Issuu on Google+

Autodesk VIZ 2008

Tutorial 3: Modeling

Cover image: Preliminary Tower Study, courtesy of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP with studioamd.


© 2007 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. AUTODESK, INC., MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE REGARDING THESE MATERIALS, AND MAKES SUCH MATERIALS AVAILABLE SOLELY ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTODESK, INC., BE LIABLE TO ANYONE FOR SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT OF PURCHASE OR USE OF THESE MATERIALS. THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY TO AUTODESK, INC., REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE MATERIALS DESCRIBED HEREIN. Autodesk, Inc., reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future. The following are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and other countries: 3DEC (design/logo), 3December, 3December.com, 3ds Max, ActiveShapes, Actrix, ADI, Alias, Alias (swirl design/logo), AliasStudio, Alias|Wavefront (design/logo), ATC, AUGI, AutoCAD, AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD Simulator, AutoCAD SQL Extension, AutoCAD SQL Interface, Autodesk, Autodesk Envision, Autodesk Insight, Autodesk Intent, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk Map, Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk Streamline, AutoLISP, AutoSnap, AutoSketch, AutoTrack, Backdraft, Built with ObjectARX (logo), Burn, Buzzsaw, CAiCE, Can You Imagine, Character Studio, Cinestream, Civil 3D, Cleaner, Cleaner Central, ClearScale, Colour Warper, Combustion, Communication Specification, Constructware, Content Explorer, Create>what’s>Next> (design/logo), Dancing Baby (image), DesignCenter, Design Doctor, Designer’s Toolkit, DesignKids, DesignProf, DesignServer, DesignStudio, Design|Studio (design/logo), Design Your World, Design Your World (design/logo), DWF, DWG, DWG (logo), DWG TrueConvert, DWG TrueView, DXF, EditDV, Education by Design, Extending the Design Team, FBX, Filmbox, FMDesktop, GDX Driver, Gmax, Heads-up Design, Heidi, HOOPS, HumanIK, i-drop, iMOUT, Incinerator, IntroDV, Kaydara, Kaydara (design/logo), LocationLogic, Lustre, Maya, Mechanical Desktop, MotionBuilder, ObjectARX, ObjectDBX, Open Reality, PolarSnap, PortfolioWall, Powered with Autodesk Technology, Productstream, ProjectPoint, Reactor, RealDWG, Real-time Roto, Render Queue, Revit, Showcase, SketchBook, StudioTools, Topobase, Toxik, Visual, Visual Bridge, Visual Construction, Visual Drainage, Visual Hydro, Visual Landscape, Visual Roads, Visual Survey, Visual Syllabus, Visual Toolbox, Visual Tugboat, Visual LISP, Voice Reality, Volo, and Wiretap. The following are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk Canada Co. in the USA and/or Canada and other countries: Backburner, Discreet, Fire, Flame, Flint, Frost, Inferno, Multi-Master Editing, River, Smoke, Sparks, Stone, Wire. clothfx is a trademark of Size8 Software, Inc. mental ray is a registered trademark of mental images GmbH licensed for use by Autodesk, Inc. RE:Flex is a trademark of RE:Vision Effects, Inc. Intel is a registered trademark and the Intel Optimizer Logo is a trademark of Intel Corporation, used under license. Havok is a trademark or registered trademark of Havok.com, Inc. or its affiliates in the United States and/or in other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders.

Third-Party Software Credits and Attributions OpenEXR Bitmap I/O Plugin © 2003-2005 SplutterFish, LLC. OpenEXR © 2003 Industrial Light and Magic a division of Lucas Digital Ltd. LLC. Zlib © 1995-2003 Jean-loup Gaily and Mark Adler. HDRI Import created 2002 by SplutterFish and Cuncyt Ozdas. Portions Copyrighted © 2000-2005 Size8 Software, Inc. Portions of this software are Copyright 1998-2004 Hybrid Graphics Limited. This product includes Radiance software (http://radsite.lbl.gov/) developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (http://www.lbl.gov/). The JPEG software is copyright © 1991-1998, Thomas G. Lane. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyrighted mental images GmbH 1989-2002. Portions Copyright © IntegrityWare, Inc.; Npower Software LLC. All rights reserved. Portions Copyright © 1991-1996 Arthur D. Applegate. All rights reserved. Lenzfx and Max R2 Copyright © Digimation, Inc. All rights reserved.

GOVERNMENT USE Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR 12.212 (Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights) and DFAR 227.7202 (Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software), as applicable. Published By: Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903, USA


For this web tutorial please find the Scene Files in \VIZ2008_Modeling instead of \tutorials. Download this folder using the following procedure: 1. At www.autodesk.com/viz-tutorials click Scene Files under Modeling. 2. Unzip the EXE file to your computer. By default the \VIZ2008_Modeling folder is unzipped into C:\VIZ2008_Scene_Files.

Modeling Tutorials

Here you continue learning how to model in Autodesk VIZ. We provide three different tutorials here that teach you several different modeling techniques.

Skill Level: Beginner Time to complete: 45 minutes

Features Covered in This Tutorial After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

Building a 3D Model from a Concept Sketch Sitting over a cup of coffee, an architect works on a conceptual sketch of a new art museum. Slowly the wastebasket fills up with crumpled paper, each with a different museum design. After a few hours, all of the hard work pays off. The sketch is a concept that embodies the idea of the museum, a modern structure with a contrast of style and material.

• Start with a sketch to complete a 3D conceptual design. • Use Booleans to make new shapes by combining existing ones. • Use the Spacing Tool to create evenly spaced copies of an object. • Use Daylight to create a shadow study.

Tutorial Files The files for this tutorial can be found on the program disc, in the \tutorials\arch folder. Before doing the tutorials, copy the \tutorials directory from the disc to your local program installation.

Incorporating the Sketch In this section, you will bring in the sketch that will be used as the basis of the final building. The sketch has been specially prepared by making it negative, and reducing the brightness and


36

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

contrast. This makes it easier to see what you are doing when building on top of the sketch. Incorporate the sketch as a background image: 1. On the menu bar, choose File > Open.

The Open File dialog appears. 2. Open modelfromsketch_01.max from the

\tutorials\arch directory. 3. Verify that the Top viewport is active. If it isn’t,

right-click in the Top viewport to make it active. 4. If any floating toolbars appear over the

Sketch displayed in viewport background

viewports, close them or dock them so they are not in your way. 5. On the menu bar, choose Views > Viewport

Background. 6.

In the Viewport Image dialog > Background Source group, click Files.

Creating the Building You will begin creating the building, starting with the main entrance rotunda. Because you are not building this to scale, disregard the dimensions on the sketch.

7. In the Select Background Image dialog,

select sketch.gif located in the \tutorials\arch directory, then click Open to close the dialog. 8. In the Viewport Background dialog > Aspect

Ratio group, choose Match Bitmap. Also to its right turn on Lock Zoom/Pan if it isn’t already on.

Start the main entrance rotunda: 1.

In the viewport navigation tools, click Zoom Region.

2. In the Top view, drag a rectangle to zoom in on

the main entrance in the lower left of the sketch.

9. Click OK to close the dialog.

The image appears in the center of the viewport, but needs to be sized to fit the current viewport. 10. On the menu bar, choose Views > Reset

Background Transform. The image is resized to fit the viewport background.

Note: If you zoom in too far, a dialog will appear indicating that the amount of RAM needed to display the background image may exceed the


Creating the Building

available amount. Answer NO to the warning. To display your viewport after you’ve answered NO to the warning, right-click the viewport label and choose Show Background. 3.

On the Create panel, choose Shapes. The default Shapes category is Splines, which are line-based shapes you can use as the basis of 3D objects. On the Object Type rollout, click

4.

Circle. 5. In the Top viewport, position the mouse cursor

8. Press H to open the Select Objects dialog,

choose Circle01 in the list, and click Select. 9. From the Modifiers menu > Mesh Editing

category, apply an Extrude modifier. On the Modify panel, set Amount to 18.3m. 10. Again press H , and select the Steel Ring 01

object. By default, unmodified splines don’t render and appear as wireframe objects in all viewports, shaded or not. The spline Rendering settings let splines appear as “solid” mesh objects in the viewports, when rendered, or both.

in the center of the rotunda, and then click and drag outward to draw a circle that lines up with the glass walls of the rotunda. If necessary, right-click and choose Move, then move the circle into place.

11. On the Modify panel > Rendering rollout, turn

Tip: To move the circle, drag the circle itself, the X or Y arrow, or the yellow corner box where the arrows meet.

12. Set Thickness to 0.61m.

6. On the menu bar, choose Edit > Clone. 7. In the Clone Options dialog, choose Copy,

enter the name Steel Ring 01, and then click OK to make a copy of Circle01. A new copy of the circle is on top of the original circle.

on both Enable In Renderer and Enable In Viewport. The spline now has thickness in the viewport and will be visible when rendered. This parameter determines the thickness of the spline when rendered.

37


38

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

19. Click OK.

This closes the dialog and creates two additional steel holding rings around the glass rotunda. Add the outer wall and central column:

You’ll use the rotunda circle to create the outer wall. 1. Select the Circle01 object. 2. From the Edit menu, choose Clone. 3. In the Clone Options dialog > Object group,

choose Copy. 4. Click OK to make a copy of Circle01. 5. 13.

On the toolbar, click Select And Move.

14. In the status bar (bottom of the screen) >

coordinate display > Z field, enter 6.1m. This moves the ring up 6.1 meters.

In the Modify panel, under the modifier stack display, click Remove Modifier.

6. In the Modify panel > Parameters rollout,

change the Radius amount to match the outer circle in the sketch (about 15.0m).

15. From the Tools menu choose Array. 16. In the Array dialog, under Incremental, set the

Move Z axis to 6.1m. 17. In the Type Of Object group, choose Instance. 18. In the Array Dimensions group > 1D Count,

enter 3.

7. On the menu bar, choose Edit > Clone.


Creating the Building

8. In the Clone Options dialog > Name group,

If you can no longer see the extrusion, it is because you’ve moved "down" the stack to the original shape. In order to see "up" the stack, you must turn on Show End Result. If this is already on you will see the extrusion without problem.

type L arge Column. Make sure the active choice is still Copy, then click OK. 9. In the Modify panel > Parameters rollout,

change the Radius amount to 2.4m to match the small solid circle in the sketch.

14. From the Modifier List, from the Object Space

Modifiers category choose Edit Spline. Like other object types in Autodesk VIZ, the spline has sub-objects you can edit independently, such as Vertex and Segment, and you can also edit (transform) the entire object at the top level: Spline. A spline object can comprise several splines (separate curves), so it also has a Spline sub-object level so you can edit a single constituent spline.

You needn’t move the column to match the sketch. Remember, this is just a quick sketch, not a precise design. 10. Apply an Extrude modifier and set Amount to

21.3m.

15.

On the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click the Spline button. This places you at the Spline sub-object level, which is the only one that affords access to the Outline function.

16. In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, next

to the Outline button, enter 0.03m.

11. Press H and select Circle01 from the list. 12. At the top of the Modify panel, rename Circle01

to Rotunda Glass. 13. In the modifier stack display, choose Circle.

This creates a nested shape, like the letter O. Notice that the outline field returns to the original 0.0 value after you create the outline. This is because Outline is an action, rather than a parameter.

39


40

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

17. In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click

Tip: Right-click the Top viewport label and

Spline to exit the sub-object level. 18. In the modifier stack display, choose Circle.

change the viewport to Smooth+Highlights. 3. In the Modify panel > Parameters rollout,

change the Length amount to 9.0m, the Width to 36.5m, and the Height to 6.0m.

When the warning appears, click Yes to continue. You can now see the result of outlining the spline: Instead of a solid column, you have a thin, circular wall.

4.

On the toolbar, click Align.

5. Press H , choose Rotunda Glass from the list,

and then click Pick.

Create doorways with Boolean:

Next, you’ll create a box and then use Boolean to subtract its shape from the rotunda. 1.

In the Create panel > Geometry > Standard Primitives > Object Type rollout, click Box.

2. In the Top viewport, click and drag out a box

as shown below. 6. In the Align Selection dialog > Align Position

group, turn on X Position and Y Position.

7. Click OK to close the dialog. 8.

On the toolbar, click Select And Rotate.

9. In the Coordinate Display > Z field, enter 4 5.0.


Creating the Building

This rotates the box into the same position and orientation as the rotunda openings in the plan.

Create the roof:

Here you’ll clone the topmost ring and then extrude the clone, producing a roof. 1. Press H and select Steel Ring 03 from the list.

This is the topmost ring. 2. From the Edit menu, choose Clone. 3. Name the clone Roof, click Instance, and then

click OK. Note: An instance derives certain characteristics from the object it’s copied from, so changing one also alters the other. 4. On the Modify panel, add an Extrude modifier. 10. Select the Rotunda Glass object. 11. Go to the Create panel, and from the

drop-down category list, choose Compound Objects.

The roof appears at the top of the rotunda. 5. On the Modify panel > Parameters rollout, set

the Amount to 0.15m. This gives the roof the appropriate thickness.

12. On the Object Type rollout, click Boolean. 13. On the Parameters rollout, make sure the

Subtraction (A-B) item is active. 14. On the Pick Boolean rollout, click Pick

Operand B, and then click the box. The box is subtracted from the rotunda object, leaving two open doorways. 15. Right-click in the viewport to exit the Boolean

operation.

Creating the Outer Columns In the next few steps, you will create columns from cylinders and make multiple copies using Array. Create columns using the cylinder object: 1. In the Create panel > Geometry drop-down

list, choose Standard Primitives. 2.

In the Create panel > Object Type rollout, click Cylinder.

41


42

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

3. In the Top viewport, create a cylinder near

8. In the Top viewport, hold the Shift key and

the entrance opening in the lower left of the rotunda.

move the Thin Column 01 cylinder so it lines up with the left side of the opening in the Rotunda Glass, with the Rotunda Glass passing through the center of the cylinder. Note: Transforming an object while pressing

Shift causes the object to be copied before it is moved. 9. When the Clone Options dialog appears,

choose Instance, and then click OK. 10. In the status bar > Coordinate Display > X

field, enter -63.4m, set Y to make sure Z is set to 0.0m.

26.52m, and

4. In the Parameters rollout, change Radius to

0.5m and Height to 19.5m. 5.

On the toolbar, click Select And Move.

6. In the Coordinate Display > X field, enter

-57.037m, set Y to Z is set to 0.0m.

32.79m, and make sure

The cylinder lines up with the right side of the opening in the Rotunda Glass object, with the Rotunda Glass passing through the center of the cylinder.

Array the columns:

Next, you’ll create a circular array of thin columns with the large column as the center. 1.

On the toolbar, choose Select And Rotate, then click the Reference Coordinate System drop-down and choose Pick from the list.

2. In a viewport, select the Large Column object.

The name of the object appears in the Reference Coordinate System field. 3. 7. In the Modify panel, rename the cylinder to

Thin Column 01.

On the toolbar, from the Use Center flyout, choose Use Transform Coordinate Center. This tells Autodesk VIZ to use the Large Column object as the center point for the cylinders to rotate around in the array.


Creating the Main Building

4. Press H and select Thin Column 01 from the

list. 5. Right-click in the Top viewport to make it

active. 6. From the Tools menu, choose Array. 7. In the Array dialog, click Reset All Parameters. 8. In the Array Transformation group, under

Incremental, set the Rotate Z axis amount to 23.5 degrees. 9. In the Array dialog > Type Of Object group,

click Instance. 10. In the Array dialog > Array Dimensions group,

12. Press H and select Thin Column 02from the

list. 13. From the Tools menu, choose Array.

You’ll create the same number of instances on the other side, so you need change only one setting. 14. In the Array Transformation group, under

Incremental, set the Rotate Z axis amount to -223.5 degrees. 15. Click OK to close the Array dialog.

A semicircular array of columns appears on the other side of the rotunda.

enter a 1D Count of 7.

Using instances lets you change all the columns by editing only one. 11. Click OK to close the Array dialog.

A semicircular array of columns appears on one side of the rotunda.

Save your work:

• On the menu bar, choose File > Save As. Name your scene myrotunda.max.

Creating the Main Building In the next few steps you will use a combination of 2D Booleans and 3D Booleans to create the foundation. Set up:

To start from this point, do one of the following: 1. Continue from the previous step, or open your

saved file, myrotunda.max. 2. If you want to begin the tutorial at this point,

open rotunda.max from the \tutorials\arch

43


44

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

directory. You will have to reassign the viewport background. Create the foundation:

In this procedure you will use 2D Booleans to create a shape and then extrude it to make the foundation. 1. Right-click in the Top viewport to make it

active. 2.

In the navigation controls, click Zoom. Zoom out of the Top viewport. 6. In the Rendering rollout, turn on the Enable in

3.

In the navigation controls, click Pan. Pan until you see the entire two-story atrium.

Renderer and Enable in Viewport check boxes. 7. In the Create panel > Name And Color rollout,

enter Foundation. 8.

In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, click Attach.

9. Press H , select Circle02 from the list, and then

click Pick. 10. In the Geometry rollout, click Attach to

deactivate it. 11.

In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click the Spline button.

12. In the Top viewport, select the Foundation 4.

In the Create panel > Shapes > Splines > Object Type rollout, click Line.

5. Create a line following the outline of the

foundation, as shown in the following illustration. Click at each point, and to end, click the starting point. When you’re prompted, Close Spline?, click Yes.

spline.


Creating the Main Building

Create the entrance ramp: 13.

In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, click Boolean. By default, Boolean is set to Union. This lets you combine shapes, eliminating overlapping geometry.

14. In the Top viewport, click the attached Circle02

object.

You’ll create a second box and use Boolean to subtract its shape from the foundation, producing an entrance ramp for the rotunda. 1. In the Create panel > Geometry > Standard

Primitives > Object Type rollout, click Box. 2. In the Create panel > Keyboard Entry rollout,

set the X axis to -51.041m, the Y axis to -20.26m, and the Z axis to 0.914m. Set the Length to 13.7m, Width to 36.5m, and the Height to 4.5m, and then click Create.

The Union operation results in a single spline.

Using keyboard entry lets you create an object of an exact size at a specific location.

15. In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click

the Spline button to exit the sub-object level. This also turns off Boolean. 16. Apply an Extrude modifier. 17. In the Modify panel > Parameters rollout, set

Amount to 1.8m.

3. 4.

On the toolbar, click Select And Rotate. Choose Use Pivot Point Center from the Use Center flyout.

45


46

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

5. On the status bar, set the coordinate display Y

field to 6.

4.0. and the Z field to 45.0.

On the toolbar, click Select and Move.

