station yet.
( hasn’t left / has left / leaves / leave)
2) I …… Ali since his arrival last month.
(don't see/haven't seen/ didn't see)
3) This is the best pizza I …. (have ever had/am ever having/ have been had) 4) We …..… all our money already.
(spend / spends / spent / have spent )
5) She..… the house since 9:00. (is cleaning/has cleaning/has been cleaning) 6) …….… everyone finished the exercise?
(Was / Does / Did / Has )
7) I …...… my homework. (have just done / just have done / have done just ) 8) How long ……… collected stamps?
(have he / has he / he has / did he )
9) I can’t have dinner. I ……… already.
(eaten / ate / have eaten /eat)
10) They ……… married for 3 years.
(are / have / have been / has been)
11) Ali ……… had three accidents.
12) Mouza is ill. She has been ill …… the last few days. (for / till / since / just) 13) ------------- you ever -------------- Mount Everest ? ) Has ---- climbed / Did ---- climb / Have ---- climbed
/ Do ---- climb )
Complete with: for / since ……. two days / ……. yesterday / …..….. 1990 / ……. Last day / ……… four years / …. Monday/ ……. ages / .…… three months / ……….. April
Past Perfect Affirmative
حدث تم قبل حدث أخر في الماضي
زمن الماضي التام
I had studied before I went out.
I had studied before I went out.
Yes, ….. ( had) No, ..….. ( hadn't).
Had you studied ….? Yes, I had. / No, I hadn't.
: ◄ نستخدم زمن الماضي التام للتعبير عن حدث تم قبل حدث ّأخر في الماضي - He was hungry because he hadn’t eaten his breakfast. - He hadn’t eaten his breakfast so he was hungry. - I found the key which I had lost. - I had hardly / scarcely done my homework when I went to the club. - I had no sooner done my homework than I went to the club. : ) said/ told) ◄ نستخدم الماضي التام للتعبير عن أحداث سابقة في الكالم الغير مباشر وفعل القول يكون ماضي Ex: He told me that he had done his homework. :◄ الكلمات الدالة علي زمن الماضي التام hardly-scarcely بصعوبة- بالكاد/ No sooner بمجرد أن/ as soon as بمجرد أن/ till - until حتي/ after بعد/ when عندما/ before - by the time قبل : ) had + P.P ( ◄ روابط زمنية ياتي بعدها ماضي تام : ◄ روابط زمنية ياتي بعدها ماضي بسيط After / As soon as / No sooner / Before / By the time قبل hardly- scarcely / till-until After
Before ماضي بسيط
After I had studied, I went out. ماضي بسيط
Before I went out, I had studied.
I went out after I had studied.
I had studied before I went out.
: مالحظات ) had + V3 ( ) وبعدها ماضي تامdidn’t + ) نستخدم ماضي بسيط منفي ( المصدرTill/Until ( ◄ قبل - My father didn’t buy a new car till / until he had got money. ) يمكن أن نستخدم الماضي البسيط أو الماضي التامWhen ( ◄ بعد - When I had finished my homework, I went to the club. - When I went to the club, I had finished my homework. : ◄ يمكن أستخدام زمن الماضي البسيط في كال الجملتين مع كل الروابط السابقة Ex: I waited till the train came. / After I studied, I went out.
Exercises (Past Perfect) Complete the sentences with the verbs in the first column: 1) eat 2) go
1) study 2) play
- I …..…….. to school after I ……….………. my breakfast. - After I ……………. my breakfast, I …............… to school. - I.…………. my breakfast before I ….......… to school. - Before I …......… to school, I …….………. my breakfast. - I …..….….. tennis as soon as I ………..…..…. my lessons. - As soon as I …...........…. my lessons, I …...…..….. tennis. - I ….……......…. my lessons by the time I …….….. tennis. - By the time I ……….. tennis , I …….....…..…. my lessons.
Choose the correct answer: 1) I didn’t go with them to the cinema because I _________ the movie already. a) had seen
b) was seeing
d) am seeing
2) By the time I got home, they _______________ dinner. a) are eating
c) had eaten
3) Jane _____________ worked for that company for 15 years when she retired. a) had
4) The play_______________ before we got to the theatre. a) was starting
b) had started
c) has started
5) After the exam _______________, the students discussed the answers. a) finishes
b) was finishing
c) had finished
6) My brother went to the stadium after he ----------------- his homework. a) had done
7) Mustafa ___________ driven for 6 hours before he arrived in Cairo last night. a) has
8) He __________ there for 20 years when he heard that he’d lost his job. a) has worked
c) had worked
d) would work
9) Even before she finished her job search, she _______ a number of job offers. a) has
b) had have
c) had had
d) was having
10) The Smiths ______________ a new house a month after their son was born. a) have bought
c) will buy
d) were buying
To + inf. / V+ ing Verbs
To + inf. / V+ ing to + مصدر الفعل
want - need - would like - hope – plan - try afford- fail- refuse – arrange- tend- decide-
- Does he want to play tennis?
forget- learn-promise - offer – manage
- I decided to stop smoking.
( ask - tell – advise – teach - persuade encourage – help – remind ... ) + مفعولexpect
- My father told me to study. - He advises me to sleep early.
to + مصدر الفعل
It's + adj. (important / vital /necessary/easy..)
- It's important to play sports.
to مصدر الفعل بدون
(make / let) – (had better / would rather) (Let's / Why not / Why don't you? )
- Plays make me laugh. -You’d better study well
(go/like/prefer/hate/appreciate/enjoy/avoid/ keep/ complete / finish /stop/quit/give up/ mind/ suggest/imagine/ fear/miss/ practice/ deny/ involve/ risk/ fancy/can't stand/can't help/ regret/ look forward to /It’s no use good / It's worth ….. ( in , on , at , of , for , about , by , with , without , through , ….. ) حروف الجر :الروابط الزمنية اذا حذفنا الفاعل (After , Before, when, while, As soon as…..)
V+ ing - Did you go swimming? - Do you mind eating with me? - Fancy seeing you today.
V+ ing - I'm fond of reading stories. - While running, he fell down.
( There is / are + object ) (Verb + object )
-There is a man waiting for you. - I see a bird flying in the sky.
Exercises (To + inf. / V+ ing) Choose the correct answer: 1) I’d be happy ___________ you with that. a) help
b) to help
2) Her mother told her ___________ her room. a) clean
d) to clean
3) I like cooking but I hate ___________ the dishes. a) wash
4) He prefers ___________ to walking. a) run
5) I decided ___________ a course in English soon. a) to take
b) to taking
d) will take
6) Let me ___________ you. a) help
c) to help
7) The teacher asked Mona ___________ carefully. a) listened
c) to listen
c) to come
c) to lend
c) to take
8) Would you like ___________? a) come
9) He refused ___________ me the car. a) lent
10) Do you mind ___________ it with you? a) take
11) We are trying ___________ this problem. a) to solve
12) He stopped ___________ when he got married. a) to smoke
13) She made us___________ the whole house. a) cleaning
c) to clean
14) I advise you to avoid ___________ too fast. a) drive
b) to drive
15) I can't stand___________ any person bleeding too much. a) seeing
c) to see
16) You had better ___________ well before going to the interview. a) dressed
c) to dress
17) I look forward to ___________ my family. a) met
18) I regret not ___________ your party yesterday. a) attending
Fill the following table with the following verbs: Suggest / tend / promise / hate / fancy / decide / want / refuse / enjoy / avoid To + inf. V+ing.
التعبير عن العادة
would (not) + inf. When I was in Paris, I would watch Eiffel Tower every day. Used to + inf. / didn't use to + inf. When I was young, I used to ride a bike. Now I drive a car. was / were ( not ) + used to + V+ ing In my childhood, I was used to writing with a pencil. got + used to + V+ ing When I was young, I got used to swimming in the sea.
am / is / are (not ) + used to + V+ ing
I am used to waking up early for my new job. get/ gets + used to + V+ ing I couldn’t ride a bike. Now I am used to riding it.
Be used to = be accustomed to (An action that was strange and unusual, but now it has become familiar.)
