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Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Leadership vs. Management: So What’s the Difference? (Part 1) Facilitator Guide


Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Required materials .............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Room preparation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3 Leader notes ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Agenda .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introductions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Welcome, Ice-Breaker, and Warm-up ................................................................................................................................ 3 Warm-up/Objectives............................................................................................................................................................... 4 Objectives............................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Warm-up ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Leadership Assessment ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 Activity #1: Leadership Assessment .................................................................................................................................... 6 Presentation 1: Leadership Assessment ............................................................................................................................. 7 Followership .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Presentation 2: Followership ............................................................................................................................................ 10 Leadership Theories .............................................................................................................................................................. 13 Presentation 3: Leadership Theories ................................................................................................................................ 13 Situational Leadership........................................................................................................................................................... 15 Presentation 4: Situational Leadership ............................................................................................................................. 15 You Make the Call – The First Practice.................................................................................................................................. 21 Activity #2: You Make the Call .......................................................................................................................................... 21 Optional Break: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 22 The GAME Plan...................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Presentation 5: Using the GAME Plan............................................................................................................................... 23 Assessing the Task................................................................................................................................................................. 28 Presentation 6: Assessing the Task ................................................................................................................................... 28 You Make the Call – The First Game ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Activity #3: The First Game ............................................................................................................................................... 30 Lunch Break:.......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 You Make the Call – Subsequent Games .............................................................................................................................. 32 Activity #4: Subsequent Games ........................................................................................................................................ 32 You Make the Call – Regional Finals ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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Activity #5: Regional Finals ............................................................................................................................................... 34 You Make the Call – Ollie’s Free Throws............................................................................................................................... 36 Activity #6: Ollie’s Free Throws......................................................................................................................................... 36 You Make the Call – State Championship ............................................................................................................................. 38 Activity #7: State Championship ....................................................................................................................................... 38 You Make the Call – Final Play .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Activity #8: Final Play ........................................................................................................................................................ 40 Summary and Review ........................................................................................................................................................... 41 Resources .............................................................................................................................................................................. 42

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Introduction This Instructor-Led Training (ILT) course explores the differences between leadership and management. The participant is given an opportunity to assess his/her own leadership/management style. In addition, leadership theories such as situational leadership and transformational leadership are presented in a practical way, with opportunities for application in the classroom as well as in the work environment. This course is approximately 8 hours in length and will be offered in two, 4-hour sessions; this is the first of the two sessions.

Required materials Participant Guide (1 for each participant) Pocket-sized “Situational Leadership II: The Model� reference cards Computer with Remote Projector PowerPoint Presentation

Room preparation The room should be set up with one chair, name tent, dry erase marker, and pen for each desk. The projection system, including the audio system, should be prepared for a presentation that utilizes text slides as well as video/audio slides.

Leader notes The video slides will require a change in room lighting. A note about the script: Bold Text Items are leader directions, guiding remarks, and potential answers. (Shown at right with arrows) Plain Text Items are normal instructional parts of the script. (Shown at right with boxes)

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Agenda 0:00

1.

Introductions 1.1. Welcome/Sign-in Sheet 1.2. Ice-breaker activity: Name, position, number of years as a manager/leader

0:05

2. Warm-up/Objectives (Pg. 3) 2.1. Review RESPECT acronym (participants) 2.2. Objectives 2.3. Differences and Similarities

0:10

3. Section 1: Leadership Assessment

0:45

4. Section 2: Followership

1:00

5. Section 3: Leadership Theories

1:15

6. Section 4: Situational Leadership

1:30

7. Application: You make the call: First Practice

1:35

8. Optional Break

1:45

9. Section 5: Assessing the Task

1:55

10. Application: You make the call 10.1. First Game

2:10

11. Working Lunch Break

2:20 2:30 2:40 2:50 3:00 3:10

12. Application: You make the call 12.1. Subsequent Games 12.2. Ollie’s Free Throw 12.3. Ollie’s Free Throws 12.4. State Championship 12.5. Final Play

3:20

13. Review

3:30

14. Dismissal

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Introductions (0:00)

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Welcome, Ice-Breaker, and Warm-up Script:

PowerPoint slide #2 “Leadership & Management with RESPECT”

(Insert greeting here), my name is (insert trainer name), and I would like to welcome everyone to the first class for Leadership and Management with RESPECT. To start, let’s go around the room and have everyone introduce themselves by giving us their name, department/position, and number of years served in a leadership role. Pass around the sign-in sheet. That’s great, welcome everybody! (Give your name, position, and number of years with the company). Now who can tell us where the “RESPECT” comes from in our title? Answer: “It’s our (the company’s) core values.” Excellent! Who can tell us what they are? Note: Give the participants plenty of time to respond. Answer: R is Respect and compassion E is Enterprising work ethic S is Service excellence P is Passion and Professionalism E is Ethical behavior and integrity C is Continuous growth and improvement T is Teamwork and partnership

Notes:

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Very good! Those values are the reason that we chose the title for this series on management and leadership courses because as leaders and managers in this organization, we want to make sure that we are modeling those core values.

