Page 1

Includes
fun
facts,
crossword
puzzles
and
much
more


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


By:
 • Nadine
Enan
 • Hana
Nouh
 • Mostafa
Morsy
 



 
 
 
 
 
 


1



­
CONTENTS
PAGE
­
 
 
 *
HISTORY
&
BACKGROUND
 
 ­
The
history
of
it
all
……………………………..................3
 
 ­
Biotech;
fact
or
myth?..................................................5
 ­
General
knowledge
about

biotechnology………..6
 
 ­
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE!
.................................................7
 
 ­
Did
you
know?................................................................8
 
 
 *
THE
BRANCHES
OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
 ­
The
main
two
branches
of
biotechnology…………9
 
 ­
Funny
caricature
&
images
……………………………13
 
 ­
Fun
facts!.......................................................................14
 
 ­
QUIZ
–test
what
you’ve
learnt!
………………………15
 
 ­
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE!...............................................16
 
 
 *
THE
ETHICAL
STANDARDS
OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
 ­
Evaluating
the
ethics
of
biotechnology…………..17
 
 ­
A
famous
interview
about
this
hot
topic.………..21
 
 ­
QUIZ
–test
what
you’ve
learnt!
………………………22
 
 ­
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE!...............................................23
 
 ­
Weekly
survey………………….…………….………………24
 
 
 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………...………………………..25
 
 
 
 
 
 


2



• Many people mistakenly believe that biotechnology is a new science when in fact the history of it dates back to over 10,000 years ago, approximately 6000 B.C. Historians believe that biotechnology was born when strategies were made in order to use microorganisms to produce foods and products. It was at that time that time in 6000 B.C. that Sumerian and Babylonian cultures used the respiration of yeast to make beer. In addition, civilizations located in Asia and South American were also using the process of fermentation to make beer. • Many years later, the invention of the microscope in the late 1600’s accelerated the growth of biotechnology in Europe. This, obviously, led Europe to outpace all other nations in the world in terms of growth in scientific thought. • By the 1800’s, biotechnology developments were being advanced by a combination of physics, chemistry, and biology. Darwin’s unveiling of evolutionary theory also contributed to the development of biotechnology; it drove the interest in using the characteristics of living organisms to fulfill human needs. It was also at that point in time when the French scientist named Louis Pasteur learned how 


3



to control the metabolic processes of organisms for preserving foods, which led to the development of vaccines and medications. Not surprisingly, this led to the growth in the fields of medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology. • During World War II in the 1940’s, penicillin was used as an antibiotic, which was discovered by Alexander Fleming. This marked the second rediscovery of biotechnology, and not only paved the path to the discovery of biotechnology in general, but it was also the beginning of an era of antibiotic research.


 
 
 
 
 


• Finally, the third rediscovery of biotechnology is in its recent reincarnation in the form of DNA technology. During the mid 1950’s, they classified it in a “doublehelix”. DNA technology thus far has allowed us to do many thins including develop a variety of gene technologies including therapies, as well as DNA fingerprinting, making this discovery the greatest scientific evolution to date. Thanks to DNA technology, biotechnology has earned special significance since its discovery.

4



There
are
no
biotech
food
products
currently
sold
in
any
market.­­­>
Myth
 
 




Today,
at
least
70
percent
of
all
processed
foods
that
exist
on
shelves
in
stores
 contain
at
least
one
ingredient
from
biotech
crops
ranging
from
oils
to
seeds.
The
most
 popular
biotech
crops
today
are
corn,
soybean,
and
cotton.
 
 
 Biotech
foods
are
unsafe
to
eat
­­­>
Myth
 
 
 



The
FDA,
(The
Food
and
Drug
Administration
in
the
U.S.),
the
American
Medical
 Association,
and
the
American
Dietetic
Association
have
all
confirmed
that
biotech
 foods
and
crops
are
safe
for
human
as
well
as
animal
consumption.
 
 
 Biotechnology
can
be
considered
as
the
"automobile"
of
the
21st
century
­­­>
Fact
 
 




Biotechnology
is
in
fact
considered
the
automobile
of
the
21st
century,
as
it
is
 currently
affecting
almost
every
aspect
of
socierty
in
the
same
way
as
a
first
mass
 production
automobile
changed
in
the
world
in
the
late
1800's.

