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Cleaning up our act or clean up after our acting. Rethinking the way we deal with big coastal oil spills in Norway through a system oriented approach.

Adrian Paulsen Master Diploma, Institute of Design, spring 2010 The Oslo school of Architecture and Design


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Adrian Paulsen MA industrial design student The Oslo School of Architecture and Design tilpaulsen@gmail.com mob:98892958 Birger Sewaldson Main supervisor birger.Sevaldson@aho.no

Nina Bjørnstad secondary supervisor nina.bjornstad@aho.no

Table of content 12 31 40 55 70

phase 1: Research and Giga-mapping. phase 2: Processing and communication. phase 3. Concept development (quantitative) phase 4. Refine (qualitative) phase 5. Visualize and present the results.

Definition of an oil spill: “When a petroleum product is accidentally, or intentionally released into the environment as a result of human activity, the result is called an oil spill.” “Environmental disasters often leave many layers of problems in their wake . After the immediate danger and damage to the environment, people may only gradually realize how that damage will affect the lives of human beings. A disaster caused by human error is usually followed by resentment, anger, and finger pointing at who is to blame and, ultimately, who is responsible for the financial losses.”

The exxon Valdez oil spill, elsepeth leacock


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Prologue Most of us have at some point read an article or heard about the Full City oil spill in Langesund summer 2009. The choice of a questionable anchor site, combined with well known bad weather prognoses and with a foreign crew with poor English skills making communication difficult lead to the grounding. During heavy winds the anchor broke, the ship failed to get their engine running and grounded on the coast. Due to communication error and delayed follow up the available assets were not called in before the accident was a fact. This happened even though several local voices had spoken critically about the situation. Then it was too late. Weather delayed the work of containing the oil and a full scale clean up was the only thing left to do. The day after the accident I was in Langesund and got a firsthand experience of how incredibly small one feels when faced with a mess like that. It was a strange situation. I thought these things didn’t happen in Norway. The air smelled like the bottom of a paint bucket and combined

with the visual aspect of beaches covered with sticky oil left me thinking. At this point it became clear, I wanted to figure out more about this.

Full City

Exxon Valdez

200 tons of oil 38 000 tons of oil

In context of the resent accidents that has made headlines it is obvious that this is an area in need of development. I have a deep interest in bringing my design work towards an environmental direction and consider this project a way to explore another aspect of this interest. In all honesty this project has not been an easy task and has demanded an considerable effort and motivation in order to make it happen. It has, how ever, been extremely rewarding and I hope that I some how will have the opportunity to follow up this work.

= 200 tons

190 times bigger

The Full City accident compared to another major oil spill to put the scale of it into perspectice.


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“...not to reproduce what is already there, but to make visible what is not.” Paul Klee, artist

Intro text The Full City accident triggered this project and the experience was my motivation. I wanted to understand more. I wanted to do something that could have an impact. This rapport contains my journey through an attempt to utilize what I have learned through my years at AHO. Starting with an ambitious goal, a basic knowledge of the topic and a structured process plan I wanted to challenge myself. I have been told that when designers graduate they quickly realize that pursuing their ambitious plans of saving the world are left at the dreaming stage. If this turns out to be true I believe it is important to not let it hold us back just yet. Although I do not claim that this project will in any way save the world, I still believe in pushing what I have been told are the limits of my profession.

I believe Albert Einstein was onto something when he said “creativity is more important than knowledge”.

This project started with a fairly limited knowledge base, but I believe these limitations have allowed me to add a new perspective on the topic. My advantage is ignorance of what most people within this sector would claim impossible. Most of the time designers are introduced to problems that we have limited knowledge about. But through our methodical approach we attempt to understand, rethink and find new solutions to these challenges.

I was told in my first years that designers are “Jack of all trades, but master of none” by Carsten Loly (teacher at AHO). I believe he has a valid point with that observation. This would in all probability become a multi-platform project, stretching across our own definitions of how design could be categorized. I believe that projects are about finding solutions and if they are defined as product, interaction or system oriented design the most important is to focus on maximum impact. Therefore the project was left with an open ended structure, not limited by design categories and kept within an exploratory approach. I wanted to submerge myself in the topic of coastal oil spill caused by grounded vessels and explore what I, with my design education would find. Then take this finding and create a conceptual solution that could take part in the discussion of how we might rethink our current approach to dealing with these kinds of accidents.


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Goal: Reduce the effects of oil spills.

Problem definition: Oil spill generate a complex situation that involves many different stakeholders and therefore needs to be address it with a broad perspective in mind. Through system oriented thinking I want to look into this situation and how design thinking can contribute. This project aims at addressing the problem through not only dealing with the technological or technical obstacles, but with the intention to design a product with the maximum effect with regards to oil spill reduction.


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Method and approach The first obstacle with oil spills is the complexity and wide variety of stakeholders. Multiple constraints necessitate a holistic approach. We need to work with how subsystems fit into systems and systems fit into larger systems. Realizing that the challenge would be to attempt neutrality in this very politicized topic. I saw a need for an approach that allowed me to aim for an impartial process with a variety of collaborators that would avoid thinking “inside the box“. The approach needed to embrace the wholeness in a structural way and facilitate the need for thorough understanding of the topics challenges. Therefore I have chosen “System oriented design“ as my main design method due to its strength to deal with large amounts of information in a structured way. Through GIGA-mapping I have mapped out an oil spill in order to fully understand the context the design has to work within.

Through the research and mapping I will achieve the needed knowledge and understanding of how the different elements relate to each other and the context my concepts have to fit into. I want to work on how the subsystems communicate and allow people to understand and take part in giving meaning to its existence. This is not a sector where design has any particular tradition of engaging within, but I consider this as part of the challenge this project brings. But in effect this has demanded that I through my process had to make the first steps on a new path from a designers point of view. Through this project I wanted to gain a knowledge bases that can work beneficial for moving towards what I consider an emerging market for design.

The process stages 1: research and Giga-mapping. Brake down 2: processing and communication. Understand 3: concept development(quantitative). Rethink 4: concept refining(qualitative). Restructure, 5: finalizing and presenting. Communicate

“Even seemingly insignificant artefacts have an influence on the systemic context they are embedded in. If we want to solve the resource situation for the future and avoid the destruction of the planet we need a consistent concern with the systemic influences of our artefacts and actions”.

(Sevaldson, B. (2008) A system approach to design learning. p.1)


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Result:

Dynamic risk mitigation and resource allocation with a stronger focus on the human aspect. Its not the lack of information, but the ability to process it and use it that is important. We need to facilitate dynamic risk mitigation and resource allocation.

risk mitigation:

noun, the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something : the emphasis is on the identification and mitigation of oil spills and other potential pollutants.

resource allocation

noun, the action or process of allocating or distributing something : more efficient allocation of resources: an amount or portion of a resource assigned to a particular recipient.

human aspect:

The simple fact that no boom can deploy or operate on its own with our current technology.


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An alternative version of the Full City story... Owe Ingemann Waltherzøe has been a sailor for years, but had not seen such a tight anchor chain as the one he saw on Full City before. The weather looked as if it was getting worse and he had a bad feeling about the situation with Full City.

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So when he arrived home the first thing he did was to head into his office where his IUA unit was stationed. He adjusted the risk scale up to orange. He was unsure if the they had the situation under control and thought he should notify his colleagues.

A while later the head of IUA, who was on his evening shift, notised that the risk level which had been a normal blue for days had received an update. Now several of the units had adjusted their levels ranging from yellow to orange. He made some calls and started organizing his staff...


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Work plan

Initial question:

Week 1-5

Week 15-19

Research and Giga.-mapping: Preliminary wide research Fact-based research

Finalizing and presenting: Evidencing Producing presentable material Collect and refine deliverable process & rapport.

Week 5-8 Processing and communication: Meeting with relevant people Observation based research

Week 8-10 Concept development(quantitative): Test theory

Week 11-14 Concept refining(qualitative): Additional specific research Test relevance

Week 18-19: project wrap up print

10/5: hand in 5-28/5: present to sensors 31/5 – 4/6: defend 1-10/6: institute recap

Is it preferable to rethink what already exists in order to improve, or do we need to add something new?

Why design? This question will be presented at several stages of this project since it has been a reoccurring question in my process. I have many times faced the need to argument for why I wanted to explore within a field where designers are rarely seen. This choice has put me in situations of ridicule based on missunderstandings about our profession, but also in positiv discussions about the potential design proffesion has in these new arenas. These are in my eyes important lessons and I will try to bring these observations into the report.


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phase 1: Research and Giga-mapping.

Factual research: first its is a matter of gaining a sufficient knowledge level to be able to participate in discussions when meeting with potential partners and experts.


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Oil + water When an oil spill has occurred the key word to a successful response is time. This is based on two observations about how oil reacts exposed to water. 1. oil and water don’t mix, at least not immediately. 2. oil is lighter than water, will float. This means that with the right equipment, oil can be contained and skimmed of from the water, but this process must be started right away. Because as soon as oil enters water, it begins to wither. The oil does not disappear, instead, it breaks down into its basic chemical parts and enters the environment in a variety of ways. The lightest molecules evaporate after the first couple of hours (called: blue shine) and become a part of the atmosphere. But these fumes are toxic and there are rapports of participants in the cleanup having passed out from inhaling these fumes. At the same time other molecules will go through a process called “dissolution” and become part of the water. After these two stages

the oil left in the water will become increasingly heavy and sticky. If these remains are not scooped up immediately the seas will whip it together into a pudding like mess called Mousse. Because Mousse consists of 70-80% water, 100 barrels of oil can grow into 500 barrels of mousse. “Mousse“ completely coats everything it comes in contact with - beaches, birds, otters, seals, seaweed - and it is deadly. Birds cannot fly, oil seep into their skin, affecting their internal organs and animals often end up damaging their eyes, mouth and nose when they try to rub it off.


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Equipment at sea The core of oil response is the equipment used while the oil is still at sea. It is the main arena to combat these situations. Following is a short intro to the basic package in use today. Booms:

A floating device navigated on top of the water surface to control the floating oil. These booms are separated into location defined categories like off shore and coast near. The categories representing the different needs the actual location demands from the equipment, e.g the coastal booms need maneuverability and lightweight properties.

Skimmers

Machines mechanically separating the oil from the water and moving it into storage tanks. The skimmers are divided into ranges from vessel mounted and all the way to handheld versions.

There are several different types of oil skimmers, though all designs depend on the laws of gravity and on surface tension in order to function. The six primary types of oil skimmers are belt, disk, drum or barrel style, mop, large tube or mini tube, and floating suction oil skimmers.