Transition:

Hence, the title of this course. We look forward to bringing you more courses on these topics in the future. Transition to Slide #3 Today we are going to start with part one of Leadership and Management: So What’s the Difference?

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Warm-up/Objectives Objectives (0:05) Script:

PowerPoint slide #4 “Leadership & Management with RESPECT”

We will start on page three of our participant guide with the objectives. By the end of (insert time of day), we want to be able to: - Describe the differences between leadership and management - Explain the importance of followership - Use situational leadership to guide and develop employees And in the second part of this course you will: - Utilize the Kouzes and Posner model of transformational leadership to energize and engage your department. On that note, everyone is scheduled to come back nextweek for the second half of this training correct?

Transition:

Now I would like to raise the question, “So what exactly is the difference between Leadership and Management?”

Notes:

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Transition to Slide #5

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PowerPoint slide #5 “What is the Difference?�

Warm-up Script:

So what is the difference? Is there a difference? Are there similarities? What do you think? Open it up to class discussion Discussion Prompts: - Managers only require the bare minimum - Leaders push employees to always strive for excellence We need to be able to model the core values in order to be a good leader for our employees.

Transition: Transition to Slide #6 Moving on, now we are going to take a look at a Leadership Style Assessment found on pages four and five of our participant guide. This assessment will help you to figure out your individual style for leadership.

Notes:

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Transition to Slide #7

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Leadership Assessment (0:10)

Activity #1: Leadership Assessment Time: 12 Minutes Materials: Participant Guide p. 4-5, PowerPoint Presentation slides 7-18

Participant guide, p. 4-5: “Leadership Questionnaire” activity

Objectives:

Identify the learner’s individual leadership style

Introduction:

If you haven’t already done so, take a look at the Leadership Assessment found on pages four and five of the participant guide.

Instructions:

Step 1: Respond to each item according to the way you would most likely act if you were the leader of a work group. Circle whether you would most likely behave in the described way: Always (A), Frequently (F), Occasionally (O), Seldom (S), or Never (N).” Give participants time to complete all 35 statements Step 2: Circle the item number for items 8, 12, 17, 18, 19, 30, 34, and 35. Step 3: Write the number “1” in front of a circled item number if you responded “Seldom” or “Never”. Step 4: Write a number “1” in front of item numbers that are not circled if you responded “Always” or “Frequently”. Step 5: Circle any “1”s that are written in front of items 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 35. Step 6: Count the circled “1”s, this will be your “P” score. Write this number on the P-line at the bottom of page 5. This number indicates your concern for people. Step 7: Count the non-circled “1”s, this will be your “T” score. Write this number on the T-line at the bottom of page 5. This number indicates your concern for tasks.

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Notes :

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PowerPoint slide #6

Steps 8: To determine your leadership profile, mark your “T” score on the Concern for Task left-hand arrow below. Step 9: Next, move to the right-hand arrow and mark your “P” score on the Concern for People. Step 10: Draw a straight line through the P and T scores. The point at which that line crosses the Shared Leadership arrow indicates your current flexibility with task/people leadership.”

Debrief:

Answer the question “So what does it mean?” Depending on how far up the T-score and P-score are on their respective line, we care more or less about tasks and/or people. However there are no “wrong” answers for this assessment; it is intended to be simply a graphic representation of your personal preferences. When we connected the T-score and P-score with the straight line, it shows how we balance tasks with people. The point in all of this is that as managers and leaders, we are constantly tasked with balancing people and tasks. So now you can ask yourself the question “What am I balancing?”

Notes:

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Follow-up Activity:

Lead a class discussion on the various items that they must balance between people and tasks. (Approx. 5 minutes)

Presentation 1: Leadership Assessment

Participant guide, p. 4-5: “Leadership Questionnaire” activity

Script:

Note: This portion of the script is intended for Activity #1. It provides timing and transition information between the steps—the steps are a duplicate from Activity #1. Slide 7 Step 1: (Found at the top of pages 4-5) “The following items describe aspects of leadership behavior. Respond to each item according to the way you would most likely act if you were the leader of a work group. Circle whether you would most likely behave in the described way: Always (A), Frequently (F), Occasionally (O), Seldom (S), or Never (N).” Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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The key to getting accurate results is to make quick decisions for each of the numbered statements. If you have to think about your answer, chances are it isn’t going to be very accurate. Go with your first thought. Transition to Slide 8 Give participants time to complete all 35 statements Here is where this gets a little complicated so everyone will need to listen to me very carefully Slide 9 Step 2: Circle the item number for items 8, 12, 17, 18, 19, 30, 34, and 35. Slide 10 Step 3: Write the number “1” in front of a circled item number if you responded “Seldom” or “Never”. Slide 11 Step 4: Write a number “1” in front of item numbers that are not circled if you responded “Always” or “Frequently”. Slide 12 Step 5: Circle any “1”s that are written in front of items 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 35.