نشاط كان غريب واألن أصبح مألوف
Exercises (Expressing habit) Choose the correct answer: 1) I _______________ a lot before I got married, but now I don't. a) am used to travelling b) am used to travel c) use to travel d) used to travel 2) Every January during my childhood, my family __________ camping. a) had gone
b) had went
c) would go
d) was go
3) In the past, people ______________ in tents, but now they don’t. a) to live
d) used to live
4) Last week I _______________video games the whole night, but now I don’t. a) played
b) used to play
5) He _______________use to smoke. a) didn't
6) Hatem ______________ crying when his father shouts at him. a) used to
b) uses to
c) was use to
d) is used to
7) I _______________sleeping at ten when I was a kid. a) is used to
b) use to
c) got used to
d) used to
كلمات تصف األسماء
Comparative older than nicer than
Superlative the oldest the nicest
.) للصفةer( ) نضيف1 : * عند المقارنة بين أثنين في صفة قصيرة المقطع .) بعد الصفةthan( ) نضع2 Ex: The elephant is bigger than the lion. . ) قبل الصفةthe ( ) نضع1 : * عند المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين في صفة قصيرة المقطع . ( للصفةest ( ( نضيف2 Ex: The blue whale is the biggest animal. exciting
(more / less) exciting than the (most / least) exciting
(more/less) beautiful than
the (most/least) beautiful
.) قبل الصفةmore / less( ) نضع1 : * عند المقارنة بين أثنين في صفة طويلة المقطع . ) بعد الصفةthan ( ) نضع2 Ex: Football is more exciting than handball. . ) قبل الصفةthe most /the least( نضيف- : * عند المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين في صفة طويلة المقطع
Ex: Football is the most exciting sport.
الصفات الشاذة Positive bad / ill good / well
Comparative مريض/ سئworse than أسوأ من بخير/ جيدbetter
many كثيرللعدد/much كثير للكمية
than than than
Superlative the worst األسوأ
farther than )أبعد من ) للمسافة further than )أبعد من ( للوقت
التساوي في الصفات Ali is as fat as Amr.
the farthest )األبعد (مسافة the furthest ) األبعد ( للوقت
عدم التساوي في الصفات Saif isn't as fat as Ali. Saif isn’t so fat as Ali.
Ali is fatter than Saif. Saif is thinner than Ali.
( The …. er / more ) , ( the …. er / more )
:عند التعبير عن المقارنة المتوازية نستخدم
Ex: The more you study, the higher marks you will get. يمكن أن نستخدم زمن المضارع التام مع صفة المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين It is the highest mountain I have ever seen. / It is the best meal I have ever eaten. (much taller/much more interesting( )much/ little( قبل صفة المقارنة بين اثنين يمكن أن نستخدم Ex: My father is much older than me. / Football is much more exciting than tennis.
Exercises (Adjectives) Complete the sentences with: short / tall / taller / tallest
1) Ali is …………………. than Omar. 2) Omar is as ……………… as Hany. 3) Ali is not so ……………….. as Saif. 4) Saif is the ……………….. boy. Complete the sentences with:
most / least / as / more / less
1) Tennis is ………… exciting as basketball. 2) Volleyball is …………. exciting than basketball. 3) Basketball is ………….. exciting than volleyball. 4) Football is the ……………… exciting sport. 5) Tennis and basketball are the ……… exciting sports. Choose the correct answer: 1) That movie was the…… movie I've ever seen. 2) My car is ………… expensive than your car. 4) Planes are ……..… than cars.
(bad /worse /worst/ badest ) ( too / more / as / very) ( fast / faster / fastest / the fastest )
5) Ali is the ………. boy in the class.
( good / better / best / better than )
6) Everest is the ------ summit on the earth. 7) It's ……….than I thought.
(higher than /higher/high/highest ) ( good / better / gooder / best )
8) Brazil is ……….England.
( big than / bigger / bigger than / big as )
9) My room is as ……… as your room.
( bigger / big / biggest / bigger than )
10) My sister is ……….girl in the class. a) the most intelligent
b) more intelligent c) the intelligent
Adverbs ظروف شاذة
) للصفةly( نكون الظرف بإضافة الصفة quick
dramatically بشكل هائل
بطريقة جيدة مبكرا متأخرا بجد بسرعة
(lovely, friendly , motherly , brotherly ). ) إلسم فتعتبر الكلمة صفةly( ◄ إذا اضفنا
: ◄ الظرف يصف : ◄ الصفة تصف األسم وتأتي قبله He can run very quickly. ( الفعل األساسي1 Ex: He is a rich man. He is very happy today. ) الصفة2 :◄الصفة تأتي أيضا بعد Really, it is a nice city. ) الجملة الكاملة3 ( be /am /is/are/was/were ( ( فعل يكون1 Ex: My friend was happy yesterday. :◄ الظرف يأتي قبل أو بعد الفعل األساسي : ) أفعال الحواس2 ) run quickly / quickly run( seem / look / appear / smell / taste / ( ) very happy( أو قبل الصفة ) sound / feel )Really,you’re kind. ( أو بداية الجملةEx: The food tastes delicious. ) He solved it easily. ) أونهاية الجملة : ( become / get ( ( فعل يصبح3 : ◄ ال نستخدم الظرف بعدEx: My friend got ill yesterday. Look / أو أفعال الحواسBe ( فعل يكون : ( make ( ( فعل يعمل4 . ) become / get أو فعل يصبحseem.. Ex: The film made me happy. . وانما نستخدم صفة : ( find ( ) فعل يجد5 Ex: He seems happy today. Ex: I found the film interesting.
ترتيب الصفات Opinion رأي silly beautiful difficult
Size حجم tiny small little
Age عمر new young old
Shape شكل square round oval
Color لون blue pink grey
Nationality جنسية/ أصل French (origin ) American Egyptian
Material مادة wooden metal paper
Purpose الغرض sleeping roasting
: يمكن أن نستخدم الكلمات التالية قبل الصفات ( very , so , extremely , too / fairly, quite, pretty, rather, a bit and a little ).
كلمات تعبر عن األشخاص أو الحيوانات أو النباتات أو الجماد أو أسماء مجردة
Noun Types Common
language continent laptop
. هي األسماء بشكل عام وال نكتب بدايتها بحرف كبير إال في بداية الجملة:( Common nouns ( ◄األسماء العامة Ali , Cairo .هي األسماء بشكل خاص و نكتب بدايتها بحرف كبير :( Proper nouns( ◄األسماء الخاصة
أسماء معدودةUncountable Nouns
مفرد a boy / a man
boys / men
أسماء غير معدودة
ليس لها صيغ مفرد أو جمع
water / tea / coffee / money / grass
:) في زمن المضارع البسيطs( ◄ األسماء المفردة واألسماء الغير معدودة يأتي بعدها فعل منتهي ب Ex: My friend goes to the club every day. / Water is very important in our life. :) في زمن المضارع البسيطs( ◄األسماء الجمع يأتي بعدها فعل في المصدر اي فعل بدون Ex: My friends go to the club every day. :◄ إذا وضعنا كلمات تدل على الكمية قبل االسم الغير معدود فأن الفعل يأتي حسب لفظ الكمية أو التجزئة Ex: Two cups of tea are not enough for me. / A cup of tea is enough for me.
Exercises (Nouns) Classify the nouns in the table: person / April / day / Omar / month / city / Sunday / Cairo Common Proper
tea / egg / children / grass / desk / boys / books / milk / pen singular plural uncountable
جمع االسماء ) es ( ) نضيف لهاs, sh, ch, x, z( األسماء التي تنتهي بالحروف ) k ( ) تنطقc ( ألنstomach – stomachs : شواذ
) للمفردs( نكون الجمع بإضافة
) y ( األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف نترك ال, وسبقها حرف متحرك .)s( ( ثم نضيفy) مفردboy
نحذف ال, ) وسبقها حرف ساكنy ( األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف . ) ies ( ) ثم نضيفy ( مفردcity
)o( األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف )s( نضيف, وسبقها حرف متحرك
نضيف, ) وسبقها حرف ساكنo ( األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف . ) es (
photo – photos / piano – pianos / volcano (volcanos - volcanoes)) : شواذ scarf (scarfs / scarves) dwarf (dwarfs /dwarves ) cliff (cliffs ) / roof (roofs) / chef (chefs)/chief(chiefs)
) اليfe ( ) أوf ( ) نقلب الfe ( ) أوf ( األسماء التي تنتهي بحرف . ) es ( ) ثم نضيفv ( مفرد
شواذ الجمع المنتظم SING phenomenon .Plural phenomena
أسماء لها نفس صيغة المفرد وصيغة الجمع SING.