7. On the status bar, set the Coordinate Display

Z field to 1.0. 8. Press H and select Foundation from the list. 9. On the Create panel, click the drop-down list

and choose Compound Objects. On the Object Type rollout, click Boolean. 10. In the Create panel > Pick Boolean rollout,

click Pick Operand B. 11. In the Top viewport, click the box you just

created.

Set up the tutorial:

To start from this point: 1. Continue from the previous step, or open your

saved file, mybuilding_nowalls.max. 2. If you want to start the tutorial from

here, choose File > Open and browse to \tutorials\arch\ building_nowalls.max. Highlight the filename and click Open. Use the Spacing Tool to add columns: 1. In the Create panel > Shapes > Object Type

rollout, click Line. 2. In the Top viewport, create a line for the front

wall.

12. Right-click anywhere in the Top viewport to

exit Boolean.

3. In the Create panel > Name And Color rollout,

enter Front Wall Glass. This creates a sloped ramp for the entrance. Save your work:

• On the menu bar, choose File > Save As. Name the file mybuilding_nowalls.max.

Adding Glass and Columns In this section you’ll create lines to be used as paths with the Spacing Tool. You’ll then use the Spacing Tool to create more columns around the building.

4. In the Top viewport, create a second line for the

left wall and rear wall.


Adding Glass and Columns

5. In the Create panel > Name And Color rollout,

11. Select the column at the endpoint of the Front

Wall Glass and press Delete on your keyboard.

enter Rear Wall Glass. 6.

In the viewport navigation controls, click Region Zoom. Zoom in, centering the region at the spot where the Front Wall Glass meets the Rotunda. The illustration below gives you a rough idea of how far to zoom in.

7. When the Display Background warning

appears, click No. 8. Right-click twice in the viewport; once to turn

off Region Zoom, and again to exit the Line tool. 9.

On the toolbar, click Select And Move.

10. Click the Front Wall Glass and move its

endpoint to the center of the nearest column. Tip: You might not be able to move the line in

two dimensions at first. Because you’re zoomed in, you can’t use the Transform Gizmo. If you find this is the case, right-click the blank area of the toolbar, and display the Axis Constraints toolbar. Then on the Constraints toolbar, click XY.

12.

In the viewport navigation controls, click Zoom Extents.

13. Press H and select Thin Column 01 from the

list. 14. On the Tools menu choose the Spacing Tool. 15. In the Spacing Tool dialog, click the Pick Path

button. 16. Press H and select Front Wall Glass from the

list. 17. In the Spacing Tool dialog, set Count to 1 0. If

you use the keyboard, be sure to press the Tab or Enter key after typing the number so the new value registers with the software.

47


48

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

22. Click Apply.

23. Close the Spacing Tool dialog. Attach and clone the wall splines:

Next, you’ll combine the two wall splines and clone them, as you did with the rings around the rotunda, to create horizontal steel beams. 1. Press H and select Rear Wall Glass from the 18. Click Apply.

list. 2. In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, click

Attach. 3. Press H and select Front Wall Glass from the

list. 4. Click the Attach button again to deactivate it. 5. On the menu bar, choose Edit > Clone. 6. In the Clone Options dialog > Object group,

choose Copy. 7. In the Clone Options dialog > Name group,

type Steel Wall. 8. Click OK to close the dialog. 19. In the Spacing Tool dialog, click Pick Path. 20. Press H and select Rear Wall Glass from the

list. 21. In the Spacing Tool dialog, set Count to 18. If

you use the keyboard, be sure to press the Tab or Enter key after typing the number so the new value registers with the software.

9. On the toolbar, click Select And Move if

necessary. 10. In the status bar > Coordinate Display > Z field,

enter 6.1m. This moves the Steel Wall object up 6.1 meters.


Adding Glass and Columns

11. In the Modify panel > Rendering rollout, turn

3. Press Ctrl+A to select both the splines.

on the Enable in Renderer check box, if it’s not already on. 12. In the Rendering rollout, set the Thickness to

0.61m. You can see the result of these settings when you render your scene or by turning on Enable in Viewport. Array the wall splines: 1. On the Tools menu, choose Array. 2. In the Array dialog, click Reset All Parameters. 3. In the Array dialog, under Incremental, set the

Move Z axis to 6.1m. 4. In the Type Of Object group, choose Instance. 5. In the Array Dimensions group > 1D Count,

enter 3. 6. Click OK to close the dialog.

This creates the steel beams that will make up the horizontal detail of the atrium.

Create the walls:

Now you’ll use Outline to give the wall some thickness, and then extrude it. 1. Press H and select Rear Wall Glass from the

list. 2.

In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click Spline to access this sub-object level.

4. In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, enter

0.03m in the Outline amount field. You need not click the Outline button. 5. In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click

Spline to return to object level. 6. From the Modifier menu > Mesh Editing

category, apply an Extrude modifier. Set Amount to 12.2m.

7. Press H and select Steel Wall 01 and Steel Ring

02 from the list. Tip: Ctrl adds to a selection. 8. On the menu bar, choose Edit > Clone. 9. In the Clone Options dialog > Object group,

choose Copy, and name the clone Main Roof, and then click OK.

49


50

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

be cutting the rotunda shape out of the building with Boolean, which requires closed splines to work.

10. Press H and select Main Roof from the list.

Note that the objects were cloned separately, and the Main Roof name was applied to the cloned ring; the cloned wall object was automatically named Steel Wall 03.

8.

In the Modify panel > Selection rollout click Spline selection, then select the spline that you just connected.

9.

In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, choose Boolean Subtraction.

Complete the walls: 1. Apply an Edit Spline modifier. 2. In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, click

Attach Multi. 3. Select Steel Wall 03 from the list and click

Attach. 4. In the viewport, right-click and choose Hide

Unselected. 5.

In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click Vertex.

6. In the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, locate

the Weld button, then just below it, click the Connect button. 7. Click and drag to connect the adjacent

endpoints of the splines that made up the walls. You’ll be creating two splines: one across the rotunda, and one on the right side of the building as viewed from the top. The spline across the rotunda is necessary because you’ll

10. Click the Boolean button, and then in the Top

viewport, select the Circle shape. The circle is subtracted from the building outline, leaving an arc-shaped cutout.


Adding Glass and Columns

11. In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click

Spline to return to the object level. 12. Apply an Extrude modifier and set Amount to

0.15m. 13. In the viewport right-click and choose Unhide

All.

4. In the Clone Options dialog > Object group,

click Copy, then click OK. 5. In the Modify panel > Parameters rollout, set

Amount to 18.0m. 6. Open the Array dialog and click Reset All

Parameters. 7. In the Array dialog, under Incremental, set X

to 23.0m. 8. In the Type Of Object group, choose Instance. 9. In the Array Dimensions group, do the

following: • Set the 1D Count to 2. • Click 2D and then set the 2D Count to 3. • Under Incremental Row Offsets, set Y to 24.0m. Add the six large columns:

You’ll finish this lesson by using Array to make six shorter copies of the Large Column object. 1. Press H and select Large Column from the list. 2. On the toolbar, choose Select And Move, if

necessary. 3. In the Top viewport, hold down the Shift key

and move the Large Column over the lower-left column of the sketch.

10. Click OK to close the dialog.

This creates a two-dimensional array of six columns, approximately where they’re drawn in the sketch.

51


52

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Save your work:

• On the menu bar, choose File > Save As. Name the file mybuilding.max.

2. In the Create panel > Geometry > Object Type

rollout, click Box. 3. In the Top viewport, create a box as shown,

with a height of 30.0m.

Creating the Second Building In this section, you will create a simple primitive to represent the second part of the building. The shape is a trapezoid with no visible windows. Set up:

To start from this point, do one of the following: 1. Continue from the previous step, or open your

saved file, mybuilding.max. 2. If you want to begin the tutorial at this

point, open building1_complete.max from the \tutorials\arch directory. Create and modify a box: 1.

In the Top viewport, use the Pan tool to bring the brick building area of the drawing (labeled "4 story red brick") into view. Zoom back a little so the entire new building is visible.

4. In the Create panel > Name And Color rollout,

type B rick Building. 5. Apply an Edit Mesh modifier. 6.

Go to the Vertex sub-object level

7. In the Top viewport, use Rectangular Region

Selection to select the vertices on the right side. Move them down in the Y axis until they line up with the sketch. 8. Select the vertices along the bottom of the box. 9. Move them up in the Y axis, until they line up

with the sketch.


Producing a Shadow Study

2. If you want to begin the tutorial at this

point, open shadow_study.max from the \tutorials\arch directory. Use a Daylight system: 1.

In the Create Panel, choose Systems.

2. In the Object Type rollout, click Daylight. 3. In the Top viewport, drag a short distance in

the Brick Building to create a Daylight compass and light. 10. In the Modify panel > Selection rollout, click

Vertex to return to the object level.

4. Release the mouse button, and move the mouse

while watching the Site group > Orbital Scale setting. When Orbital Scale reaches about 120, click to complete the system.

Save your work:

• On the menu bar, choose File > Save As. Name the file mybuildings.max.

Producing a Shadow Study There are many cases in designing a structure when you will be required to perform a shadow study. Autodesk VIZ allows you to easily perform shadow studies by using the built-in Daylight system. Set up:

To start from this point: 1. Continue from the previous step, or open your

saved file, mybuildings.max.

Tip: You can also adjust the Orbital Scale to 120 immediately after you click the mouse. 5. In the Control Parameters rollout > Time

group, change Hours to 9, Mins. (Minutes) to 0, and Secs. (Seconds) to 0. This changes the sun’s position. Click Zoom Extents if necessary to see the sun object in the viewport. Note: The month and day settings default to the

summer solstice. You can change them if you like to the winter for more dramatic shadows.

53


54

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Note: This render might take a while because

of the extensive sky calculations required. If you need to view only shadows from direct sunlight, you can improve the rendering time by deactivating the skylight contribution. For the most detailed rendering, select the Daylight icon in the viewport, then go to the Modify panel and choose IES Sun from the Sunlight drop-down, and IES Sky from the Skylight list.

6. In the Location group, click Get Location. 7. In the Geographic Location dialog, choose San

Jose and click OK. Tip: You can click the map or choose San Jose

from the list.

Save your work:

• On the menu bar, choose File > Save As. Name the file myshadowstudy.max.

Summary

8. Right-click in the viewport to end the Daylight

creation command mode. 9. On the Rendering menu choose Environment. 10. In the Exposure Control rollout, click the

drop-down list, and choose Automatic Exposure Control. Make sure Active is turned on, then close the dialog.

In this tutorial you have modeled a 3D building starting from a sketch. You have learned to use a viewport background as a guide for your work. You have created geometry using extruded lines, primitive objects and booleans. You have repeated objects using Array and the Spacing tool. And finally you have created a shadow study using the Daylight system.

11. On the Rendering menu, choose Render. At

the bottom of the Render dialog, make sure the Viewport is Perspective, if not choose Perspective from the drop-down list. 12. On the Render Scene dialog, click Render.

Modeling a Chess Set In this tutorial, you will create four pieces of a chess set using various modeling tools and techniques.


Modeling a Pawn

design, pawns are turned on a lathe. You will use Autodesk VIZ to do something similar: draw the pawn’s outline, and then use a Lathe modifier to fill out its geometry. The Lathe modifier revolves the outline around a central point to create a shape, not unlike the way wood is turned on a machine lathe.

Skill Level: Beginner Time to complete: 1 hour

Features Covered in This Tutorial You will make a pawn, a bishop, a rook and a knight in these lessons. In the course of making these objects you will learn: • Creating and editing spline objects. • Using Lathe modifier to create a 3D object.

Features and techniques covered in this lesson:

• Using Face extrusion to create geometry.

• Using spline shapes to draw the outline of an object.

• Using Boolean compound objects. • Using viewport background images. • Using the Surface modifier.

Tutorial Files All the files necessary for this tutorial are provided on the program disc in the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling directory. Before starting the tutorials, copy the \tutorials folder from the disc to your local program installation.

This lesson also briefly introduces you to spline editing. A spline is a type of curve that is interpolated between two endpoints and two or more tangent vectors. The term dates from 1756, and derives from a thin wood or metal strip used for drafting curves in architecture and ship design. • Editing the shape vertices and edges to better control spline drawing. • Using the Lathe modifier to turn a 2D outline into a 3D model.

Modeling a Pawn In this lesson, you will model a pawn for a set of chessmen. In a wooden chess set of standard

Tutorial Files:

55


56

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Tutorial files for this lesson can be found in the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Skill Level: Beginner Time to complete: 15 minutes Set up the lesson:

• Start Autodesk VIZ or choose File > Reset if the program is already running. No startup file is necessary for this tutorial.

3. Click the Files button. Open the

\tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder, and then double-click ref-chess.jpg to load it. 4. In the Aspect Ratio group, choose Match

Bitmap. This ensures the image in the viewport does not get distorted. 5. To the right of the dialog, turn on Lock

Zoom/Pan. This ensures the background image reacts to zooms and pans you may use for viewport navigation.

Set up the viewport background:

To create the profile of the pawn (and other chess pieces), you need to load a reference image into the viewport so you can trace over it. 1. Right-click the Front viewport to make it

current. 2. From the Views menu, select Viewport

Background. The Viewport Background dialog appears.

6. Click OK to exit the dialog. A bitmap now

appears in the Front view. Press G to disable the grid, as you won’t need it for this exercise.

Now you are ready to begin drawing. Start the pawn’s outline:

You will draw the pawn’s outline beginning with the “knob” on top. 1. Zoom in on the pawn reference in the Front

view. 2. On the Create panel, click Shapes, and then

click Line.


Modeling a Pawn

3. On the Creation Method rollout, set both Initial

6. From this position, click a few points on the

Type and Drag Type to Corner. This ensures all line segments will be linear.

right contour of the reference image to create a rough profile, going up the side of the image. You do not need to be very precise at this time as you will be able to edit the profile later. To close the spline and end the command, click on the first point.

4. In the Front viewport, click a point near the

top center. Press and hold the Shift key to constrain the line to the vertical axis and then click a second point at the base of the pawn.

7. When prompted, click Yes to close the spline. Edit the pawn’s outline: 1.

With the spline still selected, go to the Modify panel.

2.

On the Selection rollout, click the Vertex button.

3. In the Front viewport, zoom in on the bottom

part of the profile you created. 4.

5. With the Shift key still pressed, click a point

in the bottom-right edge of the base.

Use the Select And Move tool to adjust the vertices as shown in the following illustration.

57


58

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

8. Select the vertex above the rounded corner you

just created. If necessary, move it to a better position, based on the reference image.

5. Select the two rightmost vertices and then

activate the Fillet button on the Modify panel. 6. With the Fillet command active, place the

9. With the vertex selected, right-click in the

viewport and from the quad menu that appears, choose Smooth.

cursor on one of the selected vertices and then click and drag to round off the two corners, as shown below.

10. Adjust the vertex position to match the

reference image.

7. Pan up to work on the middle section of the

profile. 11. Pan up to the next set of vertices.


Modeling a Pawn

In some situations, you might need to add a vertex.

15. Select the vertex sticking out to the right and

fillet it to create a curve, as you did earlier.

12. On the Modify panel > Geometry rollout,

choose Refine. 13. Click the line where you need to insert the

vertex. A new vertex is added to the spline.

16. Pan up the profile. Select the two vertices

shown in the following illustration.

14. Using the Move tool, adjust the position of

vertices as shown in the following illustration.

59


60

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

17. Using the quad menu, convert the two selected

19. Zoom in to the base of the knob.

vertices to Smooth vertices, as you did earlier. Move them to fine-tune their positions.

20. If you have only one vertex at the base of the

knob, use the Refine tool as you did earlier to add another vertex. 21. Select both vertices and right-click to access the

quad menu. 18. Pan up to the top part of the profile. Select the

two vertices to the right of the knob and make them Smooth vertices. Again, use the Select And Move tool to fine-tune their positions.

22. Use the quad menu to convert both vertices to

Bezier Corner.


Modeling a Pawn

26. Continue refining your profile, adjusting vertex

positions and types to match the reference image. 27.

When you are done, click the vertex button in the Selection rollout of the Modify panel to exit the sub-object level.

Lathe the outline: 23. Use Select And Move to adjust the positions of

the vertices and their handles to get the proper curvatures around the base of the knob.

At this point, you can continue with the file you created in the previous steps, or you can open the file pawn_outline_edited.max, and continue from there. 1. Select the pawn and click Modifier List above

the modifier stack display. This is a drop-down list of various modifiers. 2. From the list, choose Lathe.

24. Select the first vertex you created, at the very

top of the profile. Use the quad menu to convert it to Bezier Corner. 25. Adjust the handles to match the curvature on

the reference image.

The pawn is now a 3D object.

The pawn model might not look as you expected, but that’s only because the axis of revolution, by default, is based on the spline’s pivot point rather than the left side of the profile. You will fix that in the next step. 3. On the Parameters rollout of the Lathe modifier,

find the Align group and click Min.

61


62

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

The pawn now looks better, albeit a bit “choppy.” 4. On the Parameters rollout of the Lathe modifier,

increase the Segments value to 32.

In the Introduction to Materials and Mapping tutorials, you’ll provide the chess pieces with more-convincing color and texture and create a shiny, reflective wood-grain chessboard.

Summary In this lesson you learned spline creation and editing. You also learned to create 3D geometry using the Lathe modifier.

The pawn is now smoother, as you can see if you render the Perspective viewport, but the center seems a bit pinched. 5. On the Parameters rollout of the Lathe modifier,

turn on Weld Core. This combines all the vertices at the center of the model into one.


Modeling a Bishop

exercise or open the bishop_outline_edited.max file to work with a finished shape.

Modeling a Bishop In this lesson you will model a bishop for the chess set. For the most part, the bishop is modeled the same way as the pawn, based on a profile shape and a lathe modifier. The difference is the gap that shows on the bishop’s head. You will use a Boolean object to achieve that result.

This file contains the profile of the bishop and a reference background image. If you cannot see the reference image, do the following steps. 1. Make sure the Front viewport is selected and

then press Alt+B to open the Viewport Background dialog. 2. On the dialog, click the Files button. 3. Locate the ref-chess.jpg image in the

\intro_to_modeling folder and double-click it. Lathing the Bishop

1.

On the main toolbar, click the Select tool. Select the spline representing the bishop’s profile in any viewport.

2.

With the Spline selected, go to the Modify panel. From the Modifier list, choose Lathe.

3. On the Parameters rollout, click the Min button

in the Align group. 4. Set Segments to 32 and turn on the Weld Core

option. Features and techniques covered in this lesson: • Using spline shapes to draw an outline of an object. • Using the Lathe modifier to turn a 2D outline into a 3D model. • Using Boolean to subtract geometry. Skill Level: Beginner Time to complete: 15 minutes Set up the lesson:

• The basic shape for the bishop is built exactly the same way as the pawn in the last lesson. Follow the procedures in the “Modeling a Pawn”

63


64

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

6.