Vacuums

In addition to the skimmers we have the vacuums. These machines use the basic principle of a vacuum though a set of filters to remove the oil from the water surface.

Dispergents

This is a chemical approach to oil spills. They break the oil particles into smaller parts allowing it to spread and mix into the seawater. At our current technological level it is highly controversial if this technique does more good than bad. Its chemical mixtures have been argued against in fear of it being environmentally damaging considering that it does not remove the oil but simply mixes it into the water.

Vessels:

The most important tool are the boats that are equipped with the oil recovery tools mentioned above and/or with tugging capabilities. These are vessels on standby, performing other tasks or are on call. There are few vessels in Norway with all of these capabilities due to high investement and operational cost. But usually the fleet is a combination of several boats that collectively have the needed features. Their main hinderance is the time it takes for them to get on site and the fact that if the weather is too bad, the crews safety priority hinders them to be used.


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Equipment on land The basic equipment is stored in depots and the amount of equipment is defined by the expected needs the normal activity level demands. The storage facilities vary from site to site in size and organization. The depots are usually stored close to headquarters or sites with a higher expectancy of oil spills. To allow quick transport the equipment is usually stored in containers intended for transport to the site in question when the situation calls for it. There are also agreements that guarantee equipment from depots within a certain proximity to the accident to be available if needed.

Basic package

All depots have the basic package stored to in accordance to the expected threats. Some of the equipment is also located at fire stations, military sites and coast guard stations. plastic bags absorbing- / regular booms dispersants vacuums skimmers Rope lifting nets(helicopter) anchors buoys lamps/generators whistles cleaning facilities/equipment communication equipment dinghy fuel spare parts tools

Personnel package

This represents the basic package all volunteers and professionals are equipped with when the oil spill reaches land. The need for protective gear is compulsory due to the toxic nature of the oil. This is particularly important because most of the cleanup on land is done manually Personal safety equipment helmet life vest oil repelling clothes long sleeve gloves first aid kit protection mask protective goggles woolen underwear rubber boots


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Site defined needs

logistic needs.

The site also needs to meet the basic needs of the personnel and activities performed there. Therefore the equipment package also includes equipment to meet these human needs. With eating facilities, toilets, shelter, communication systems being equallyimportant parts. Most spills happen on remote sites with little existing infrastructure so this has to be provided on site.

The site needs to be accessible for supplies and personnel without leaving to many “foot prints�. The nature is very fragile during the cleanup so every stage of the cleanup needs to be performed as quickly, but gently as possible.

storage of waste.

The basic equipment to secure the waste site and the transport route to make sure the pollutants doesn’t spread after being collected.


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Responsibility

The responsibility for handling acute pollution is divided into three departments in Norway. National(Kyv/NCA)

Inter-Municipal(IUA)

Private(NOFO)

The state emergency preparedness is an additional protection directed towards danger or combating major incidents of marine pollution. The Coastal Administration is responsible for the operation and development of the state’s preparedness against acute pollution, including the state’s action organization. The Norwegian Coastal Administration also takes over the control in whole or in part if the private or municipal emergency preparedness is insufficient.

The municipal preparedness is based on risk assessment of the normal business activity within the municipality. The responsibility is organized into 34 preparedness regions and the response is organized through the different inter municipal committees for acute pollution. These committees are dimensioned to handle smaller acute pollutions, where 26 of them are coastal municipalities.

The primary emergency unit to deal with the private industrial sector. Preparedness is dimensioned to meet the environmental risks and to deal with acute events that are caused by their own business. Norwegian Pollution Control Authority has set specific requirements for emergency preparedness activities with potential risk of acute pollution. Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies (NOFO) protects the operating companies’ oil spill on the Norwegian continental shelf. NOFO ensure that government requirements for oil spill response is followed


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Government

Oil Spill Responsibility hierarchy

Norwegian Maritime Directorate The Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA)

Minister of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs

Climate and Pollution Agency(KLIF) County Representative Local Environmental department Police, Firemen, Paramedics Advisory group: NCA(KyV) The Directorate for Nature Management (DN)

National The Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA/Kystverket) Municipal Inter-municipal committee for acute Pollution(IUA)

Directorate of Fisheries Institute of Marine Research (IMR) Norwegian Polar Institute The Norwegian Food Safety Authority Military/Civil Defence The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB) International agreements Private / Government agreements

Private NOFO Joined through agreements regarding assistance with personnel and equipment resources. NCA will take full control of the organization if needed.

Estimate danger level Assemble needed response Contact contingency depots Warn media channels

The Coastal Administration is responsible for the operation and development of the state's preparedness against acute pollution, including the state's action organization. The municipal emergency preparedness is based on risk assessments of normal activities in the municipality. The primary emergency duty conferred on private business. Preparedness is dimensioned for environmental risks and to deal with acute events that caused their own business. The NCA is responsible for coordinating Private, municipal and governmental preparedness into a national emergency Response system.


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Stakeholders The different stages of an oil spill involves a wide variation of stakeholders who are preparing, responding and being affected by the oil spill. To organize them I have group them as professionals, volunteers and affected by proximity.

Professionals:

These are the administrative personnel with education/ experience. They are either referred to as experts or trained professionals. They perform the monitoring and the most demanding operations of oil spill response that the volunteers are not qualified to do.

Motivation: They tend to make decisions and respond to their guidelines and routines before their emotional motivations. This is a job through most of the year and their job is defined by guidelines.

Needs: training, information, equipment

additional needs: rewarding and motivation

Volunteers:

These participants have received a general training to assist in the manual labour particularly with the land based clean up.

Motivation: They are motivated by emotions, but are

also paid a reasonable amount. It is clear that this is more than a job and they tend to act more on emotions than guidelines. Therefore they might cut corners concerning safety aspects and routines.

Needs: information, equipment and basic training.

additional needs: they strongly desire to help, but often don’t know where they are needed.

Participating by proximity:

This group consists mainly of the local inhabitants and are usually advised to stay away due to security issues.

Motivation: environmental interest and protecting their assets such as their property, business or simply the land they live on. Witnessing the areas they live in ruined generates a strong emotional motivation. This motivation also stretches to people not directly located on site through media coverage. This creates a large number of people with a high motivation to help or participate, but with little practical value. .

Needs: information and a desire to help. They are con-

fused that this could happen and often react with anger due to the perceived lack of action form the companies involved.


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1. Warning 2. Situation assessment

Oil spill contingency plan All oil spill response is based on a common response plan and is the most basic documentation of how oil spills are dealt with. A static evaluation to generate a contingency plan based on research and experience, this plan will define the response available at this site until further changes are made. This is made in cooperation between the KyV (The Norwegian Coastal Administration), KLIF (Climate and Pollution Agency) and the IUA (inter-municipal committees for acute pollution ) based on the expected normal activity in the area of concern.

3. Mobilization of personnel and equipment 4. Response at disaster site 5. Shield/prioritize environmental resources 6. Limiting the spread 7. Remove the pollutants

“if oil reaches land�

8. First rough eradication 9. Secondary thorough eradication 10. Surveillance of site 11. Mapping effect 12. consider further actions


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Oil spill sequence The task of oil spill clean up can take months or even years to complete and the steps may vary from case to case. But they are still focus around a pre defined plan and involves the basic group of stakeholders. To introduce these steps with more detail the following walkthrough gives an intro to the steps of oil spill response.

1: in-between incidents:

2: when an incident happens:

3: initial response:

Activity: Attempts to change behavior, working on routines, training, monitor coastal traffic and sporadic media coverage. The sites are analyzed and based on this analysis a contingency plan is defined. This plan will last until a new evaluation is performed,

Activity: Monitoring site, discover threats, warn stakeholders, analyze situation, responding to personal safety, secure location, attempt to limit spread of oil and then estimate further development.

Activity: mobilize resources, evaluate disaster site, contain oil spill and start removing oil, warn additional resources, monitor development through radar/satellite/air surveillance.

Stakeholders: NCA, IUA, Joint Rescue Coordination Centre (JRCC), Coastguard. (NOFO alerted if necessary)

Stakeholders: NCA, UIA, tugboats, joint Rescue Coordination Centre (JRCC), coastguard

Tools: Coastguard vessels, tugboats, surveillance aircraft, rescue helicopters

Tools: Vessel with tugging and oil response capabilities, booms, skimmers, vacuums, absorbents and dispergents.

Stakeholders: Equipment producers, oil industry, activists, politicians, international organizations Tools: conferences, debates, legislation, dialog, vessel traffic service (VTS), automatic identification system(AIS), voyage data recorder (VDR)


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4: secondary response:

5: oil approaching land:

6: oil reaching land:

Activity: guiding/shielding/prioritizing, limit spread of oil, warning the areas possibly affected by the spread, monitor development through radar/satellite/air surveillance.

Activity: communication, monitoring, continue the attempt to control oil masses, relocate based on situation development, continuously collect all possible oil, warn coastal areas in danger.

Activity: mobilizing response, logistics, estimation of danger level, warning community, avoid oil relocation

(if possible a second response at sea before it hit land)

Stakeholders: NCA, UIA, tugboats

Stakeholders: Vessel traffic service (VTS), NCA, boat crew, local IUA, KyV Tools: Vessel with tugging and oil responds capabilities, Booms, Skimmers, Vakuumes, Absorbents, Dispergents

Stakeholders: NCA, UIA, local response agreements could include fire department, military and voluntary personnel. Tools: General equipment package, Personnel safety equipment(equipment will vary from case to case based on availability or necessity)

7: 4 stages of coastal cleanup:

8: restoring site:

9: after the incident:

Activity: 1.collecting 2.contain 3.remove 4.restoring

Activity: Restoring the ecosystem back to normal as fast as possible and removing contaminated landmass.

Activity: monitoring restoration work, political attention, media, new energy into the debate, but this attention fades quickly.

Stakeholders: NCA, IUA and available assets and volunteers

Stakeholders: politicians, media, scientists, environmentalist

Tools: absorbents, bacteria, fertilizers, excavators and hand tools based on size and area affected.

Tools: television, internet, magazines, newspapers, conferences

Stakeholders: NCA, IUA, available local assets and voluntaries Tools: ref. land based equipment page


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Factors influencing the response Amount of pollutants:

The amount of pollutants will affect the amount of response equipment needed and defines how many of the stakeholders that receive a warning. There are also different types of oil that will affect the type of equipment necessary. The most statistically represented and challenging to work with being crude oil/heavy oil. This is used as fuel and ballast on ships.