Irregular Plurals Singular man
أسماء جمع شاذة
تحفظ كما هي
people ( persons)
Uncountable Nouns General Quantity
أسماء غير معدودة
(a/an( ال نضع قبلها (s) وال نزيد عليها
homework / equipment /baggage / luggage / clothing / furniture / jewelry / perfume / soap / petrol / traffic dust / sand / grass / sugar / salt / powder / / money / hair
gold / silver / wood / wool / paper / leather / cotton / glass / plastic / rubber / stone/ oil
advice / help / fun / enjoyment / information / knowledge / news / joy / happiness / sadness / progress / trust / education / intelligence / space / energy / peace / pride / wisdom
food / flour/ meat / wheat / rice / cake /bread / pasta / fish/ fruit / cream / toast/ butter / oil / cheese / honey / soup
milk / water / tea / coffee / Pepsi
weather / climate / thunder / lightning / snow / rain / ice / heat / wind / pollution
English / Arabic / French / Italian / Chinese
English / history / geography / physics / music / grammar
tennis / baseball / basketball / football / hockey / chess
swimming / walking / driving / speaking / cooking / sleeping
Possessive الملكية ) للتعبيرChildren’s books ( ) أو أسماء الجمع الشاذThe boy’s book( ‘) بعد األسماء المفردةs( نضع .عن الملكية .) The boys’ books ( )s( نضع فاصلة (‘) فقط بعد أسماء الجمع المنتظم أي المنتهية ب :أمثلة على الجمع الشاذ Man / men woman / women child / children foot / feet tooth / teeth
Exercises (Nouns) Write the plurals: man ………………….
Choose the correct answer: 1) There’s a big sale on _________________ clothes at Carrefour. a) child
2) Please buy me some __________________ at the store. a) pen
b) a pen
d) the pens
3) There's a big sale on ______________ hats. a) men
4) At least 10 ____________ work in this office. a) peoples
d) a person
5) The student didn’t have _______________ for the teacher. a) answer
b) some answer
c) an answer
d) an answers
6) We need to buy _______________ for our living room. a) chair
b) some chair
c) a chair
d) a chairs
7) My sister would like to be ____________. a) writer
d) a writer
8) Mohammed and Moataz went shopping last Friday without their ____________.. a) wifes
9) She got some_________ fore her wedding present. a) a gold
c) the gold
10) This is my ____________car. He drives it every day. a) father's
11) These are my ____________bikes. They ride them every day. a) friends
12) There are my ____________clothes. I have to wash them. a) children
d) children '
Noun Determiners Singular
ما يأتي قبل األسماء
Other The other
Much More Plenty of A lot of Lots of
Another The other
Other The other Many More Several A lot of Lots of
A few Few Fewer
some any enough
A little Little Less
some any enough
(Another / Other(
) أخرون/ (أخر
اسم مفرد غير محددAnother boy
اسم جمع Other boys / others
اسم ال يعد Other water
Some people are rich but other people are poor. The other boys / The others I see only six boys in the class. Where are the other boys?
Some water is salt but other water is fresh.
I want another cup of tea. The other ( boy ) I've two pens. I'll have one and you can take the other (one).
The other water They have drunk all the juice. Can you bring the other juice in the fridge?
( many / much / a lot of ( ) a lot of (
) many / much ( النفي
) many / much ( السؤال
I have a lot of pens.
I don’t have many pens.
Do you have many pens?
I’d like a lot of tea.
I wouldn’t like much tea.
Do you have much tea?
too many / too much ) too ( ) في األثبات بعد كلمةmany / much ( ◄ يمكن أن نستخدم Many boys are absent today. ) في األثبات في بداية الجملةmany/much( ◄ يمكن أن نستخدم
( some / any( ) some (
) any ( النفي
I have some books.
) السؤال ( حسب نوع السؤال
I don’t have any books.
Do you have any books?
I’d like some tea.
I wouldn’t like any tea.
. ) في النفي و السؤال العامany ( ◄ نستخدم Would you like some tea?
I want some milk.
I don’t want any milk. Can I have some milk? . ) في األثبات و سؤال الطلب أو العرضsome ( ◄ نستخدم
Exercises (Nouns Determiners) Choose the correct answer: 1) We arrived before all the _______ guests at the party. a) other
d) one other
2) Would you like _______ book to read? a) some
3) I got two presents: one from my mother and _______ from my friend. a) other
c) the other
d) the others
4) I invited four guests. Two are present. Where are _______ guests? a) others
d) the other
5) Reem and Moza are old friends. They try to see each _______ at least once a week. a) another
b) the other
6) Give me _______ loaf of bread, please. a) another
b) the others
7) She returned three of my six books and promised to bring_______ on Friday. a) other
d) the others
8) Weâ€™ll take three cars. You go in one and weâ€™ll take _______ a) others
b) the others
9) Some people prefer vegetables while_______ prefer meat. a) other
d) the others
10) Call me if you want some help. I have ________ ideas that you might like. a) few
c) a few
d) a little
11) There isnâ€™t _______ milk in the fridge. a) many
12) I have never read _______ of these books. a) some
d) a little
13) I saw _______ students on my way to the mall. a) lots
b) a little
14) Pass me _______ salt if you don't mind. a) lot
b) a lot
15) He always eats too _______ oranges. a) many
16) There is _______ milk left in the refrigerator. I need to buy some. a) little
b) a little
d) a few
Definite & Indefinite Articles
أدوات التعريف و النكرة
. ) تستخدم كأداة للتعريفThe (
. ) تستخدمان كأدوات نكرةa / an ( ◄
a pen – a tree – a car – a man - a girl .( قبل األسماء التي تبدأ بحرف ساكنa ( ◄ نضع an apple – an egg )a , e , i , o , u ) ( قبل األسماء التي تبدأ بحرف متحركan) ◄ نضع : ) فقط حسب النطقa / an ( ◄ نضع an hour /an honest man ) an umbrella ( an ( نضعa) ) a university / a European city ( a ( نضعy)
: ) h ( ◄حروف صامتة (u) ◄ أذا نطقنا ( كما هيu) ◄أذا نطقنا
)a / an ( إستخدام a table - an egg
قبل األسماء المفردة المعدودة
He is an engineer. She is an English woman.
قبل الوظيفة قبل الجنسية
He visits his uncle four times a week.
)The ( إستخدام The sun / The earth / The universe / The sky ...
.االسم الذي ال يوجد منه سوى نوع واحد قط
The Arabian Gulf / The River Nile / The Red Sea / The Pacific Ocean / The Alps
أسماء األنهار و البحار والمحيطات والخلجان .… والجبال والصحاري والجزر
The north / the south / The east / The west
The top / The bottom / The left / The right / The center / The middle / The corner I saw a man. The man was young.
مع األتجهات مع ظروف المكان نستخدم مع االسم الذي ذكر للمرة الثانية
The president / The manager / The ground / The roof / The door / The police / The army
مع األشياء المعروفة
The airport / The museum / The club ….
مع األماكن المشهورة
The piano / The drum / The oud / The guitar I know the boy who took your bike.
.أسماء اآلالت الموسيقية )قبل جملة الوصل ( التي تحتوي علي ضمير وصل
The name of / The winner of/ The capital of The tallest / The most beautiful
) أو الجملة الوصفيةOf ( قبل )قبل الصفات (المقارنة بين أكثر من أثنين
The first / The second /The third / The fourth ...
مع أرقام الترتيب
The radio/ The internet / The end / The same
مع بعض الكلمات
)The ( حاالت عدم إستخدام ) قبل بعض األماكن (بشكل عام
home /bed / hospital / school / college
: ) The ( ◄ أذا استخدمنا هذه األماكن بشكل خاص فأننا نستخدم I go to school. ) ( بشكل عام/ My father came to the school yesterday. )(بشكل خاص ) قبل الوجبات الغذائية ( بشكل عام
breakfast / lunch / dinner
: )The ( ◄اذا كنا نتحدث عن وجبة معينة فأننا نستخدم The lunch in this restaurant will be very delicious. قبل الدول والمدن والقارات
France / Egypt / Cairo / Dubai / Africa
: ) قبل أسماء الواليات والجمهوريات والممالكThe ( ◄ نستخدم The U.A.E. / The K.S.A. / The U.S.A. / The U.K. ( The united kingdom ) Times Square / Hope Street / Union Road
قبل أسماء الشوارع والميادين والطرق
English / Math / IT / Arabic / History ….