Notes :

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Slide 13 Step 6: Count the circled “1”s, this will be your “P” score. Write this number on the P-line at the bottom of page 5. This number indicates your concern for people.

PowerPoint slide #7

Step 7: Count the non-circled “1”s, this will be your “T” score. Write this number on the T-line at the bottom of page 5. This number indicates your concern for tasks. Moving on to page 6… Once you’ve written down both your “P” and “T” scores, go ahead and turn the page to page 6. Slide 14 Steps 8-10: (From the top of page 6) “To determine your leadership profile, mark your “T” score on the Concern for Task left-hand arrow below. So you’ll plot your T-Score on the left-hand side. Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Notes:

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Next, move to the right-hand arrow and mark your “P” score on the Concern for People. Next, you’ll plot your P-Score on the right-hand side. Slide 15

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Draw a straight line through the P and T scores. The point at which that line crosses the Shared Leadership arrow indicates your current flexibility with task/people leadership.”

PowerPoint slide #13

When we connect the two points for the Task and People scores, we are given a reference for how well we balance the needs of tasks and people as a leader and/or manager. We aren’t going to share our results with each other; this is just for your own reference. As a leader and/or manager this balancing act is the most important thing that we do to impact our employees and the company as a whole.

Transition:

So now you can ask yourself the question “What am I balancing?” Transition to slide 17 Lead class discussion on examples of what must be balanced between tasks and people

Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #15

One common characteristic for being a good leader is the ability to inspire those that are following you. By being a good role model, we can help our employees aspire to do their very best. Since it all starts with the relationship we have with our employees, it stands to reason that we should want to better understand what it means to be a follower; after all, all of us at one point started out being a follower. Transition to slide 18 Let’s take a brief look at this idea of followership.

Notes:

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Followership (0:45)

Presentation 2: Followership

Participant guide, p. 9: Followership

Script:

As with mostly anything else we want to better understand, it makes sense for us to start by looking at a dictionary definition for the word “followership.” The definition I have is: Being a follower is the fact of being a follower, supporter, or disciple of somebody or something One example of this idea would be Jonestown; Jim Jones certainly had a large number of followers. Why do you think it’s important to talk about this concept of followership when we’re talking about leadership and management? Possible responses: - You can’t have leaders without followers - Followers are a direct reflection of your leadership Let me share with you a story about a young man who is now a Major in the Marine Corps. Was anyone ever in the service?

Notes :

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PowerPoint slide #19

Well, this young man decided to join the Marine Corps after graduating from college, and went down to Quantico to join the Marine Corps officer training school because he believed the Marines were the best. At his commissioning service he had the opportunity to share some of the things that he had to do to become a commissioned officer. He had become a Second Lieutenant so he could lead his fellow soldiers. In order to earn that rank they had him do many tasks. He had to perform a certain amount of pushups in a given period of time, he had to complete a difficult obstacle course, again in a timed manner, and then he had to do chin-ups; in fact he almost didn’t become an officer because the Sergeants that were observing that activity didn’t think he was doing them correctly.

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Notes:

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He had to appeal to the Colonel who said that he was doing the chin-ups and push-ups correctly, but he still almost didn’t become an officer because the Sergeant still didn’t think he was doing them correctly. On top of all of this he had to go on long runs that were 3, 5, and even 10 miles long with packs full of equipment—they gradually increased the length of each run as he progressed. However on one of these runs he passed out and collapsed from heat exhaustion, and had to be taken to the hospital. But he wanted to go back and be with his colleagues that he was sharing the experience with.

PowerPoint slide #20

So help me to understand—he wanted to be an officer, he wanted to be a leader—why would they make him do these things? Possible responses: - He’s going to have to ask his followers to do the same things - He needs to prove himself worthy of the responsibility - He needs to understand what the followers are going through

Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #21-23

Let me tell you a little bit more about our friend, the officer. He’s involved in logistics, and part of his training was that he had to learn how to drive each kind of vehicle that his logistics soldiers would have to drive. Why do you think that is? He needs to understand what the followers are going through. I maintain that I have never met an individual that served as an officer in the military that now works in civilian life that has not been an excellent leader. The reason for this is simply that you cannot be a great leader unless you know how to follow. You can’t be a leader in the Marine Corps without knowing what being a follower means— means to your men, means to you. I’m not suggesting blind faith like we saw in Jonestown, but we must be able to follow to be able to lead.

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Transition:

I have a Peanuts cartoon that also depicts this idea of followership. Read/Act Out slides 21-23 with appropriate emotion The message here is that you have to be able to follow through the good and the bad. Sometimes there are things that you don’t like, or you don’t approve of something that your leader is doing—and there’s nothing wrong with having that discussion—but ultimately you have to be able to follow if you are going to be able to lead. You cannot have good leadership without being a good follower first. Slide 24 What questions and comments do you have so far?

Notes:

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Slide 25 Let us shift gears a little and talk briefly about Leadership Theories.