On the main toolbar, click the Select And Rotate button. Rotate the box in the Front viewport so that it is aligned with the gap on the bishop’s head (in the reference image).

7.

Use Select And Move to position the box on top of the gap.

8. In the Top view, move the box on the Y axis

(green axis) until you can see it on both sides of the bishop.

Create and position the box:

To create the gap in the bishop’s head, you’ll create a simple box and then subtract from the bishop model. 1. Zoom the Front viewport in, near the bishop’s

head. 2. From the Create menu, choose Standard

Primitives > Box. 3. In the Front viewport, click and drag to define

the base of the box. Do not worry about specific dimensions; you will change those in a moment. 4. Once you have defined the base, move the

5.

Create the slice with a Boolean operation: 1. Select the bishop in any viewport. 2. On the Create menu, choose Compound

> Boolean. The bishop is now a Boolean object and the command panel automatically switches to the Create panel, showing you the parameters of the newly converted object. 3. On the Pick Boolean rollout, click Pick Operand

mouse and then click to define the height.

B and then click the box in any viewport.

Go to the Modify panel and set the dimensions of the box as follows:

When you perform a Boolean operation, the first object selected (in this case the bishop) is recognized as Operand A and the second object selected (in this case the box) as Operand B. You can then choose the type of operation to perform, whether it’s union, intersection, or subtraction, and, in the latter case, which operand to subtract from which.

• Length=115.0 • Width=22.0 • Height=550.0


Modeling a Rook

Summary In this lesson, you learned to remove geometry by cutting a hole in an object using Boolean operations.

Modeling a Rook In this lesson, you will model a rook for the chess set. You’ll build the rook the same way as in the previous lessons, where you created a pawn and a bishop, except for the top part with the battlement. If you were making a wooden chess set, you wouldn’t be able to use a lathe for this part of the piece, and so it is with the 3D model: Although the basic structure of the rook is a lathed spline, like the pawn and the bishop, its top requires a different modeling technique.

Features and techniques covered in this lesson: • Using face extrusion to change geometry. • Adjusting smoothing groups for better results. Time to complete: 15 minutes Set up the lesson:

• Open the rook_outline_edited.max file. This file contains the basic shape of the rook. If you prefer to build the rook from scratch, delete the yellow profile and recreate it as you did in the previous lessons with the pawn and the bishop. Make sure, however, that you do not take into account the battlement at the top of the rook, as you will create those later using polygon extrusions. The Front viewport should contain a reference image. If you cannot see the image, perform the following steps: 1. Make sure the Front viewport is active and

then press Alt+B to open the Viewport Background dialog.

65


66

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

2. On the dialog, click the Files button. 3. Locate the ref-chess.jpg image in the

5. Select the vertex in the top-center area of the

rook.

\intro_to_modeling folder and double-click it. Lathe the basic shape:

1.

On the main toolbar, choose the Select tool. Select the spline representing the rook’s profile in any viewport.

2.

With the spline selected, go to the Modify panel. From the Modifier list, choose Lathe.

3. On the Parameters rollout, click the Min button

in the Align group. 4. Set Segments to 36 and turn on Weld Core. Prepare the top for the battlement: 1. With the rook still selected, make sure you are

still in the Modify panel. From the Modifier list, choose Edit Poly. 2.

6. Hold the Ctrl key down and click the Polygon

button again on the Selection rollout. All polygons connected to the selected vertex are automatically selected. 7. Press F4 to turn on Edged Faces display, if

necessary. This allows you to see the shaded object and its underlying geometry. 8. On the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Settings

button next to Inset.

On the Selection rollout, click the Polygon button.

3. Try selecting the top of the rook.

You can only select a fraction of the area; 1/36th of the top area, to be exact.

9. In the dialog that appears, set Inset Amount to

4.0.

4.

On the Selection rollout, click the Vertex button.


Modeling a Rook

5. On the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Settings 10. Click OK to close the dialog and save the inset. Create the battlement: 1. Open the Modify panel, if necessary. 2.

On the Selection rollout, make sure you’re at the Polygon sub-object level.

3.

Use the Select tool to select four adjacent polygons in the outer ring.

button next to Extrude. On the dialog that appears, set the Extrusion Height value to 4.5 to match the height of the battlement in the reference image in the Front viewport (change the value if necessary). When you are finished, click OK to save the extrusion and exit the dialog.

6. On the Selection rollout, click the Polygon

button to exit this level. 7. Press F4 to exit Edged Faces display. 4. Skip the next two polys and then select the four

after those. Repeat the procedure around the circumference until the selection resembles the following illustration:

Note the faceted effect on the battlement. You will fix that in a moment. Adjust smoothing groups: 1. Make sure the rook object is still selected and

that you are still at the Modify panel. 2. From the Modifier list, choose Smooth. The

entire rook now appears faceted.

67


68

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

3. In the Parameters rollout, turn Auto Smooth

on and leave Threshold at the default value of 30.0. Any two adjoining faces that meet at an angle less than that value will be made part of the same smoothing group and no edge will appear between them.

The rook appears smoother now.

Summary In this lesson you learned to create new geometry using face extrusion. You also learned how to use smoothing groups to give your objects a smoother look.


Modeling a Knight

Modeling a Knight In this lesson, you will create a knight for a chess set using custom splines and the Surface modifier. The Surface modifier makes a 3D surface from an arrangement of intersecting splines.

Skill Level: Intermediate Time to complete: 1 hour Set up the lesson:

• Load the file knight_start.max from the \intro_to_modeling folder. The scene is empty except for a background picture that you will use as reference as you model the knight. If you cannot see the reference picture, follow these steps. 1. Make sure the Front viewport is selected and

then press Alt+B . 2. On the dialog that appears, click the Files

button. 3. Locate the ref-chess.jpg image in the

\intro_to_modeling folder and double-click it. Draw the knight outline: 1. Maximize the Front view by pressing Alt+W . 2.

On the Create panel, click Shapes, and then click Line.

3. On the Creation panel > Creation Method

rollout, set both Initial Type and Drag Type to Smooth. This will help set the base profile, given the curved nature of the chess piece. Modeling a knight presents a special set of challenges: its unique contours demand that it be sculpted carefully. The Surface modifier is ideal for this type of modeling. Features and techniques covered in this lesson: • Building a spline cage. • Refining and Connecting spline vertices with new segments. • Applying and adjusting the Surface modifier. • Using the Symmetry modifier. • Extruding patches using the Edit Patch modifier.

4. Click to create a contour for the knight. Do

not take into account the horse’s mane or the base for now. Keep in mind that this kind of

69


70

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

modeling does not require a lot of detail, so try to keep the number of vertices to a minimum. You will adjust them later.

8. Right-click and choose Bezier Corner from the

quad menu. 9. Use the Select And Move tool to adjust the 5. Make sure you close the spline by clicking the

starting point. 6.

Go to the Modify panel. On the Selection rollout, click Vertex.

7. Adjust the positions of the vertices around

the shape of the knight. Select the following vertices.

vertex handles so that the profile fits the reference image better.


Modeling a Knight

Create the inner spline cage: 1. You will start adding detail where the head

intersects the neck. On the Modify panel > Geometry rollout, turn on Connect and then click Refine.

5. Right-click to finish the command. You now

have an additional segment going from the front to the back of the neck.

Note: Refine adds vertices to a spline. If the

Connect option is on, all inserted vertices will be connected by segments in the order they were created.

6. Add two more “levels” to the neck as shown in

the illustration below.

2. Click the Bezier Corner vertex at the

intersection of the head and the front of the neck. A dialog opens:

7. Use Refine/Connect to add a vertical line of

This dialog points out that there is already a vertex where you clicked. You still have the option to refine the spline, adding yet another vertex very close to the existing one, or you can simply use the existing vertex and connect it to others you will be inserting. Typically, use the Connect Only method when this warning appears. 3. Turn on the “Do not show this message again

option” and click Connect Only. 4. Click a point to the right at the back of the neck.

detail going from the neck to the head.

71


72

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

8. Continue adding detail until the spline cage

looks similar to the following illustration.

Delete unwanted vertices:

The next step is to ensure that there are no loose vertices on the spline cage. In this method of modeling, it is essential that the spline cage is made of three- or four-sided areas only. 1. Make sure the spline is still selected and that

you are still at the Vertex sub-object level. 2. Look for any loose vertices and select them. 3. Press Delete to remove the unwanted vertices.

Make sure that a quad area has no more than four vertices, where segments intersect.


Modeling a Knight

Fine-tune the spline cage:

The next step is to adjust the spline cage to get a nice flow of segments. When you refined the spline cage, you introduced a number of intersecting segments and subsequently a number of intersecting vertices. It is very important that these vertices which share the same position in space be moved together. 1. Make sure the spline is still selected and that

you are still at the Vertex sub-object level. 2. In the Selection rollout, turn on Area Selection

and leave the value at 0.1. This ensures that when you select a vertex by clicking it, all vertices that are within the distance specified in the threshold value get selected as well.

Give the spline cage volume:

So far, you’ve built everything in the Front viewport. The collection of segments lies therefore in the same plane. In this step, you will adjust the spline cage so that it starts shaping into a 3D volume. 1. If the Front viewport is still maximized, press

Alt+W to return to the four-way viewport layout. 2.

Click Zoom Extents All to see the spline cage in all four viewports.

3. Using the Select tool and the Ctrl key, select

all the internal vertices plus the two center ones on the bottom segment. 3. Use the Select And Move tool to relocate

vertices to get a nice flow of segments in the spline cage.

73


74

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

5. Keep adjusting the position of these inner

vertices to give the volume a more interesting shape (narrower snout, thicker bottom neck, and so on). Feel free to experiment but do not move the other vertices around the perimeter; you’ll need them to mirror the object later.

4. In the Top viewport, move the selected vertices

down on the Y axis (green axis). Adjust the tangents on the perimeter: 1. Select all the vertices that run along the back of

the neck, except for the top one.


Modeling a Knight

4. Repeat this procedure on the two vertices near

the mouth, and those running up the front of the neck.

5. Repeat the procedure on the vertices running

along the top of the head, but then use the Front viewport to make the tangents horizontal.

2. Right-click in the viewport and convert the

selected vertices to Bezier Corner. 3. Move the angled tangents so they are in a more

vertical position. This will give the segments a stronger angle of attack as they meet the mirror line.

Test the Surface Modifier

You will eventually mirror this spline arrangement to make the other side of the knight, but before doing so, you need to check the current setup to see if the Surface modifier works on it. The Surface modifier places a 3D surface over each set of three- and four-sided polygons formed by the splines.

Tip: If you try to move the tangents and find the direction locked in one axis or another, press F8 to constrain motion to the XY plane.

The polygons must be completely closed in order for the Surface modifier to make the 3D surface. By trying out the Surface modifier now, you can correct any “holes� in the surface before you mirror the splines. 1. With Line01 selected, exit the Vertex sub-object

level.

75


76

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

2. From the Modifier List, choose Surface from the

Object-Space Modifiers section. Depending on how you built your spline cage, the appearance of the knight in the Perspective viewport might look solid or hollow.

6. In the Top viewport, adjust the handles into a

sharp inverted V. This will help simulate the muscle tones on the neck. Keep an eye on the Perspective viewport for reference.

3. In the Parameters rollout, try turning the Flip

Normals option on or off until the knight appears as shown on the right side of the illustration above. 4. Expand the Line entry in the modifier stack and

then click Vertex. Turn on Show End Result so you can work on the spline cage and see the effect of the Surface modifier simultaneously. 7. Experiment with this vertex and others to

mold a better-looking neck. You can use this technique on other parts like the snout or the head as well.

5. In the Front viewport, select the vertex on the

neck where you see a dip in the muscle tones. Right-click and convert that vertex to Bezier Corner.


Modeling a Knight

Refine the mane line: 1. Adjust the Perspective viewport so that you are

looking at the back of the neck. 2. Using Connect/Refine, start from the vertex at

the very top of the head and work your way down to refine a mane line as shown in the following illustration.

As you refine the segments, surface patches temporarily disappear from view but reappear once you finish the command. This is because you are introducing additional vertices and this creates patch areas that have more than four vertices. Once you are done refining the spline cage, however, the end result is made up of quads again and therefore displays correctly. 3. Exit the Vertex sub-object level and then click

the Surface modifier to go to the top of the stack. Mirror the spline arrangement: 1. If you haven’t done so already, highlight the

Surface modifier on the modifier stack. 2. From the Modifier list choose Symmetry.

77


78

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

3. On the Parameters rollout, set Mirror Axis to Z.

4. Orbit around the object in the Perspective

viewport to see the full 3D object. 5. In the Geometry rollout > Extrude & Bevel

group, click the Extrude button. 6. Bring the cursor close to the selected patches in

the perspective view and then click and drag to extrude the patches. Keep an eye on the Front viewport for reference.

Extrude and adjust the mane: 1. Highlight the Surface modifier on the modifier

stack. From the Modifier list, choose Edit Patch. This inserts an Edit Patch Modifier above the Surface modifier and below the Symmetry Modifier. 2.

If necessary, turn off Show End Result. You should be able to see only one half of the knight in all viewports.

3.

On the Selection rollout of the Patch modifier, choose the Patch button.

4. In the Perspective viewport, select the patches

that make up the horse’s mane.

7.

On the Selection rollout, switch from Patch to Vertex and turn on Show End Results.


Modeling a Knight

Because of the direction of the extrusion, you need to adjust the vertex position to give the Symmetry modifier a little help.

Symmetry modifier worked nicely to weld the seams.

Note: This was a rather simplistic way of adjusting the mirror line. Ideally, you want to move the vertices individually or in groups, while at the same time adjusting tangents for better effects. 10. Adjust the positions of the vertices and tangents 8. In the Front viewport, use region selection to

in the Front viewport to follow the reference image and create a nicely flowing mane.

select all vertices on the outer edge of the mane. Use the Ctrl key if necessary.

Create the base:

Even though you could have created the base as part of the same spline cage, it is easier to build it as a separate object and then attach the two objects together as a single mesh. The base is a simple lathed object, much like the ones you created in the previous lessons. 1. From the Create menu, choose Shapes > Line. 2. On the Creation Method rollout, set both the 9. In the Top viewport, move the selected vertices

up until they intersect along the mirror line. Keep an eye on the other viewport to see if the

Initial Type and Drag Type to Corner. 3. In the Front viewport, click a point in the top

center of the base, just below the knight.

79


80

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

4. Hold down the Shift key to constrain the line

to the vertical direction, and then click a point at the bottom center of the base. 5. Move to the right and click a point at the

bottom-right corner of the base. 6. Release the Shift key and go up the right side

to create a rough profile of the base. Make sure you close the spline when you are done.

10. Exit the Vertex sub-object level. 11. From the Modifier list, choose Lathe. 12. Set the Segments to 32 and turn Weld Core. In

the Align group, click Min.

7. Go to the Modify panel. On the Selection

Note: If you need further detail on how to create a lathed object, refer to the first lesson in this tutorial: Modeling a Pawn.

rollout, choose Vertex. 8. On the Geometry rollout, choose Fillet. 9. Use the Fillet tool to round off the vertices that

need it.

Turn the two objects into a single mesh: 1. Make sure the base is still selected. Right-click

it and from the quad menu, choose Convert to > Convert to Editable Mesh. 2. On the Edit Geometry rollout, click Attach and

then click on the knight in any viewport. 3. Change the object’s name to Knight.

The knight is now complete.


Lofting a Telephone

A retro-style telephone

Summary In these lessons, you created four chess pieces, learning different tools and methods in each case. Creating a pawn taught you about working with splines and the lathe modifier. Creating a bishop and a rook taught you about editing geometry and using Boolean compound objects to add or subtract components. Finally, you learned to model using a spline cage approach using the Surface modifier with spline objects.

Note: This tutorial is a basic tutorial, but we suggest that you do this after completing the other modeling tutorials. You’ll need to know how to select objects and vertices and navigate around the viewports.

Skill Level: Beginner Time to Complete: 2 hours

Features Covered in This Tutorial: In this tutorial you will learn: • Creating splines using 2D Booleans. • Using Fillet to round spline corners. • Creating Loft objects using fit deformations. • Sculpting loft objects using scale deformations.

Lofting a Telephone In this tutorial you will create a retro-style telephone. You will use 2D splines and shapes to create profiles, cross-sections and paths, then use the lofting features of Autodesk VIZ to loft the shapes to create a 3D model.

Tutorial Files Note: All the files necessary to do the tutorials can be found on the program disc. Before doing the tutorials, copy the \tutorials directory from the disc to your local program installation.

The files for this tutorial are in the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder.

81


82

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Creating the Shapes for the Base The first thing you’ll do is create a set of shapes that define the profiles and cross-section of the telephone base. You’ll use basic shapes and spline-modeling techniques to complete this lesson. The shapes do not have to be overly detailed. Once you have set up the shapes, the Loft object can use them to create surfaces. Create the cross-sections:

The cross-sections of the telephone will be made as if looking directly down on the telephone. You will create two cross-sections, one for the overall base and one for an upper tower.

The overall footprint of our telephone

6. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to Telephone-Base. Tip: If you find the rectangle difficult to see

1.

On the Create panel, click Shapes.

2. Click Rectangle to turn it on. 3.

Click Min/Max Toggle or press Alt+W to minimize the Perspective viewport.

4. Right-click the Top viewport to activate it, and

then drag in the viewport to create a rectangle. Release the mouse to set the rectangle’s diagonal corner. Don’t worry about the size, because you’ll adjust that next.

(or any other spline shape further on in this tutorial), click the color swatch on the Name And Color rollout, then use the Object Color dialog to choose a color that shows up better against the viewport background. 7. The Rectangle tool is still active, so create

another rectangle inside the first. Again, don’t worry about the size. 8. On the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 70,

the Width to 60, and set a Corner Radius of 2.5.

Tip: After you activate the Top viewport, press

Alt+W to maximize it. 5. On the Parameters rollout, set the Length to

100, the Width to 80, and set a Corner Radius of 5.

The cross-section of the tower.

9. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to Telephone-Tower.


Creating the Shapes for the Base

5. On the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 55 10.

Click the Select And Move button and move the Telephone-Tower shape inside the Telephone-Base shape to match the following illustration.

and Width to 60.

Tip: Use the grid lines to help you position the shapes.

6.

Right-click the viewport to exit the Rectangle tool.

7. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to Telephone-Front. The top cross-sections are complete, so next you’ll create the profile of the telephone seen from the front.

Combine the front profile’s shapes: 1.

Turn on Select And Move, then move Telephone-Front so the longer, narrow rectangle lines up with the Telephone-Base shape.

2.

Make sure Telephone-Front is still selected, then open the Modify panel.