قبل المواد الدراسية
tomorrow /yesterday / last (day )/next (day)
قبل الظروف الزمنية قبل الرياضات
football / tennis ……..
قبل أيام األسبوع وشهور السنة
Monday / June / October ……… Music / water / work / life / weather / fish ….
)قبل األسماء الغير معدودة (بشكل عام
: ) The ( ◄ أذا أستخدمنا األسماء الغير معدودة بشكل خاص ( محدد ) فأننا نستخدم I don’t like cold weather. ) ) بشكل عام/ The weather is cold today.
) ) بشكل خاص
Exercises (Articles) Choose the correct answer: 1) Really he is ____________ honest man. a) an
2) You have got to buy ____________ uniform for your new job. a) an
3) Ahmed usually has ____________ with his friends in the cafeteria. a) the lunch
b) the lunches
d) a lunch
4) Princess Rania has become famous for her work with____________ children. a) a
5) Nelson Mandela was born in ____________ South Africa. a) a
6) ____________ K.S.A is a country in Asia. a) A
7) Last summer we spent a few days at ___________ very nice hotel by the sea. a) the
8) She works as ____________ teacher in a private school. a) the
9) Bill is good at playing ____________ piano. a) an
10) I saw a man in the park. ____________ man was playing with his children. a) the
11) I'd like to travel all over ____________ world. a) a
12) Teachers don't like ____________ children who make noise. a) an
watermelon that I bought yesterday was very tasty.
c) a c) an
d) __ d) __
14) There are many stars in ____________ sky. a) a 15) Egypt is in a) an
b) an ____________ b) the
of Africa. c) a
Choose the following table with: A / An / The / …… apple
.. president of
…. capital of
…… Red Sea
….. north of
… honest man
….. same as
… honest men
…. River Nile
Relative Pronouns ضمائر الوصل . نستخدم ضمير الوصل ليحل محل األسم أو الضمير في الجملة الثانية The boy was tall. He broke the glass. / The boy, who broke the glass, was tall. Relative PN.
Who Whom Which That Whose When Where Why How What
أشخاص ( فاعل )
للعاقل ( فاعل أوThe boy, (who) I met, was playing. ) مفعولThe boy, who studies hard, gets high marks. ) للعاقل ( مفعول فقطThe boy, (whom) I met, was playing. لغير العاقلI drove the car which my father bought me. The house which we rented in London was nice. للعاقل وغير العاقلThe boy, (that) won the race, is my cousin. The car ,that my father drives, is old. للملكية (مع العاقلThis is the woman whose son died. ) وغير العاقلThe dog, whose leg was broken, was small. للوقتThe fall is a time when leaves turn brown. للمكانThis is the school where we learn. للسببI don’t know the reason why he was absent. للكيفية أو الحالHe told me how to face challenges. لألشياء وغالبا مسبوقةThis is all what I have.
all بI don't know what he is looking for.
مالحظات هامة : ( مع غير العاقلWhich) ( مع العاقل وWhom) إذا سبق الضمير حرف جر فأننا نستخدم Ex: The boy, with whom I played yesterday, made an accident. This is the school in which I learnt. :( عند أستخدامهم مكان المفعولwho , whom , which , that( يمكن أن نحذف Ex: The boy I met yesterday was playing. I drove the car my dad bought me. . الحظ وجود فاعل اخر في الجملة : ال يجوز أن نحذف ضمير الوصل اذا أتي مكان الفاعل في الجملة الثانية Ex: The boy, who studies hard, gets high marks. I ate the apple that was on the table. Ex: This is the house where I was born. (house - place) :نضع ضمير الوصل حسب معنى الجملة The house that we bought last year is very big. ( house - thing )
Exercises (Relative Pronouns) Choose the correct answer: 1) I prefer travelling in the winter ________ the weather is more comfortable. a) who
2) Iâ€™m going to Kenya, ________________ I hope to go on safari. a) who
3) The lady ________________ car was damaged in the accident is very sad. a) who
4) The person ______________ visited your house was very nice. a) who
5) The shop owner wondered ____________I was looking for. a) what
6) Children _____________ eat a lot of sugar often get fat. a) which
7) This is the house in ________ I live. a) who
8) Fatima, ________ mother makes lovely cakes, has invited us to tea. a) who
9) This is the house ________ my grandfather was born. a) which
10) The teacher ________ we all like is ill today. a) how
11) The house________ they have rented is in the center of town. a) who
12) He bought all the books ________are required for the course. a) that
13) A dictionary is a book _____________ we can find meanings of words. a) who
14) The boy didnâ€™t understand _________ his friend was crying. a) who
Connectors Connectors الروابط For ) ألن ( سبب
كلمات تربط بين جمل أو عبارات
Examples أمثلة He loves science for he wants to be a scientist.
And ) و ( اضافة معلوماتShe went shopping and she bought vegetables. Nor ) وال ( نفيThey haven’t relaxed nor have they studied. But ) ولكن ( تناقضHe studied hard but he failed the exam. Or ) تحذير/ أو (اختيارYou can join a university or you can have a job. Yet ) ولكن ( تناقضHe slept early yet he got up late. So ) ولذلك ( نتيجةHe studied hard so he got high marks.
جمل مثبتة Both ….. and كال من )play) دائما يأتي بعدهم فعل لصيغة الجمع
- Both Reem and her sisters play tennis. - Both Ali and Saif play soccer.
Not only … but also /as well -Not only Reem but also her sisters play tennis. ولكن أيضا....... ليس فقط-Not only has she succeeded but also / as well not only نكتب الفعل المساعد بعد- she has got high marks. And also ( فعل مساعد مثبت+ ) فاعل
- Reem plays tennis and also do her sisters.
And ( فاعل+ ) فعل مساعد مثبتtoo
- Reem plays tennis and her sisters do too.
جمل منفية Neither …. nor وال..... ليس ( nor ) الفعل يأتي حسب الفاعل بعد And neither (فعل مساعد مثبت+) فاعل ) neither ( ( بدال منnor) يمكن استخدام
- Neither Reem nor her sisters swim in the sea. - Neither Reem nor Mona swims in the sea. -Reem doesn’t swim and neither do her sisters. - Reem doesn’t swim and neither does Mona.
and ( فاعل+ فعل مساعد+ not ) either
- Reem doesn’t swim and Mona doesn’t either.
جمل للتعبير عن خيارين Either ….. or أو...... اما ( or ) الفعل يأتي حسب الفاعل بعد
Either Moza or her sister feeds the cat.
جمل للتعبير عن التحذير Or / Otherwise
None (not one / no one / nothing)
وإالHurry up, or / otherwise you will miss the bus.
-None of the students want/wants to take exams. - I wanted some coffee, but there was none left.
Neither of my parents lives with me.
( للتحدث عن اثنينNone) ( وال نستخدمNeither) نستخدم
Exercises (Connectors) Choose the correct answer: 1) All of his brothers became doctors, _____________ he wants to be a teacher. a) yet
2) I would like to see you tonight, _______________ I’m too busy with work. a) so
3) Ali wants to lose weight, _________________ he exercises daily. a) so
4) We played well, _________ we lost the match. a) or
5) Pepper and salt are bad for the heart, _________ he doesn’t eat them. a) so
6) Study well _____________ you will get low mark in the exam. a) or
7) Moza is a nice girl, ________________ her sister isn't. a) and
8) My sister didn’t go out and _____________ did my brother. a) either
9) My friend speaks English well and_____________ does my sister. a) neither
10) I haven’t studied yet and my friend _____________ a) haven’t either
b) hasn’t either
c) has either
d) has too
11) My mother works in a bank and also _____________ a) do my father
b) my father does
c) does my father
d) is my father
12) _____________ my mother nor my father traveled abroad. a) Either
13) _____________ my brother and my sister go to school. a) Neither
14) You can drink _____________ tea or coffee. a) neither
كلمات تربط بين جمل أو عبارات
روابط يأتي بعدها جملة كاملة Reason
روابط يأتي بعدها عبارة
Because / As / Since / For ألن
Because of / Due to / As a result of On account of نتيجة ل/ بسبب
He didn’t come because he was ill.
