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The Study of Typologies Formosa 1140 Lorcan O'Herlihy Architects

Lofts at Cherokee Studios Pugh + Scarpa

Avenel Cooperative Housing Gregory Ain

Habitat 67 Safdie Architects

Marc Martineau Ayda Abar Garret Hartsuyker

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Index Formosa 1140

3

Lofts at Cherokee Studios

18

Avenel Cooperative Housing

34

Habitat 67

45

Conclusion + Comparison

57

Key Information Scaled Drawings Analysis

Key Information Scaled Drawings Analysis

Key Information Scaled Drawings Analysis

Key Information Scaled Drawings Analysis

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Formosa 1140

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Key Information Project Name

Formosa 1140

Project Architect

Lorcan O’Herlihy Architects

Date built

2008

Location

West Hollywood, CA, USA

Cost if known (Cost per sf)

$240

Typology

Row Housing + Courtyard Scheme

Project Density

40.4

Number of units

11

Number of unit types

4

Private outdoor space per dwelling unit

120 SF

Parking spaces per dwelling unit

2 4


Ground Floor + Park

5


Second Floor

Third Floor

6


East Elevation

South Elevation

7


Exploded Axon 8


Concept Formosa 1140, by Lorcan O’ Herlihy, is an 11 unit housing project located in West Hollywood. This project was driven by the importance of community and shared open space for not only the residents but the community as well. Formosa takes what would be the internal centralized open space of the courtyard and shifts it to the outside of the building to create a park which occupies approximately one third (4,600 sf) of the project site. By doing this, the project reinvents the typical courtyard scheme. Additionally, as a result of shifting the common open space to the exterior and pushing the building to one side, units are organized linearly allowing for “park frontage� and allowing for the opportunity of cross-ventilation for every unit. External circulation is used as a separation between public and private worlds and is articulated through layers of perforated metal and small openings within the facade.

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Site Plan This project works towards building a more public community. Formosa’s park is open to the public and allows for the compact residential neighborhood to breathe. The creation and inclusion of an urban park in a private development. Formosa’s red panelling allows it to become an iconic building amongst the other residences and revitalize West Hollywood. According to LOHA, Following Formosa 1140’s success, “there are now over a dozen designated public open areas. Located in a redevelopment area previously blighted by high deterioration, crime, and abandonment, Formosa 1140’s red form grounds its park, brightens its neutral surroundings, and has helped catalyze the revival of West Hollywood.”

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Circulation

ENTRY

CIRCULATION

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Separation Between Public and Private

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Unit Analysis Formosa 1140 consists of four different unit types within the project. There are two different end conditions, along with two different central units. Unit 2 and 4 are the repeated units, existing four total times in the project. Unit 3 and 5 are also the same and four of these also exist. Unit 6 acts as a corner end condition and there are two of these units repeated in the project. The unique front unit 1 faces the street and extends to three levels of entry foyer/den, an upper living room, two bedrooms, three baths and a large terrace. The remaining two- story units, on two tiers, comprised of open living /dining/kitchen areas with a study and bath on one floor, while two bedrooms with two baths and balconies occupy another floor. As an added benefit the four top-tier units enjoy roof deck views of the Hollywood hills. The varying units allow for an interesting architectural expression on the facade facing the street or the park to strengthen the projects relationship to the community and the park.

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Materials Formosa 1140’s permeable envelope promotes resident-community interaction. The envelope is made of red perforated metal. This serves as a privacy screen between the public and the private space. In addition, it creates a sequence of movement between public, semi-public, and private. This screen allows for variation in the facade as well by pushing or depressing the screen in order to create balconies or openings- create a vertical and horizontal rhythm throughout the project. According to LOHA, “The careful placement of outer skin panels and inner skin fenestration creates a pixel effect, both revealing and concealing, while achieving a unique expression of form and materials.”

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Human Safety

ADA Access

Emergency Egress Exit

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Structural Ordering System Formosa 1140’s structural ordering system consists of an equal A, A grid in the vertical direction and a B, B, C, C grid in the horizontal direction. The simplicity of the form allows for a clear and coherent structure with the walls between units acting as shear walls through the project. The wet spaces consisting of the kitchen and bathrooms exist as their own cores in each unit of the project driving the organization and layout.