Conditions:

Acute oil pollution happens mostly during bad weather and this makes it very complex to estimate how it will develop. The main factors are wind, currents and waves that will spread and speed up how the oil mixes with water. In addition this greatly complicates the cleanup. . Temperatures, rain, time of day and season will also affect not only how the equipment performs but also the motivation and effectiveness of the personnel operating it.

Location:

The location topography will limit the amount of equipment possible to use and the transport means necessary to get it there. This will therefore have a big impact on how the response is organized. One of the current problems is how to set up the response due to the fact that many locations do not have working infrastructure to handle electricity, transport and logistic demands . This means that every operation will vary in how to get the equipment on site. This also affects the workers since their basic needs (food, shelter etc) cannot be found on site and must be transported to the site.

Response time:

When the oil spill has occurred the key factor is how fast and effectively the response equipment can be on site. One of the reoccurring problems is that the response equipment, vessels and personnel is too far away and the weather is to bad to send it out to the site. Considering the length of the Norwegian coastline, organizing these

vessels is a major challenge. The distance to site greatly affects the possibilities to avoid the oil spill reaching land which will greatly complicate the effects of the spill. The transporting is done in containers either by boats or by road.

Personnel available

One of the major factors will also always be having enough personnel available and therefore notifying, transporting and organizing the personnel is always a challenge.


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Acknowledgement

The statements above represent one side of the story, but not everyone agrees with these. During my project I have talked with several participants in this sector who believe the effects on nature are overrated. It is true that on highly weather exposed sites the results of oil spills might visually disappear after two years time. Based on this observation they believe cleanups are unnecessary expenses. One observation is undisputed. Oil spills incur huge costs. Lowering the probability of oil spills will reduce expected costs.

Result of an oil spill Oil spills present the potential for enormous harm to deep ocean and coastal fishing and fisheries. The immediate effects of toxic and smothering oil waste may be mass mortality and contamination of fish and other food species, but long-term ecological effects may be worse. Oil waste poisons the sensitive marine and coastal organic substrate, interrupting the food chain on which fish and sea creatures depend, and on which their reproductive success is based. Commercial fishing enterprises may be affected permanently. Wildlife other than fish and sea creatures, including mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds that live in or near the ocean, may also be poisoned by oil waste. The hazards for wildlife include toxic effects of exposure or ingestion, injuries such as smothering and deterioration of thermal insulation, and damage to their reproductive systems and behaviors.

Long-term ecological effects that contaminate or destroy the marine organic substrate and thereby interrupt the food chain are also harmful to the wildlife, so species populations may change or disappear. Coastal areas are usually densely populated and attract many recreational activities and related facilities that have been developed for fishing, boating, snorkeling and scuba diving, swimming, nature parks and preserves, beaches, and other resident and tourist attractions. Oil waste that invades and pollutes these areas and negatively affects human activities can have devastating and long-term effects on the local economy and society. Property values for housing tend to decrease, regional business activity declines, and future investments become less attractive. The fate of oil residues on shore depends on the spilled oil’s composition and properties, the volume of oil that reaches the shore, the types of beach and coastal sediments and rocks contacted by the oil, the impact of the oil on sensitive habitats and wildlife, weather events, and seasonal and climatic conditions. Some oils evaporate, disperse, emulsify, weather, and decompose more easily than

others. The weather and seasonal and climatic conditions may accelerate or delay these processes. Oil waste that coalesces into a tar-like substance or that saturates sediments above the surf and tide level is especially persistent. Efforts to remove the oil and clean, decontaminate, and remediate an oil-impacted shoreline may make the area more visibly attractive, but may be more harmful than helpful in terms of actual recovery.


26 “We are currently improving safety through moving ship lanes further out away from land and through this give us more time to react if an accident occures.”

Arve Dimmestad KyV presentation Haugesund

Preventative measures

The Norwegian maritime directorate is an organ to monitor and administrate the safety aspect of our maritime sector. Their work is performed in the harbors through routine controls in cooperation with international activities. Failure to complete these controls are followed up with fines and potentially legal cases. But throughout history very few have actually been convicted as strictly as the law permits. They are currently working towards higher fines to force ship owners to take better care of their ships and personnel.

of the ships and improve the current situation. Examples of international organizations that the directorate participates in are IMO (International Maritime Organization), ILO (the UN’s international workers organization) and EMSA (the European Maritime Safety Agency) While this project was in its final week the captain of Full City was sentenced to prison for his environmental crimes. This was the first time these laws have been applied in Norway and it is expected to have a ripple effect globally. Making this sentence a historical breakthrough.

“Until this date, no captain or company have been convicted and forced to pay the predefined fines for environmental crimes and of course this sends out the wrong signals...” Sigurd Engen It is a well known problem that these legislations are difficult to push through internationally, but it is also clear that if successful it will put additional pressure on the owners

“Full City captain sentenced to prison” (translation)/(source NTB)

Historically The largest recorded oil spill in Norwegian history found place on the Bravo platform 22. April 1977 in the North sea. The blow- out on a Norwegian oil platform became the single most media covered incident in Norwegian history to that point, with international media on site just hours after the incident. With oil spraying into the ocean, floating towards the coastline where only weather conditions combined with luck kept the oil from reaching the shore Norway was given an awakening. Barely avoiding what could have been a full scale environmental disaster. This incident proved that the response routines previously thought effective enough where far from adequate. The debate that followed this incident lead to Norway closing down its oil drilling activities for the following two years. This was the beginning of a development leading to the equipment and solutions we use today. Strict legislation was made for all industry or activity which has a potential to harm our environment.


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Summing it all up

“The reason why NOFO established the program is the recognition that the technological development the last 25 years has not been sufficient. The development has mainly included minor improvements on the technological level, but the increased petroleum activity closer to land and in new areas has generated a demand for better environmental protection. Based on previous experience and NOFO`s own ambition level for future response level means that the development of such equipment needs to accelerate.� The is an excerpts from NOFO`s plans for the improvements needed in the coastal protection plan for 2007 – 2010. It shows an industry that is realizing the need to rethink and further develop our oil response based on a clearly increasing urgency.

In the last years...

There has been a considerable amount of money invested in developing new solutions and purchasing of new equipment in Norway. Currently environmental topics gain a large amount of media and public attention. This has fueled a movement. New solutions are being developed to monitor the traffic and the spills, to improve the cleaning on land and the cooperation between the different stakeholders involved. But based on articles and quotes from central people in this sector there are too few ideas challenging the basic principle of equipment, how we use it and the system around it. Most of the development is centered on adding features or minor technical add-ons. Even though the development is impressive the common understanding is that the equipment still does not provide the needed results and this has to improve.


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Mapping: A main characteristic of the system oriented thinking is related to the mapping and the need to explore how the parts work together in large interdependent systems. That to evaluate how your ideas work you need to understand all the parts of the system they will exist within. In short it could be described as a strongly holistic approach in which one always attempts to navigate between the big and small picture to keep track of how the idea coexists with its surrounding systems. The result of accepting that everything is at one point connected and will influence each other. The method of mapping and total submersion in massive amounts of data still needed an outside influence to produce results. But when the results where there you have an very useful tool to evaluate your findings. For this project the mapping was meant to be a tool for me and my process. My ambition was to map out an entire oil spill sequence to understand and gain the necessary knowledge that would allow me to effectively communicate with experts and potential partners. It became a very useful process where I was given the opportunity to struc-

ture my research and go even deeper into it. I believe this approach was beneficial when meeting people as a means to communicate my knowledge level visually. Through this we could quicker move the conversation towards a constructive dialog. This proved as a highly effective way to navigate past their previous understanding of designers as mainly stylers and provide a stronger acceptance. In addition the maps surrounded my working space as a reminder to how any change to the system would influence it as a whole. The sheer size of it makes it difficult to use within the document format. Therefore in this rapport I will only show previews, parts of it in use and leaving the full scale map to be found in the attachments. The main ambition is to use the map to generate results, not for it independently to communicate the entire story. In the end its not necessarily about the individual parts of data, but what it generates.


29 Government

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Norwegian Maritime Directorate Climate and Pollution Agency(KLIF) County Representative

Advisory group:

Vessels

The Directorate for Nature Management (DN)

Production Technological

Developing equipment

Directorate of Fisheries

Financing

Testing equipment

external influences

Geo Politics

Norwegian Polar Institute

Insurance Legislation

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority Military/Civil Defence The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB)

International Legislation

Front cover topic

People activated Volunteers Political pressure Potential markets

The Coastal Administration is responsible for the operation and development of the state's preparedness against acute pollution, including the state's action organization.

Waves Currents Wind Rain

The municipal emergency preparedness is based on risk assessments of normal activities in the municipality.

Joined through agreements regarding assistance with personnel and equipment resources.

Equipment needs

Size

General

Time scale

Available response

Site define restrictions

Weather

Endangering food sources

Location Coast type Wildlife sanctuary

Plankton Micro organisms

Newspapers

Seaweed

Television Twitter facebook Blog

Media

Predators Sea Birds Seals Whales

Estimate danger level

International agreements

Assemble needed response

Private / Government agreements

Contact contingency depots

Factors affecting oil spill

what happens in between the oil spills

Radio contact

Automatic Identification System (AIS)

Department for Emergency Response(NCA)

Warns ship

Ship + VTS Distress call!

Human error

How could the respons time improve?

Warn IUA

Assemble response units

2

Radio

Miscommunication Other Language factors Conflicting routines Stress factor Unexpected changes

Phone

Surveillance aircraft

E-mail

Focus

Monitoring

Over worked Understaffed Low experience level

Estimate situation

3

Ship towed away in controlled manner Oil contained and collected at site

Remove oil

Fragile areas Keep oil from

Contain oil

Reaching land

Locate

Prioritized areas

Oil recovery vessel

If possible, a second attemt to collect oil at sea is started

Dispergents Absorbents Oil recovery vessels

Oil recovery vessel

Equipment in use:

Respond to oil spill

Equipment in use:

Environmental effect Equipment availability Location restrictions Season

Weather

Failure

Collect drifting oil spill

KyV/NCA

5

Reevaluate danger level

4

Secure crew

Communication Local activity Response time Key factors

Good communication Improving weather Due to: Fast response Experience Financial consequences

Failure

Brief

Coast guard

Skimmers

Weather Due to: To big spill Slow response

Control oil

Natural resources

Oil recovery vessel

Technological error

Backed by oil Recovery vessels

Store

New spills

General overview Location and define factors effecting response

Booms

Success

Transport

Industry Sanctuaries

Emergency systems

Tug boats Naturally Mechanically

Dispose of

Mobilise needed response

Financial Crew Nature

Skimmers

Dispergents

Estimate needed response

Ships own Prioritizing

Radar

Explosions/fire Routine error

Redirect traffic

Channels

Automatic I.D System(AIS)

3 Miscommunication Equipment failure Common problems: Grounding

Factors affecting oil spill

VTS + Joint Rescue Coordination Centre (JRCC)

Assisting marine pilot

1 Bad weather 2 Collision

how to get the needed equipment there faster?