He didn’t come because of ( his illness / being ill).
Although جملة أساسية Though بالرغم من تناقض Even though Example Although he is poor, he is glad. He is glad although he is poor. Contrast
Nevertheless However مع ذلك تناقض But ولكن
Despite / In spite of )بالرغم من ( يأتي بعدهم عبارة من الجملة األساسية Despite being poor, he is glad. In spite of his poverty, he is glad.
• He is poor. However, he is glad. • He is poor but he is glad.
While / whereas بينما
Ali is clever whereas his sister is lazy. Result
so ) • ) جملتان متصلتانHe was ill so he didn’t go to school. Thus /Therefore /As a result / •It was cold. As a result, I didn’t go out. Consequently )( جملتان منفصلتان so ظرف/ صفة عاديةthat + sent. such صفة عادية+ اسمthat + sent. too ( adj. ) صفةto + inf. مصدر الفعل صفة عاديةenough to + مصدر الفعل صفة عاديةenough for + فعل+ ing
The tea was so hot that I couldn’t drink it. It was such hot tea that I couldn’t drink it. The tea is too hot (for me) to drink. He is not old enough to come with us. He is not old enough for coming with us. Purpose الغرض
in order that / so that
to / in order to / so as to
لكيI study hard so as to succeed.
in order not to so as not to For من أجل
لكي ال عبارة فعل+ ing
I study hard so that I can succeed. I study hard in order not to fail the exam. I study hard for good marks. I study hard for getting good marks.
Exercises (Conjunctions) Choose the correct answer: 1) She couldnâ€™t travel ________________ the bad weather. a) as
c) so that
d) because of
2) ________________ his poverty, he didn't ask anyone to help him. a) As
3) __________ she was ill, she went to the club with us. a) However
4) ________ it was raining, I didn't get wet. a) Although
c) Just as
5) Aliya got the job, ________ she had no experience. a) as
c) even though
6) I don't drink coffee, ________ it makes me nervous. a) while
7) Surfing is fun ________it can be dangerous. a) as
b) in order to
8) ___________ his talent, no body admires him. a) Although
9) ___________ his illness, Jack didnâ€™t come to school. a) So that
b) In order to
d) Due to
10) We lost the match _____________ we didn't train well. a) because
b) due to
c) because of
11) They lost the match __________ the hard training. a) although
12) I go to the park ___________________ relax under the trees. a) in order that
b) in order to
c) so that
13) We are trying to save money _________ we can buy a bigger house. a) for
b) in order to
d) so that
) لو ( الجمل الشرطية/ إذا
If (Conditional sentences) الحالة
فعل جواب الشرط ) للتعبير عن شئ حقيقي ( حقيقة علمية أو عادة عامة
inf. / V + s don’t / doesn’t + inf. Ex: If I eat fish, I usually get ill. If we heat water, it boils.
inf. / V
don’t / doesn’t + inf.
. للتعبير عن شئ محتمل الحدوث في المستقبل
مضارع بسيط inf. / V + s
don’t / doesn’t + inf.
will (’ll ) / won’t can / can’t shall / shan’t may / may not must / mustn’t
inf. )( مصدر الفعل
Ex: If it rains, I won’t go out. If I have money, I will buy a new car. شواذ )) نستخدم المصدرللتعبيرعن األمر في جملة جواب الشرط (والفاعل يكون محذوف1 Ex: If you meet Ahmed, tell him about the party. ) يمكن أن نعبرعن النصيحة في جملة جواب الشرط بإستخدام أفعال ناقصة في2 ( should , have to / has to , ought to , must ) : المضارع مثل Ex: If you are ill, you should go to the doctor. . للتعبير عن مواقف خيالية أو شئ مستبعد الحدوث في المضارع
would(’d )/wouldn’t could / couldn’t V + ed / شاذdidn’t + inf. might / might not Ex: If I were a bird, I would fly. If I had money, I would buy a new car. ماضي بسيط
inf. )(مصدر الفعل
. للتعبير عن اللوم أو العتاب أو عن استبعاد حدوث فعل في الماضي
would (’d )/wouldn’t could /couldn’t have +V3 had + V3 hadn’t+V3 might / might not Ex: If I had studied hard, I would have succeeded. If I had had money, I would have bought a car. ماضي تام
.) not ( ) تشير للنفي أي ال نضع بعدهاunless ( ) ولكنunless ( ) بعدif ( يمكن استخدام نفس حاالت Ex: Unless you study, you won’t pass the exam. = If you don’t study, you won’t pass the exam.
Exercises (if / unless ) Choose the correct answer: 1) You shouldnâ€™t drive a car _____________ you have a driving license. a) if
2) If you donâ€™t hurry up, you _______________ miss the bus. a) will
3) If you ___________ faster, we would have arrived on time. a) had driven
c) have driven
4) Unless he gets up early, he _____________ the school bus. a) would miss
b) will miss
5) If I _______________ stronger, I'd help you carry the piano. a) am
b) will be
d) had been
6) I would have bought a new car if I _________________ enough money. a) has
b) will have
d) had had
7) If you eat much fat, you _____________ weight. a) gaining
c) would gain
d) will gain
8) If I __________ a spaceship, I would travel to the moon. a) had
d) had had
9) If he had studied well, he _____________ high marks. a) would get
b) would have got
c) will get
10) If you came late, you ___________ the interview. a) misses
b) would have missed
c) would miss
d) will miss
11) We would go home if the bell ___________ a) ring
12) If you feel cold, _____________ a jacket. a) wore
13) If I had enough money, I _____________ a new mobile. a) bought
b) would buy
c) will buy
d) would have bought
14) They will travel abroad if they _____________ enough money. a) had
Expressing Regret / Far wish التعبير عن الندم أو التمني المستحيل عند التمني أو الندم في المضارع نستخدم الماضي البسيط
عند التمني أو الندم في الماضي نستخدم الماضي التام
1) I can't fly. I wish I were a bird. / If only I were a bird. 2) I can't drive a car. If only I knew how to drive a car. 3) You always come late. I wish you wouldn’t arrive late all the time.
1) I failed the exam. I wish I had studied my lessons. If only I had studied my lessons. 2) I came late to school yesterday. I wish I had come early to school. If only I had come early to school.
: ( للتعبير عن الندمregret ’s’ + V+ ing / not+ V+ing ( يمكن استخدام He has cancer. He regrets smoking. / I am very fat. I regret not playing sports.