 
 
 Biotechnology
can
be
defined
as
technologies
that
use
living
cells
and/or
biological
 molecules
to
solve
problems
and
make
useful
products
­­­>
Fact
 
 
 There
were
180,000
people
employed
by
U.S.
biotechnology
companies
in
2006.
­­­>
 Fact
 
 
 
 
 


5



Interesting Facts About Biotechnology 1. The U.S. biotech industry spent $19.8 billion on research and development in 2005. 2. As of December 31, 2005, there were 1,415 biotechnology companies in the U.S. 3. Today, consumers are enjoying biotechnology foods such as papaya, soybeans, and corn. 4. Currently there are more than 400 biotech drug products and vaccines undergoing clinical trials targeting a range of diseases ranging from cancers to Alzheimer’s disease. 5. Biotechnology is currently used to treat viruses, insects, and engineered products. 6. Subfields of biotechnology include red, white and green biotechnology. 7. Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer, first used the word “Biotechnology”. 
 



 


6



COMPLETE
THE
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


7



Did You Know

? ???

?

 Scientists, government agencies, companies, farmers and consumer and environmental groups are all somehow involved in the biotechnology arena.

 Farmers use results from biotechnology research in order to raise crops and process food which is consumed in the marketplace later on.

 Government agencies’ role in biotechnology is ensuring that the products produced by biotechnology are available and most importantly safe for the public and environmental use.

 The 1st medical product of modern biotechnology was human insulin, invented in 1978. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 


8



MAIN BRANCHES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOINFORMATICS & WHITE BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology’s possible applications to benefit society are enormous. Since its foundation, biotechnology has branched into the following branches A

White Biotechnology


Bioinformatics


Blue Biotechnology


Red Biotechnology
 Green Biotechnology


brief definition of each:

Bioinformatics:“Bioinformatics is the field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge to form a single discipline in order to analyze (1) data.”

Blue Biotechnology: This is a very rare branch of biotechnology for marine and aquatic application Green Biotechnology: This is the most common branch of biotechnology where it is applied for agricultural purposes. Red Biotechnology: This is biotechnology applied to medical processes.

White Biotechnology: This type is biotechnology applied to industrial processes.

9



BIOINFORMATICS The main reason for the development of bioinformatics was for the storage of biological data such as DNA and amino acid sequences at the beginning of the genomic revolution. This image shows a sequence for a certain protein synthesized in the human body. This was produced to help reproduce this same protein again, e.g. when using bacteria to produce a certain protein, this database can help ensure that the correct DNA codes have been selected. The use of bioinformatics, as we can all predict, speeds up the process of biotechnology and increases its efficiency. Through the use of bioinformatics it can be estimated that in the future, costs for biotechnological products or for research will be much less and so can advance a lot more quickly. The combination of computer engineering with molecular biology will help with biological studies greatly as we can study things in more detail and more depth than we could have before.

An area bioinformatics greatly helps in is forensic science. The following image shows us the DNA fragments of two different human beings. This is called electrophoreses. This is put in an electric field, with a gel matrix in the middle. The DNA fragments are inserted and negatively charged. Since they are inserted at the cathode, naturally they will repel and move towards the anode on the other end of the device. The smaller and lighter DNA fragments will move through a lot more  

10 


easily and a lot quicker. Therefore, if we put two different sets of DNA, the distribution of the DNA fragments can help us differentiate as well as notice the similarities between the two sets. Therefore this can help with paternity tests, in criminal investigations for DNA matches and much more…

In this image we can obviously tell that the second, third and last set of DNA are similar and so these may be related organisms. Bioinformatics can help indicate which exact genes these indicate and so what features are similar and what will be different and so as well as match DNA, we can more or less predict the features of organisms using bioinformatics. In the world we live in today, full of crime or children with unknown fathers or people gone missing, with the help of this branch of biotechnology, we can help track down organisms from the smallest piece of DNA they leave behind.

11



WHITE BIOTECHNOLOGY This branch of biotechnology mainly focuses on industrial genetically produced products. The main and easiest way to do this is through bacteria, as it is known to be one of the fastest reproducing organisms we know of today. Therefore, when genetically modified to produce a certain chemical, with its rapid reproduction, it will naturally produce masses of this chemical without companies having to pay for genetic engineering again and again. An example of this is insulin. * First, a bacterium is obtained. * Secondly, restriction enzymes are used to cut a certain part of the plasmid of the bacteria in order to fit the human DNA with the coding of the desired protein. In this case it is insulin. * Then, the bacteria is left to produce insulin, replicate and produce even more insulin. * Lastly, the insulin is extracted into a separate bottle where it could be taken by an injection and placed in diabetic patients.