The Norwegian Coastal Administration

Ship reporting problems

Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)

Dispergents

The Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA)

VTS discovers problematic situation

Monitoring vessel

Contaminating habitats Genetical damage Loss in bio diversity Long term Interference with breeding effect Damage through food chain Stress

Animals effected

Sea shells Fish

Climate and Pollution Agency(KLIF)

Continuos dialog with VTS

Limiting leisure opportunities Swimming Boating

Warn media channels

Ship + Vessel Traffic Services(VTS)

Communicating

Fishing industry

Effect for humans

Industry Population density

Independent press

Lives Health Official Safety priority Nature resources Commercial Interests

The NCA is responsible for coordinating Private, municipal and governmental preparedness into a national emergency Response system.

NCA will take full control of the organization if needed.

The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB)

What generates Visual result attention Sort accident/long clean up Environmental age

Personnel needs

Equipment performance Working conditions Visibility Effect

The primary emergency duty conferred on private business. Preparedness is dimensioned for environmental risks and to deal with acute events that caused their own business.

Private NOFO

Institute of Marine Research (IMR)

Experience

Recent disasters Political attention

Result

Municipal Inter-municipal committee for acute Pollution(IUA)

NCA(KyV)

Practise response routines Evaluate response routines Developing response routines

National The Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA/Kystverket)

Local Environmental department Police, Firemen, Paramedics

Equipment

Maintenance

Financial factors

Minister of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs

The Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA)

Response practise

Foreign transport vessel

Before oil spill

Oil Spill Responsibility hierarchy

Warning Coastal response Wind Currents Waves Equipment Experience

Affected by:

Tug boats Oil recovery vessels Booms Skimmers Absorbents Dispergents

Mobilise equipment Organise response

1

The full scale mapping in its final visualization. Intended to become a background element to assist dialogs and discussions.

5

6

3

4

5

6

Transport

After eradication

Elderly Professionals NOFO Municipal(IUA)

KyV/NCA

Response team

Local inhibitors

Army/Civil defence

Government

Information desire

Firemen

Accessibility

Desire to help

Contain

Police

The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB)

Organizing Recruiting Engaging

Equipment

Personnel

Demand based on:

Type of oil

From storage to site

Transport

Season

Logistics

Based on availability

Sea

Port authorities Paramedics

Transport demands

Tourists

IUA

WWF

Training

Thoughts

Potential complication Missing personnel Availability of equipment Unforeseen facts Back up?

Remove

Transporting

Debriefing

Develop

Season

4 : Restoring

People logistics Warning Transport Briefing

IUA pre planned

Housing National Logistics

General equipment

Logistics

Personnel safety equipment Waste storage

Helmet

Absorbing-/ Booms

Protective goggles

Anchors

Vessels

Rope

Life vest

Vessels

Dinghy

Lifting net for helicopters

Oil repelling clothes

Dinghy

Absorbents

Anchors

Long sleeve gloves

Buoys

First Aid Kit

Lamps/Generators

Protection mask

Logistics

Whistles

Wool underwear

Mobility

Storage Clean

Usage

4.2: Last cleaning

Availability

Plastic bags/oil barrels

Training

Manually collecting

On site activity

Vacuums

Reuse

4.3 : Monitoring

Routines

Skimmers

Transport

Guiding

Maintenance

Industrial absorbents

Removing all possible

Time scale Depends on spill

Rope

Storage

Briefing

Organic absorbents

2.2: Rough cleaning

High demand of personnel

Booms

Recycle

Applying absorbents Removing oil off site

Land Collect

Control

2 : Preliminary cleaning

Equipment ready

Size of spill

Drivers

4 Stages of coastal cleanup

Personnel ready

Last Inspection

Vehicles

Kids

Volunteers

Media

1: Contain 1.2: Clearing site 1.3: Saving/cleaning birds

3 : collecting

Inspection

People on site Passive participants

Harbor master

6

Monitoring

Consider additional measures

Scenario

Factors

County environmental department

Disposing of Oil

after

Active participants at site

Fire chief

Regional Manager

Temporary storage

7

Neighbor Municipality Emergency manager

IUA

Guidance

Cleaning

Warning/alerting

Actions

NCA/KyV NOFO

Formal decisions

3

before

instant ideas

Inspection Engage work plan

7

oil spill

7

4

2

Communication

Response

Mobilize

1

“The basics of oil spill cleanup�

If this failes the focus is changed to land based oil spill respons

Warning 2

Oil spills will continue to happen as long as society depends on petroleum and its products.

Site manager

Eradication/sanering

Boots

Cleaning facilities/equipment Communication equipment

Container Safe storage Avoid leaks

Cover Absorbents

Options

Spare parts Container

Logistics at site

Truck Transport methods Water

Access to equipment

Boat

Private

Public

Fishing

Train Car Bus Land

Helicopter Airplane Air

Problems: Cost

Fuel Tools

Equipment:

Transporting

Temporary storage Private depots KyV/NAC storage NOFO storage


The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB)

30

Estimate danger level

International agreements

Assemble needed response

Private / Government agreements

Contact contingency depots

Factors affecting oil spill

Warn media channels

ppens ween spills

vessel approaching coast of Norway

Dispergents

Factors affecting oil spill Redirect traffic

How could the respons time improve?

Warn IUA

Assemble response units

Transport

Industry

Radio Phone

New spills

General overview Keep oil from

Surveillance aircraft

Focus

E-mail

Monitoring

Estimate situation

3

anges

Ship towed away in controlled manner

grounding

Oil contained and collected at site

Remove oil

Fragile areas

Location and define factors effecting response

Contain oil

Reaching land

Locate

Prioritized areas

Oil recovery vessel

Dispergents Absorbents Oil recovery vessels

Oil recovery vessel

Equipment in use:

Respond to oil spill

Equipment in use:

Environmental effect

If possible, a second attemt to collect oil at sea is started

first respons

Equipment availability Location restrictions Season

Weather

Failure

Collect drifting oil spill

KyV/NCA

5

Reevaluate danger level

4

Secure crew

Response time Key factors

Good communication Improving weather Due to: Fast response Experience Financial consequences

Failure

Brief

Coast guard

Skimmers

Weather Due to: To big spill Slow response

Control oil

Natural resources

Oil recovery vessel

Communication Local activity

Backed by oil Recovery vessels

Store

Sanctuaries

Channels

Booms

Success

Mechanically

Dispose of

Mobilise needed response

unication e routines

Tug boats Naturally Dispergents

Estimate needed response

Emergency systems

Skimmers

how loss to ofget controll the needed equipment there faster?

Warning Coastal response grounding

Wind Currents Waves Affected by: Equipment Experience

Tug boats Oil recovery vessels Booms Skimmers

4

Absorbents Dispergents

Mobilise equipment

3

Organise response

close up of map: the goal is to make the map repre2

Site manager

Eradication/sanering Warning Mobilize

sent the situations as correct and realistic as possible. Attempting to include all3 the relevant factors to6 be in-7 1 2 4 5 cluded in the map.

Inspection

NOFO

Formal decisions

Harbor master

6

Disposing of Oil Monitoring After eradication

accessible, zoom in zoom out.

Fire chief

County environmental department

Temporary storage

oil spill

Emergency manager

IUA

Regional Manager

Transport

Potential complication Missing personnel Availability of equipment Unforeseen facts Back up?

Last Inspection

after

2 : Preliminary cleaning

1.2: Clearing site

4 Stages of coastal cleanup

1.3: Saving/cleaning birds

Applying absorbents

Organic absorbents

2.2: Rough cleaning

Industrial absorbents

Removing oil off site Removing all possible

4.3 : Monitoring

Manually collecting

4.2: Last cleaning 4 : Restoring High demand of personnel

Personnel ready

Inspection

before

1: Contain

3 : collecting

Consider additional measures

3

7

Neighbor Municipality

Guidance

Cleaning

2 oil reaches land 1

NCA/KyV

Engage work plan

Close up with post its: dialog, ideation, workplace,

If this failes the focus is changed to land based oil spill respons

second repons

Communication

Response

Equipment ready Time scale Depends on spill

Blue red blue map: where is the potential, where

is the best place to improve in order to generate results? Where is the most work being done currently? People on site Active participants at site

Passive participants Elderly

Professionals NOFO Municipal(IUA)

KyV/NCA

Government

Information desire

Firemen

Desire to help

Contain

Police

The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB)

Organizing Recruiting Engaging

From storage to site

Transport

Season

Logistics

Based on availability

Collect

Control

Briefing Debriefing

Develop

Remove

General equipment

Rope

Skimmers

Absorbing-/ Booms

Protective goggles

Vessels

Rope

Life vest

Vessels

Dinghy

Lifting net for helicopters

Oil repelling clothes

Dinghy

Absorbents

Anchors

Long sleeve gloves

Buoys

First Aid Kit

Lamps/Generators

Protection mask

Whistles

Wool underwear

Storage Clean

Usage

Briefing Housing

Maintenance

Boots

Cleaning facilities/equipment Communication equipment

Waste storage Equipment: Container Safe storage Avoid leaks

Cover Absorbents Logistics

Truck Transport methods Water

Access to equipment

Boat

Private

Public

Fishing

Train Car Bus Land

Helicopter Airplane Air

Mobility

Options Container

Logistics at site

Problems: Cost

Fuel Spare parts Tools

Logistics

Personnel safety equipment

Anchors

Training

Transport

National Logistics

Helmet

Reuse

Warning

IUA pre planned

Plastic bags/oil barrels

Transport

Guiding

Season

Vacuums

Storage

People logistics

Availability

Land

Recycle

Transporting

On site activity

Routines

Booms

Warning/alerting Training

Personnel Type of oil

Sea

Port authorities Paramedics

Transport demands

Accessibility

Tourists

IUA

WWF

Response team

Local inhibitors

Army/Civil defence

Equipment Demand based on:

Size of spill

Drivers

Vehicles

Kids

Volunteers

Media

Transporting

Temporary storage Private depots KyV/NAC storage NOFO storage


31

phase 2: Processing and communication. Observations and main findings when i had collected the basic knowledge, I was able to define, explore and conclude.