Exercises (Expressing Regret / Far wish) Choose the correct answer: 1) His mother was at hospital. I wish she _____________ better . a) has been
b) would be
c) had been
d) will be
2) I had an accident. I wish I _____________ carefully. a) drive
b) had driven
c) have driven
3) Mike made a horrible mistake. He _____________ deeply. a) thought
b) will think
d) should have thought
4) Jack failed the driving test. I wish he _____________ it a) passes
b) had passed
c) can pass
d) will pass
5) I hope my sister ______________ the university next year. a) has joined
d) will join
6) I feel ill. If only I _____________ in cold water. a) hadn’t swum
b) haven’t swum
c) don’t swim
d) didn’t swim
7) I fell down. I wish _____________ on a banana. a) hadn't stepped b) don't step
c) haven't stepped
d) doesn't stepped
8) My brother travelled abroad. If only I _____________ him. a) meeting
c) had met
d) to meet
9) I hope my brother ______________ in the final exam. a) will pass
c) has passed
Prepositions of time in
حروف جر للوقت
a period of time ) .... موسم/ شهر/ يستخدم للتحدث عن فترة زمنية ( سنة in 2003 / in July / in the winter – summer – spring-fall (autumn) / in the (morning-afternoon-evening) /in the middle of the day / in a few weeks
on For days and dates:
لأليام والتواريخ on my birthday / on July 4th / on Saturday / on Tuesday afternoon / on holiday / on the weekend ( U.S) ).... وجبات يومية/ يستخدم للتحدث عن نقطة زمنية (ساعات at A point in time: at 4 o'clock / at 10:45 / at breakfast- lunch – dinner / at the end of : أو مع بعض التعبيرات at the moment/at the same time/at night/at noon/at the weekend(U.K) by By = before قبلx after بعد by 9: 00 / before 9:00 x after 9:00 During ( فترة زمنية ( أثناء during summer holiday
Prepositions of place
حروف جر للمكان
: أماكن مغلقة ) أو مع األتجاهات/ قارات/ دول/ يستخدم للتحدث عن أماكن تحوطنا ) مدن in a room/ in the kitchen/ in Africa/ in Cairo / in Egypt / in a garden / in the river / in the sea/ in a pool / in a shop / in a bank / in a factory/ in the east of / in the west of / in the north of / in the south of : للتحدث عن أشياء فوق أشياء أخري أو للتحدث عن أماكن مفتوحة on
on the wall/on the table /on a tree /on the board/on a field/on a plain / on a farm/ on the first floor /on the ground /on the way/on an island
يستخدم مع العناوين أو مع أحداث أو للتحدث عن أماكن نذهب اليها يوميا لنري الناس أو نفعل شئ at 25 Main street /at the bus stop/at the doctor's/at the post office/ at work/at school /at college /at university/at home/at the mall/at the door /at the butcher's /at the station/at a party/at a meeting
Prepositions of place in over / above behind near / by next to towards inside at the top up
داخل/ في فوق خلف قريب بجوار تجاه داخل في األعلي ألعلى
حروف جر للمكان
on على below / under تحت in front of أمام opposite في الجهة المقابلة far away from بعيد عن away from بعيدا عن outside خارج at the bottom في األسفل down ألسفل
in the middle / center في الوسط on the corner في الزاوية/ في الركن along على امتداد across from في الجهة المقابلة/ عبر between بين past مارا ب
: ( للتعبير عن وسائل المواصالتby) نستخدم حرف الجر by car بالسيارة/ by taxi بالتاكسي/ by bus بالباص/ on foot سيرا علي األقدام
Exercises (prepositions ) Complete with (in / on / at): 1) …… night.
2) …… Monday.
3) ……. April.
5) …… the summer. 6) …… university. 7) ……. May first. 9) …… midnight.
10) …… Cairo.
11) …. the center.
4) ……… 1990. 8) … home. 12) ..… college.
13) …… an island. 14) …… holiday 15) …. the butcher's. 16) …… work. Write ( in /on /under /above /between/in front of/behind) under the boxes:
… … …. Choose
… … … … …. the…. correct answer:
… … ….
… … ….
… … ….
1) Saif and Hissa are planning to have their wedding __________ the summer. a) at
2) I get up __________ 7.00 every day. a) at
3) I usually go out __________ Thursday evenings. a) at
4) David’s new restaurant will be open__________ the 23rd of August. a) in
5) Don't sit __________ the grass. It's wet a) at
6) Look! There's a man __________ the roof. What's he doing? a) on
7) Cairo is __________ the north of Egypt. a) at
8) The mosque is __________ the hospital and the park. a) next
Modal Verbs أفعال ناقصة
Modals of Ability أفعال ناقصة تدل علي القدرة
can + inf. - He can run fast. (am/is/are) able to+ inf. - He's able to run fast. could + inf. He could run last day.
Cannot (can't) + inf. - He can't run fast. (am/is /are) not able to + inf. He's not able to run fast. could not (couldn't)+ inf He couldn't run last day
Can + الفاعل+ inf.? - Can he run fast? Am / Is / Are + الفاعل+ able to + inf.? - Is he able to run? Could + الفاعل+ inf.? Could he run last day?
(was/were) able to+ inf. - He was able to run. will be able to + inf.
(was / were) not able to + inf. He wasn't able to run. won't be able to + inf.
Was / Were + الفاعل+ able to + inf.? Was he able to run? Will+ الفاعل+be able to + inf?
He'll be able to run.
He won't be able to run.
Will he be able to run?
Modals of Obligation Affirmative
Present must + inf.
mustn’t + inf. - You mustn’t smoke here.
- You must come on time. Past
أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن االلزام
had to + inf. /must have + V3 -He had to call me last day. - I didn't succeed. I must have studied.
didn’t have + inf. / mustn’t have + V3 - You didn’t have to call me yesterday. - I didn't succeed. I mustn’t have missed my lessons.
Modals of Advice أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن النصح Affirmative
should + inf. ought to + inf. had better +inf. - You’re tired. You should relax.
shouldn’t + inf. oughtn’t to + inf. had better not + inf. - You’re fat. You shouldn’t drink Pepsi.
should have + V3 ought to have + V3 - He was tired. He should have relaxed. - He was tired. He ought to have relaxed.
shouldn’t have + V3 / oughtn’t to have + V3 - He made an accident. He shouldn’t have driven very fast. - He made an accident. He oughtn’t to have driven very fast.
Modals of Necessity أفعال ناقصة تعبر عن الضرورة Affirmative
have to / has to + inf. You are fat. You have to go on a diet. have got to / has got to + inf. You are fat. You have got to go on a diet. need to + inf. There is an exam tomorrow. I need to study my lessons.
(don’t / doesn’t ) have to + inf. -You are thin. You don’t have to go on a diet. haven’t got to / hasn’t got to + inf. You are thin. You haven’t got to go on a diet. needn’t to + inf. / don’t need to + inf. -There is no exam. I needn’t to study. / I don’t need to study.
had to + inf.
didn’t have to+ inf./didn’t need to + inf. He was well. He didn’t have to take medicine. / He didn't need to take … hadn’t got to + inf. He hadn’t got to take medicine. needn’t have +V3 /didn’t need to + inf. - The restaurant is empty. We needn’t have booked a table. - The restaurant is empty. We didn’t need to book a table.
He was ill. He had to take medicine. had got to + inf. He had got to take medicine. need have + V3 The restaurant is full. We need have booked a table.
Modals of Possibility / Probability / deduction أفعال ناقصة تدل علي األستنتاج أو األحتمال Present Very sure متأكد جدا
must be He looks tired. He must be ill. may be He isn’t here. He may be at home. might be / could be I’m not sure. He might be ill.
must have been He looked tired. He must have been ill. Quite sure may have been متأكد الي حد ما He didn’t come. He may have been at home. Not sure might have been /could have been غير متأكد Ali didn’t come. He might have been ill. (am/ is / are / was / were ) فأننا نستخدم فعل يكون%100 عندما نكون متأكدين بنسبة. ) لالستنتاج المنفي في الماضيcan’t have been ( ( لالستنتاج المنفي في المضارع وcan’t be) نستخدمEx: Ali is in the class. He can’t be absent. Ali was in the class. He can’t have been absent.
Modals Of Prediction
أفعال ناقصة للتنبؤ
Will (’ll) + inf. I think it will rain. (am / is / are) going to + inf. It’s cloudy. I think it’s going to rain.
won’t + inf. I think it won’t rain. ( am / is / are ) not going to + inf. It’s not cloudy. It’s not going to rain.
Making requests (Modal + you) أفعال ناقصة للطلب Formal
Could you + inf. / Would you+ inf. Could you give me your book, please? Would you give me your book,please? Informal Can you + inf. Can you give me your book?
Modals of Permission (Modal + I / We) أفعال ناقصة لألستئذان Formal / Polite Informal
Could I / May I / Shall I + inf. … ? Could I have some tea, please? / May I have some tea, please? Shall I have some tea, please? Can I + inf. … ? Can I have some tea, please?
Modals to express habits أفعال ناقصة للتعبير عن العادات Present Past
Will (’ll) + inf. When we go to Paris, we will often eat in restaurants. Would (’d ) + inf. When we went to Paris, we would often eat in restaurants.