3.

On the Selection rollout, click Spline to activate the Spline sub-object mode.

Create the rectangles for the front profile:

You’ll create the front profile with two more rectangles, but you’ll have to treat these differently because you’re going to use Boolean operations before you’re done. 1. Turn on the Rectangle tool again and create

another rectangle above the two cross-sections. 2. On the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 20

and the Width to 80. 3. On the Object Type rollout, turn off Start New

Shape. This step is important because when you use the Boolean operations, you need the two rectangles that comprise this profile to be parts of a single shape object. 4. Create a second rectangle near the previous

one.

83


84

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

This lets you work on the individual splines that comprise the profile.

The two boxes are combined, intersecting lines are cleaned up, and your profile is looking better.

4. Click the second, larger rectangle you made for

Telephone-Front. It turns red.

Now it’s time to refine the front profile. Refine the front profile: 5.

Move the spline so that it overlaps the narrower spline to match the following illustration.

1.

Scroll back up to the Selection rollout and turn on Vertex mode.

2. Working on the lower section of the profile,

select the vertex at the upper-left corner, then hold down the Ctrl key and select the vertex at the upper-right corner. The two vertices are selected.

6.

Scroll down to the Geometry rollout and click Boolean to turn it on. Make sure Union is the active Boolean operation. When this button is chosen, it has a yellow background.

7. Place your cursor over the longer, narrow spline

and click it.

Holding down the Ctrl key while making a selection allows you to add objects, or sub-objects, to a previous selection. By clicking an object or sub-object a second time while


Creating the Shapes for the Base

Ctrl is held down, you can remove it from the selection.

Tip: You need to scroll down to see Taper in the list. Alternatively, you can press T repeatedly till the Taper modifier is chosen.

3. Scroll down to the Geometry rollout and turn

on Fillet. In the adjacent spinner, drag the arrows upward until you see 5.0 in the fillet radius field.

You’ll see an orange gizmo overlay on top of the four vertices.

As you move the spinner, you can watch the corners become rounded.

3. In the modifier stack display, click the ’+’

symbol next to Taper to display its hierarchy and access its sub-object levels. Click Center to make it active.

Now the top needs to be tapered a little.

The gizmo center becomes active. Taper the top of the profile: 1. Drag a selection window around the four

vertices that comprise the profile of the tower.

4.

Move the Center downward until it’s centered between the two lower vertices, as shown in the following illustration.

2. Click the down-arrow next to the Modifier List

to open the list of modifiers. Choose Taper.

By moving the Center down to the lower edge of the gizmo, you control which way the vertices will taper when you set the Taper Amount. You

85


86

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

want only the top vertices to taper, therefore; you move the gizmo center to the opposite extreme. 5. In the Parameters > Taper Axis group, make

sure you turn on the Primary: Y axis, then enter -.3 in the Amount field. The top is tapered.

3. Right–click Telephone-Front to open the quad

menu, and then choose Corner from the Tools 1 (upper-left) quad. The only vertices that require Bezier Corners, which can curve, are the ones at each end of the fillets. You want the other vertices to have Corner attributes so when they are moved, the line segments between will not curve. You want the segments to remain straight.

Add the final touches to the front profile:

You’re almost done with this profile. To ensure the line segments in the profile remain straight, you’ll change some attributes of some of the vertices, and you’ll move the vertices at the bottom of the tower section. 1. In the Top viewport, right-click Telephone-Front

4.

Select the two vertices at the base of the tower in the profile and right–click the Select And Move button. This opens the Move Transform Type-In dialog.

and choose Convert To > Convert To Editable Spline. This “collapses” the stack into a single editable object. The Taper modifier is combined with the original splines, and is no longer visible (or adjustable) in the stack. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag a selection

window around the bottom two vertices. All vertices except those at each end of the fillets should be selected.

5. In the Y-axis field of the Offset: Screen group,

enter 1 and press Enter . The two vertices shift up slightly.


Creating the Shapes for the Base

Note: Because you have two objects selected,

changing the name on the Clone Options dialog changes only the name of the first object you picked: the smaller, Telephone-Tower rectangle. The larger, Telephone-Base cross-section is assigned an automatic name (Telephone-Base01).

6. Close the Transform Type-In dialog. In the

modifier stack display, click Editable Spline to turn off the vertex sub-object mode. Before you can work on other objects, you have to turn off sub-object mode. The entry in the modifier stack is gray when sub-object mode is turned off. Excellent! You’re done with the front profile. Now you’ll build the side profile using a different method. Create the side profile:

You’ll use similar techniques to create the side profile, except you’ll start by making a copy of the two cross–sections instead of building rectangles from scratch. 1. Select first the Telephone-Tower and then the

Telephone-Base cross-sections. 2.

Turn on Select And Move. Hold down the Shift key and drag the two cross-sections to the right, leaving about three grid squares between the original and the copies. The clone Options dialog appears.

3. On the Clone Options dialog, in the Object

group turn on Copy. Change the object name to Telephone-Side.

The basis for the side profile.

4. Select the larger copy, and change the Width to

20 and the Corner Radius to 0. Tip: You can set any field that uses a spinner to zero by right-clicking the spinner arrows. 5. Select the other copy, Telephone-Side, and

change the Width to 55 and the Corner Radius to 0. Both shapes are centered on one another.

87


88

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Combine the two side shapes:

The two rectangles must be attached in order to be able to combine them with a Boolean union, as you did for the front profile. 1. Right-click Telephone-Side and choose Convert

To > Convert to Editable Spline. 2. On the Geometry rollout, click the Attach

button to turn it on. In a viewport, pick the tall, narrow rectangle.

6. Move Telephone-Side to the left so its right edge

is in the middle of the tall, narrow rectangle, as shown in the following illustration.

3. Right–click to turn off the Attach tool. 4. In the modifier stack, click the ’+’ symbol next

to Editable Spline to display its hierarchy and access its sub-object levels. Tip: By using the modifier stack display to

navigate sub-object levels, you can avoid having to scroll to the Selection rollout in the middle of using a different rollout, such as Geometry. 5. In the modifier stack, choose Spline.

This is equivalent to clicking the Spline button on the Selection rollout.


Creating the Shapes for the Base

6. Select the tall, narrow spline, and on the

Geometry rollout, click Boolean to turn it on. 7.

Once again, make sure Union is active, then click the wider, shorter spline.

3. On the Geometry rollout, turn on Fillet and

drag the spinner until the Fillet Radius field is set to 5. The interior segments are removed.

Now you’ll start adjusting vertices to shape the side profile. Use vertices to shape the side profile: 1. In the modifier stack, choose Vertex.

Now you are working at the Vertex sub-object level. 2. Select the vertex at the upper-left corner of the

narrow section. Then hold down the Ctrl key and select the vertex at the narrow section’s lower-left corner.

89


90

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

4. Drag a selection window around the four

vertices that comprise the side profile of the tower.

8. In the Parameters > Taper Axis group, make

sure you turn on the Primary: X axis, then enter .6 in the Amount field. 5. Apply a Taper modifier, as you did for the front

profile. 6. Click the ’+’ symbol next to Taper to access its

sub-object levels, and then choose Center. The gizmo center becomes active. 7.

Move the Center to the right until it’s centered between the two right–hand vertices as shown in the illustration.

The top is tapered.


Creating the Shapes for the Base

Add the final touches to the side profile:

You’re almost done with the side profile. You’ll finish by changing the attributes of the vertices as you did on the front profile, and you’ll also move some other vertices on the tower section. 1. In the viewport, right-click Telephone-Side

and choose Convert To > Convert To Editable Spline. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag another

selection window around the two vertices furthest to the right. All vertices except those at each end of the fillets should be selected.

5. In the X axis field of the Offset: Screen group,

type –1 and press Enter . The two vertices shift slightly to the left.

3. Right–click the viewport and then choose

Corner from the Tools 1 (upper-left) quad. 4.

Select the two vertices at the base of the tower and right–click the Select And Move button to display the Transform Type-In dialog.

6. Close the Transform Type-In dialog and select

the two top vertices on the tower section.

91


92

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

7. Move them upwards along the Y axis to give

the front of the profile more of a slope while reducing the slope on the back.

a 3D model. You’re going to use the Loft tool, and add Fit deformations to complete the base. Load a start file:

• Continue from the previous lesson, Creating the Shapes for the Base (page 82), or you can open telephone_base.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Make the loft path:

Before you can loft a shape, you need a path to loft the shapes along. The path can be a simple straight line or a complex curved line. For the base, all you need is a straight line that is as long as the height of the telephone. On the Create panel, click Shapes.

1.

2. Click Line to turn it on, and then click the

Keyboard Entry rollout title to expand it.

8. In the modifier stack, click Editable Spline to

turn off sub-object mode. 9. From the menu bar, choose File > Save and save

your scene as my_phone.max. You’re done with the shapes you’ll need for the base of the telephone. In the next lesson you’ll use the Loft tool and Fit deformations to form the 3D model of the base.

Lofting the Telephone Base Lofting is not strictly a computer graphics term. In fact, lofting has its origin in early shipbuilding. It was later applied to automotive and aviation design and now it’s an important and powerful tool in any professional computer graphics software. Now that you’ve completed the shapes needed for the base of the telephone, you’ll go ahead and make

3. Without changing any of the X, Y or Z values,

click Add Point. This places the first point of your loft path at the scene origin, (0,0,0). 4. In the Z field enter 65, and then click Add Point

again. The loft path is a vertical line 65 units long. If the Top viewport is maximized, click the Min/Max Toggle or press Alt+W to see viewports where it is visible, such as the Perspective viewport.

Tip:


Lofting the Telephone Base

5. Click Finish, and then right-click a viewport to

exit the Line tool.

Ready to pick the Telephone-Base shape

That’s it. The loft path for the base of the telephone is a simple, straight line. Now you’re ready to build the base. Loft the base cross-sections:

Now you’ll loft the base of the telephone. You’ll start by lofting the base and tower cross-sections along the path. You will also learn how to control the placement of shapes along a loft path. 1.

On the Create panel, click Geometry.

2. Click the down-arrow next to Standard

Primitives, and choose Compound Objects from the drop-down list. 3. Make sure the path line is still selected, then

click Loft. 4. On the Creation Method rollout, turn on

Get Shape, then in a viewport pick the Telephone-Base shape. Tip: If you lose track of which spline is which, watch for the name tooltip that appears when you place your cursor over an object.

The lofting begins

5. On the Path Parameters rollout, choose

Distance and then enter 20 in the Path field. In wireframe viewports, you can see a yellow ’x’ move up the loft path. Because you can add multiple shapes to a loft path, this marker indicates where your next shape will be placed. 6. Click Get Shape again, and then press the H

key. This shortcut key opens the Pick Object dialog, where you can choose the next shape. This can be handy when the shapes in your scene are obstructed by nearer objects. 7. Choose Telephone-Base from the list, and then

click Pick.

93


94

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Tip: You can also pick the object by double-clicking its name.

Lofting without the second Telephone-Base shape.

The second shape appears on the path

Adding a duplicate of the first shape ensures that the base footprint of the telephone is maintained before it blends into the tower section. 8. On the Path Parameters rollout, enter 21 in the

Path field, and then click Get Shape once again. 9. Press the H key, choose Telephone-Tower from

the list, and then click the Pick button again. A distinct shoulder now divides the base and the tower.

10. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

loft object’s name to Telephone. The base of the telephone is really shaping up. Now you will finish it using Fit deformations. Use Fit deformations to complete the shape of the base:

To finish sculpting the base of the telephone, you use the front and side profiles to constrain the lofted cross-sections. The tool that does this is a deformation tool called Fit. 1.

Open the Modify panel. Because the lofted object is selected, you see the same creation rollouts. On the Modify panel, there is an additional rollout called Deformations.

2. On the Path Parameters rollout, right-click the

spinner next to the Path field to set the value back to zero. This is an important step. If you leave Path set to 21 units, you can end up with some strange results when you add the front and side profiles. 3. Click the Deformations rollout title to expand

If you didn’t add the duplicate of the Telephone-Base cross-section at 20 units along the path, the transition from the base footprint to the tower shape would have been immediate.

it, then click Fit to use this tool. The Fit Deformation graph is displayed. Its title bar indicates that the X axis is active.


Lofting the Telephone Base

6.

On the Fit Deformation toolbar, click Rotate 90 CW. The image in the Fit Deformation graph rotates 90 degrees and the model looks far closer to completion.

4.

On the Fit Deformation toolbar, turn off Make Symmetrical. Because the two profiles are quite different, this button needs to be off.

5.

On the Fit Deformation toolbar, click Get Shape, and then in a viewport pick the Telephone-Front profile. Note: If your results show strange extrusions

or harsh edges, it’s most likely due to the cross-sections being scaled to maintain uniformity and a lack of shape optimization.

The profile appears in the Fit Deformation graph, but it doesn’t make the model look any better.

Fix this by opening the Skin Parameters rollout and turn off Constant Cross-Section and turn on Optimize Shapes in the Option group. 7. 8. This isn’t right.

Now, on the Fit Deformation toolbar click Display Y-Axis.

95


96

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

9.

Get Shape is still active, so in a viewport pick the Telephone-Side profile.

The side profile appears in the Fit Deformation graph, but it’s apparent you’ll have to rotate this one, too.

The finished telephone base.

11. Save your scene as my_phone02.max.

Congratulations! You now have a base for your telephone. Next, you’ll create the shapes for the receiver using shape-modeling techniques.

Creating the Shapes for the Receiver To create the shapes for the telephone receiver, you’ll use some of the same techniques that you used to create the cross-sections of the base. For the receiver, you’ll make three cross-sections. 10.

On the Fit Deformation toolbar, click Rotate 90 CW twice. The image in the Fit Deformation graph rotates 180 degrees. The telephone base is almost done.

Load a start file:

• Continue from the previous lesson, Loft the Telephone Base (page 92), or you can open telephone_base_3d.max from the folder. Create the receiver cross-sections:

The receiver cross-sections will be made as if looking directly down on the telephone. You will create two cross-sections; one for the mouth and ear piece at each end of the receiver, and one to represent the middle of the handle section. 1. If you’re continuing from the previous lesson,

select all the objects and shapes and right-click to open the quad menu. From the Display (upper-right) quad, click Hide Selection.


Creating the Shapes for the Receiver

2.

On the Create panel, click Shapes.

3. Click Circle to turn it on. 4. Activate the Top viewport and then drag to

create a circle and set its radius. The initial size doesn’t matter because you’ll adjust that next. Tip: Press Alt+W to maximize the Top viewport. 5. On the Parameters rollout, set the Radius to 10.

This produces the first cross-section.

9. On the Name and Color rollout, change the

name to Receiver–Middle. 10. Create one more circle and set its radius to 7 to

produce the third cross-section.

6. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to Receiver–End. 7. The Circle tool is still active so create another

circle next to the first.

11. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to Receiver–Bend.

You will modify this one to represent the middle cross-section of the receiver. 8. On the Parameters rollout, set the new circle’s

Radius to 5. This is the second cross-section.

12.

Select Receiver-Middle, then right-click and choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Spline. Do the same for Receiver-Bend. When you convert the first spline, Autodesk VIZ displays the Modify panel so you can start editing the shape of the cross-sections.

Reshape the bend and middle cross-sections:

You could leave the cross-sections as they are, but you’re going to adjust some of the vertices to give

97


98

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

the sections a better shape, something a little more “retro� and stylish. 1. 2.

Select Receiver-Middle. On the Selection rollout, turn on Vertex mode.

3. Drag a selection window around the top and

bottom vertices.

5.

4.

On the main toolbar, click Select And Move to turn it on, and then move the two vertices upward, as shown in the following illustration.

On the Selection rollout, turn on Segment mode, and then drag a selection window across both bottom segments.


Creating the Shapes for the Receiver

6.

Move the segments downward to match the following illustration.

10. Drag them upward slightly, so they match the

following illustration. The final Middle cross-section

7. In the modifier stack, click the Editable Spline

entry to turn off sub-object mode. The entry turns gray. 8.

Select the Receiver-Bend shape. Then in the modifier stack display, expand its hierarchy and click Vertex to use the Vertex sub-object level.

9. Drag a selection window around the top and

bottom vertices.

The final Bend cross-section

11. Turn off sub-object mode.

99


100

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

12. Save your scene as my_phone03.max.

Now you can loft the receiver. If you wanted, you could make a selection of different end cross-sections, such as an octagonal and a square one, or different mid-handle shapes. Then while lofting, you could try the different cross-sections to see which pleases you or your clients the most.

5. Using the grid lines as a guide, click near an

intersection and drag to the left to start creating the loft path. Important: It is important that you draw the line from right to left. Otherwise, the Path values given in the steps that follow won’t be correct.

Try to obtain a curve that looks like the illustration. If the initial version isn’t quite the same, don’t worry. You can adjust it later.

Lofting the Receiver With the telephone receiver cross-sections done, you can create the loft path and model the handset for your telephone. You’ll start by creating the loft path. Load a start file:

• Continue from the previous lesson, Creating the Shapes for the Receiver (page 96), or open telephone_receiver.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Create the loft path:

The receiver is going to be symmetrical, so you only have to draw half the path. Symmetry is something to watch for in design sketches. It can greatly decrease the time it takes to build a model. 1.

Right-click the Front viewport to make it active. If the grid is not visible in the Front viewport, right-click the Front viewport label and choose Show Grid. Also, you might want to zoom in to get a clearer view of the grid squares, as seen in the illustrations below.

2.

Open the Create panel. If Shapes is not already on, click it to turn it on.

3. Click Line to turn it on. 4. On the Creation Method rollout, choose

Smooth as the Drag Type.

Note: The overall top surface of the telephone base is about 40 units wide, so make sure you drag at least 25 units away from the first point before you click to place the second point. This will give you the necessary clearance after the receiver is lofted. 6. Release the mouse button and click-drag again

to place the second point of the path. As you drag away from the second point, notice that the previous segment continues to curve in order to blend with the next curve segment. 7. Release the mouse button again and click-drag

away from the second point, not too far, to place the last point of the loft path. Note: If you drag too far away from the second point before releasing the mouse button, you’ll add some quirky distortions to the second curved segment. Again, you can edit this later. 8. Click and release to set the last point on the

path, and then right-click to exit the Line tool.


Lofting the Receiver

Tip: If you want to adjust your path, go to

the Modify panel and access the line’s Vertex sub-object level.

4. Click the down-arrow next to Standard

Primitives and choose Compound Objects from the drop-down list. 5. Click Loft to turn it on, then on the Creation

9.

Go to the Modify panel, and turn on the Vertex sub-object level.

10. Select the first vertex (the one on the right).

Right-click and choose Smooth from the Tools 1 (upper-left) quadrant of the quad menu. 11. Move the other three vertices until the spline

Method rollout, turn on Get Shape. 6. In a viewport, pick the Receiver-Middle shape.