32

e vic ad

co nt ro ll

NCA/KyV

Users

aug. 09

sep. 09

oct. 09

nov. 09

des. 09

jan. 10

feb. 10

er

juli. 09

de

iv

m

l de

an

d

Government

Producers

“Full City” web trends from Google.

Infrequent incidents:

Attention span:

The bottle neck:

Oil spills are not the biggest problem in the world, the probability of it happening is small and most of the spills will not matter to people in their daily lives. This makes it difficult to generate the needed public discussion that would push through change. So when accidents like the one currently happening in the Mexican Gulf take place people are caught completely unaware. This oil spill is threatening several states and could be the financial ruin of entire communities. Accidents like this are considered highly unlikely and therefore not relevant to plan ahead for. Not having a plan for the unlikely can quickly turn accidents into catastrophes.

“it seems we need more oil spills in order

As an outsider I find it challenging that the topic of creative and technical development is left in the hands of a relatively small group of people with strong connections and shared interests. This structure has proven to generate few innovations and this might just be one of the reasons why the progress stays this linear. With little challenge from the market perspective and limited political pressure they seem to have stagnated. I would argue that this community needs to open up to allow new forces to provide themwith much needed energy and inspiration.

The fact that it is infrequent is therefore very important to consider when new solutions are made. The trade off situation demands a sensible understanding of how much equipment is necessary, possible to maintain and explore how we can make the most out of its potential. It is un realistic to have enough equipment and crew to cover the entire coast, but more important to enable dynamic allocation of resourses.

to make the development interesting for the commercial markets.”

T.C.Sletner former KyV We are simply to easily distracted for the topic to gain enough attention to generate necessary changes. This short attention span also prevents people with ideas to achieve the needed attention from anybody inside the industry. When spills happen they are simply too occupied to have time for new ideas and when the attention fades the energy for innovation also disappears. This implies that the basic understanding and how we relate to the problem need to change in order to enable needed change. Our understanding should be in proportion to not only the possibility that it might happen, but need to have a wider flexibility about how we prepare and react to the oil spills.

“I have worked in the oil spill response

sector since 2002 and have seen the industry stagnate”.

anonymized quote


33 7.4 pollution: A demand of utelizing the best available technology. (BAT – «best available technology»)

Picture old equipment and new.

Comprehensive management of the marine environment in the Norwegian Sea, Ministry of Environment.

Development trends:

Simple upgrades:

Government demands:

The bottle neck has lead to a fairly linear and limited development of new ideas that challenge the existing concepts of oil spill equipment and systems. This is visible through observing how even the latest developments have been limited to minor equipment upgrades. The share scale of things seems to have put most developers off attempting to rethink the system as a whole.

“The oil spill response should be of the best technology available”.

This could also be traced back to previously limited budgets, but this has changed and technology has improved on a larger scale than the actual products. This even when most would admit that our current solutions actually don’t provide the necessary results.

The Norwegian oil spill response development is dominated by small technical developments.There seems to be an unwillingness to think bigger and address the problem with the wholeness in mind. This has become even more evident when looking at the recent product development showed at the Haugesund conference. Where even if they all provide better performance, they are add on products building on the same basic principle. Which in the challenging conditions normally present at oil spills simply do not perform. This even when there has been promised millions in support to innovative suggestions. From my point of view there has to be a flaw somewhere keeping the situation as it is. XXX

The picture above is from 1981 and displays a fishing boat towing an oil boom much like the type used in the Mexico Gulf oil spill today.

product info: a system for quicker deployment of booms.

This sentence is a part of our Governments demand that is written to make sure our oil spill equipment should be based on the best solutions available. But the experience I have had in conversation is that this demand actually does the opposite. In practical terms this means that if big improvements are made the oil spill sector would have to change all their equipment. This would be forcing a big expense upon themselves, something that very few would find possible, considering their already strained economic situation.


34

Increasing urgency.

This linear development I have described has continued even though there is a well known increasing need for better equipment. Based on climate change leading to more irregular weather patterns, growing awareness of the consequences and increasing traffic indicating that the development needs to be upgraded. There are many reasons that could explain this situation ranging from budgets, lack of understanding or simply ambitions. Comparing the money generated by the industry that causes these kinds of accidents one has to wonder why so little has been invested in the response to environmental threats. Even through this has been the case for a long time it seems to be changing. A ship owner presented an open invitations to join in their cause to improve the environmental situation at the Haugesund conferance. They presented an ambition and a desire to improve, but the response indicated that we still have a long way to go.

Is it a cultural thing?

Market potential:

When visiting the Haugesund conference an interesting point was made when the oil spill response was compared to aviation safety. They have set their ambitions at zero tolerance for accidents. Is is simply not a possibility that airplanes fall from the sky without loosing all their customers. They have therefore developed technology and systems that continuously monitor all flights. This was announced as an impossible goal and was presented as questionable considering privacy matters by the head of KyV at the Haugesund conference.

Just based on the simple knowledge that the maritime sector is a major part of the global industry. This would make the market for oil spill response solutions an enormous one with a very large economical potential. This fact in itself should be enough motivation to continue pushing the development of solutions in this sector.

There seems to be a culture at sea that accidents don’t usually cost human lives and that nature can be cleaned. Therefore the ambition of 0 accident is not necessary. During the research I have noticed product needs that to my point of view obviously need attentionBut the observations that strike me as the most urgent is the lack of a basic understanding and desire to improve the situation. Setting a joint goal , create an understanding of the challenges ahead, but also the consequences of not taking this seriously.

”solutions that work in Norway could work anywhere”

T.C. Sletner

“we didn’t notice the threat until....we thought they had it under control themselves...”

VTS statement consiering Full City.


35

Reason for optimism:

New materials:

but:

In addition I would like to bring to attention some positive observations . Movements like “Arena Beredskap�, where several companies have combined their efforts to create an environment where oil spill solutions of the future will be created collectively. They display an impressive ambition level and have generate some positive evidence that the needed development is possible with the right mindset. In a short time span they are already producing new innovations and creative solutions. They display what I have defined as the missing element in our oil spill response through setting ambitious goals and opening up for others to participate. The element being ambitions.

On the technological front there has also been a wide variety of material development in the last couple of years. anging from composite human hair materials with impressive oil absorbing qualities, oil eating algae and nano materials with the capability to only absorb oil when floating in water. These solutions are still a few years away from mass production, but show great potential as future solutions.

The fact of the matter is that better and more equipment is important. But all of this is still based on the periodic risk reviews and static recourse allocation.


36

The activist: In retrospect I would consider my attitude at the beginning of this project as being a bit of an activist. My first hand experiences left me provoked and critical to the current situation. My dialog was dominated with talks with Bellona and influenced by their strong opinions. This provided me with the energy to navigate through rapports and literature to find the research I have given you a short version of so far. My focus was mainly on the environment, and people suffering under these disasters. Through this phase I worked with the mindset that our oil spill response needed to go through a fundamental rethinking. But one major challenge I faced was through realizing that this project would in all likelihood only produce dreaming concepts of the future unless I found a way to connect these ambitions with the existing situation.

Def: activism noun, the policy or action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change.

rethink


37

The realist: During my visit to the Haugesund conference I was given a chance to meet the topic from the other perspective. I was given the opportunity to engage with people ranging from ship owners, equipment producers and the top leaders of our oil spill response. Through listening to their presentations and conversations I was introduced to the core issue of the topic. The bottom line and the only point we cannot disagree on is the fact that this is a money thing. At Haugesund I realized that, even though I see the benefits of approaching the problem with an activist attitude, I needed to embrace both sides. As any other part of the industry the oil spill producers are suffering from the economical down turn and this has lead to a situation where change is difficult. The simple fact is that to make change I would have to approach the problem with the mindset of “is it possible to restructure our existing solutions and thinking?”and “how could solutions increase efficiency in a cost efficient way?”. This realization introduced two very important limitations to how I would further develop the project.

Def: realism noun, the attitude or practice of accepting a situation as it is and being prepared to deal with it accordingly

Restructure Money


38 “The Norwegian oil spill is in its primal stage, there is still a long way to go.� Sigurd Engen, Bellona

Activist meets the realist

rethink

I would argue that even if the statement was partly meant as a critical comment he has a valid point. Through my meetings with the producers of the equipment they displayed products and ambitions that made me confident that we are moving towards great improvements. Of course these solutions are some time ahead due to the financial and technical obstacles there show reasons to be optimistic. So when Sigurd talked about the primal stage one might easily interpret it as an insult. I see a different way of understanding his comment. We have developed the basic tools, now we need to restructure how we put them to use. The industry is also moving towards smarter use of the equipment through upgrades that are necessary until the much fundamental changes are possible to develop. From my point of view it seems that they are representing two sides of the same cause Finding a way to collectively combine their knowledge and ideas in a solution would from where I stand promise to have great potential. But on the other side we need the realists and the activists separate to allow them to maintain their energy and drive. My role now became to combine these ways of thinking.

restructure


39

The benifit of being an outsider. One of the main challenges but also the luxury in this project is my independence. It seems that all parts of the discussion are so locked up in their own positions that they rarely are given the opportunity to evaluate the situation as a whole. Therefore missing out on opportunities that exist right in front of them. Their limitation does not affect my project and even though it has made the research a bit harder to come by, at this point of the project I clearly see the benefits of being an outsider. My gut feeling at this point was that the answer to how we might rethink the oil spill response, was not through more and better equipment, but through a more dynamic and risk mitigating approach. Before I followed this gut feeling I needed to explore a variety of alternatives to validate that observation.


40

phase 3. Concept development (quantitative)


41

Conceptual directions Based on idea cards, sketches, ideas from mapping and through the dialogs I chose to narrow down to three concept directions. Through these I explored how my project should develop further based on my observations. These concepts where discussed with relevant partners from the industry, Bellona, supervisors and fellow students. The project was still on a dialog based and not directly solution focused level yet. I wanted to keep my process open as I explored the conceptual directions.

Real

1

System

idea cards

before

2

3

2

3

when

1

topic

oil has reached land

1

the basics

before the booms

2

inspiration is key

before the accident

3

making the “before� more relevant

after


42

The basics: Based on the simple observation of a need for an upgrade of the solutions in the cleanup situation. There is a great need for a stronger focus on the user experience. An example being the hand tools ranging from brooms to shovels that are available within present equipment packages today. Also the cleanup personnel are equipped with protective gear not developed for the conditions they work in. They are simply not created for this user environments. This concept is centered on an seemingly obvious need, but one that still has not been addressed. The need for tools developed with this particular user needs in mind.