Exercises (Modal Verbs ) Choose the correct answer: 1) Ahmad ___________ finish all his work today; he’s got all day tomorrow as well. a) not have to
b) must to
c) doesn’t have to
d) should to
2) Drivers __________have sunglasses for driving because they’re not necessary. a) have to
b) don’t have to
3) I ____________go to the party but I'm not sure yet. a) can
4) Aysha __________come for dinner this evening although she didn’t promise. a) must
5) Carol may ____________a movie tonight. a) seen
6) ____________they drive in the rush hours? - No, they couldn’t. a) Are
7) The doctor says he will never _________play tennis again after his accident. a) can
c) be able to
d) is able to
c) wasn’t able
8) I ____________run at all. I’m very unfit. a) can
9) He ____________ride a bike when he was young. a) wasn’t able
d) was able
10) ____________play a musical instrument? a) Could you
b) Can you
c) Are you able
d) Can’t you
11) I ____________understand why you won’t let me go out. a) couldn’t
c) be not able to
12) Ali failed the exam. He ___________his lessons hard. a) should study
b) has to study
c) should have studied
d) may study
13) There was a fire in his office but he ____________escape through a window. a) can
b) is able to
c) could to
d) was able to
14) Mariam is so ill that she ____________to the cinema with you. a) can't go
b) not gone
c) couldn’t go
d) hasn’t gone
15) We arrived early so that we ____________the meeting on time. a) could attend
b) may attend
d) will attend
16) ____________I have another book, please? a) May
17) He had a lung cancer. He ____________ cigarettes. a) shouldn’t smoke
b) shouldn’t have smoked
c) should have smoked
18) Ali has high marks in all exams so he ____________ be lazy. a) shouldn’t
c) may not
19) You ____________ Wear a uniform when you come to our school. a) should
20) I didn’t feel very well yesterday. I ____________ eat anything. a) cannot
(Passive) ( إلي المبني للمجهولactive( لتحويل الجملة من مبني للمعلوم:نتبع الخطوات التالية ) نكتب الظروف3 .) إذا كان هناك أفعال مساعدة أو ناقصة نكتبها بما يناسب المفعول2 .) نبدأ بالمفعول1 .) نضع الفعل األساسي في التصريف الثالث5 .) نكتب فعل يكون مناسب لزمن الجملة4 .الزمنية .) نكمل باقي الجملة7 .) ويمكن حذف هذه الخطوةby( ) نكتب الفاعل مسبوقا ب6 I have already studied English.
English has already been studied by me.
Verb to be فعل يكون Infinitive
am / is / are
was / were
:( مع تحويل الفعل المساعد ليناسب المفعولbe/being/been) إذاكان هناك أفعال مساعدة نستخدم to/will/would/can/could/may be + V3 / might/should /must/have to being + am / is / are V3 was / were
We are eating meat now. Meat is being eaten by us.
have / has had
I have just drunk tea. Tea has just been drunk.
I will study my lessons. My lessons will be studied.
: ) حسب المفعولisn’t / aren’t ( ) نحذفهم ونستخدمdon’t / doesn’t ( في حالة وجود don’t/doesn’t + inf. isn’t/aren’t+V3 Ali doesn’t play football. Football isn’t played by Ali. : ) حسب المفعولis / are ( ) في السؤال نحذفهم ونستخدمdo / does ( في حالة وجود Do / Does .. + inf..? Is/Are + ..V3..? Does Ali play football? Is football played by Ali? : ) حسب المفعولwasn’t / weren’t ( ) نحذفها ونستخدمdidn’t ( في حالة وجود didn’t + inf. Wasn’t / He didn’t study his lessons. weren’t + v3 His lessons weren’t studied. : ) حسب المفعولwas / were ( ) في السؤال نحذفها ونستخدمdid ( في حالة وجود did + inf.
was / were + Did Ali eat cookies? V3 Were cookies eaten by Ali? ( للماضي البسيطwas/were)( للمضارع البسيط وam/is/are ( إذا لم يوجد أفعال مساعدة نستخدم Present Simple am/is/are+ V3 I study English every day. (play / plays ) English is studied every day. Past Simple was/were+ V3 The thief stole my money. (played / ate ) My money was stolen. 68
تحويالت أخرى للمبني للمجهول Active
want / tell / ask … + object + to + inf. want /ask… +object + to + be + V3 Ex: I want someone to clean my room. Ex: I want my room to be cleaned. remember / avoid ... + object + V+ ing remember / avoid …. + being + V3 EX:I remember my dad hugging me. EX: I remember being hugged.
فعل أمر+ مفعول Ex: Open the door, please. Ex: My dad gave me a pen.
Let + ) (المفعول+ be + V3 Let the door be opened.
: مفعولينI was given a pen. A pen was given to me.
Causative السببية الجملة العادية
) الفاعل ( صاحب الشئ+ have ) ( حسب زمن الحدث+ المفعول+V3
Present Has /have + V3 Simple Past Had+V3 Simple Present am/is/are Continuous +having+ V3 Past was / were+ Continuous having+ V3 Will + have +V3 Future S. ( will)
She makes me cake.
I have cake made.
She cleaned his room. She’s tidying my bed.
He had his room cleaned. I’m having my bed tidied.
My mother was cooking me food.
I was having food cooked.
My brother will wash my car.
I will have my car washed.
Future S. ( going to)
My sister’s going to clean my room.
I’m going to have my room cleaned.
can / should…. + have +V3
I should study my lessons.
I should have my lessons studied.
Have / has + had+V3
The barber has just cut my hair.
I’ve just had my hair cut.
My brother had fixed I had had my watch my watch. fixed. : )have) ( بدال منget( وأيضا يمكن أن نستخدم
الجملة العادية My mom cleans my room. The worker painted my house. The barber will cut my hair.
جملة السببية I get my room cleaned. I got my house painted. I will get my hair cut.
Exercises (Passive Voice ) Choose the correct answer: 1) Do you like my new car? It ____________ for me by my father last year. a) is bought
b) are bought
c) was bought
2) A new hospital ____________ in each village soon. a) can build
b) will build
c) has built
d) will be built
3) A new hotel ____________ in the center of town. a) is being built
c) is building
4) Sorry I'm late. I'm afraid my bike ____________. a) has been stolen
b) were stolen
c) being stolen
d) be stolen
5) This painting ____________ by a great artist. a) has been painted
c) is built
6) This villa ____________ twenty years ago. a) builds
b) was built
7) We ____________ to the party, but we didn’t go. a) were invited
b) are invited
8) Important projects ____________ by the government lately. a) have been made
b) have made
9) I haven’t ____________ my eyes tested for a long time. a) had
Change from active to passive: Active 1) I will clean my room tomorrow. 2) Ali has just washed the car. 3) My dad sent me a letter yesterday. 4) Many people speak English worldwide. 5) My sister is reading a story now.
Passive ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………
6) Do people grow fruits in your country? 7) Reem doesn’t brush her teeth.
Change from passive to active: Passive 1) Trees are cut down by people. 2) The school was built in 1990. 3) The lessons have been studied by Ali.
Active ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………
الكالم المباشر والغير مباشر
Direct & Indirect Speech Direct Ali said, ‘’I studied Math last day.’’ He said,’’ Did you wash the car?’’
My dad said,’’ Don’t be late.’’
My dad told me not to be late.
Ali said that he had studied Math the day before.
He asked me if I had washed the car.
الجملة-Reem told me (that) she felt الخبريةtired.
.( هي الرابط في الجملة الخبرية ويمكن حذفهاthat) .(me) ( نستخدمهم قبل مخاطبsaid to/told)
-Ali said to me (that) he had been ill. جملة- I wondered if she had won said (that) she had األستفهامReem the race. studied. - She asked me whether I would come.
. ( نستخدمها اذا لم يكن هناك مخاطبsaid ) . ( هما الرابطان في السؤال بهلif / whether )
لتحويل السؤال فيه أداة استفهام إلى غير المباشر نستخدم .أداة األستفهام نفسها كرابط : لتحويل السؤال إلى غير المباشر نستخدم أفعال القول (asked/wondred)
- He asked me where I was going. جملة- He told me to study.
.( هما الرابطان في األمر والنصحto/not to+ inf)
األمر أو النصحHe advised me not to smoke.
.( هي أفعال القول ويأتي مخاطب بعدهمtold/advised)
) وذلك في الجمل الخبرية واألستفهاميةtold/said/asked/wondered ( نستخدم أزمنة في الماضي بعد أفعال القول . ( to/not to) في الجمل األمرية وجمل النصح نستخدم المصدر بعد-
: )says / asks / tells …. ( ال نغير األزمنة اذا كان فعل القول مضارعEx: He says he lives in Cairo. ( says lives ) : ال نغير في األزمنة إذا كان الكالم يدل علي حقائق يومية أو حقائق علمية أو حكمMy teacher said time is gold. / It is said that protection is better than cure.