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Leadership Theories (1:00)

Presentation 3: Leadership Theories

Participant guide, p. 10-11: Leadership Theories

Script:

Let’s talk a little bit about Leadership Theories. We are starting to use some of the research-based leadership competencies here at Maxim to create some success profiles, and define the competencies needed for employees to be successful in their positions. We’ve defined success profiles for leadership, DOCs, AMs, Recruiters, and Staffing Coordinators—the effort is really only getting started. When we talk about research-based competencies, we’re talking about some very defined competencies. However, whenever you talk about leadership, it is entirely theoretical—albeit research theory, it is still theory. It’s very interesting to look at the first theory of leadership, or the “Great Man Theory” or “Trait Theory” which came about in the late 1800’s. The theory basically was that leaders are born, not made, and that great leaders will arise in times of great need. Why do you think this theory came about at this time?

Notes :

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PowerPoint slide #26

A history of monarchies in Europe Industrial Revolution in the United States Industrial power families—Carnegie, Mellon, Rockefeller The sons became the leaders of these organizations. The result that the research of the time was only conducted between these individuals who were born into power. Leaders did not interact with their followers during this time. Leaders only spoke with leaders—this was very one dimensional. In the 1920’s, some behavioral theories began to creep into the body of research. There was a shift in attitude where leaders can be made in ways other than birth, and that successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior. What happened in the 1920s that brought about this change? Rise of the middle-class Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #27

This change in the conceptualization of leadership was the direct result of the boom experienced by the middleclass during the latter part of this decade—even despite the Great Depression of 1929 through the 1930’s. The entrepreneur was king—small businesses were being formed and were very successful. As a result, the theorists began to say that leaders could in fact be made, and were not purely the product of favorable birth circumstances. At this point we had these two very different viewpoints on leadership—the powerful families were still around, but now the middle class were becoming more influential. As a result of these two theories, discussions about Autocratic vs. Democratic, as well as Directive vs. Participative came into play. Then, in the 40’s and 50’s, the theories changed again and Situational Leadership and Contingency Theories became very popular. These theories said that the best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors—in other words, how the leader responds to a situation, depends on that given situation. Ken Blanchard’s model predicts the most appropriate style for each particular situation, which we will talk about further in a little while. Similarly, the contingency theory is based on the idea that the leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors including the leaders preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers, and also various other situational factors.

Notes:

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Transition:

So now everything is changing; why do you think the theorists made this move to a situational leadership model? Discussion prompt: Remember what I said about the theories in the late 1800’s through the 1930’s? The research then was being conducted on just the leaders. What happened then in the 1940’s and 1950’s? The leaders and researchers began to interact with the followers. The research had been changed, and thus the change in results. Keep in mind that these theories still have relevance today.

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Situational Leadership (1:15) PowerPoint slide #29

Presentation 4: Situational Leadership Script:

Today we are going to start talking about one of these theories, Situational Leadership, and the best place to start talking about this theory is with Ken Blanchard’s model. So on pages 12-14, we’ll begin by defining directive and supportive behaviors. The best way to describe it is thinking about the y-axis as being supportive behavior, with low supportive behavior at the bottom and high supportive behavior at the top. On the x-axis we then have directive behavior, with low directive behavior to the left and high directive behavior to the right. Now why would you want to be highly supportive or highly directive, aren’t those both potentially problematic? So that we can better understand, let’s establish exactly what each of these terms means. Directive Behavior means that you as the leader are setting the goals or are defining, in detail, the desired end result. How many times do you do that in reality?

Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #30

It means planning and organizing the work in advance. It’s telling the employee what is important, or identifying the job priorities—if you’re training employees how to do something, then you probably do this all the time. It’s defining what your role will be, and what the employee’s role will be—especially how decisions will be made. Do any of you manage like this on a daily basis? It depends on the individual It also means: - Developing time frames or deadlines - Teaching the employee how to do a specific task - Closely supervising and observing Moving on now to supportive behaviors, supportive behavior means: - Encouraging and praising the employee - Listening to the employee’s work-related problems—notice that I said “work-related problems”

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Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #31

We can’t ignore the employee’s home and other nonwork-related problems because we just can’t. Although there is probably very little we can do about them, we can help them cope with these problems by adjusting schedules, and whatnot. But we definitely have to listen to their work-related problems. You’re also going to: - Involve the employee in decision making, especially asking for ideas or suggestions - Encouraging the employee to solve problems for himself/herself Now who would say that they predominantly manage this way on a daily basis? Higher-level employees may warrant this, but usually you are going to have to use a little bit of both of these styles. Let’s take a look at the four leadership styles on pages 15 through 19 on Blanchard’s model. As you can see, it is divided four ways into S1-Directing, S2-Coaching, S3Supporting, and S4-Delegating. We are going to take a look at each of these individually to see what they are exactly. Slide 33 S1, which we said is directing is: - Directing - Planning and Prioritizing - Orienting - Teaching, Showing, and Telling People How - Checking and Monitoring - Giving Feedback These are the kinds of behaviors you are doing as the leader if you are using the S1 style. Slide 34 S2, or coaching is: - Exploring and Asking - Explaining and Clarifying - Redirecting - Sharing Feedback - Encouraging - Praising