? x

?

Y

Why yes? Through bottom up thinking and using small changes to inspire the big ones. This would allow me to dig deeper into the user focused design methods. There is a clear need for basic product design and this should be addressed in another project.

why no? The concept does not fulfill my project ambi-

tions, since it does not keep oil from the shore. And would be better for another project another time.

?

?

?


43

Inspirations is key: Breaking down the basic concept of the booms and how we approach the spill when the oil still is at sea. The boom represents the most basic part of oil spill response and has developed based on the same principle for years.There is a clear need to rethink the result of 30 years of linear development currently in use. This concept would be centered on new principal structures of the boom and the method of approach to the timespan where the oil is still floating at sea.. The basic principle of the boom is logical and simple, but generates a wide variety of limitations. This concept aimed at challenging this basic principle. How could we rethink the method of transporting equipment to the site and how this would generate new structural possibilities.

?

Why yes? Through product analyses and conceptual

product design the goal would be to produce new ideas that could work as an inspiration to the producers.

Why no? In my research I have seen clear budget

“There is a total lack of new visions, ideas to put on the wall an stretch for�. Sletner. T.C

x

?

Y

limitations and a XX Red ocean and would clearly need a stronger team included in the project. But I am unsure if it would help when they cannot afford it? ?

?

?


44

Making the “before” more relevant: Since time is the most important factor, is it possible to explore the potential to change how we relate to the threat of oil spills before they happen? Through turning information into more than a scare factor, but a tool to generate constructive results. This has been presented as he ultimate goal, often considered impossible goal according to KyV chief (statement from Haugesund). To through this concept move towards an even higher ambition of what our oil spill response could be. Could we develop not a bigger response, but a smarter one?

? x

?

Y

maximize marginal impact. Why yes?

Looking back on the Blue ocean/ Red ocean map I believe there are unexplored possibilities within “making the before relevant” concept. This approach would also allow me to present ideas without attacking, but adding to existing systems. The culture of finger pointing and blaming that I had observed during my project rarely leads to constructive dialog or results. I wanted to inspire an industry through optimism. Is it possible to make the before more relevant? I strongly believe so.

?

?

“There are thousands of factors that can lead to an oil spill, but some are highly recognizable.”

Sigurd Engen, Bellona


45

x

? Y

?

!

Why design But is this the domain of a designer? I believe the design process has the potential to be usable irrelevant of what material it is applied to. The following development would need to find suggestive evidences that this actually is possible technologically, practically and financially.

“Things may seem out of control, but they are not out of our hands.”

Choice of direction:

Through the following discussions the concept of “making the before more relevant” sparked an interest and curiosity from most people I talked with. Although they admitted doubting the possibility. Looking back at the research I saw a clear and present need to restructure and not just add more equipment into the equation. My project goal was as previously stated to reduce the effect of oil spills and in order to achieve this it is clear that preventive thinking is a highly effective approach. This direction was also backed by observations of the technological and equipment development. There are few dramatic improvements or changes expected on the equipment side of oil response within any near future. This leads me to think in the direction of a better utilization of the existing resources. I believe that the need was a change in the basic mindset on how we relate to the problem. How we deal with the challenge of infrequency.

Thackara John, In the bubble.

This concept would aim at changing from the current static approach of generating fixed response levels based on experts’ observations that are maintained until the next site evaluation is scheduled. Into a more dynamic thinking where the response is more closely linked to the ever changing risk level along the coast. This would be possible based on realtime computing, which used to be expensive and something only possible within scientific research.

we use it. Through this concept I want to find a way to make better use of our knowledge and resources.

This has changed in resent time and has become a way of working available and affordable. Every day we navigate enormous amounts of data trhoughgoogle, that with a complex algorithm presents us with a condensed version of the data available on the web based on the factors we type in. This technological development has allowed us to rethink how we deal with complexity.

My end game is to inspire to further development. If I could make this concept inspire, the potential it could have on the discussion would be much larger than just through providing a conceptual product inspiration.

This argument is backed up with IBM`s “Smart planet! project where they state that through new computing power and advanced algorithms we can in real time compute, process and use data to improve how we work. It is no longer about how much we know but how

“What is your End game?”

William McDonough (ted.com/tedtalks)


46

“Probability estimation and risk evaluation”.

The inspired:

How would I go about developing the concept of making the “before” relevant?

Use existing data to create more dynamic ? ? representation for the threat of oil spills...

x Y

?

!

...make aggregated data available to people that can affect ? the outcome of oil spills.

Y

?

!

!

!

...understanding their user context to explore how best to communicate the information.

exploring how and through what means the information would be accessed and used.

Through mathematical algorithms constructed as a simplified version of reality we can be able to generate an aggrigated and dynamic risk assessment. This algorithm may then be improved upon as more facts and factors become available.


47 The probability of an event is the ratio of the number of cases favorable to it, to the number of all cases possible when nothing leads us to expect that any one of these cases should occur more than any other, which renders them, for us, equally possible.

Pierre Simon Laplace, Théorie analytique des probabilités,

Expert Visit: Bent Natvig. The first challenge of making the before relevant was about figuring our how one might be able to compute the existing data in order to provide a risk scale. To figure this out I visited Bent Natvik, professor of mathematics at Blindern.

Bent Natvig Position: Professor Office B815, N. H. Abel’s Building Address: Department of Mathematics Blindern E-mail bent@math.uio.no

At this meeting we discussed the idea of dynamic risk evaluation and reflected on his previous work where he had solved a similar task considering the risk linked with utilizing nuclear reactors in Norway. The dialog moved onto one of his specialty, the queueing theory. This theory proves mathematically that in a situation with variable work load, the most effective way of working is though a dynamic handling system. To have a flexible work approach that changes along with the amount of costumers present. This produced the strongest results with the most effective and financial beneficial work situation. He agreed that moving this thinking into the oil spill response was not only possible, but also a good idea. “The queueing theory- a key to shorter waiting time.”


48

Examples of existing KyV data sources.

Where would the data come from? The data already exists, but is located in different locations, making the job of repeatedly and in real time navigating these databases difficult. The need to collect, compare and compute is clear. Due to the amount of factors needed to keep track of within the oil spill sector it becomes difficult for the user to achieve the necessary overview without a time consuming process. When this has to be maintained over long periods of time the probability for error and loss of overview increases.

Discussion point:

Imagine if scientific research could be joined with participants ranging from local population,environmental groups e.g Bellona and professional oil spill response organizations e.g NOFO through a system gathering their knowledge to co create the risk factor algorithm. It would continuously grow and develop with a collective goal of making it as correct as possible. The increasing input would still result in a condensed representation for the user, but the complexity behind it would have endless possibility to evolve. It would no longer be a product generated through the opinions of a few, but through the collective effort of many.

“simplify in order to make mathematical sense.�

Bent Nativig Considering the conceptual communication I will reduce the data sources to a 4 factor simplification that explains the basic idea on how the risk estimation would work. The selection of factors used in the example was based on the knowledge from the research and through conversations with a selection of the dialog partners. In reality the numbers of factors would be closer to 40 000, but in order to explain the basic this is not necessary.

Automatic ship identification system (AIS)


49

i Existing data & knowledge

3 day

z

X Y

algoritm

1 2 3 4

1 2 3

risk scale 4 factors

3 day risk forecast

Chosen factors.

Risk factor

1 ship info: amount of vessels in an area, type of

This combination would provide us with a basic dynamic risk factor that would be possible to compute in realtime and to generate a prognosis for the near future. The choice was made to use a three day perspective into the future. In this way the data would differentiate itself from the existing alarm systems and move further towards being a dynamic preventive tool.

vessels, where they are from, who owns it and the reputation of the company, type of cargo, planned route. This data would be collected from from existing sources ranging from SafeSeaNet, AIS(automatic identification system) and VTS (vessel traffic system)

2 weather: data collected from meteorological institute

3 site : data based on site research from KLIF and

several other scientific sources, but also inkluding local knowledge that might include bird nesting, fish movements etc

4 historical knowledge: how the factor mentioned above compare to previous accidents.

This data could then be condensed into a single factor the users would be presented with. In practical terms this factor would represent what an expert user could find out though existing channels, but made available for a larger part of the user group. XX An important aspect of this concept is the need to make it open for a wide variety of stakeholders to partisipate in providing the data. This in order to avoid miss use or generating a situation with potential monopoly.

simplified risk factor forecast

data API source

GSM

XML

the illustration above showes the basic structure of how a data base with an API communicates through XML to a unit with GSM technology could work.

The API, XML and GSM combination is also used in many iphone apps due to its simplicity.


50

co re

interest NOFO

government

IUA

GreenPeace

KLIF

KyV

Bellona

scientists

tv

newspapers

national population

IMO journalist

Coastguard

tourist industry Norwegian Ship owners maritime department

local population

WWF Environmentalists

tugboats

Exploring the users

entrepreneurs

need

To explore the user group I spread a selection into a diagram exploring how they could benifit from this information or could find it interresting. Ranging them from the core stakeholders, with direct interraction to the potential stakeholders currently not included. The potential users are also ranged from having a need or an interrest in having access to the risk factor.

inventors

fishermen volunteers

In the beginning of the project my thought was aimed at an inclusive response system making the risk level available to as many as possible. But when working on the personas it became evident that an interrest did not result in enough action. Through the realisation that everything i added needed to generate a result that would provide big enough effect to compensate for the investment i decided to stay with users that showed a need combined with the ability to affect the outcome.

Personas To explore the concept further I developed a set of personas to evaluate how the solution would fit into their everyday lives.(the complete version can be found on the cd)


51

Basic concept testing. In order to further explore the concept I wanted to visualise how the system structure could be utilized with some practical examples. These concepts was intended to communicate the basic structure ant through this allow me to evaluate them. Based on email contact with Anne Christine Parborg the first concept was centered around providing the risk factor to the volunteers in order to improve their availability in case of an oil spill. The second concept was centered around a conversation with representatives from Østersjø Rederier at the Haugesund conference. They clearly stated that the floating assets ( e.g tugboats) in Norway needed to be better utilized. He believed that they could make a real difference if they only would be better informed and included. The third concept was based on findings during a dialog with Johan Marius Ly (KyV) where he mentioned the local IUA units generally lacked funds that would allow them to perform to their fullest potential. They also representad a logical choice due to the the choice of the“before” concept, which was to make the best out of existing resources.

“KyV need to improve their ability to utilize the

wholeness”(yellow) slide from Østersjø Rederi as,

Haugesund conference presentation.