This produces a lofted handle shape. Tip: Don’t worry if the orientation of the shape is incorrect. You’ll fix that later.

looks like the illustration previously shown. (Optional) Use the sample path that has already been drawn:

If you are using telephone_receiver.max, you have the option of using the receiver loft path that is saved with the scene. 1. Open the Display panel and choose Unhide By

Name. The Unhide Objects dialog appears. 2. From the list, select Receiver Path and then click

Unhide. With the loft path complete, you can now loft the 3D receiver. Lofting the receiver:

Unlike the telephone base, you’re not going to use side or top profiles to constrain the shape of the receiver. You’ll add the shapes to the path and then sculpt the 3D model by adjusting different Deformation values. 1. Press Alt+W to display all four viewports.

7. On the Path Parameters rollout, make sure

Percentage is chosen, and then enter 100 in the Path field. This places the ’x’ marker at the opposite end of the path, or 100 percent of the way along it. 8. Click Get Shape again and pick the Receiver-End

2.

3.

Right-click the Perspective viewport and select the loft path for the receiver, if it’s not already selected. On the Create panel, click the Geometry button.

shape. The receiver begins to take shape.

101


102

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

the object you’re lofting, deformation editing can take some time. On the other hand, it can also save you the time of building extra profile shapes as you did for the base unit of the telephone. Use Twist deformation on the handle:

Twist deformation adjusts the angle of a shape around the circumference of the loft path. 1.

Go to the Modify panel and then open the Deformations rollout. First you’ll properly orient the handle shape.

2. On the Deformations rollout, click Twist to

open the Twist Deformation graph.

9. Enter 60 in the Path field and pick the

Receiver-Bend cross-section.

3. Click the black control point at the zero (left)

end of the graph. It turns white.

Now that the basic shapes are assigned, you can start refining and sculpting the receiver by editing the lofted object’s Deformations. Depending on


Lofting the Receiver

4.

Move Control Point is already active, so drag the control point up toward 100. Don’t worry about getting it right on. You’ll fine-tune it next.

5. At the bottom of the graph, you’ll see two text

entry fields. Enter 90 in the second field.

The first, left-hand field represents the distance along the loft path. The second, right-hand field represents the rotation angle. 6. Click to select the control point at the opposite

end of the path. Notice that the first field at the bottom now reads 100.

8. On the Deformations rollout, click the Twist

button to close the Deformation graph.

7. Enter 90 in the second text entry field.

The Receiver-End, Bend, and Middle cross-sections might need to be adjusted so they are straight, and you might also need to smooth out the bend a little. Use Teeter deformation to clean up the receiver:

The handle of the receiver looks much better.

Teeter deformation adjusts the angle of a shape along the length of the loft path. 1. Click the Teeter button to open the Teeter

Deformation graph.

2.

Right-click the Front viewport and maximize it by clicking Min/Max Toggle or pressing Alt+W .

103


104

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Both ends of the receiver look a little crooked. The end should be horizontal, and the middle cross-section should be vertical. 3.

Now that the ends are fixed, you have to smooth the creasing going on at the bend. 6. On the Path Parameters rollout, set the

path to 60. This is where the Receiver-Bend cross-section is located.

On the Teeter Deformation graph, turn off Make Symmetrical and then click to select the first control point.

4. Enter -3 in the second entry field to straighten

out the narrow end of the receiver. If you’re using your own loft path, you might have to change this value slightly.

7.

On the Teeter Deformation graph, click Insert Corner Point, and then click the graph around 60.

5. Click the control point at the opposite end of

the graph and enter 2 in the second field.

8. After placing the control point, enter 60 in the

first entry field to precisely place the control point 60 percent along the loft path, and enter 15 in the second field to set the teeter angle.


Lofting the Receiver

1. On the Deformations rollout, click Scale to

open the Scale Deformation graph.

2.

On the Scale Deformation graph, click Insert Corner Point and add two new control points around 90 and 95.

3.

Click Move Control Point to turn it on again. Select the control point at 100, and change the second entry field value to 80.

9. On the Deformations rollout, click the Teeter

button to close the Deformation graph.

The end of the receiver tapers.

Just a little more sculpting and you’ll be ready to finish the receiver. The last deformation you’ll use on the receiver is Scale. You’ll focus on the end of the model to make the mouth/ear piece look better. Use Scale deformation to round end of receiver:

Scale deformation adjusts the scale of a shape on the loft path.

4. Select the next control point to the left and set

the first field value to 99 and the second field value to 94. The end of the receiver continues to be refined.

105


106

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

5. Select the next control point and set the first

field value to 97 and the second field value to 100.

4.

Click Move Control Point to turn it on, then change the values of the second new point to 70 and 81.

The end of the receiver is rounded off.

5. Move the cursor over the handle extending to

Now you’ll narrow the bend a little bit.

the right and drag it so it matches the following illustration.

Use Scale deformation to sculpt the receiver along the X axis: 1.

On the Scale Deformation graph, turn off Make Symmetrical. Some of these adjustments aren’t visible in the Front viewport, so click the Min/Max Toggle or press Alt+W to make all four viewports visible again. Clicking Zoom Extents All might also help see the geometry you’re editing. Tip:

2.

Place your cursor over Insert Corner Point. Click and hold until the flyout opens so you can choose Insert Bezier Point.

3. On the red X-axis line, add two points: one at

around 60 and the other around 70.

6. Select the first of the two new points and set its

field values to 61 and 56.


Lofting the Receiver

7. Move your cursor over the handle extending

to the left and move it to match the following illustration.

3.

Click Move Control Point to turn it on, then change the values of the second new point to 76 and 82.

The sculpting of the X axis is done.

4. Move the cursor over the handle extending to

the right and drag it to match the following illustration.

Now you make similar adjustments along the Y axis. Use Scale deformation to sculpt the receiver along the Y axis:

5. Select the first of the two new points and set its

field values to 60 and 69. 1. 2.

Click Display Y Axis to turn it on. Click Insert Bezier Point and add two new control points around 60 and 75 on the green Y-axis line.

107


108

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

6. Move your cursor over the handle extending

to the left and move it to match the following illustration.

3. Click the ’+’ symbol next to Symmetry in the

modifier stack to view its hierarchy and access the Mirror sub-object level.

The sculpting of the Y axis is done.

7. On the Deformations rollout, click the Scale

button to close the Deformation graph. Now you’ll finish the receiver by adding the Symmetry modifier to create the other end.

4. On the Parameters rollout, turn on Flip from

the Mirror Axis group. The result is something like a receiver.

Create the other half:

Now that the sculpting is done, you’re ready to make the other end of the receiver. You’ll do that with a Symmetry modifier. 1. On the Modify panel, click the down-arrow

next to Modifier List. 2. Scroll down the List and choose Symmetry.

You’ll see the Mirror gizmo at the base point of the handset and half of the receiver disappears. This is because the base point is not at the end of the receiver but centered along the receiver’s length.

5.

Turn on Select And Move, and click Mirror in the modifier stack.


Detailing the Telephone

6. Drag the Mirror gizmo to the right to generate

the other half. You can let the two halves overlap a little. It should still fit on the telephone base. 7. In the Name field, change the object’s name

from Loft01 to Receiver. 8. Save your scene as my_phone04.max.

You’ve finished the receiver. Now you can unhide the telephone base and combine the two loft objects. You will also add some final details. 2. Choose Telephone from the list and then click

Unhide.

Detailing the Telephone Your telephone is almost done. Just a few more details and you’re finished. In this lesson, you’ll add a dial and some posts to cradle the receiver.

The telephone base appears. 3.

Activate the Perspective viewport and click the Zoom Extents button to show the receiver and base.

4.

Turn on Select And Move and move the receiver so it’s centered a little above the top of the tower.

Set up the lesson:

• Open telephone_3D.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Unhide the telephone base:

You’ll have to do dome fine tuning of the receiver after you unhide the base of the telephone. Since the two pieces were modeled independently, their proportions to one another will need adjustment. 1. Make sure the Receiver is selected and then

right-click to open the quad menu. On the Display (upper-right) quadrant, choose Unhide By Name.

109


110

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

middle handle part of the receiver. Watch in the Front viewport until the receiver looks like the one in the illustration.

Positioning the receiver

5.

The receiver seems a little out of proportion, so turn on Select And Scale and increase the scale to 150 percent.

8. Turn off Mirror mode and move the receiver so

it’s centered in the front view.

Tip: You can enter 150 in the X field of the

coordinate display below the time slider.

Very nice! Now you’ll add the posts that will cradle the receiver. Build the cradle details:

6.

7.

On the Modify panel, open the sub-object level for Symmetry and turn on Mirror mode.

Right now, the receiver will just slide off the telephone. You’re going to use some rectangular shapes to build the cradle, then extrude them into a 3D object. 1. Select both the Telephone and Receiver and

right-click to open the quad menu. On the Display (upper-right) quadrant, choose Freeze Selection.

Click Select And Move again and move the Mirror gizmo to the left about -8 units. Instead of scaling the receiver along the X axis, which can distort the ear and mouth pieces, moving the Mirror gizmo affects only the

2.

Maximize the Left viewport to get a better view of the top of the tower and receiver.


Detailing the Telephone

Go to the Create panel and click

3.

Shapes. 4. Click Rectangle to turn it on, and then

draw a rectangle that matches the following illustration.

9. Scroll down to the Geometry rollout, and click

Boolean to turn it on. 10.

Choose Subtraction (not Union), and click the other rectangle.

11.

Turn on Vertex mode and select the top-right vertex.

5. Turn off Start New Shape and create another

rectangle, again matching the illustration that follows.

6. Right-click to turn off the Rectangle tool, then

right-click again to open the quad menu. 7. Choose Convert To > Convert to Editable

Spline. 8.

On the Selection rollout, turn on the Spline sub-object mode, and select the first of the two rectangles you made.

111


112

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

12.

Move the vertex to the left about –3 units. Watch the coordinate display below the time slider.

Tip: If Autodesk VIZ won’t let you move the handle to the left, display the Axis Constraints toolbar (right-click an unused portion of the main menu, and choose Axis Constraints from the pop-up menu). Click XY to turn on Restrict To XY Plane. Then move the vertex handle. 14. After you move the vertices, press X again to

turn the transform gizmo back on. 15. Choose Edit > Select Invert or press Ctrl+I .

All the other vertices are now selected.

Note: Use the coordinate display as a reference. Do not actually enter -3 in the X field. 13. Select the lower-right vertex. Press X to turn

off Transform gizmo display, and then move the vertex’s vertical handle to the left until the line running upwards curves as shown in the following illustration. Also move the two leftmost and the two rightmost vertices to match their positioning in the illustration.

16. On the geometry rollout, in the Fillet value

field, enter 1 and then click Fillet.


Detailing the Telephone

To see the extrusion, press Alt+W to see all four viewports. 17. Turn off the Fillet tool and right-click to open

4.

the quad menu. Choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Poly.

Activate the Perspective viewport and Arc Rotate the view to see the telephone from the other side.

Extrude the cradle: 1.

Go to the Polygon sub-object level and select the shape.

Notice that you can see through the extrusion. Next you are going to select the Border that represents the open edges on the extrusion. To see the border you will turn on Edged Face mode. 2.

On the Edit Polygons rollout, click Extrude Settings. This button is immediately to the right of the button labeled “Extrude.� An Extrude Polygons dialog is displayed.

3. In the Extrusion Height field, enter 8.0, and

then click OK.

5. Right-click the Perspective viewport label and

choose Edged Faces. 6.

Turn on Border mode and select the border of the open side. You can click one edge and the entire border will be selected.

7. On the Edit Border rollout, click Cap.

113


114

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

8. Right-click the Perspective viewport label again

You’ve finished the cradle detail. Now the receiver won’t slide off the telephone tower. Next you’ll create a dial.

to turn off Edged Faces. 9.

Turn off Border mode and move the cradle object to the left side of the telephone.

Create the dial:

It wouldn’t be a telephone unless it had a dial. You’ll use AutoGrid to place cylinders that will ultimately become the dial of the telephone. 1. Right-click the Perspective viewport and

choose Unfreeze All from the Display quadrant. 2. If the Extras toolbar isn’t already visible,

right-click an unused area of the main toolbar and choose Extras from the pop-up menu. 3.

AutoGrid lets you create an object on the surface of another object.

10. While holding down the Shift key, drag

the cradle object to the opposite side of the telephone. The Clone Option dialog is displayed. 11. In the Object group, choose Copy. 12. In the Name field, enter Cradle, and then click

OK. 13. On the Edit Geometry rollout, click Attach to

turn it on, then in a viewport, pick the original cradle object.

On the Extras toolbar, click AutoGrid to turn it on.

4.

Go to the Create panel and click Geometry to turn it on.

5. Click the down-arrow next to Compound

Objects, and choose Standard Primitives from the drop-down list. 6. Click the Cylinder button and place your cursor

in the middle of the front slope of the tower. Drag outward from the center of the tower face, then release the mouse to set the cylinder’s


Detailing the Telephone

radius. Drag upward to set the height of the cylinder, and then click to finish creating the cylinder.

Next you’ll use the small cylinder to create a circular array that has a total of twelve cylinders. 7. On the Parameters rollout, enter a Radius of

20 and a Height of 2. Also, change Height Segments to 1 and Sides to 36.

Array the smaller cylinder in a circle: 1.

With the small cylinder selected, go to the Hierarchy panel. On the Adjust Pivot rollout, in the Move/Rotate/Scale group, click Affect Pivot Only to turn it on.

2.

On the main toolbar, click Align to turn it on, and then press the H key to open the Pick Object dialog.

3. Choose Dial from the list, and then click Pick.

The Align Selection dialog is displayed. 4. In the Align Position (World) group, turn on

8. On the Name And Color rollout, change the

name to D ial. 9. Create another cylinder on the surface of Dial,

and set Radius to 2.5 and the Height to 15.

the X, Y, and Z position toggles. In the Current Object and Target Object groups, choose Pivot Point, then click OK.

115


116

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

own pivot point instead of the pivot designated by the view. On the Extras toolbar, click Array to turn

7.

it on. The Array dialog is displayed.

The pivot point of the small cylinder is set to the center of the Dial. When you create the array of small cylinders, they will be arrayed around this pivot.

Tip: You can also access this by choosing Tools > Array. 8. In the Array Transformation: Local

Coordinates group, set the Z Rotate value to 30. In the Array Dimensions group, set the 1D Count to 12. Click OK.

The small cylinder is arrayed in a circular pattern around the dial. 5. On the Hierarchy panel, turn off Affect Pivot

Only. 6. On the main toolbar, change the Reference

Coordinate System from View to Local.

Using the Local reference coordinate system will allow the small cylinder to pivot around its


Detailing the Telephone

9. Right-click one of the small cylinders and

choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Poly. The Modify panel opens automatically. 10.

On the Edit Geometry rollout, click Attach List. This button is immediately to the right of the button labeled “Attach.” The Attach List dialog is displayed.

11. Select the first cylinder object in the list (for

example, Cylinder02), hold down the Shift key, and click the last cylinder object in the list (for example, Cylinder12) to select all the small cylinders. Click Attach when done. The small cylinders intersecting the dial in the Left view

3. Select the Dial object so you can make a copy

of it. Hold down the Shift key while dragging along the local Z axis to create the copy.

All the small cylinders are attached as one object now.

Attaching all the cylinders will facilitate the Boolean subtraction you’ll use to cut the finger holes in the dial. Move and subtract the small cylinders: 1.

Turn on Select And Move and make sure the reference coordinate system is set to Local.

2. Move the cylinder array along its Z axis so it

completely intersects the Dial object.

Watch in the Left viewport so the copy does not pass above the original dial. When you release the mouse button, the Clone Options dialog appears. 4. On the Clone Options dialog, make sure Copy

is chosen, enter Hub in the Name field, and then click OK. 5. On the Parameters rollout for the Hub object,

change the Radius to 10 and the Height to 3.

117


118

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

6. Select the Dial object.

To continue adding realism, you can try your hand at adding realistic materials. To learn more about materials and mapping, see Materials for Interior Scenes (page 179). Also feel free to experiment further by adding more modeling details like feet underneath the base or the dial stop for your finger. Now that you’re experienced in the ways of lofting, go ahead and make the cord attaching the base to the receiver.

Summary

7.

Go to the Create panel and click the down-arrow next to Standard Primitives. Choose Compound Objects from the drop-down list, then click Boolean to turn it on.

8. On the Operations rollout, make sure

In this tutorial, you learned to use the Loft compound object and its scale deformation tools to create objects. You also learned how to use multiple objects with the Boolean compound object to create several holes in an object at once. You can use these modeling tools for a variety of objects.

Subtraction (A–B) is turned on. 9. On the Pick Boolean rollout, click Pick

Operand B, then in a viewport pick the array small cylinders. The finger holes are cut through the dial.

10. Save the scene as my_phone05.max.

There you have it. Your own retro-style telephone. To see a final version of this model, open telephone_3d_finished.max from the folder.

Modeling a Helicopter Autodesk VIZ has a powerful Shell modifier that will help you build thin- or thick-walled objects, like an airplane fuselage or an exploded view of an electric razor. This lesson will give you some experience using this useful modifier.


Modeling a Helicopter

The body of the helicopter is now the only visible object. There is a small dialog displayed that warns you that you are in Isolation Mode.

Exploded helicopter body

Set up for this lesson:

Before getting started with the Shell modifier, you’ll work on a model of a helicopter body. • Choose File menu > Open and browse to the tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open tut_copter_body_start.max. The scene contains a low polygon model of a helicopter.

3.

Open the Modify panel, and click the down arrow to the right of the Modifier List.

4. Scroll down the list and select Shell.

Notice what happens to the model when the Shell modifier is applied without changing any values. There is an inner body and an outer body, and the face normals are oriented correctly for the inner surfaces. In the previous illustration, you could see through the model.

Apply the Shell modifier:

Now that you’ve seen the scene, let’s go ahead an apply the Shell modifier to the body of the helicopter. 1. Select the body of the helicopter, Copter Body01. 2. Right-click to open the quad menu and choose

Isolate Selection.

5. In the Parameters rollout, change the Outer

Amount value to 5. This will be the primary thickness of the fuselage.

119


120

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

6. Click the Exit Isolation Mode button in the

Warning: Isolated Selection dialog in the to see all the components again.

7.

Click the Zoom button and zoom out a little to see the whole model, if necessary.

8. Press the H key to open the Select Objects

dialog and choose Left Door. Hold down the Ctrl key and also choose the Right Door. Click Select. 9.

12.

Open the Modify panel again and apply the Shell modifier to the windows. All these surfaces will also use the same Shell settings.