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Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #32

Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #38

So this style has a little more involvement with the employee. The next style, S3, is very different from these first two. Slide 35 S3-Supporting is: - Asking and Listening - Being Reassuring - Facilitating self-directed problem solving - Collaborating - Encouraging Feedback - Appreciating Slide 36 And when you get to S4-delegating you will: - Be allowing and trusting - Confirming - Empowering - Affirming - Acknowledging - Challenging

Notes:

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As you can see, all four of these styles are very different. The question now becomes when, where, and how do we use these different styles when leading our employees? How do you know when to be supportive versus directive? It depends on the development level of the employee on that specific task. It depends on the confidence and competence of the employee with respect to that task. Slide 37 Situational leadership really relies on the task; the theory is very task specific. Before we can focus on just the task though, we must first take a look at the level of competence and commitment of the employee. The problem here is that we often times just look at their competence, or just their commitment. Competence means that the employee has knowledge for the task, skill for the task, and they have experience with the task. On the other hand we have commitment which talks about the motivation—or want to do the task, confidence—can do the task, and autonomy—will do the task. To better understand these aspects of our employees Blanchard has established the four development levels, found on pages 22 through 26. Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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Slide 38 Much like the management style model, the development level model starts on the right with D1, moving left with D2, D3, and D4. These levels correspond with the management styles—D1 matches S1, D2 matches S2, and so forth. It also moves from developing a task (D1) to mastering a task (D4). Let’s take a look at each one of these levels separately. Slide 39 D1 is an individual that has low competence but high commitment with a particular task. An employee at this level is interested in and enthusiastic about the goal or task, but lacks the skills and experience needed. Who would fall into this category? New hires Someone who is promoted or given a new task to complete New implementation scenarios Slide 40 D2 has low to some competence and low commitment with the task—they’re not very interested in having to learn what they can’t do. An employee at this level has developed some skills for the task, but is often frustrated and demotivated by unmet and/or unrealistic expectations. Employees can start out at as a D2 if they have low competence and commitment from the outset. Who would fall into this category? New hires after the “honeymoon” is over Someone who has had negative experience in the past Implementation of a new system This can happen to new employees when the reality of the situation doesn’t match up with their expectations. At first they were extremely excited about coming to work at the new job, but they still don’t have a high level of competence for the job, and now they’ve begun to lose their interest in the task since it’s not what they had expected. What about this particular experience—when do new employees start with low competence and low commitment from the onset? If they’ve had similar experience in their past If there is a completely new system that they have no experience with Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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Let me share with you a story about some employees who were at this D2 stage. There was a hospital that decided to implement new IV pumps that required smaller bags. The leadership team was very excited about implementing the new equipment, but the nursing staff felt that the old ones worked just fine, if not better. Since the new pumps used smaller bags, this meant that the nurses had to go back and forth frequently to change the bags, plus the nurses did not know how to use them, nor did they like them since they required more effort on their part. They started out at first trying to learn how to use them with low competence and low commitment—D1. How long do you think they had those pumps? Change came very quickly since no one could use them or liked them for that matter—that’s D2. Slide 41 Moving on, we have D3—a person with moderate to high competence, but with variable commitment to the task. This means that an employee at D3 has fairly good skills for the task, but his/her confidence may be shaky, which can affect their motivation. Motivation can also be affected due to both job-related and non-job-related issues. If an employee has fairly good skills, but their confidence and motivation is low, what type of employee do you think would fall into this category? Any employee facing issues at home—those issues can impact motivation on the job The actions of a leader can impact motivation— positively or negatively Many of us are dealing with tasks that we have varying competency with (typically a moderate to high level), but depending on the day, our commitment is much more variable—it will fluctuate much more easily than our competency will. Keep in mind that once we know how to do the task, we will for the most part know how to do that task forever. We as leaders need to realize that it is the motivation that can be affected much more easily, and in a way that can more readily impact performance. Slide 42 Finally, we have D4—a person with high competence and high commitment to the task. These employees have mastered the goal or task, and are confident and motivated in completing said goal or task. In fact, I can tell you that the D4 tasks are the ones that you can easily Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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do; they’re the ones that you can do at the drop of a hat. These tasks are fun, you enjoy them, and the other tasks seem to go by the wayside—although some of these avoided tasks are dealing with people issues. D4 employees have the confidence and commitment to take care of these tasks that they enjoy.