“...and how do you pass on the information(about an acciden) foreward to you volunteers? ”

me(yellow)

“we watch the news if there has been an oil spill...the first thing we

do is send emails to our volunteers to inform them there has been an accident...“

WWF Anna Chistine Parborg(green)


52

volunteer with a great desire to help!

risk evaluation

X Y

risk scale volunteers

? !

available resources WWF

Making it more alive...

main system

registration of basic info to generate a complete database of the volunteers available

database

co

Improve the availability of and information flow with volunteers...

re

the system evaluated the risk factor and suggests/ communicates the possible assets available. in this case the volunteers.

need

name current address availability training level etc.. this information is updated. Through email and social media

The forecast communicated to the organisers of the volunteers giving them the ability to develop a more dynamic response situation.

interest


53

towboat captain with the tools to help

z

X

risk evaluation

Y

risk scale ? !

available resources

main system

The forecast communicated to the towboat captains and giving them the ability to be available to a larger extent. If its filling the fuel tank or just wait with the beer in the sun. They are aware of the situation and are given the opportunity to assist if needed. increasing their potential

registration of basic info to generate a complete database of the towboats available

database

Improve the use of other floating resources...

co re

this information is updated. Through email and social media

the system evaluated the risk factor and suggests/ communicates the possible assets available. in this case the tugboat captains.

need

name current address availability training level etc..

interest


54

head of IUA governing the local response

risk evaluation

X Y

risk scale community

? !

available resources IUA

main system

registration of basic info to generate a complete database of the assets available

The forecast communicated to the head of response giving them the ability to develop a more dynamic working environment. Making it more flexible...

database

inventory of equipment and personnel

the system evaluated the risk factor and suggests/ communicates the possible assets available. in this case equipment and personnel.

need

concept chosen to take further after evaluation and discussions.

Enable a more dynamic response status at our office.

co re

This information is updated through standard budget and inventory revising

interest


55

phase 4. Refine concept. qualitative.


56

Concept evaluation: The next step was an evaluation session where the concepts were tested against my project goal and discussed with relevant stakeholders. Bringing up the question of who can actually make a difference when things go wrong. Even though some might be able to influence in the long term this would not keep the oil of the shores. I therefore concluded that the users should be chosen from their ability to influence the situation in the short term perspective. This means that the concept was most effective when focused on the core of my user groups. I chose to further develop the concept focusing on the IUA and their resources. They are responsible for the municipal response and represent the core of the local first response unit. Their teams consist of a wide variety of backgrounds, but are all equipped with knowledge and provided with resources allowing them to affect the actual outcome.

After the systems were illustrated a missing part became obvious. The systems was at this point only a one way data flow which on its own did not generate enough motivation for the user. My initial ambitions was to keep the system as simple as possible, but it become evident that it needed an additional factor to become functional. Therefore I decided to rework the systems and build another layer into it that would allow the user to interact with the system.

It needed to provide a dialog that would generate the motivation for the user to embrace the risk system and include it in his/ hers everyday routines over longer periods of time. Even though this is their job, the tool would without a dialog, quickly become a shelf piece. The topic of dialog brings us back to the Full City case where several people in the legal trial have stated that they were aware of factors that indicated the potentially threatening situation in advance But those factors alone

were not important enough to make a statement or contact anybody. Based on this a decided to make the added layer in the form of an extra faktor in the risk factor. The possibility to reply to the risk factor with the users own subjective estimation and understanding of the situation.


57

IUA structure

FMVA (governmental body)

Head of task force

Main advisor

Local environmental group

Regional Chairman

Local police or fire department

Port authorities

Local police or fire department

Representative for the local floating assets(e.g. towboats) Local industry


58

i Existing data & knowledge

3 day

z

X Y

algorithm

Enhance concept Through including a subjective input to the risk evaluation the user would be able to take ownership in the risk factor and making it into more than another data channel. The user input would be a response to the system generated risk factor. When presented with the risk factor they would be able to compare it with their current status. How their next 3 days would look compare with the estimated risk level. The input would be a result of what they have seen or know that would have an impact on the risk level and easily communicate this back into the system. It could be as simple as that part of the response system has multiple staff members on vacation. Therefore not be able to handle a possible situation. Then they would simply reply with an adjusted risk factor that would be communicated back into the system. It would be important to keep the input at this basic level to allow them to reflect on the how and the why, but as simply as possible bring it into the risk estimation.

1 2 3 4

1 2 3

risk scale 4 factors

3 day risk forecast

No matter how well equipped we are the ability of the personnel to perform remains crucial. It has in my view been the flaw of our existing system that the human aspect is not taken more into consideration when planning our oil spill response. Through this basic system they would be able to I.e notifying their rest of the local response. This would be highly relevant information for other municipality nearby whose resources would then need to be available on a shorter times notice than usual if an accident occurred.

simplified risk factor forecast

+1 + subjective input

?


59

Definition of the final concept:

Dynamic risk mitigation and resource allocation with a stronger focus on the human aspect. Why design? This question has following me throughout the process and after 3 months of research I found the most basic argument: The human element needs to be included in the system. The most basic contribution of a designer is his understanding of user needs.

Quick budget thinking: For each 1% reduced probability of a Full City type accident equals 2,5 million n.kr compared to a marginal cost per device of some 400kr and some 260 primary users.


60

risk factor

Communication channel

Based on my project plan I said I would produce conceptual solutions and since this is not a redesign of existing products I was left reasonably free with how I would present and give shape to the communication of the risk factor. The first ideas were centered around utilizing existing channels in order to avoid the expense of creating a new platform for communication.

While reflecting on this I remembered a short story of how the head of the KyV revived a text message every time an accident occurred. This happened no matter what time it was or what kind of accident it was . He then reflected on how useless, his own words, this feature was. But explained it as a part of his job. I wanted the user to be able to access the information in its simplest form. When using the mobile phone or web there are distractions and always a few steps that need

+1

?

?

channel

user

to be made before the user can access the functions. I wanted to avoid these steps and present it as an independent experience. A product with one function and very basic interaction on a communication channel of its own. This in order to give the user freedom in how he/she creates the routines for the use of it. The simple interaction was chosen to underline that it is not about all the reasons, but the answers that are important.

Users demands:

simple understanding with as few as possible things to learn and to easily generate their own routines surrounding the product. I also believe it adds a level of trust when the information is communicated through a self standing product platform.

cost: The product needs to be simple I.e low chance

of failure, simple to maintain and reasonably cheap to produce.

Primary function: communicate risk level, allow the

user to input their own subjective input and a send function.

Intentions and limitations

The next stage was to create 3 concept clusters in order to explore how the communication channel could look. The main ambition of this project was never aimed at generating production ready solutions and based on this I decided to keep the product at an conceptual level of detail. The ambition was to provide the system with a physical object that would communicate the basic functions the product would have would it be further developed. My initial plan was to only provide it as a function description or a place holder. But in the later stages of the project i decided to further explore the visual aspects of the product based on the added value it brings. Therefore the following pages will describe a simplified version of a conceptual product design process. I had to base some of the choices on informed guesses since i did not have the needed time to perform the needed user tests and analyses.


61

1: next to nothing, simple and technological


62

2: anonymous part of the system and a collective tool.


63

3: collective effort with individual aspect.

Choice of concept Every user will be registered and the subjective input is based on their own personal understanding. Therefore I believe the product should represent this factor esthetically. On the other hand the product should also communicating the ftheir input represents a part of the collective wholeness. This would be done through the electronics components being the same on all units, but with a product body communicating a strong individual identity. Through this unique appearance the product would also differentiate from its product surroundings. With a wide variation of users preferences and personal taste it would be difficult to satisfy them all within one package. But if there is one factor joining all of the users it would be their connection to the sea. As a result the choice was made to make the material give it an unmistakably maritime association through the use of drift wood.

In further development of the project it would need to be taken through a budget rethink, but considering the conceptual nature of the product it was chosen due to its strong communicative effect. This also opens up for the main electrical components to be produced internationally, butthe main body to be produced locally. Through this strong visual identity, the esthetics would partake in making the connection between each unique product and user even stronger.


64

7 10

3 day

7/10

7 simplified risk factor forecast

summary of developing the risk scale display.


65

send

15 cm

3 cm

summary of developing the unit.

9 cm

Technological content: gsm modem circuit board battery e paper display


66


67

the material story

In an attempt to communicate the maritime feeling into a conceptual product design I wanted the material to tell the story and smell of the sea. Therefore it was important to find the right piece of wood that would provide the right mood. To show this I have included here a sample of the material search and how I went about finding the correct piece and processed it.


68

Material found, building and assembled.


69


70

phase 5. Visualise and present the results. My project was intended to be used to explore how I with my designer background could address the topic of oil spills through a system oriented design influenced approach. Explore the topic with the intent to produce a conceptual package to partake in the discussion of how our future oil spill response might develop. The result includes a system, conceptual product and scenario samples. The following pages will guide you through a description of these elements and how they fit together. My results are not final solutions, but visualizations of what I believe to be a way to reduce the effect of coastal oil spills from grounded vessels.


71

i Existing data & knowledge

4

users

factors

1

ship

2

site

3

weather

4

history

main computer

z

X Y

algorytm online access 1 2 3 4 risk scale

national overview

3 day simplified risk factor forecast

inter-municipal committee (IUA)

Basic system structure: This illustration shows the basic system behind the concept. From the data flow starting in the top left corner and into the circle of use. The blue arrow showing how the user recives the dynamic risk factor and the green showing how the user could access the data.

database

+1

API GSM

XML

unit + subjective evaluation unit + user


72

Interaction walkthrough 1.read, 2 reflect, 3 adjust, 4 send...and continue the day. Each morning the unit is updated with the prognosis for the following 3 days through its internal GSM modem. When this occurs the subjective input field is left empty communicating to the user that it is awaiting a response. There is no other interaction forcing the user to give their input. But since each piece is uniquely identified it would become obvious who does not respond information allowing the chief or colleagues to contact the user to remind him/her. The intention with the limited communication features is to inspire to more direct dialog and another distraction limiting communication. The condensed information representation is meant to give not only a quick reference source, but also trigger curiosity in case of the user disagreeing. Allowing them to reflect on the risk situation more frequently.

3 1

send

2

The input is collected and is used to present a risk factor influenced by the users available to compare to the system generated one. The input does not have to be based on specific observations or knowledge, but could also represent the individuals’ ability to react to possible situations. When the input is given there is no need for arguments or explanations, but it should represent their honest response to the represented threat level. The separation between adjust scroll and send functions is intended to limit accidents, provide the user with a thinking pause before he/she signs of and sends their response.