13. For all the windows, change the Inner Amount

and Outer Amount values to 3.

Open the Modify panel again and apply the Shell modifier to these two objects. Since they’re virtually the same object they’ll use the same Shell settings.

10. For the doors, change the Outer Amount value

to 4.25. You can either type in the new value, or drag the spinner to set the value.

By reducing the Inner and Outer Amount values, you’ll end up with a lip around the edges. While the lip looks good, you can see at the corners that it’s pinched a little. You’ll fix that next. Refine the Shell settings: 11. Press the H key again, to reopen the Select

Object dialog. Select the Front Window object, then hold down the Ctrl key and select both Left Window and Right Window01. Click Select. Now, all three objects are selected.

When applying the Shell modifier to objects that have multiple segments, you might encounter edges that look bulging or corners that are pinched. You can easily correct such conditions. 1. Select the Front Window object.


Modeling a Helicopter

2. Scroll to the bottom of the Parameters rollout

4. From the Files menu, choose Save As and save

and turn on Straighten Corners.

your scene as my_copter1.max.

The left image shows a wider edge where the front window meets the body. In the right image, the corner is shifted to straighten out the edge.

Next, you’ll get a feel for how materials are handled when using the Shell modifier. Use the material overrides:

The color of the helicopter is based on the object colors used when the model was created. Next, you’ll apply a material and adjust what surfaces are affected by using the overrides for the inner, outer, and edge material IDs. 1. Select the Copter Body object and press the M

key to open the Material Editor. The upper-left material is a Multi/Sub-object material named Helicopter, containing three sub-materials. 2. Click the material and drag it on to the Copter

Body. Tip: Watch for the object name tag that pops up as you drag over it. The name tag can be very useful in congested scenes.

The same pinching and bulging phenomenon is occurring to the body of the helicopter. 3. Select the Copter Body object and turn on its

Straighten Corners switch.

The default material IDs place the colors all over the model. Suppose you want the entire outer body of the helicopter to be white, with a red interior and blue edges around the doors and windows.

The top edge along the front window and over the door looks much better.

3. Right-click the Copter Body and turn on Isolate

Selection so you can see the inner surfaces.

121


122

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

4. In the Parameters rollout, turn on Override

7. Turn on the Override Edge Mat ID switch and

Outer Mat ID.

set the Edge Mat ID value to 3.

The Outer Mat ID field becomes active.

The edge surfaces turn blue.

5. Change the Outer Mat ID value to 2.

The outer surfaces turn white.

8. Turn off Isolation mode. 9. Select the Left Door and Right Door. 6. Turn on the Override Inner Mat ID switch.

The inner surfaces change to red. You don’t have to change the Inner Mat ID because the first sub-material is red.

10. Click the Helicopter material and drag it to the

Left Door. The Assign Material dialog appears. 11. In the Assign Material dialog, make sure Assign

To Selection is turned on and click OK. This assigns the material to both doors.


Modeling a Helicopter

The material assigned to the doors

The windows look pretty good with the light blue, so you can leave them alone.

12. On the Parameters rollout, first turn on the

Override Inner Mat ID but leave the Inner Mat ID set to 1. 13. Turn on Override Outer Mat ID and set the

Outer Mat ID to 2. The outer doors turn white.

15. Save your scene as my_copter2.max. Refine the model with MeshSmooth:

Modifiers that you add after applying a Shell modifier do not adversely affect any of the settings you’ve made for the shell. To further refine the model, you’re going to apply a MeshSmooth modifier. 1. Select the entire model.

14. Turn on the Override Edge Mat ID switch and

set the Edge Mat ID to 3. The doors show blue edges.

2.

On the Modify panel, open the Modifier List and choose MeshSmooth.

123


124

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

1.

Activate on the Select And Move tool and select the Front Window.

2. In the Left viewport, move the Front Window to

the right, away from the body.

MeshSmooth is applied to the model.

3. In the Subdivision Method rollout, choose

Classic. This results in closing the gap between the window in the door and the frame of the helicopter.

3. Right-click in the Perspective viewport and

select the Left Door and Left Window. 4. Move the Left Door and Left Window along the

X-axis away from the body.

4. In the Subdivision Amount rollout, set the

Iterations to 2. This smooths the body of the helicopter.

5. Save the scene as my_copter3.max.

If you’d like, you can compare your model to our final version, tut_copter_body_final.max, found in the tutorials\new_modeling folder. The next procedure gives you a better view of all the components affected by the Shell. Explode the components:

In these steps, you’ll create an exploded view of all the parts of the helicopter.

Summary You have now experienced how the Shell modifier gives you the ability to create thin- and thick-walled structures. You also found that you can control material placement by adjusting the material IDs of the inner, outer, and edge surfaces of the model.


Spline and Poly Modeling Features

Spline and Poly Modeling Features In this tutorial, you will create a mechanical design for a toy power charger. The lessons in this tutorial will teach you to model using Editable Spline and Editable Poly tools and techniques.

tutorials, copy the \tutorials directory from the disc to your local program installation.

In This Tutorial Using Editable Spline and Poly Tools (page 125) Creating the Generator Housings (page 129) Fine-Tuning the Housings (page 135) Adding the Power Conduit (page 146) Cutting Holes in Objects (page 149) Finishing the Power Charger Model (page 151)

Using Editable Spline and Poly Tools The new Copy Connect feature, and other modeling features, can help you create custom objects more quickly than before. In this lesson, you will work with some of these features to create the base for the toy power charger. Set up for this lesson:

Skill Level: Beginner

1. Choose File menu > Open and browse to the

Time to complete: 1 hour

tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_start.max.

Features Covered in This Tutorial

This file shows a picture of a power charger design in the Right viewport. You will use this image as a reference while modeling.

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to: • Use Copy Connect with an Editable Spline. • Use Extrude and Bevel Polygons. • Use Cut and Slice Tools • Use Chamfer and Inset • Compare the use of the Surface modifier with Editable Poly tools.

Tutorial Files Note: All the files necessary to do the tutorials can be found on the program disc. Before doing the

125


126

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Tip: Watch the Z coordinate display on the

status bar to determine the number of units you have moved the object. This action creates a new spline above the original, and connecting lines between the two rectangles form a box-shaped spline cage. You can see this cage most clearly in the Perspective viewport.

2.

Choose Create panel > Shapes > Rectangle.

3. In the Top viewport, create a rectangle with a

Length of 140 and a Width of 90. 4. In the Right viewport, move the rectangle so it

aligns with the bottom of the reference picture. 5. In the Modify panel, right-click the Rectangle

listing, and choose Convert To Editable Spline.

5. Hold down Shift again, and move the

This makes the Editable Spline parameters available.

rectangle up by about 2 units. 6.

Use Copy Connect to create a spline cage: 1.

On the Selection rollout, click Spline to access the Spline sub-object level.

In the Selection rollout, click Vertex.

7. In the Right viewport, move vertices to match

the reference picture.

2. Click the rectangular spline to select it. The

spline turns red to indicate it is selected. 3. In the Geometry rollout > Connect Copy

group, turn on Connect. 4. In the Right viewport, hold down Shift

while moving the rectangle upward. Move the rectangle by about 20 units.

8. Use the Spline sub-object and Copy Connect to

make additional rectangles from the topmost one, and adjust vertices to make the object’s cage match the reference picture.


Using Editable Spline and Poly Tools

You can find a finished version of this scene in the file tut_powercharger_surface.max. Create an editable poly:

You can create the same object using the new Extrude and Bevel dialogs, available for Editable Poly objects. 1. Load the file tut_powercharger_start.max again. 2. Choose Create panel > Shapes > Rectangle.

In the Top viewport, create a rectangle with a Length of 140 and a Width of 90. 3. Apply the Extrude modifier to the rectangle,

and set Amount to 20.

Note: If segments curve or bend at odd angles,

select all the vertices, right-click, and choose Corner from the quad menu. This will change all vertices to the Corner type, and remove curves from the spline cage.

4. In the Modify panel, right-click the extruded

rectangle, and choose Collapse All. If a dialog appears asking you to confirm that you want to continue, click Yes. This converts the object to an Editable Mesh.

9. Apply the Surface modifier to the spline cage.

Turn on Flip Normals if necessary, and turn on Remove Interior Patches.

5. Right-click the Editable Mesh listing in the

Modify panel, and choose Convert to Editable Poly.

This puts a surface over the spline cage, forming a 3D object.

This causes the Editable Poly options to become available. Use Extrude and Bevel dialogs: 1.

In the Selection rollout, click Polygon.

2. In the Perspective viewport, select the polygon

at the top of the object.

10. Save the scene as my_powercharger_

surface.max.

127


128

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

7. Continue to extrude and bevel the polygon to

match the left side of the reference picture.

3.

In the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Settings button next to Bevel.

In the Perspective viewport, you can see that the object created with the Bevel option is quite different from the one created with the spline cage and the Surface modifier.

This displays the Bevel Polygons dialog. 4. Change Height to about 2, and Outline Amount

to about -5. 5. Click Apply.

This sets the bevel, and displays the next bevel for the same Height and Outline Amount. 6. Set Height to 9, and Outline Amount to -3.

Click Apply.

Adjust the bevels: 1.

In the Selection rollout, click Vertex.

2. In the Right viewport, adjust vertices to match

the reference picture. Tip: It can be easier to shape the object if you make it see-through. To do this, right-click the base and choose Properties from the quad menu. In the Object Properties dialog > Display Properties group, click By Layer to change to By Object, and turn on See-Through. Click OK to close the dialog. 3. In the Front viewport, move the vertices at

the top of the base to straighten them out, if necessary.


Creating the Generator Housings

Convert to editable poly:

4. Save the scene as my_powercharger_

bevel.max.

You’ll start by adjusting the extrusion amount, and then converting the object to an Editable Poly object. The latter step gives you access to polygon-modeling tools. 1. Select the object in the viewport, if it’s not

already selected.

You can find a finished version of this scene in the file tut_powercharger_bevel.max. 2.

Creating the Generator Housings

In the Modify panel, increase the extrusion Amount setting to 50.

3. Right-click the object and from the quad menu

choose Convert to > Convert To Editable Poly.

Now you’ll use some sculpting tools to begin to carve and shape the base.

The Modify panel now shows the editable poly parameters and tools. You no longer have access to the extrusion settings.

Load the sample file:

• Choose File > Open and browse to the \tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_base.max.

Tip: Only convert objects to Editable Poly, or similar, if you’re certain you won’t need to alter the original primitive object or any modifiers you’ve applied to it. If you’re not sure, perform a Save As to give yourself a version of the scene that you can reload.

This scene shows two viewports, Top and Perspective. A sketch of the powercharger from an angle is displayed in the Top viewport, while the base shows in the Perspective viewport.

Scale the bottom polygon: 1.

Rotate the viewport so you can see the bottom of the base.

2.

On the Selection rollout, click the Polygon button.

3. Select the bottom polygon.

129


130

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

If the polygon does not turn red, press F2 to turn on the Shade Selected Faces feature. This causes any selected polygons to turn red in viewports.

Cut vertices to make new edges:

The Cut tool lets you cut new edges between vertices and edges. This is a fundamental technique for adding extra surfaces for sculpting.

4.

On the toolbar, click the Scale button.

5. Position the cursor over the selected polygon,

You’ll be working on the top surface of the power base, so you might want to use Arc Rotate to rotate the view so you have a better view of the top.

and then drag upward to enlarge it slightly. 1.

In the Modify panel, click the Vertex button, and then in the Edit Geometry rollout, click Cut.

2. On the top of the polygon cut from one vertex

to another as shown in the first illustration below. Click one vertex, then move the cursor and click the next vertex to create the cut. Right-click to stop cutting temporarily. Make a second cut across the top as shown in the second illustration. At the end of the second cut, right-click twice to exit Cut. 6. Use Shift+Z to undo the viewport rotation.

You see the base from the original vantage point again. Now it’s starting to look like a good solid base.


Creating the Generator Housings

Next you’ll select the new polygon you’ve cut in the top of the base to bevel and extrude it. Bevel polygons: 1.

In the Selection rollout, click the Polygon button.

2. Select the new polygon inside the edges you

just created.

Left: The first cut across the rear. Right: The second cut across the front.

3.

Change the selection level to Edge, and again turn on Cut. The edges you just cut are now red. When you use Cut at the Edge sub-object level, you can cut anywhere along an edge.

4. Make two cuts between the two new edges to

create a new polygon on the top of the base. 3.

Right click the polygon and, from the quad menu > Tools 2 quadrant, choose Bevel Settings. The Bevel Polygons dialog appears.

4. Set the Height setting to 20 units. Set the

Outline Amount to -2. Click Apply. 5. Set a new Height of 5 0 units. Leave the Outline

Amount at--2 units. Click OK to complete the Bevel operation.

Tip: To better see the cut being made, you

can watch the narrow, Top viewport to make sure the new edge is relatively straight. Before making the cuts, right-click the Top viewport label and temporarily turn off Show Background.

131


132

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

9. Move the top polygon back and up to form

a slope, again trying to match the following illustration (don’t worry about being too precise). Use the Transform gizmo handle (the box at the intersection of the Y and Z axes) to move in the YZ plane.

6. Right-click the polygon and choose Rotate

from the quad menu. 7.

Using the following illustration as a guide, rotate the top polygon in the Perspective viewport. Use the Transform gizmo to rotate the polygon about the X axis. Move your cursor over the X, and when it turns yellow, drag to rotate the polygon.

10.

Use Arc Rotate to rotate the viewport all around to see the object from different angles.

11.

Turn on Vertex mode and select the two topmost vertices, then scale them together slightly to taper the shape. When scaling the vertices, place your cursor over the X axis handle to scale only along that axis.

8. Right-click and choose Move from the quad

menu.


Creating the Generator Housings

The slice plane appears in the viewport. 12.

Select the next set of vertices down, as shown in the following illustration. Move those vertices backward, along the Y axis using the transform gizmo.

4.

Tip: When the Y handle turns yellow, you can move the vertices only along the Y axis.

Rotate the slice plane 90 degrees about the Y axis, so it is vertical. Watch the coordinate display near the bottom of the screen as you rotate the Slice Plane. Tip: To be precise, you can also type 90 in the Y coordinate field. The Slice Plane does not have to be centered on the object to slice it properly.

5. When the Slice Plane is appropriately

positioned, click the Slice button. Notice that the object has new edges following the slice plane.

Select and move the red vertices.

Tip: You can achieve the same result by moving the edge between the two vertices, at the Edge sub-object level.

Next you’ll slice the object into two parts, deleting one half and replacing it in the viewport with an instance of the other side. That way any further sculpting you do will be repeated automatically in the instance. This cuts down your work and ensures the object will appear symmetrical. Slice the object in half: 1.

In the Selection rollout, click the Polygon button.

2. Drag a selection rectangle around the entire

object. All the polygons are selected in the viewport. 3. In the Edit Geometry rollout of the modify

panel, find and turn on Slice Plane.

Rotate the slice plane, and then click Slice.

6. Turn off Slice Plane. 7.

Arc Rotate the viewport so you are looking at the base directly from behind. Right-click in the viewport to exit Arc Rotate mode.

8. Hold down the Alt key and drag a selection

window around the polygons on the right side of the cut. Tip: Start the selection window outside the

object.

133


134

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Also, if you don’t succeed in selecting all the polygons, first make sure the Crossing Selection toggle on the main toolbar, is active. That is, the button image depicted here should appear, not the highlighted Window Selection image. If the latter is true, click the button to return to Crossing Selection.

Direction of face normals makes polygons see-through.

11. Rotate the viewport back so you can see the

visible half of the base. 12.

Holding down the Alt key while selecting subtracts from the selection set.

Using the following illustration as a guide, select the uppermost edge and move it along the Z and Y axes. Don’t move it along the X axis or you will disrupt the symmetry of the object.

13. Again, following the illustration, select the next 9. Press Delete to remove the selected polygons.

Click Yes to delete isolated vertices.

edge down and move it up along the Z axis as well.

Now half the object has disappeared. 10. Use Arc Rotate to rotate the viewport around

the object. You can see through the polygons when looking from the inside of the object. That’s because, by default, Autodesk VIZ shades only the "outward" side of polygons. The visible side of a polygon is determined by the direction of its face normal, which you can specify. For detailed information on this topic, see Normals in the Autodesk VIZ online reference.

Select and move these edges.


Fine-Tuning the Housings

14. Swing the view around to the other end and

5. Adjust the Offset spinner until the two objects

raise the middle edge, as shown in the following illustration.

are touching.

Offset closes the gap. The new object is named Line - Base Extrusion01.

6. Choose File > Save As and save your scene as

my_charger3.max.

Select and move the forward edge.

Make the instance of the opposite half: 1. 2.

Click Edge selection again to turn it off. On the toolbar, click Mirror Selected Objects.

3. In the Mirror dialog that appears, choose

Instance. 4. Move the Mirror dialog so it is not obstructing

your view of the object and the mirrored instance in the viewport.

Fine-Tuning the Housings Next, you will select and chamfer various edges to round the base, and then select and extrude polygons to create an indentation in the charger. Load the starting file:

• Choose File > Open and browse to the \tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_base2.max. Chamfer the edge: 1. Select the Line - Base Extrusion object. 2.

Mirrored instance

Turn on the Edge selection level. Select all the edges illustrated; these make up the upper edge of the base of the charger. You might need to use Arc Rotate to move around the object to get all the edges. After selecting the first edge, hold down the Ctrl key to add to the selection of edges.

135


136

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

This selects the material assigned to the selected object. 2. In the Blinn Basic Parameters rollout, click the

Ambient or Diffuse color swatch and change the Red, Green, and Blue Values to lighten the Gray Block color. Make it a lighter gray by setting all three values to 150. 3. Close the Material Editor. Chamfer more edges:

Next, you will chamfer more edges to continue rounding the generator housing. Select all these red edges.

3.

1. Select the edges shown in the illustration below.

These make up the profile of the upper front of the power charger.

When all the edges are selected, turn on Chamfer Settings on the Edit Edges rollout to display the Chamfer Edges dialog, and set the Chamfer Amount to 5 units. Click OK to close the dialog and set the chamfer.

Selected edges Chamfered edges

Change the color:

To make it easier to see the selected edges while working, you will lighten up the Gray Block material color. 1.

Open the Material Editor. Click Pick, and click the base in any viewport.

2. Turn on Chamfer, then position your cursor

over a selected edge, and drag the mouse to chamfer. Watch the edges chamfer on the instanced half.


Fine-Tuning the Housings

Chamfer the edges.

Now you will create an indented area at the front of the base.

Negative extrusion creates inset.

3. Select the polygons illustrated below, left

behind from the extrusion on the inner side of the base, and delete them. In the Delete Isolated Vertices dialog, answer Yes.