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Natural Light and Ventilation

The exterior skin of Formosa 1140 keeps the west facing units cool during the summer months by acting as a screen and a shading device

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Lofts at Cherokee Studios

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Key Information Project Name

Lofts at Cherokee Studios

Project Architect

Pugh + Scarpa

Date built

2009

Location

Los Angeles, CA, USA

Cost if known (Cost per sf)

$195

Typology

Courtyard Housing

Project Density

62.5

Number of units

12

Number of unit types

12

Private outdoor space per dwelling unit

200 - 300 SF

Parking spaces per dwelling unit

2 19


Site Plan

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Section

21


22


23


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Concept Cherokee Mixed-Use Lofts is defined as an urban infill, mixed-use, housing project. The building is inspired by the series of paintings by the British artist Patrick Hughes titled, “Prospectivity.” The exhibit consists of three-dimensional paintings that when viewed from the front initially give the impression of viewing a scene in perspective view. However, as soon as the viewer moves their head the three dimensional surface that supports the perspective view emphasizes the depth of the image and shifts the perspective. This provides a powerful and often disorienting impression of depth and movement. Hughes creates this by painting the view in reverse to the relief of the surface. At Cherokee the main architectural feature of this project is the building’s owner-controlled operable double façade system and how it too is always everchanging.

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Site Plan The site is located on the intersection of Fairfax Ave and Waring Ave right off of Melrose Ave is in an area of Los Angeles that is in development. This area was traditionally characterized by single family bungalow houses this project seeks to bring new life into this part of town by categorizing itself with modernist architecture. The parking for each of the 12 units is underground and the residents have direct access to their unit through vertical circulation and an elevator. The center of the building is open to above so that natural light and ventilation can get into each unit. The central space acts like a vertical corridor that is double loaded with units on both sides as it goes up into the project. In order to enter each unit one must circulate throughout this atrium experiencing the void. The only shared public space within this whole project is the center atrium creating a private space for interaction.

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Natural Light and Ventilation The Lofts at Cherokee Studios was one of the first LEED gold certified housing projects. The building is energy efficient in many ways, but in order to be this efficient it has systems in place such as a solar panel system on the roof and passive ventilation system through the interior courtyard. Also the movable facade system keeps the sun off of the building during the hottest times of the day reducing the amount of energy used to cool the interior spaces. Lighting is also brought into the building through the interior courtyard.

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Circulation

ENTRY

CIRCULATION

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Unit Analysis Due to the angled shape of the building caused by the sculpting of the courtyard; the lofts will range in size from 1,000 square feet to 2,000 square feet, each with their own unique and distinctive floor plans. Out of the 12, seven of the lofts will be two-story town homes elevated at 30 to 50 feet above street level. The living space, consisting of a kitchen, living, bathroom, and home recording studio or office will be on the 4th floor, 38 feet above street level to maximize city skyline views, daylight, and energy efficiency. 3 of the lofts have 17 foot high ceilings with mezzanines and open to the courtyard. Lastly, two loft flats will have 10 foot high ceilings opening to the landscaped courtyard as well. All lofts will have 2 to 3 bathrooms and 1 to 4 bedrooms.

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Public vs. Private

Private Public

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Materials The perforated anodized aluminum panels of the Cherokee Studios creates an ever- changing canvas that provides shade to cool the building, buffers noise, enhances privacy, all while still allowing for spectacular views, great natural light, and ventilation from ocean breezes which pass through its perforations, even when all panels are closed. By allowing the occupant to adjust, at will, the operable screens of the building façade, the facade is virtually redesigned “live” from within the space, reflecting the occupants of the building within. Where the building is changing every day, hour, and minute. The screens also enhance the existing streetscape and promote a lively pedestrian environment. By visually breaking up the façade into smaller articulated moving elements, the building appears to move with the passing cars and people. In effect, it becomes a live canvas to be painted upon daily, allowing the façade to be multivalent and rich with meaning performing several roles for formal, functional and experiential effect.

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Human Safety

ADA Access

Emergency Egress Exit

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Structural Ordering System In Cherokee Lofts, the system of structure is based on a 20’ x 20’ perpendicular grid on one side of the project and a 30’x30’ grid on the west side. Though this changes once the inner courtyard is introduced into the structure. The asymmetrical form and rotation of the court is surrounded by structural walls that also determine the edge of the units on each side. Since there are different amount of units on each side, the structure for each side acts independently of one another and both ends are connected by the void space in between. The wet spaces are also in their own cores on either end of the project leading to better organization throughout the project.