4

turning wheel to adjust subjective risk factor subjective response risk factor


73

Product and context There are no demands on how or where the unit should be positioned. It is important that the users decides on their own how it fits into their routines and surroundings.


74

User meetings:

In order to explore how the physical element of my concept was received I visited two potential users providing them with the a chance to explore and experience the concept model. Based on a short introduction I asked them to place the object in their environment and discussed how they would use it and their general thoughts about the concept. The fireman chose to explore two user situations, one being the emergency hall and the second being the common room. He preferred the common room and also came to the conclusion that it was the most useful location considering this is where their morning meetings would take place. Making it a natural place at his workplace for reflections. He found the aesthetic enjoyable and had no problem understanding the functional aspects of it.


75

The “harbour master� found the object instantly interesting and got very curious about the concept model. Through presenting this physical object it suddenly became interesting to discuss oil spill systems. His initial disappointment was the there was no wall mounting system on it and stated that this was the first thing he would do. But he quickly found a place for it in his lunch room where the user sequence is taking place. He found it easy to combine checking the device while he cleaned the leftovers from his co-worker or having a cup of coffee.


76

+1 risk factor + subjective input

Sequence of basic function:

the illustration shows how the stakeholders recives, is presented, complements and through this influence the riskt factor generated by the system.


77 goal: to reduce the effect of oil spills. This would be achieved through:

26 IUA (inter-municipal committee)

10 representatives per IUA provided with a unit:

...knowledge put into use through a system generated and influenced by an collaborative approach. evaluating communicating collaborating participating ...providing a simplified access to a dynamic risk representation of his/her region of interest... ...and the means to respond and make his/her knowledge take part in it becoming a collective tool intended to improve our oil spill response. ...generating the potential for increase dialog and a more dynamically oriented oil spill response taking into consideration the human element.

system levels: The concept has an effect on many levels ranging from the global to the individual scale. This illustration show the basic content and effect on these levels.


78

FMVA (governmental body)

Head of task force

Main advisor

Local environmental group

Regional Chairman

Local police or fire department

Port authorities

Local police or fire department

Representative for the local floating assets(e.g. towboats) Local industry

The attractive story:

Through involving the users in the developing the risk factor we can create a stronger collective feeling and through this system open the discussion about a more dynamic oil spill response. A system that embraces the individual knowledge and the importance of including the human aspect of the oil spill response.

illustration of a basic IUA organisation.


79

from the national overview

based on 26 inter-municipal committees(IUA)

+1

as a group...

as an individual...

i.d

levels of information

the concept has the potentiale to be developed on many levels, while in this project i have fucused on the overall basic structure. This illustration gives a overview of the potential plattforms for further development.

...with a personal identity.


80

Existing systems(HMS) + conceptual solution.

Concept summary This concept does not keep oil from drifting towards shore or work without the existing routines. Therefore it fully depends on us further developing our existing equipment and solutions. Its main task is to increase the probability that when spills happens we are better prepared. It does this through dynamic risk mitigation and resource allocation based on probability algorithms. I believe this approach can lead us towards a more effective oil spill response. It does not reduce the risk to 0 and in all honesty it might reduce 30 spills to 23. This project is not about dramatic improvement on a small scale, but a small improvement on a big scale. It is about rethinking the potential of our current resources and restructuring the way we relate to the threat. I wanted the collective knowledge of the individual to be taken into consideration and have an impact. To increase the chance that the voices that always are heard after the accident, could be heard before. Through this system attempt to achieve a collective understanding of the actual threat we are faced with. This understanding must not be decided by a few, but created by a collective effort across disciplines. I believe the approach of highly concentrated expert knowledge with limited input from an outside contributor, tends to leads to a narrow way of thinking. I observed a need to inspire to increase the ambition level of what is possible for out future oil spill response. We cannot be on code red all the time. We cannot have booms covering the entire coast. As an oil worker said after the Mexico Gulf accident. “We cannot cover the entire south coast, we need to prioritize�. I believe the response has to be as dynamic as the vessels that cause the oil spills and become a flexible platform that can evolve along with the changing threat. I believe this concept is a step in that direction. A conceptual idea intended to inspire to further research.


81

Further development

Conclusion: In my project I have attempted to keep the conceptual amount of detailing at a consistent level. But throughout the process I have always been pulled towards digging deeper into each step. The concept is in many ways a result of the choice of methodical approach. I have had to fight the desire to simply address the basic and preliminary findings. But when looking back I think this choice is what made the project. There will always be smaller parts that needs fixing, but occasionally we need to challenge ourself with addressing the big picture as well.

The project has been met with positive feedback from both Bellona and representatives from the oil spill community. Looking back at the difficult beginning of working on this topic as a designer has been among the most educational parts of the process. I have found great motivation in some of the meetings I have had with several of the people mentioned in my rapport. I hope to at one point take this project further into development and have received positive feedback about that plan. There are many aspects of this project that could have needed more research and time. But taking the project time limitations into consideration has to be put into the “for further research folder “. Should there not be any possibilities to take this exact project further, it will not be difficult to chose another considering the amount of potential projects I have seen during the process. This project has allowed me to explore what I can do based on my design education and I have found promising potential.

Why design? The conclusion I have found is that there are very few limits to how a designer can contribute and most of them are self imposed. “The Norwegian oil spill response does not exploit the potential of new technology. Organization and strategy need to be renewed to meet current risks, with respect to type of ships, traffic control, communications and equipment.”

Sigurd Engen`s comment after presented to the final concept.


82

Thanks to... Birger Sewaldson for support and discussions, Nina Bjørnstad for challenging me to widen my delivery, Michael Hensel for positive input in moments of doubt, Jonathan Romm for challenging the concepts, Harald Skuleberg for input of interest, Hans and Rudi for sparring sessions, Sigurd Engen from Bellona, Bent Natvik for providing me with an improved mathematical understanding (signing his book) and supporting the idea, Haugesund conference for sponsoring my entrance and meals, Hans Inge Halseid Clausen for a place to stay in Haugesund, Espen Rasmussen for letting me use his pictures...

My life seemed to be a series of events and accidents. Yet when I look back I see a pattern

...and my entire family.

Arthur Schopenhauer

A special thanks to Peter Odd Jensen and Lasse Wold from Wittusen & Jensen for sponsoring the printing. The list is not comprehensive, but I will remember to thank you later.

Adrian Paulsen

BenoĂŽt Mandelbrot All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.


83

Disclaimer This project is not intended to save the world or to produce a solution intended to be ready for production. My decisions will be based on currently available information. The purpose is to explore the topic of coastal oil spill response in Norway from the perspective of a designer. It is an opportunity to test how the method of system oriented design can contribute to produce new findings and ideas that can improve the further development of our oil spill response. My ambition is to go through the basic project structure outlined in my diploma program and end with a presentable concept package. The topic is dominated by highly conflicting and opposing beliefs and opinions where the dialog with experts will frequently meet my own understanding, gut feeling and observations. At these points I will be forced to make an informed guess but I believe this is important in order to avoid existing assumptions influence my project to greatly. Through the project I needed to use some anonymous quotes because the oil spill community is small and not everyone wanted their name on the record.


84

Reference list Pictures:

3: Espen Rasmussen, Picture Editor, VG magazine division +47 90 54 90 04 5: E.R 6: Kystverket, LN HTD 10: allthatfloats.com, public ship register m.hansen.no allthatfloats.com 13: yesil_sevenler Flickr CC 14: Allmaritim product press picture IUA billedgalleri marinebuzz.com 15: Kystverket, Martin Zeitser stock foto IUA 16: IUA Kystverket, Hans Petter Mortenhold 17: E.R 20: E.R 22: E.R 24: E.R 25: E.R 26: NOFO.no 27: NOFO presentation screenshot 33: Arne Follestad Allmaritim prod. photo 34: Jarle Gimlestad screenshot, from Haugesund Conference 35: Arena Beredskap, web 42: IUA 43: Kystverket, Knut Mørland 44: Kystverket, Per Gilding

45 IBM logo, web, http://www.ibm.com/ smarterplanet/us/en/ 47: Natvig, Bent, “Køteori-en nøkkel til kortere ventetid, kronikk, aftenposten, january 12, 2000 48: Kystverket screenshot, web Automatic ship identification system (AIS)

screenshot.

51: Østersjø Rederi as, screenshot from Haugesund Conference 52: Line Sandvik 53: Trond Hansen 53: Ole Einar Adamsrød

Literature:

2: Leacock, Elsepeth, The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Fast to File, 2005 8: Sevaldson, B. A system approach to design learning. p.1, 2008 13: Leacock, Elsepeth, The Exxon Valdez oil spill,

Nano paper: http://www.canada.com/ vancouversun/news/story.html?id=d1646eba1c06-441f-889f-7a6260795213 Oil eating algae: http://www.carbonoffsetsdaily.com/news-channels/ usa/aurora-biofuels-improves-carbon-eatingalgae-10952.htm

Additional literature, rapports, presentations and PDF`s: Most of the information available concerning the topic of oil spills are found in rapports, articles, presentations, found through dialog or web publications. The PDF`s I have downloaded will be available in the folder: “PDF and other resources” located on the CD. This also includes the Haugesund Conference presentations located in the folder: “Haugesund“. There are no direct quotes or references and therefor no mentions in the reference list.

Fast to File, 2005 25: web: Oil Spills: www.waterencyclopedia.com http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Oc-Po/Oil-SpillsImpact-on-the-Ocean.html 27: Nofo`s satsning på Kyst-og Strandsoneberedskap, 2007-2010, Innlegg i Beredskaps forum 2009 33: Rapport no.37 til Stortinget, 2008-2009, “Integrated manadgement of the marine environment of the Northern sea, point 7.4 Pollution.

34: “ønsket operativ adferd, om sikkerheten i sjøfartsnæringen“, Jarle Gimlestad, februar 2010, at the Haugesund conferance. 35: Material references: Human hair: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/ article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/11/14/MNPQTBLE4.DTL

Basic web references: www.kystverket.no www.olf.no www.petro.no www.nofo.no www.nofima.no www.sintef.no www.npd.no www.bellona.no www.forskning.no www.regjering.no www.wwf.no www.arenanord.no www.allmaritim.com


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Copyright 2010, Adrian Paulsen

Cleaning up our act or clean up after our acting.  

A system oriented approach to oil spill response in Norway. Design Master Thesis by Adrian Paulsen, AHO Oslo 2010

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