Create an inset: 1.

Turn on the Polygon level, and then select the two polygons shown in the following illustration.

4. Choose File > Save As and save the scene as

my_charger4.max.

Select these red polygons.

2.

Click Extrude Settings and set the Extrusion Height to -10 units. Click OK.

Round the base: 1.

Turn on Edge mode.

2. Select and chamfer the edges shown in red in

the following illustration, along the outer top edge of the charger.

137


138

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Select these edges.

3. Drag the mouse to create a chamfer that is close

to matching the following illustration.

Chamfer to round the base.

4.

Use Arc Rotate in the viewport so you can see the other side of the base.

Select these edges.

6. Chamfer these edges to round the back of the

generator housing.

Chamfer more edges.

Next you’ll cut some new edges in preparation to make a cleaner model.

5. Select the edges at the rear of the charger.

Select the edges shown red in the following illustration; these make up the rear corner of the charger.

Cut new edges: 1. In the Edit Geometry rollout, click Cut. Cut two

new edges as shown in red in the illustration.


Fine-Tuning the Housings

Cut two new edges, as shown in red.

2. Select the red edges between the new cuts.

Deleting the edges leaves a hole in the mesh.

4.

Turn on the Polygon sub-object level. On the Edit Geometry rollout, click Create. Move your cursor over one of the corners of the opening created by deleting the edges and click. Move the cursor to the next corner and click. Continue clicking each corner and be sure to click the first corner again to complete polygon. In total, you will click five times.

Select these three edges.

3. Press the Delete key to remove the edges.

This leaves a hole in the object that you will have to fill.

The polygon is selected when the polygon is completed.

5.

Turn on the Edge sub-object level again. On the Edit Geometry rollout, turn off Create, and click Cut. Make four cuts across the rear

139


140

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

polygon, as pictured below. Turn off Cut when you’re finished.

Add four cuts to these edges.

6.

In the Selection rollout, change to the Vertex sub-object selection level.

9. Keep selecting and moving the vertices on

the new edges, one at a time, to resemble the illustration below.

7. Start by selecting the top, center vertex of the

first new edge, and then on the toolbar, change the Reference Coordinate to Local.

Tip: Use Arc-Rotate to look at the vertices from the side to make sure they haven’t moved off the plane of the back of the base. Press Shift+Z to undo the viewport rotation.

Notice the change in the transform gizmo.

Reposition these vertices one at a time.

8.

Move the top vertex along the Local X axis so it moves up along the plane of the back of the base.

10.

Turn on the Polygon sub-object level. Select the two polygons outlined by the vertices you moved in the previous step (they form


Fine-Tuning the Housings

a rough semicircle), and then extrude them inward about -30. Tip: By clicking the Settings button next to

Extrude, you can enter a precise Extrusion Height value.

Repeat the same edge creation and extruding process on the side (as shown) to create another indentation in the base. Create another inset: 1. On the toolbar, change the Reference

Coordinate to View. 2.

Turn on Edge sub-object level and make the first cut across two edges.

Negative extrusion creates an indentation. Cut two edges at once.

11. Select and delete the polygons that divide the

extrusions.

3. Make a second cut parallel to the first but a little

forward.

Now you have a hollow in the base.

Add a second parallel cut.

Remove the dividing polygons.

12. Save your scene as my_charger5.max.

4.

Turn off Cut and select the middle edge. Move it upward, as shown in the illustration.

141


142

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Lift up this red edge.

5. Turn Cut on again, and make another cut

between the new edges.

Move each vertex outward to form a hexagonal border.

7.

Select the two polygons and Bevel them inward. Click Bevel Settings and set the Height to -10 units. Set the Outline Amount to -5. Click OK.

Add a cut parallel to lifted edge.

6.

Turn on Vertex sub-object level and move the two new vertices created by the cut to resemble the hexagonal shape shown in the illustration.

Negative bevel and extrusion

8. Hold down the Ctrl key and add the new

interior bevel faces to the selected polygons, then move the inset upward, as shown.


Fine-Tuning the Housings

Raise the inset up.

Cut from vertex to edge:

You’ll use Cut to add more detail. 1.

Turn on Edge sub-object level, and then turn on Cut.

2. Make a cut as shown in this illustration.

2.

Turn on the Vertex sub-object level, and then drag a selection window to include the ends of the two edges. Be careful to only encompass the two vertices.

Cut to add this red edge.

You’ll use Cut again on the back side, and then combine the two new corner vertices into one using Weld. Weld vertices: 1. Cut another edge along the back of the base, as

shown by the red line in this illustration.

The two vertices turn red.

3. Click the Weld Settings button and set the

Weld Threshold to 10, then click OK. If the selected vertices are not within the threshold, nothing will happen. If this happens, increase the threshold, and click OK again.

143


144

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

The vertices are welded.

Complete the power base:

As you can tell, it can be a complicated and time-consuming process to build a model using polygon modeling techniques. To create the intended power generator housing, you need to repeat the things you’ve learned; cutting, beveling and extruding, and then moving vertices and edges, over and over again. You can repeat these steps and techniques to make your own version of the base. But rather than ask you to go through all of these steps now, we’ll just give you a quick overview of the remaining steps. You can try them yourself, or simply go to the next procedure and unhide the finished power base, which is currently hidden from view. By following the upcoming illustrations, you can add an inset by cutting many extra edges, then select polygons and give them a shallow negative extrusion and a wider outline. 1. Cut extra edges as shown in the following

illustration.

Selection set of the newly made polygons

2. Use the Bevel tool to create the indentation

shown below.

Bevel an inset

3. You can select polygons around the corner and

use a positive extrusion and negative bevel outline.


Fine-Tuning the Housings

Create a top plate. Select polygons around a corner to create a blister.

4. Clean up the rear center by deleting polygons

6. Cut new edges in that plate, then reposition the

edges and vertices to round the top.

and moving vertices together.

Cleaned up center-line Round the top plate by lifting edges.

5. You can extrude and bevel a plate on the sloped

top of the power base.

Unhide the finished model: 1. In the modifier stack, click the Editable Poly

to return to the base level of the object. The Editable Poly listing turns gray. 2. Drag a selection rectangle around the two

objects in the viewport to select them.

145


146

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

3.

Go to the Display panel. On the Hide rollout, click Hide Selected.

4. Now choose Unhide By Name. Hold down

Ctrl and choose Generator Housing Left and Generator Housing Right Instance. Click Unhide.

Adding the Power Conduit In this exercise you will add a primitive object: a cylinder to create a power conduit. You’ll rotate it and then move it into place in the base. Open a starting file:

• Choose File > Open and browse to the \tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_base3.max. This file has a different viewport configuration, with four visible viewports instead of two. Enlarge the viewport: 1. Click anywhere in the Left viewport to activate

it. The viewport outline changes color to show it has been activated. 2. Position the mouse cursor over the divider bar

at the top of the Left viewport, so it becomes a vertical two-headed arrow. Move it upward so the Perspective viewport becomes smaller.

Completed model of power charger base unit

5. If you like, you can unhide half of your model

The Left viewport is now larger and ready for your work.

and half of the completed model as a template to help you shape your own work.

Create a cylinder: 1.

On the Create panel, go to the Geometry section, and then in the Object Type rollout, click the Cylinder button. Now Autodesk VIZ is ready to create a cylinder, wherever you want.

2. Drag the mouse to the left of the generator

housing to define the radius of the cylinder. Any radius will do; you’ll set the proper size in a few steps. Release the mouse button. 3. Now, move the mouse to define the height of

the cylinder; again, any height will do for the moment. Click to set the height. Unhide right half as a template.


Adding the Power Conduit

4. In the Create panel > Parameters rollout, set

Radius=336 and Height=660. Transform the cylinder: 1. Right-click to end the cylinder creation, then

right-click the object to access the quad menu. 2. From the Transform quad choose Rotate. 3. If necessary, press the = key on the keyboard

to increase the size of the Transform gizmo. 4. Move your mouse over the Y axis; when it turns

yellow, drag to rotate the cylinder. Watch the coordinate readout above the rotation gizmo as you drag. When Y gets to -90, release the mouse button. Now the cylinder is pointing away from the power base.

Rotated cylinder

6. Right-click, and from the Transform quadrant,

choose Move. 7. Use the corner handle to move the cylinder

along the XY plane. Position it so the pivot point is inside the indented socket in the power base, as shown in the following illustration.

Cylinder from the side Position the cylinder like this.

5. Rotate about the Z axis -3 35 degrees. Note: You can see only the blue tip of the

8. Right-click the viewport label, and change the

viewport shading from Wireframe to Smooth + Highlights. Also turn on Edged Faces, if it isn’t on already.

Transform gizmo Z axis, but you can still use it for rotation.

9. Name the cylinder Power Conduit - Base. 10.

Rotate the viewport so you can see how the cylinder fits in the socket.

147


148

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

11. Go to the Modify panel, and in the Parameters

rollout, set Height Segments to 1 and Sides to 10. Now that the cylinder is rotated you can choose to move it along its own rotated local axis. This is handy when objects have been aligned to other object surfaces. Move in the local coordinate system:

On the toolbar, click the Move button.

1.

The Power Conduit - Base moved closer to the top of the Generator Housing.

2. Also on the toolbar, click the Reference

Coordinate System drop-drown, which currently displays "View," and choose Local.

4. Right-click and convert the cylinder to an

Editable Poly, then bevel and extrude the cylinder cap to create a more interesting conduit. Repeat the techniques you already know for bevel and extrude.

Tip: The Reference Coordinate System list name

doesn’t appear in the user interface, but you can see it in the tool tip that appears if you hold the mouse cursor over the list for a moment.

Tip: Or you can hide your conduit and unhide the object named Cylinder01.

Transform gizmo arrows align to the local axes of selected objects. Finished power conduit

3. Move the power conduit up along the local Y

axis. Tip: Choose the transform first, then the

reference coordinate system. Each transform (move, rotate or scale) can use a different system.

Next, you’ll apply the Gray Block material to the cylinder. Change the conduit material: 1.

On the toolbar, click the Material Editor button.


Cutting Holes in Objects

2. Drag the Gray Block material to the cylinder

in the viewport.

You can build primitive objects directly on the surface of another object with the AutoGrid feature. Here you will create the cylinders directly on the side of the housing. Create primitives with AutoGrid: 1. On the Create panel, in the Object Type rollout,

click Cylinder. 2. In the same rollout, turn on AutoGrid.

Before you proceed, examine the illustration below to see what you’ll be creating. You will create two cylinders to use as boolean cutout objects. 3. In the Left viewport, drag to create the radius of

Except for the edges, now the power conduit looks like it is made of the same material as the power base. Note: If you want the edges to appear black, like the power base, remember to change the object color in the Name and Color field. Click the color swatch and change it to the black color in the Custom Colors line.

a cylinder near the rounded back corner. When you release the mouse button, you will then set the height. Drag downward so the Height setting is a positive number. Set the Height to about 25. 4. In the Parameters rollout, set Height Segments

to 1, if necessary, and Sides to 10. 5. Create another, smaller cylinder near the lower

3. Save your work as my_charger7.max.

Next you will build the two-hole housing. You will learn to cut holes in geometry using the Boolean compound object while you make this next part of the charger.

right of the housing. Again, drag downward so the cylinder has a positive height. 6. Right-click to finish adding cylinders. 7. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the first

cylinder. Both cylinders should now be selected.

Cutting Holes in Objects You can combine multiple primitive objects together in a compound object. In this lesson, you will use two cylinders to cut out holes when you model the two-hole housing.

8.

On the toolbar, click the Move button and change the reference coordinate system to Local.

9. Move the two cylinders so they intersect the

housing. Open a starting file:

• Continue with the file from the previous lesson, or choose File > Open and browse to the \tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_base4.max.

They should just be sticking through the housing.

149


150

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Position the two cylinders so they protrude like this. Hole created through Boolean subtraction

You can use the Boolean compound object to cut holes in other objects.

5. Click the Boolean button again (even though

it’s already highlighted). Create the Boolean compound object: 1. Select the housing. 2. In the Create panel, to the right of Standard

This "sets" the first subtraction. 6. Click Pick Operand B again, and this time click

the smaller cylinder.

Primitives, click the down arrow and choose Compound Objects from the list. 3. In the Object Type rollout, click Boolean. 4. In the Pick Boolean rollout, click Pick Operand

B. Then click the larger cylinder in the viewport. The cylinder disappears and a hole appears in the housing.

Subtract the second cylinder to create another hole.

The cylinder disappears and a second hole has been cut in the housing. Tip: You can pick each operand in the modifier stack and make changes to it to move the position or depth of the holes.


Finishing the Power Charger Model

7. Hide your work and unhide Two-hole

Housing-Left and Two-hole Housing-Right. The finished model of the two-hole housing appears. 8. Save your work as my_charger8.max.

6.

7. Position the clone so it is between the four

strut landings (the flat planes on the top of the two-hole housing). First move it in the YZ plane, then on the X axis.

Next you will make another power conduit and some struts.

Finishing the Power Charger Model

On the toolbar, click the Select And Move button, and then make sure the reference coordinate system is set to Local.

8.

Use Arc Rotate to rotate the viewport so you can see the new position from another angle.

You’ll complete the power charger using versions of methods you learned earlier in the tutorial, but you’ll also learn a new technique that lets you create a new object based on an existing object’s position and orientation. Open a starting file:

• Choose File > Open and browse to the \tutorials\new_modeling folder. Open the file tut_powercharger_base5.max. Clone the conduit: 1. Click to select the Power Conduit - Base object

in the viewport. 2. Right-click and choose Rotate from the

Transform quadrant. 3. If necessary, press the = key to enlarge the

Transform gizmo. You’ll clone the object as you rotate it. 4. Hold down the Shift key and then rotate the

object about the X axis by 90 degrees. Watch the coordinate display in the status bar as you rotate the object. 5. In the Clone Options dialog, make sure Copy

is chosen, name the object Power Conduit Midlink. Click OK.

Move in local YZ plane.

151


152

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Position the clone like this.

Move on local X axis.

10.

On the toolbar, click and hold the Scale button to show the Select And Scale flyout. Choose Non-Uniform Scale, and then set the reference coordinate system to Local.

11. Scale the conduit along the local Z axis to

shorten it.

Rotate the view.

9.

Zoom in and position the clone so it intersects with the two-hole housing. You can use the same technique to make the struts. Create a strut: 1. Hold down the Shift key and then use Select

And Non-Uniform Scale in the Local Z Axis so the clone (Copy) is taller than the conduit. Name the new object PowerStrut.


Finishing the Power Charger Model

2. Use the corner gizmo to select the XY plane and

scale the PowerStrut object so it has a narrow radius.

list, choose Pick. Then click either side of the two-hole housing in the viewport. The name of the object you have selected (either Two-hole Housing - Left or Two-hole Housing - Right) appears in the reference coordinate system field. 2. Now use Shift-Move to position a clone of the

strut object to the other side of the two-hole housing. In the Clone Options group, choose Instance. Click OK.

Non-Uniform scale to narrow the radius.

3. Move the PowerStrut so it is positioned directly

over one of the strut landings.

Moving in another object’s coordinate system

Since you are in the coordinate system of the housing, the new strut aligns easily. 3. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the original

strut. Now, with the two struts selected, use Shift-Move again to create the two back struts. Again, in the Clone Options group, choose Instance and click OK. Position the PowerStrut object like this.

You’ll employ a neat trick now, by choosing the reference coordinate system of the two-hole housing to clone the other struts. Instance the other struts: 1.

Make sure the Move tool is still active, and then from the reference coordinate system

153


154

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

These parts were all made with techniques you have already learned. You’re almost finished creating the power charger. All that remains is to model the turret and barrel. Create the turret and barrel: 1.

Rotate your viewport so you can see the front of the no-hole housing.

The strut instances

4.

Click Select and Non-Uniform Scale, and choose Use Pivot Point Center. Scale the struts along the Z axis using the Two-hole Housing - Left coordinate system. Scale them so they are just slightly taller than the power conduit. Tip: Watch the struts in the Left viewport to

better gauge the size of the struts.

Starting viewport looks like this.

2. On the Create panel, choose Sphere from the

Object Type rollout. 3. Turn on AutoGrid. 4. Create a sphere at the front of the no-hole

Unhide more components: 1. Select and hide the Power Conduit - Midlink

and the PowerStruts objects. 2. Unhide Cylinders 02 - 06 to display the

pre-modeled power conduit - midlink and powerstruts. 3. Unhide Box03 and Box04 to display the

one-hole housing. 4. Unhide Box01 and Box05 to display the no-hole

housing. 5. Unhide Cylinders 07 - 12 to display the upper

power conduit and the additional struts.

housing. 5. In the Parameters rollout, turn on Base To

Pivot. This moves the base of the sphere to its pivot point, which is normally in the center. That way the sphere is fully visible when using AutoGrid. 6. Set Hemisphere to 0.5. Use the spinner and

watch in the viewport. 7. Set Radius to 40 units. 8. Set Segments to 15.


Finishing the Power Charger Model

Tip: This step is important. If you don’t turn on Ignore Backfacing, you’ll be selecting more polygons than you need. 6.

On the toolbar, click Select Object.

7. Starting at the center, drag a selection circle to

select the top two rings of polygons at the top of the hemisphere. You need only drag outside the innermost circle of polygons to pick up both rings. Create a hemisphere for the turret.

There are many objects in the viewport now, so it’s getting difficult to see what’s going on. Next, you’ll use the Isolate function to make modeling the barrel easier. Isolate the turret:

• With the sphere selected, from the Tools menu, choose Isolate Selection. All the objects in the scene are hidden except for the turret. Tip: If you still see the original Start Shape

Drag a selection circle within the second ring of polygons.

object, go to Display panel > Hide rollout and turn on Hide Frozen Objects. Model in Isolate mode: 1. Right-click the hemisphere and choose Convert

To > Convert To Editable Poly. 2. If necessary, rotate the view until you can see

the front of the hemisphere. 3.

On the toolbar, from the Region Selection flyout, choose Circular Selection Region.

4. In the modifier stack, expand Editable Poly and

click Polygon. 5. In the Selection Rollout, turn on Ignore

Backfacing.

Result: all these polygons are selected.

155


156

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

8.

Flatten the top of the hemisphere by non-uniform scaling the faces along the Local Z axis. Remember to change the reference coordinate system.

9.

Once the faces are flat, move the polygons back toward the hemisphere.

Select these red polygons.

11. Use Extrude to begin building the barrel. Use

the following illustration as a guide for the extrusion height.

Scale and move along the local Z axis.

10.

On the toolbar, click the Select Object button, and then select only the inner circle of polygons, by dragging a circle. Once you’ve selected these polygons, extrude them, and then bevel and extrude a few times to create the charger gun barrel. Use a negative extrusion to create the hole in the barrel.