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Avenel Cooperative Housing

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Key Information Project Name

Avenel Cooperative Housing

Project Architect

Gregory Ain

Date built

1947

Location

Silverlake, CA, USA

Cost if known (Cost per sf)

$720/SF

Typology

Row Housing

Project Density

14.28

Number of units

10

Number of unit types

1

Private outdoor space per dwelling unit

293 SF

Parking spaces per dwelling unit

2 (single car garage + 1 outdoor space) 35


Single Unit Plan

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Unit Plan

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Concept

Gregory Ain completed the 10 unit housing project in 1947 for 10 couples who each invested $10,000 for a housing project to promote communal living. Out of 2 60 foot lots on a property in Silverlake, CA Ain created 2 “rows� of units that all shared a common walkway with the entrance to each unit on the side elevation. Original Drawings

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Site Plan The overall massing of the project runs perpendicular to Avenel St. but each unit is rotated to the southwest, presumably to get as much sunlight as possible during the later parts of the day. There is no shared public space for the units other than the access pathways as well as the green spaces facing the circulation pathways. Each unit has its own private one car garage attached to the street facade and a short walk from each unit. The entrance and exiting circulation is straightforward with each unit sharing an access pathway that exits onto Avenel St.

Site Plan

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Circulation & Human Safety

Emergency Egress Access

ADA Access

Parking 40


Unit Analysis The Avenel Cooperative Housing Project consists of one unit type duplicated throughout the entire project. The end conditions are exactly the same as each of the interior units. The units on the street are attached to the garages for each unit. In terms of form and variation all units are exactly the same. Each unit has 1 bedroom and one bathroom, with other spaces that can either be used as offices or turned into other bedrooms. Each unit has a private identical outdoor space that faces the south west. The orientation of the units provides the best views and sunlight during the later parts of the day. There is no shared public space between units other than the access pathways. The walls have moveable panels so that the entire space can be reconfigured as desired to have up to 3 bedrooms.

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Materials Avenel Cooperative housing 10 units are exactly the same and the inside of each unit has the same features and all follow the mid-century modernist aesthetic of Gregory Ain. . The entire south end of each unit is covered in glass, letting light into the living spaces of the project. The construction is wood and the exterior of the building is a simple grey and brown color. The surrounding landscape is covered in trees and the walls surrounding the outdoor spaces are high enough to block out the cramped LA surroundings and emphasize the tops of the trees. Sliding glass doors separate the living room from the garden and patio. This complex has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2005.

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Natural Light and Ventilation

The exterior on the south side of each unit is covered in glass to let natural light into the space. The walls windows and doors can be opened up completely to allow a draft of cool fresh air to flow into and through the project lessening the need for the residents to use artificial cooling .

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Structural Ordering System The structural ordering system for Avenel Cooperative housing is a straightforward 10’ x 15’ structural grid. The entire project is constructed from typical wood construction of the 1950s era. Structural walls hold up the roof on a perpendicular pattern. One of the main features of this project are the movable partition walls, in order for these walls to be moved, the other walls must take the load of the roof. All “wet” program is organized to one location in the unit.

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Habitat 67

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Key Information Project Name

Habitat 67

Project Architect

Moshe Safdie

Date built

1967

Location

Montreal, QC, Canada

Cost if known (Cost per sf)

$367/SF

Typology

Block and Courtyard Housing

Project Density

24.14

Number of units

158

Number of unit types

18

Private outdoor space per dwelling unit

300-700 SF

Parking spaces per dwelling unit

2 Covered Parking Spaces and Visitor Parking 46


0

5

10 UNIT PLAN

47


Concept Moshe Safdie’s Habitat 67 arose from the idea of a collection of mass which is arranged in such a way that provides outdoor space for each resident.

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Site Plan Habitat 67 is located in Montreal offset 24 feet from Avenue PierreDupuy. Moshe Safdie configures each of the unit to get a great view of the city no matter the position of the units. The shifting of the units interchangeably throughout the site allows for sunlight to reach every unit and enter the street level of the project.

Ave Pierre-Dupuy

Pedestrian Entry

N

0

150

300

Site Plan

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Means of Egress

Elevators Stairs

N

0

150

Egress from Units 300

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Unit Analysis The basic unit type of Habitat 67 is based on a module of a block which is 17.5 feet by 38.5 feet by 10.5 feet in height. This module is developed to create two, three, and four bedroom units. The units are also arranged in a way that allows each unit to have a roof garden.

0

5

10 51


Pedestrian and Automobile Relationships

Parking Spaces Pedestrian Walkways N

0

Automobile Circulation 150

300

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Public and Private

N

0

Public 150

300

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Structural Section

The structure of the project is carried through the compressive forces of the precast panels and concrete slabs which carry the load down to the foundation of the project.

0

Critical Mass 20

40

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Cross-Ventilation

Cross-Ventilation 20 0

40 55


Materials The project consists of precast concrete panels to form solid blocks floating in the sky. The project makes use of prefabricated kitchens and toilets to maximize efficiency and repetition throughout the project.