En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology http://www.kollewin.com/blog/tbe-gel-electrophoresis/


 


12



FUNNY
IMAGES
+
ANIMATIONS
 
 



 


13



FUN
FACTS
ABOUT
THE
BRANCHES
OF
 BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
 1*
Biotechnologists
have
created
artificial
skin
that
heals
faster;
 for
severe
burns
or
injuries.(1)
 
 2*
Scientists
at
University
of
North
Carolina
at
Chapel
Hill
have
 successfully
created
LIQUID
DNA!
(2)
 
 3*
Japanese
scientists
have
created
a
clone
of
a
cloned
bull.
(3)
 
 4*
Did
you
know
that
scientists
created
a
glow‐in‐the‐dark
 rabbit?(4)
 
 5*
Researchers
found
a
way
to
increase
the
lifespan
of
a
 nematode
worm
by
50%
with
an
anti‐aging
drug.
(5)
 
 6*
We
can
now
induce
brain
cells
to
convert
back
into
neural
 stem
cells,
hence
the
reverse
of
the
aging
process
in
brain
 cells.(6)
 
 7*
We
have
developed
human
skin
cells
that
are
immortal.
It
is
 hoped
that
this
can
be
used
to
treat
severe
burns
or
injuries.
(7)
 
 8*
Scientists
have
discovered
a
way
to
let
leukemia
cells
self‐ destruct
by
using
the
Bcr‐Abl
molecules.

 



 
 
 
 



 


14



*QUIZ
*
 
 1) Bacterial
genetic
engineering
is:
 
 A‐ White
biotechnology
 B‐ Blue
Biotechnology
 C‐ None
of
the
above
 D‐ All
of
the
above



 2) The
branches
of
biotechnology
mentioned
in
the
article
are:
 
 A‐ Blue
biotechnology,
White
Biotechnology,
Red
Biotechnology,
Green
Biotechnology,
 Purple
Biotechnology
 B‐ White
Biotechnology,
Red
Biotechnology,
Genetic
Engineering,
Bacteria
 C‐ Red
Biotechnology,
White
Biotechnology,
Blue
Biotechnology,
Green
Biotechnology,
 Black
Biotechnology
 D‐ White
Biotechnology,
Red
Biotechnology,
Green
Biotechnology,
Blue
Biotechnology,
 Bioinformatics
 
 3) Biotechnology
is:
 
 A‐ Genetic
Engineering
 B‐ The
manipulation
of
biology
laws
in
order
to
improve/modify
another
organism’s
 genes
 C‐ The
changing
of
the
genetic
nature
of
an
organism
to
produce
a
desired
protein
 D‐ All
of
the
above
 
 4) The
use
of
computers
in
order
to
analyze
genes,
proteins
etc…
is:
 
 A‐ White
Biotechnology
 B‐ Bioinformatics
 C‐ Purple
Biotechnology
 D‐ None
of
the
above
 
 5) Purple
Biotechnology
is:
 
 A‐ The
use
of
computers
in
order
to
analyze
genes,
proteins
etc…
 B‐ Biotechnology
on
aquatic
organisms
 C‐ Both
A
&
B
 D‐ Purple
Biotechnology
does
not
exist



 


15



BIOTECHNOLOGY
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE!
 COMPLETE
THE
CROSSWORD
PUZZLE



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


1
 5
 3


4
 2


6


7


Across
 (6)
After
this
piece
of
technology,
biotechnology
was
able
to
advance
 to
a
new
level
that
will
lead
us
to
great
inventions.
 (7)
The
application
of
biotechnology
on
aquatic
organisms.
 Down
 (1)
The
genetic
engineering
of
certain
organisms
to
produce
a
desired
 chemical
 (2)
The
use
of
computers
to
analyze,
record
or
obtain
biological
data
 (3)
Helps
compare
between
different
sets
of
DNA
 (4)
Contains
information
that
make
up
the
characteristics
of
 organisms
 (5)
The
manipulation
of
biological
laws
to
change/modify
organisms’
 genes
for
industrial
purposes
 