Creating the barrel.

12. Next, use Bevel to construct the end of the

barrel. Use Bevel Settings because you’ll make several extrusions and bevel to form the end.


Using the Edit Poly Modifier

You can find a finished version of this model in the file tut_powercharger_complete.max.

Summary In this tutorial, you learned how to convert 2D shapes to 3D objects. Then, using low polygon modeling techniques, you learned how the sculpting tools in Autodesk VIZ can be used to create more complex objects.

Bevel and finish with negative extrusion.

Using the Edit Poly Modifier

13. Click the yellow Exit Isolation button to exit

Isolate mode and view your finished model. If necessary, move or rotate the gun barrel a little to align it better with the rest of the model. You can also open the Material Editor and drag the Gray Block material to the barrel. If you don’t see all the geometry click Zoom Extents in the viewport navigation controls, and the entire model should reappear.

In older versions of Autodesk VIZ, if you wanted to create a complex polygonal object, your best modeling strategy would be to collapse a primitive object to an editable poly object and work from there. But if you wanted to use additional modifiers in the stack, you had no way of performing work on the editable poly at a level other than at the bottom of the stack.

Finished model of the power charger.

But now you can use the Edit Poly modifier, which implements the functionality of the editable poly object as a modifier. This modifier lets you create poly objects any way you need to. Because the Edit Poly modifier can appear anywhere in the modifier stack, in multiple locations if appropriate, you can

157


158

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

model parametrically, retaining the modeling and animation flexibility you need.

3.

In this tutorial you will go through the process of using the Edit Poly modifier to build, alter, and add materials to an amphora. You’ll perform all of the modeling with this single modifier.

While the cylinder is still selected, click the Modify tab and rename the object Amphora1.

Skill Level: Beginner/Intermediate Time to Complete: 1 hour 4. In the Parameters rollout, set Radius to 3” and

set Height to 0.5”. Change Height Segments to 1 and Sides to 6. Turn off the Smooth option.

Tutorial Files Note: All the files necessary for this tutorial are provided on the program disc in the \tutorials\edit_poly directory. Before starting the tutorials, copy the \tutorials folder from the disc to your local program installation.

Building the Body of the Amphora In this sequence you will begin building the amphora by adding an Edit Poly modifier to a primitive cylinder to construct its basic shape. Set up the lesson

• Start Autodesk VIZ. On the menu bar, choose Customize > Units Setup to display the Units Setup dialog. Choose US Standard and, if necessary, set the units to Feet w/Decimal Inches. Click OK to confirm your choices. Create the base object: 1.

You now have a flat hexagonal object to use as a base for the Edit Poly modifier.

On the Create panel, choose Standard Primitives, and click Cylinder.

2. In the center of the Perspective viewport, click

and drag to create a cylinder. At this stage, don’t worry about the radius and height settings. You’ll change that at step 4.

5.

Click the Maximize Viewport Toggle and then click the Zoom Extents All button to get a better look at what you are doing.


Building the Body of the Amphora

6.

On the main toolbar, with the object still selected, click the Select And Move tool.

7. In the Coordinate Display area on the status

bar, right-click each of the spinners to the right of the X, Y, and Z numeric fields to reset them to 0.0. This moves the object to the world origin.

8. Save the scene as my_amphora.max. Start with the lip: 1. Open the file amphora01.max or continue from

the previous section. 2. With Amphora1 selected, open the Modify

panel and choose the Edit Poly modifier from the Modifier List. 3. On the Selection rollout, set the sub-object level

to Polygon.

4. In the Perspective viewport, select the

top-facing polygon.

159


160

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

The selected polygon turns red. 5.

On the main toolbar, right-click the Select And Uniform Scale tool to open the Scale Transform Type-In dialog. In the Offset:World group, type 115 in the % box and press Enter .

7. On the Bevel Polygons dialog, set Bevel Type to

Local Normal. Set the Height to 1.0”.

Click Apply to accept the edits. Close the Scale Transform Type-In dialog. 6. On the Modify tab > Edit Poly modifier > Edit

Polygons rollout, click the Bevel Settings button to open the Bevel Polygons dialog.

8. Next, set the Height to 0.5”, and Outline

Amount to -0.5”.


Building the Body of the Amphora

Click Apply to accept the edits. 2. Next, set the Height to 1 .5”, and leave the

Outline Amount to 0.0”. Click Apply.

This completes the lip of the amphora. As you can guess, you’re building the amphora upside-down. You’ll rotate the model toward the end of the lesson. Next, you’ll create the neck and flare.

You’ve extruded the last two segments of the neck because you need to have a set of polygons where the handles will protrude. So, the handles will be positioned 0.5” below the lip of the amphora and the base of the handles will be 1.5” thick.

Create the neck and flare:

With the Bevel Polygons dialog still open, keep working from the previous section. 1. On the Bevel Polygons dialog, set Height to

0.5”, and Outline Amount to 0.0”. Click Apply to accept the edits.

3.

To finish the neck, set the Height to 6.0” and click Zoom Extents All.

161


162

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Click Apply to accept the edits.

You’re creating the flare in several sections because you need a set of polygons where the handles reattach from above.

4. Start the flare to the body by setting the Height

to 4.0”, and Outline Amount to 4.0”. Click Apply.

6. To finish the flare, set the Height to 1.0”, and

Outline Amount to 1.0”. Click OK to accept the edits and close the Bevel Polygons dialog.

Use Zoom Extents All to keep the entire model in the viewport so you can see your progress as you continue to apply Height and Outline Amount changes.

Tip:

5. Next, set the Height to 1.5”, and Outline

Amount to 1.5”. Click Apply to accept the edits.

7.

Click the Zoom Extents All button.

8. From the Files menu, choose Save As and save

the scene as MyAmphora1.max. Create the body:

The body of the amphora is going to be about four and a half feet tall and will look somewhat like an acorn. You’ll continue using the Bevel Polygon dialog to set height and outline amount values to complete the body of the amphora. 1. Open the file amphora02.max or continue from

the previous section.


Building the Body of the Amphora

If you’re opening the sample file, make sure Amphora1 is selected and then open the Modify panel and click the Bevel Settings button to open the Bevel Polygons dialog. 2. On the Bevel Polygons dialog, set Height to

24.0”, and Outline Amount to 0.0”. Click Apply to accept the edits.

5. Set Height to 3.0”, and Outline Amount to

-2.5”. Click Apply to accept the edits.

As you’re building the body of the amphora, use Zoom Extents All to keep everything in view.

Tip:

3. Now the body begins to taper to a point at the

bottom. Set the Height to 8.0”, and Outline Amount to -1.0”. Click Apply.

6. Leave the Height at 3.0”, and set the Outline

Amount to -1.5”. Click Apply.

4. Set Height to 4.0”, and Outline Amount to

-2.0”. Click Apply.

7. Set the Height at 4.0”, and the Outline Amount

to -1.0”. Click Apply.

163


164

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

4.

Close the Rotate Transform Type-In dialog and click the Zoom Extents All button.

8. Finally, set the Height at 4.0”, and set the

Outline Amount to -0.5”. Click OK to accept the last settings and close the Bevel Polygons dialog.

5. From the Files menu, choose Save As and save

the scene as MyAmphora2.max.

Modeling the Handles Now that you have created the body of the amphora, it is time to rotate the model so it’s upright.

In this lesson you will continue to use the Edit Poly modifier in conjunction with the Symmetry modifier to add handles to the amphora.

Rotate the amphora:

Set up the lesson

1. In the modifier stack, click on the Edit Poly

1. Open amphora03.max from the

modifier to exit sub-object editing mode. The modifier is gray when you’re not working at a sub-object level.

tutorials\new_modeling folder, or continue from the previous lesson. 2. Right-click the Perspective viewport label and

turn on Edged Faces. 2.

Right-click the Select and Rotate button to open the Rotate Transform Type-In dialog.

3. In the Offset:World group, type 180 in the X

field and press Enter .

The Edged Faces mode takes the guess work out of selecting polygons. 3. Right-click the Perspective viewport label again

and turn off Show Grid.


Modeling the Handles

When you rotated the amphora in the previous lesson, it appeared below the grid so turning the grid off will make the selections you’ll make easier to see. Start adding the handles:

There are two handles on the amphora. To create the handles more efficiently, you’ll rely upon the power of the Symmetry modifier while you continue to model with the Edit Poly modifier. 1.

Select the Amphora1 object, if it’s not already selected. On the Modify panel, choose the Symmetry modifier from the Modifier List to apply it to the object.

Show End Result in its ’on’ state.

2. On the Parameters rollout, set the mirror axis

to Y.

Since changes you make to modifiers are carried up the stack, you’ll model one of the handles at the Edit Poly level, and the second handle will be generated by the Symmetry modifier that’s higher in the stack. 4.

Use Zoom and Pan to get a better view of the neck and shoulder of the amphora.

3. In the modifier stack, select the Edit Poly

modifier below the Symmetry modifier. Turn on Show End Result, if necessary.

Tip: You might also want to enlarge your view by clicking the Maximize Viewport Toggle. 5. On the Selection rollout, click Polygon.

165


166

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

8. On the Hinge Polygons From Edge dialog, click

the Pick Hinge button.

6. In the Perspective viewport, select the polygon

below the lip of the amphora as shown in the graphic.

9. In the Perspective viewport, click the upper

edge of the selected polygon.

7. From the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Hinge

From Edge Settings button.

10. Set Angle to 15.0 and click OK to accept the

edits and close the dialog. 11. On the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Extrude

Settings button. On the Extrude Polygons dialog, set the Extrusion type to Local Normal and set the Extrusion Height to 3.0�.

This opens the Hinge Polygons From Edge dialog.


Modeling the Handles

Click OK to accept the edits and close the Extrude Polygons dialog.

Since the handles don’t get narrower, using the Extrude feature of the Edit Poly modifier is more practical for creating the handles.

2. On the Hinge Polygons From Edge dialog,

right-click the Angle spinner to set it to 0.0 and the click the Pick Hinge button.

3. In the Perspective viewport, click the lower

edge of the selected polygon.

12. Save the scene as MyAmphora3. Form the bend and complete the handle:

Next, you’ll form the bend at the top of the handle using a combination of edge hinges and face extrusions. 1. From the Edit Polygons rollout, click the Hinge

From Edge Settings button again.

4. Set Angle to 15.0 and click OK to accept the

edits and close the dialog. 5. Click the Extrude Settings button and set the

Extrusion Height to 1.0”.

167


168

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Click OK to accept the edits and close the Extrude Polygons dialog.

10. Click the Hinge From Edge Settings button

6. Click the Hinge From Edge Settings button

again, right-click the Angle spinner to set it to 0.0 and the click the Pick Hinge button.

again, right-click the Angle spinner to set it to 0.0 and the click the Pick Hinge button. 11. Click the lower edge of the selected polygon.

7. Click the lower edge of the selected polygon

like before.

12. Set the Angle to 60.0 and click OK to accept the

edits and close the dialog. 13. Click the Extrude Settings button, set the 8. Set the Angle to 30.0 and click OK to accept the

edits and close the dialog. 9. Click the Extrude Settings button, set the

Extrusion Height to 0.5� and click OK to accept the change.

Extrusion Height to 9.0� and click OK to accept the change.


Modeling the Handles

14. In the Perspective viewport, Ctrl +click to

select the middle polygon on the shoulder of the amphora. It’s very important to hold the Ctrl key here because you want to add the new polygon to the selection set with the polygon you’ve been hinging and extruding.

This displays the Bridge dialog. 16. In the Bridge dialog, set Segments to 3 , Taper

to -1.0, and keep Smooth at 45.0. Click OK to accept the edit and close the dialog.

15. To finish the handle, click the Bridge Settings

button.

17. Save the scene as MyAmphora4. Make the amphora look hollow:

As a final modeling detail, let’s make the amphora look hollow. 1. Select the top polygon.

169


170

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Click Apply to accept the edits.

2. Click the Bevel Settings button to open the

Bevel Polygons dialog once again.

4. Set the Height to -0.5” and leave the Outline

Amount set to -0.5” and click Apply.

5. Finally, set the Height to -11.5” and the Outline

Amount to 0.0” and click OK. 3. On the Bevel Polygons dialog, make sure Bevel

Type is set to Local Normal. Set the Height to 0.0” and the Outline Amount to -0.5”.

Smooth the amphora:

Now that you’ve got the rough shape of the amphora, it’s time to make it more realistic. You’ll


Modeling the Handles

do this by smoothing and rounding the edges and surfaces. 1. On the Selection rollout, click the Polygon

button to turn off the sub-object editing mode.

2. In the modifier stack, click on the Symmetry

modifier. Any new modifiers you add will be added at the top of the modifier stack. 3. Open the Modifier List and choose

TurboSmooth. The TurboSmooth modifier is added to the modifier stack and the amphora is looking better. 4. On the TurboSmooth rollout, set the Iterations

to 2. 5. Right-click the Perspective viewport label and

turn off Edged Faces. 6.

Click the Zoom Extents All button.

7. Save the scene as MyAmphora5.

171


172

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Create the Stand and Add Materials

5. In the Coordinate Display area on the status

bar, right-click each of the spinners to the right of the X and Y to 0.0 and set the spinner to the right of the Z to -4’3”. This moves the circle toward the bottom of the amphora.

In this lesson you will use splines to create a stand that holds the amphora. Then, you’ll apply stock materials from the Content Browser Material catalog. Set up the lesson

6.

• Open amphora04.max from the tutorials\new_modeling folder, or continue from the previous lesson.

In the Front viewport, Zoom Region to get a better view of bottom of the amphora.

Create the upper ring: 1.

On the Create panel, choose the Shapes button and click Circle.

2. In the Top viewport, create a circle with a radius

of about 7.0”. 3. Change the name of the object to R ing01 in the

Name and Color rollout, and set the Radius to 7.0” in the Parameters rollout.

Tip: You might also want to enlarge your view by clicking the Maximize Viewport Toggle. 7.

On the toolbar, click the Snap flyout and choose the 2D snap type. The 2D Snap Toggle is located on a flyout of 2D/3D snap options.

8. Click Arc and drag from the left-most vertex 4.

On the main toolbar, with the circle still selected, click the Select And Move tool.

of the circle you just created to a point below the point of the amphora and further to the


Create the Stand and Add Materials

left. Release the mouse, and then drag until you have an arc as shown in the illustration.

9. Change the name of the arc to Leg01. 10. Right-click to end the Arc command and turn

off the 2D Snap toggle. Duplicate the leg and create the lower ring:

You’ll create instances of the leg so there are four of them rotated around the upper ring of the stand. You’ll continue working in the Front viewport. 1.

Make sure that Leg01 is still selected and open the Hierarchy panel.

2.

Click the Affect Pivot Only button, in the Adjust Pivot rollout, and click Align from the main toolbar, and then select the Ring01 object.

The pivot point of the original leg needs to match the center of the upper ring so you can create the other three legs with the Array tool. 4. Turn off the Affect Pivot Only button. 5. Choose Tools menu > Array to open the Array

dialog. 6. In the Array Transformation: Screen

Coordinates group, enter 90 in the Incremental Y Rotate field, set the 1D Count to 4 in the Array Dimensions group, and make sure the Instance is active in the Type Of Object group.

The Align Selection dialog is displayed. 3. In the Align Position group, turn on the X, Y

and Z Position toggles. Also change the Current Object setting from Center to Pivot Point and click OK. The Y Position toggle may already be active. If you click the Preview button, you can check how the array will look before accepting the settings.

173


174

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

2. Turn on the following:

• Turn on Enable In Renderer. When you render the model, the spline will render using the Radial or Rectangular setting. • Turn on Enable In Viewport. The model will appear in the viewport using the Radial or Rectangular setting.

Click OK to accept the array settings. 7.

Select Ring01 and turn on Select and Move if it’s not already active.

8. While holding down the Shift key, drag a

copy of the ring down to the bottom of the legs. In the Clone Options dialog, change the Object setting to Copy and click OK. 9.

From the Modify panel, change the Radius of Ring02 so it touches the bottom of the legs.

Give the stand some girth:

Now that you have the spline created and positioned, you can now add some substance to the stand to make it look like it can actually hold the amphora. 1. Right-click in the Perspective viewport to make

it active and open the Rendering rollout for Ring02.

3. Select Ring01 and make the same settings to

the Rendering rollout.


Create the Stand and Add Materials

1.

On the main toolbar, click the Start Content Browser button to open the Content Browser.

2. Double-click the VIZ 2007 Materials Catalog to

open the catalog. 3. Double-click the Masonry category in the right

pane, and then click the Stone sub-category to display all the stone materials in this catalog.

4. Select Leg01 and open the Rendering rollout

and make the following settings: • Turn on Enable In Renderer. • Turn on Enable In Viewport. • Turn on Rectangular. The splines use a rectangular cross-section instead of a circular one. • Change the Length to 1.5”. • Change the Width to 0.5”.

Add some quick materials:

Now the amphora is complete and ready for material assignments. You’ll use two materials from the VIZ 2007 Materials Catalog, found in the Content Browser, to add more realism to the model.

4. Locate the Masonry.Stone.Slate.Green material.

175


176

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials

Note: If your Content Browser is configured to display 5 rows per page, the material is located in the right-hand column on the 3rd page.

9.

5. Position the Content Browser on the screen so

drag the eyedropper cursor material to Ring01.

you can see both the material and the amphora. 6.

Place the cursor over the i-drop icon

to apply the

10. Click the i-drop again from the Content

Browser and drag the same material to Ring02. When a dialog displays telling you that a material with that name already exists in the scene, make sure Replace It is selected and click OK.

and click. Drag the eyedropper cursor to Amphora1 and release the mouse button. The green slate material is applied to the amphora. 7.

Place the cursor over the i-drop icon for Metals.Ornamental Metals.Brushed, click and

In the Content Browser, click the Back button until you see the list of material categories. Now you’ll navigate to another material using a different method.

8. On the left pane of the Content Browser,

highlight the Metals category in the list, and then move the cursor to the right to display a flyout menu. Click once on Ornamental Metals.

11. Assign the same material to one of the leg

objects. Because the legs are instances of one another, when you drag the material to any one of them, the material application propagates to the other three legs automatically. 12.

A list of ornamental metals materials is displayed.

Render the scene.


Create the Stand and Add Materials

Summary In this tutorial, you started with a simple primitive object and used the Edit Poly modifier to edit polygons to form the rough shape of the amphora. You added the TurboSmooth modifier to refine the model by smoothing and round its edges and surfaces. You created a series of splines and altered the renderable spline settings so they render and display with thickness. Finally, you dragged materials found in the Content Browser and dropped them on the components of the model.

177


178

Tutorial 3: Modeling Tutorials


Viz Tutorial