Transition:

We’ve now gone through all four of the leadership styles (S1, S2, S3, S4), and those correspond with the four developmental levels (D1, D2, D3, D4). Moving right along, I would like each of you to determine the developmental level and the leadership style in a given scenario. Using situational leadership is very dependent on diagnosing where the employee is in terms of their development level with the task—are they D1, D2, D3, or D4? The appropriate leadership style depends directly on where the employee is developmentally for that specific task. In this course we are going to use a few scenes from movies to give us opportunities to practice using situational leadership, and diagnosing development levels and their corresponding leadership styles. In this session we are going to watch some clips from the movie Hoosiers, Has anyone ever seen this movie? For those of you who haven’t seen this movie, the term “Hoosier” is another way to talk about Indiana—and people from Indiana love basketball. The movie is based on a true story about a school in a town called Hickory that had a basketball coach for years. The coach died, and a new coach (coach Dale) is now coming on the scene to coach this team.

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You Make the Call – The First Practice (1:30)

Participant guide, p. 27: “You Determine…” activity

Activity #2: You Make the Call Time: 4 Minutes Materials: Participant Guide (pg. 27), First Practice Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance Identify the Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance

Introduction:

This is the first in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the new coach (coach Dale) conducts his first practice with the team. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #46

Instructions:

For the Instructor: Pass out the pocket-reference cards to the participants to use and keep. For the Participants: While watching the clip of Coach Dale’s first practice with his new team, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance

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Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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Coach Dales Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Movement on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: For Shooting?—D4 Movement on court/dribbling?—D2 Defense/Endurance—D2/D1 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: For shooting?—S1 For movement?—S1 For defense?—S1 Why? What leadership style should he have used: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S2 Defense/Endurance?—S2/S1 Why?

Optional Break (1:35) This is a good place to pause for a brief 10 minute break.

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The GAME Plan Presentation 5: Using the GAME Plan

Participant guide, p. 28: The GAME Plan

Script:

For anyone that may have already taken a course on Situational Leadership, this may be a little bit of a review section. We are going to talk about the GAME Plan, which is where we take the diagnosis of the development level for the employee and the task, and make the leadership style fit the task. Again here we can use the pocketreference cards for the Blanchard Model while diagnosing the development level and appropriate leadership style. Remember that for: D1, we use S1—Directive D2, we use S2—Coaching D3, we use S3—Supporting D4, we use S4—Delegating (keep in mind though that delegating does not mean dumping) When we talk about the GAME Plan we are talking about: G stands for the Goal, or end result A stands for Action Plan, or how we will achieve the goal M stands for Monitoring, or tracking E stands for Expressed Feedback

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #49

So what does this mean for each development level and leadership style? For D1, we use S1—Directing: Goal—the supervisor sets the goal for the task. Why? Low competence Action Plan—the supervisor tells the employee how to get there Why? Low competence Monitoring—The supervisor monitors performance closely. Why? Expressed Feedback—The supervisor provides a lot of feedback on what the employee is doing well, and where improvement is needed

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Notes:

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PowerPoint slide #50

Remember that the employee at a D1 doesn’t have the skills for the task, but they are very eager and excited to learn. For D2, we use S2—Coaching Goal—The supervisor establishes the goals and explains why. Why would they have to explain why? Their commitment is down, so they need an explanation of why they need to do it this way Action Plan—The supervisor asks for ideas from new employee, then tells the employee how to get there Ask for their input to raise their interest and commitment Monitoring—The supervisor monitors performance closely Expressed Feedback—The supervisor provides a lot of feedback and encouragement on what the employee is doing well and where improvement is needed

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #51

So you can see the difference between S1 and S2 already. Both of these are heavily influenced by the employee’s commitment to the task, but it is in relation to their competence with that specific task. Similarly for D3, where we use S3—Supporting, we must pay attention to the commitment of the employee. We can do this through joint effort in coming up with the GAME Plan. Goal—The supervisor and employee jointly agree on the goals. Why would we do this jointly? We need to improve their commitment by getting them excited about having ownership to overcome their challenges with the task, but they may or may not have the competency required for the task. Asking for input from the employee can go a long way in improving their motivation and commitment to improving their performance.

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

Action Plan—Employee describes how to get there and the supervisor listens and facilitates the plan. Again, we want to increase their motivation and commitment to the task by giving them ownership of the situation. Monitoring—The supervisor and employee jointly agree on the monitoring method Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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PowerPoint slide #52

Expressed Feedback—The supervisor provides a lot of support and encouragement to further foster that increased motivation and commitment in the employee For D4, use S4—Delegating Goal—Employee establishes the goal. Employees at this level often times can do whatever the task is better than you, the leader can. Action Plan—Employee determines how to get there and shares the plan with the supervisor. Monitoring—Employee and supervisor establish a monitoring system together Expressed Feedback—Supervisor needs to provide less feedback, however feedback is still needed by the employee. Why would this be important for an employee at this level of mastery?