16



Evaluating
the
ethics
of
biotechnology
 


Biotechnology
 is
 science,
 and
 science
 comes
 with
 ethical
 issues,
 non‐more
 so
 than


Biotechnology.
Needless
to
say
it
is
regarded
as
controversial
in
some
parts
of
the
world
where
 people
think
that
things
should
be
left
as
god
created
them
and
that
god
created
them
that
way
 for
a
reason.
On
the
other
hand,
other
people
see
it
as
a
great
way
to
improve
human
health
and
 the
human
environment.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Although
there
are
limitless
possibilities
when
you
give
biotechnology
a
good
thought,
it
has
been
 called
 and
 described
 as
 “Janus‐faced”.
 Because
 even
 though
 it
 has
 the
 potential
 to
 be
 quite
 a
 helping
hand
in
the
many
areas
in
which
it
is
used.
And
then
there
are
other
possibilities
in
which
 we
don’t
know
the
consequences
of
and
it
might
be
wrong.


 Where
 do
 we
 draw
 the
 thin
 line
 between
 science
 and
 religion
 and
 science
 and
 ethics.
 Some
 religious
 groups
 have
 given
 their
 blessing
 to
 Genetically
 Modified
 Foods,
 (GM)
 such
 as
 the
 Vatican,
 The
 Catholic
 Church
 and
 Indonesia’s
 leading
 authority
 in
 Islamic
 affairs.
 The
 Biotechnology
 Industry
 Organization
 recently
 released
 a
 statement
 on
 ethical
 use
 of
 Biotechnology;
to
promote
public
health
and
natural
security
and
to
fight
against
bioterrorism.
So
 basically
the
organizations
which
would
like
to
continue
with
research
have
this
point
that
they


17



are
trying
to
help
human
life
and
not
create
synthetic
life
as
Christian
 Jorgensen,
Genostem
coordinator
and
inserm
research
put
it
“
we
are
 not
here
to
create
synthetic
life,
I
think
we
are
here
to
be
much
more
 practical
and
to
help
actual
patients
using
stemcells
and
improve
the
quality
of
life
and
be
ethical
 in
our
choice
of
the
cells
we
work
on”1.
Many
people
don’t
look
at
it
that
way
only
,
they
look
at
it
 in
the
way

that
if
a
child
is
born
deaf,
why
not
treat
him
and
provide
him
with
a
better
life.
Is
it
 immoral
to
live
longer
and
have
a
better
life?

 
 Speaking
at
a
lecture
in
the
University
of
Pennsylvania,
Arthur
Caplan,
Director
of
Bioethics
there
 put
it
in
a
different
view
for
all
to
see:
“
some
years
ago,
I
got
a
call
from
a
doctor.
There
were
 two
people
in
his
office
a
man
and
a
woman,
both
congenially
deaf.
A
genetic
form
of
deafness,
 they
wanted
to
get
genetic
testing
and
the
doctor
said
great
you
wont
have
to
have
a
child
with
a
 miserable
burden
of
deafness!
They
said
no,
no
,
no!
We
want
a
child
who
is
deaf,
we
want
you
to
 sort
 out
 the
 embryos
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 you
 pick
 the
 one
 with
 the
 deafness
 gene
 cause
 we
 want
 a
 kid
 like
 us,
 and
 we
 don’t
 feel
 burdened
or
troubled
by
our
deafness”2
so
people
tend
to
look
at
it
in
 one
way
only.

 So
is
it
morally
wrong
to
genetically
engineer
an
organism,
a
plant,
or
a
human
being?
 
 As
 you
 have
 seen
 in
 this
 magazine,
 Biotechnology
 is
 a
 magnificent
 technological
 advancement
 that
 has
 and
 will
 open
 many
 doors
 in
 the
 future,
but
it
is
also
a
large
topic
if
debate
over
whether
it
is
completely
 ethical
 and
 a
 humanitarian
 science
 application.
 In
 the
 name
 of
 many


18



relegions,
cultures
and
groups,
genetic
engineering,
or
messing
with
the
“natural
form”
of
god’s
 creations
can
be
considered
a
forbidden
door…
 
 Each
 of
 the
 five
 sources
 of
 ethical
 standards
 will
 be
 used
 to
 evaluate
 the
 ethical
 standards
 of
 biotechnology
as
a
whole
in
order
to
conclude
whether
it
should
continue
or
not


The Utilitarian Approach : This approach basically favors the action which produces more good

over harm. With

biotechnology we can only assess the present and the past, the future is unknown and could produce either good or bad. So based on the past, Biotechnology has done more good then harm, and on the present also the same. Genetically modified food has helped people all around the world, specially people with no food or an amount par healthy standards. You can consider the animals which undergo testing and animal rights etc.. but in the end this is all for a greater good. The good outbalances the bad.