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Conclusions Formosa 1140

1

Lofts at Cherokee Studios

2

Avenel Cooperative Housing

3

Habitat 67

4

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Comparison of Typologies & Efficiency in Repetition Formosa 1140

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Lofts at Cherokee Studios

2

Avenel Cooperative Housing

3

Row Housing Formosa 1140 is considered the row housing typology because of the linear organization of each unit. The organization is perpendicular to the road in this case parallel to a park also designed by the architect. The units are two stories in height and are double stacked making the structure four stories tall.

Courtyard Housing The lofts at Cherokee studios are considered courtyard housing because of the courtyard that separates the east from the west end of the project. This courtyard not only brings in light and natural ventilation, but also is the main circulation core of the project.

Row Housing (Rotated) Avenel Cooperative Housing is two rows of row housing. Each unit in this complex is identical to one another, it is their rotation and the orientation which makes these units work. Each row is perpendicular to the street and the residents their unit from one of the two outdoor entrance corridors.

Habitat 67

Systems (Block and Courtyard) Habitat 67 is two typologies in which block like housing formations are broken up by the rotation of the units with the residual space creating private courtyards for the units and public courtyards between the units. The overall massing of the project provides every user with a garden space.

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Advantages and Disadvantages + Issues of Livability Formosa 1140 Row Housing

The project achieves a relationship to the context successfully through its bright red panels and patterned facade. However, the project fails to allow sufficient lighting throughout the project on the west and east sides of the project due to the nature of the typology.

Lofts at Cherokee Studios Courtyard Housing

2

Lofts at Cherokee Studios makes strong use of lighting and ventilation to provide a comfortable living space. The circulation to the units, however, is awkward due to the angle within the project.

Avenel Cooperative Housing Row Housing (Rotated)

3

Avenel Cooperative Housing creates a nice, livable environment. However, the project fails to create a sense of community within the project as it lacks any shared common open space for the residents. It also fails to demonstrate a sense of personalization for each unit within the project.

Habitat 67 Systems (Block and Courtyard) Habitat 67 provides every resident with shared common open space as well as private gardens. However, the project’s shear mass results in very little light entering the project. The prefabricated units also fail to give each resident a sense of personalization.

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Density Comparison The four projects range from a series of units counts; from the Avenal Cooperative Apartments with only 10 units all the way to Habitat 67 with 158 units. These various projects also exhibit different housing density values (dwelling units per acre) based on their lot size. For example, the Avenel Cooperative Housing exhibits a housing density of 14.28, with 10 dwelling units on only .7 of an acre. This housing density value compares to Formosa 1140, who’s density value is 40.4based off of having 11 units on only .38 of an acre. Furthermore, the housing density of Habitat 67 is calculated to be 24.14 this is due to the project consisting of 158 units on 6.5 acres along with the Lofts at Cherokee Studios is calculated to be 62.5 this is due to the project consisting of 12 units on .47 acres.

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References Formosa https://www.archdaily.com/16194/formosa-1140-loha-architects http://loharchitects.com/work/formosa1140 https://www.behance.net/gallery/18984279/Formosa-1140 https://eliftigdemir.wordpress.com/2018/03/24/formosa-1140/

Lofts At Cherokee Studios https://brooksscarpa.com/cherokee-studios https://www.archdaily.com/41775/lofts-cherokee-studios-pugh-scarpa https://www.dezeen.com/2010/05/25/cherokee-by-pugh-scarpa/

Avenel Cooperative Housing https://www.laconservancy.org/locations/avenel-cooperative-housing https://la.curbed.com/2012/7/5/10354602/restored-unit-in-ains-avenel-cooperative-housing-i http://ohp.parks.ca.gov/ListedResources/Detail/N2278 https://activerain.com/blogsview/4242563/gregory-ain-avenel-cooperative-housing-project---si

Habitat 67 Safdie, Moshe. For Everyone a Garden. 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/1986/03/06/garden/habitat-67-is-sold-to-its-residents.html http://cac.mcgill.ca/moshesafdie/fullrecord.php?ID=10816&d=1

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Spring 2019 Case Study Analysis  

Brooks + Scarpa, 2010, Lofts at Cherokee Studios Lorcan O’Herlihy, 2009, Formosa Moshe Safdie, 1967, Habitat 67 Gregory Ain, 1947, Avenel Co...

Spring 2019 Case Study Analysis  

Brooks + Scarpa, 2010, Lofts at Cherokee Studios Lorcan O’Herlihy, 2009, Formosa Moshe Safdie, 1967, Habitat 67 Gregory Ain, 1947, Avenel Co...

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