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #53

Remember that this is entirely task specific—employees cannot and should not be pigeon holed into a single development level. We have to evaluate and diagnose the development level of each individual task that the employee is faced with so we can help lead them in the most effective style that maximizes their potential. Let’s now talk about how we can develop this GAME Plan, and we’ll start by developing SMART Goals. This part may confuse some of you that have used the acronym SMART before, but we are going to change the definition of the “A” for this discussion. SMART Goals must be: - Specific - Measureable - Action-Oriented - Realistic - Time-Bound You must address all five of these areas in order for your goal and the employee to be successful. Included in the participant guide, you will find a non-all-inclusive list of action verbs that will help in developing SMART Goals that are truly action-oriented. We’ve also included a template that you can use to make sure that you’ve truly developed a SMART Goal.

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

On the next page, there is a brief outline of four steps that are necessary to help employees build job skills. Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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These steps include, telling them, showing them, demonstrating for them, and giving them feedback. You can use this outline as a guide to remind you what your responsibilities are as the supervisor when developing the GAME Plan for or with your employees.

Participant guide, p. 34-39: The GAME Plan

Next, we have provided another guide for sharing your monitoring observations. The first topic is the timeliness of work. Keep in mind that we never want to be judgmental in our feedback; rather we want to give factual and objective feedback that is based on observations. Did you know that, as managers, you are all paid to observe? That is why for the topic of timeliness of work we want to preface our feedback with, “I’ve observed…” and follow up with a factual event such as, “that when you’ve filed this report this week and last week, they were both two days late.” This way, the employee knows exactly what it is you are talking about, and know what they need to do to correct the situation. We then want to follow that observation with a question that gives the employee ownership of the situation such as, “…what can you do to correct/improve…”This gives the employee the ability to develop their own plan for resolving the conflict, which will be much more effective than a plan that is directed to them. Finally, you will want to have the opportunity to follow up with them to check their progress in resolving the conflict. Lastly, we have a guide for providing feedback in the form of five steps. Expressed feedback is the last part of the plan, so how do you give feedback? Examples from participants How many of us start with what the employee has done wrong? We never want to start with negatives whenever we give feedback. Doing so will only create anxiety and tension to the situation and it is less likely to result in improvement in their attitude/performance. Therefore, the feedback method that we are recommending is as follows: - Start by asking what the employee feels he/she did well - Ask the employee where he/she would like to improve, or think that they need to improve - Tell the employee what you think they did well - Tell the employee where you think they can Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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improve Finally, reach a mutual agreement on goals/and objectives for how they should proceed moving forward

Transition:

Remember that the GAME Plan refers to: - Goals (end result) - Action Plan (how) - Monitoring (tracking) - Expressed Feedback Are there any questions or comments at this point? Open the floor to examples, comments, etc. On the next pages in your participant guide, we are going to look at a resource that you can use in developing the GAME Plan for individual tasks.

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Assessing the Task (1:45) Presentation 6: Assessing the Task

Participant guide, p. 42: “Assessing the Task” activity

Script:

In this section we will walk through how to use the resource in our participant guide for assessing the task. For this discussion, we will need an example task. Ask one of the participants for an example of a task (one that isn’t personally identifiable by the other participants) that an employee is currently working on. For that task we are going to say that they have high knowledge of the task. (Click transition x2) We have seen them successfully complete the task, so we will say that they have high skill for the task. (Click transition x1) We know that they have had past experience with the task, (Click transition x1) so they have overall high competence for the task. However, they don’t seem to understand the point in doing that task; their motivation is low. (Click transition x2)

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #58

What’s more is that for some reason, they don’t feel like they can do the task; they have low confidence. (Click transition x1) But they still want to do it on their own, so their autonomy is high. (Click transition x 1) What do you think their development level is with that task? D3 (Click transition x 2) What should my leadership style be? S3 (Click transition x 2) How should we decide the GAME Plan? Design it jointly/together (Click transition x 2) Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Page 28


Yes, we want to design the GAME Plan together with the employee. We want to set and agree on the goals. (Click transition x1) We want the employee to describe their plan, and help them to achieve their goals. (Click transition x1) We want to mutually agree on joint monitoring (Click transition x1) And we want to provide plenty of support and encouragement (Click transition x1) Taking the time to fill out this simple assessment really simplifies the process for improving the employee’s performance and morale through the appropriate leadership style. Feel free to copy this assessment tool, as well as the rest of the tools in this guide, and use them however you want. You may be very surprised how well these simple resources really work.

Transition:

Now that we’ve talked about the GAME Plan and assessing the task, we are going to go back to some scenarios from the movie Hoosiers.

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You Make the Call – The First Game (1:55)

Activity #3: The First Game Time: 10 Minutes Materials: Participant Guide (pg. 44), First Game Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model

Participant guide, p. 44: “First Game” activity

Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the proper GAME Plan

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #62

Introduction:

This is the second in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team competes in their first game under the new coaching staff. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the team’s first game, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Coach Dales Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Movement on the court/dribbling Leadership & Management with RESPECT

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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Defense/Endurance Passing the ball 4 times before shooting

Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide. You will also need to identify what the GAME Plan is that the coach uses for this scenario.