تحويل األزمنة في الكالم الغير مباشر ) كل زمن يتحول الي الزمن األقدم منه ( مضارع يتحول الي ماضي والماضي يتحول الي ماضي تام Direct
am / is / are am/is/are) eating was / were
was / were was/were) eating had been
didn’t + inf. didn’t eat eat - eats
hadn’t + V3 hadn’t eaten ate
have / has
had been eating had
ate will/can /may
had eaten would/could/might
( have/has) eaten
should + inf.
should have + V3
must + inf.
must have + V3
don’t / doesn’t (don’t/doesn’t) eat
didn’t didn’t eat
ought to + inf. should study
ought to have + V3 should have studied
. ) بدون تغييرwas eating ( ) أو الماضي المستمرate ( يمكن أن نترك الماضي البسيط
تحويل الظروف الزمنية وأسماء األشارة D
Yesterday/ last day
Tomorrow / next day
Those That day
The day before / The previous day
The day before after/The following day
تحويل الضمائر في الكالم الغير مباشر . ) يتحول حسب المخاطبyou) ( يتحولوا حسب المتكلم اما الضميرI / we) الضمائر Choose the correct answer: 1) John asked if I ____________ then. a) was leaving
b) am leaving
c) will leave
2) My friend said that he ____________ me the following day. a) will visit
b) would visit
3) He expected that he ____________ the work some time the following week. a) will complete
c) would complete
4) My friend said that he ____________ abroad. a) can travel
b) will travel
c) may travel
d) might travel
5) All the guests confirmed that they _____ to the party the following weekend. a) come
b) would come
c) had come
d) was coming
6) Ali told me that he ____________ with his friends about exams. a) talks
b) will talk
c) would talk
7) The lady said that she ____________ a lot of things a) buy
8) My friend said he thought it ____________ the following day. a) will rain
b) would rain
9) He asked his sister if she ____________ his keys. a) has seen
b) had seen
c) have seen
10) The doctor advised me ____________ too much junk food. a) eat
b) to eat
c) not to eat
Change from diect to indirect speech: 1) My mother said, ‘’ Don’t play with matches.’’ 2) Ali asked me,’’ where did you go yesterday?’’ 3) My said,’’ I will play football next week.’’
Subject A An The + adv. + adj. + N Many/Few Much/Little A lot of Several Some My / His.…
Aux. + Main
A very clever boy
The boy is running quickly. The boy is quick.
A An The + adv. + adj. + N Many/Few Much/Little A lot of Several Some My / His.…
Complement Adv. (easily) Adj. ( easy )
an extremely hard exam easily.
: ) إذا سبقه فعل أساسيquickly( نكمل الجملة بظرف : ) إذا سبقها فعل يكون أو أفعال الحواسquick ( نكمل الجملة بصفة .) easy / easily ( : للصفةly ظرف الحال يتكون باضافة : الظرف يصف ثالثة أشياء
:) الفعل ويأتي قبله أو بعده1 I answered the questions easily./ I easily answered the questions. My friend is extremely tall. : ) الصفة ويأتي قبلها2 Really, the weather was very nice. : ) الجملة كلها3
: قبل الصفات والظروف ممكن نضع كلمات مثل ( very , so , extremely , too / fairly, quite, pretty, rather and a bit). Ex: The weather is quite cold.
: الفعل يأتي بعد (to, don't ,doesn't ,didn't , can ,could , will , won't, would, shall, should, may, might, ought to ) Ex: You ought to organize your time.
Suffixes For people
ar ( liar ) / er ( teacher ) / eer ( engineer ) / or ( visitor ) / ist ( scientist ) /ent ( president ) /ant (assistant ) /ian ( musician )
tion ( pollution ) / sion ( explosion ) / ssion ( discussion ) / ture ( creature ) / ance ( importance ) / ence ( confidence ) / ment ( development ) / ness ( weakness ) / ship ( friendship ) / dom ( freedom ) / hood ( childhood ) / th ( growth ) / t ( weight ) / ty ( loyalty ) / ity ( ability ) / y ( pity )/al ( arrival ) / ism (criticism )
fy ( beautify ) / en ( widen ) / ise ( advise ) / ize ( summarize ) / ate ( create ) / uce ( produce ) / ed ( studied )
Adjectives able ( comfortable ) / ful ( careful )/ less ( careless )/ive (expensive) / ese ( Chinese ) / an (urban ( ian ( Asian ) / ant ( ignorant ) / ent ( different ) / ish ( selfish ) / ous ( obvious ) / y ( windy ) / ly ( lovely ) / ar ( popular ) / al ( normal )
ing ( interesting ) / ed ( interested ) . ( لألشياءing( ( لألشخاص والصفات التي تنتهي بed ( الصفات التي تنتهي بReading is interesting. / I am interested in reading. : ) إذا أثروا في الحدثing) أحيانا األشخاص يأخذون صفات منتهية بThe clown was very exciting. He made all people laugh. ly ( slowly - simply - happily- dramatically ) / wards ( forwards backwards- towards )
Prefixes & Suffixes For Adjectives honest
بادئات ولواحق للصفات
modest متواضعimmodest غيرمتواضع
impolite غير مؤدب
مباشرindirect غير مباشر
غير قانوني كسول غير سعيد غير عادي
healthy صحيunhealthy غير صحي careful حريصcareless مهمل
unlucky غير محظوظ
safe امنunsafe غير امن powerful قويpowerless غير قوي
يائس useful مفيدuseless غير مفيد less hopeful متفائلhopeless able capable قادر-knowledgeable مطلع-miserable يائس-dependable جدير بالثقة
Exercises (Parts of Speech) Choose the correct answer: 1) What does that word ________________? a) mean
2) My brother has a lot of_____________ in himself a) confide
3) Ahmed earned the _________ of the whole school after winning the contest. a) admire
4) The old fort is a famous ________________ of the city. a) attract
5) Swedish cars are known for their ________________ a) safe
6) I am ________________ that I will get the job. a) confide
7) You must _______________ your bank card before you can use it. a) active
8) The climbers enjoyed their time as the trip was quite _____________. a) exciting
9) Our English teacher always speaks _____________ to us. a) clearly
10) We ran for four kilometers , so my brother was so _____________ a) tired
11) Ali started a training course in Business _____________ a) Manager
12) The government has established _____________ centers. a) educate
13) People _____________ too much water in summer. a) consumption
14) Oil is not a _____________ resource. a) to renew
الجملة البسيطة تحتوي على فاعل وفعل واحد فقط
is / are + (V + ing ) - A boy is playing tennis. - Boys are playing tennis.
is / are + (adj.) - The boy is tall. - The boys are tall.
There (is/are) + obj. + (in+place) - There is a boy in the park.
There (is/are) + obj. + V+ ing + (in+ place) - There is a boy playing in the park.
- The boy has a bag./ The boys have bags. Compound Complex
الجملة المركبة الجملة المعقدة
Subject + Verb Examples
: ) have / has( للملكية
الجملة المركبة والجملة المعقدة يحتويان على جملتين فيهم رابط Subject + Verb
The boy is riding a bike so he is happy. The boy is happy because he is riding a bike. Subject + Verb
is / are + (in + place) -The boy is in the zoo. -The boys are in the zoo.
( Compound ) ( Complex )
Subject + Verb
Ex: If we go to the park, we will enjoy our time.
) عبارة عن جملتين فيهم فاعل وفعل لكلcomplex ( ) والجمل المعقدةcompound ( الجمل المركبة .جملة وفيهم رابط
روابط الجمل المركبة Compound
( FANBOYS ) for / and / nor / but / or / yet / so Ex: There are many dark clouds but there isn't rain.
روابط الجمل المعقدة If/unless/because/although/who/which/when/where/while / After/ Before / till / until Ex: If you study hard, you will get high marks.
Online Quizzes Prounouns
To+inf. / V+ing
Connectors & Conj.
If & Unless
Direct & Indirect
Parts of Speech
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Basics of English Grammar