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: For Shooting?—D4 Movement on court/dribbling?—D2 Defense/Endurance—D2 Passing the ball—D2 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: For shooting?—S1 For movement?—S1 For defense?—S1 Passing the ball—S1 Why? What leadership style should he have used: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S2 Defense/Endurance?—S2 Passing the ball—S2 Why?

Lunch Break (2:10) It works well to have a working lunch through the remainder of the activities/move clips.

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You Make the Call – Subsequent Games (2:20)

Activity #4: Subsequent Games Time: 2 Minutes Materials: Participant Guide (pg. 45), Subsequent Games Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model

Participant guide, p. 45: “Subsequent Games” activity

Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the proper GAME Plan

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #66

Introduction:

This is the third in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team competes in a series of games throughout their season. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the team’s subsequent games, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting

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Notes: Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Page 32


Coach Dales Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Movement on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide. You will also need to identify what the GAME Plan is that the coach uses for this scenario.

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: For Shooting?—D4 Movement on court/dribbling?—D4 Defense/Endurance—D4 Passing the ball—D4 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 For defense?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why? What leadership style should he have used: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 Defense/Endurance?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why?

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You Make the Call – Regional Finals (2:30)

Activity #5: Regional Finals Time: 2 Minutes Materials: Participant Guide (pg. 46), Subsequent Games Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model

Participant guide, p. 46: “Regional Finals” activity

Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the proper GAME Plan

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #70

Introduction:

This is the fourth in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team competes in the regional finals game under the new coaching staff. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the regional finals game, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting

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Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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Coach Dales Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Movement on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide. You will also need to identify what the GAME Plan is that the coach uses for this scenario.

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: For Shooting?—D4 Movement on court/dribbling?—D4 Defense/Endurance—D4 Passing the ball—D4 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 For defense?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why? What leadership style should he have used: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 Defense/Endurance?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why?

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You Make the Call – Ollie’s Free Throws (2:40)

Activity #6: Ollie’s Free Throws Time: 6 Minutes (4 min. clip 1, 2 min. clip 2) Materials: Participant Guide (pg. 47-48), 2 Ollie Free Throws Movie Clips (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model

Participant guide, p. 47: “Ollie’s Free Throw” activity

Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Competence - Commitment Identify the Leadership Style for the situation Identify the proper GAME Plan

Introduction:

This is the fifth in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team’s equipment manager Ollie must take a free throw after being fouled. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Notes :

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #74

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the team’s subsequent games, the participants will assess the following items: Development Level for Ollie Making Free Throws: - Competence - Confidence Coach Dale’s Leadership Style: Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide. You will also need to identify what the GAME Plan is that the coach uses for this scenario.

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PowerPoint slide #79

Debrief:

What do you think Ollie’s development level was: Competence— Appeared D2, (Actually D4) Commitment—Appeared D2, (Actually D4) Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: S1 Why? What leadership style should he have used: Competence—S2 Commitment—S4 Why? What was the GAME Plan?

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Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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You Make the Call – State Championship (3:00)

PowerPoint slide #84

Activity #7: State Championship Time: 3 Minutes Materials: State Championship Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Identify the proper GAME Plan

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #82

Introduction:

This is the sixth in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team competes in the state championship game under the new coaching staff. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the state championship game, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Shooting - Moving on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting

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Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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Coach Dales Leadership Style for: - Shooting - Movement on the court/dribbling - Defense/Endurance - Passing the ball 4 times before shooting Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide. You will also need to identify what the GAME Plan is that the coach uses for this scenario.

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: For Shooting?—D4 Movement on court/dribbling?—D4 Defense/Endurance—D4 Passing the ball—D4 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 For defense?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why? What leadership style should he have used: For shooting?—S4 For movement?—S4 Defense/Endurance?—S4 Passing the ball—S4 Why?

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You Make the Call – Final Play (3:10)

PowerPoint slide #88

Activity #8: Final Play Time: 2 Minutes Materials: Final Play Movie Clip (PowerPoint Presentation), Pocket-reference cards of the Blanchard Model Objectives:

Identify the Development Level for: - Winning the Game Identify the Leadership Style

Introduction:

This is the last in a series of short clips from the 1996 Orion Pictures film, Hoosiers. In this scene, the team competes in the final play of the state championship game under the new coaching staff. It is your task to watch the clip, and assess both the development level of the players and the leadership style of the coach in a series of different task situations using the aforementioned Ken Blanchard models.

Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

PowerPoint slide #86

Instructions:

While watching the clip of the final play, the participants will assess the following items: Players Development Level of: - Winning the game Coach Dales Leadership Style Use the Pocket-reference card as a guide.

Debrief:

What do you think the players development level was: Winning the game—D4 Why? What do you think Coach Dales leadership style was: S4 Why?

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Notes:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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Summary and Review (3:30) At this point in the course you are able to: - Describe the differences between leadership and management - Explain the importance of followership - Use situational leadership to guide and develop employees And in the second part of this course you will: - Utilize the Kouzes and Posner model of transformational leadership to energize and engage your department.

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Resources

Leadership & Management with RESPECT

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Leadership vs Management Facilitator Guide