The Rights Approach: This
 approach
 is
 all
 about
 respecting
 rights,
 whether
 it
 be
 human
 rights
 or
 animal
 rights,
 rights
 should
 be
 respected.
 So
 human
 rights
 are
 not
 broken
 here
 but
 there
 is
 an
 issue
 with
 animal
 testing,
 so
 any
 experiment
 involving
 animal
 testing
 is
 thought
 to
 be
 wrong.
 Other
 than
 that,
 everything
is
fine.



The Fairness or Justice Approach: The Fairness or Justice Approach deems biotechnology wrong as it disregards several cultures and religions and more groups. This approach demands equality and biotechnology shows no signs of this. Which results in biotechnology being unethical according to the approach. 


19



The Common Good Approach: Biotechnology unethical? This approach agrees. As it calls for the welfare of society but not at an expense of something or someone. Where we go back to the animals and animal testing.

The Virtue Approach: This is the biggest NO of all the approaches as biotechnology goes against everything this approach stands for. It is all about following virtues like honesty, integrity and fairness. None of the good virtues are followed in biotechnology. 

 
 
 1
:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdEoHQPhihg
 2:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHQ7bUAQVuE
 


20



Debating the Ethics of Biotechnology: An Interview with Philip Bereano 
 
 Philip Bereano, professor emeritus at the University of Washington in Seattle, has been an active and outspoken proponent of democratic social ethics in biotechnology. He is a participant in the United Nations' Codex Alimentarius processes and co-founder of the Council for Responsible Genetics.

Why does a technology like genetic engineering (GE) need an active and outspoken proponent of ethics like yourself? I deal with social ethics: issues of equity, justice, fairness, and democracy. Frankly, GE fails when measured against most of these values. GE, like all high-techs, is inherently anti-democratic. Computers, for example, can be democratic in their usage because anybody can buy into it in a consumer society. But they're not democratic in terms of development, which is under the control of a very small number of people. Similarly, GE is under the control of small numbers of highly educated people and incredibly wealthy organizations. While most people believe that GE is too complicated for them to understand, the ethical and social issues that come up in a democratic society have little to do with the technical stuff; the basis of these issues can be easily understood. However, the technological elite hasn't felt any obligation to present materials in a way that invites public participation, and regulatory agencies have often been opposed to transparency or are captives of the industries they are supposedly overseeing-this is certainly true of the FDA, USDA/APHIS, and, perhaps to a lesser extent, EPA.

What ethical issues are associated with GE in agriculture? GE has been presented in a way that attempts to gain public acceptance for it, but none of the GE technologies have, in any sustained fashion, increased food production or decreased world hunger. However, they've certainly increased funding for the biotechnology scientists and the profits for the Monsantos of the world. "Golden Rice"-with enhanced levels of vitamin A-while touted by GE proponents as an example of GE benefits, has not reduced blindness at all in the Third World and, in fact, is highly unlikely to do so because of the huge quantities of Golden Rice a kid would have to eat. And he or she still may not be getting a balanced diet with the other nutrients needed to make use of the vitamin A. There's a major ethical issue in the very simplistic reductionist model this technology is based on. The central dogma of GE is this image of the genome as a Lego set, where you can take out the green one and put in a red one. In reality, however, the genome is highly fluid and the parts interact. The Lego model is quite wrong, yet it's used constantly in public discourse, regulatory submissions, and legislative testimony. Biologists know how the genome actually works, but advancement in the profession rules out of play such subjects of discourse because they would challenge the positions taken by industry funders. Scientists who wish to break that boundary, either by scientific experimentation or by public writings, have largely been isolated and marginalized by the wealthy and the powerful within the academicindustrial complex-for example the experiences of Dr. Arpad Pusztai, Dr. Ignacio Chapela, and Dr. Terje Traavik.* I think these examples indicate a profound set of ethical issues surrounding the professional functioning of geneticists and academic and industry biologists.


 
 
 http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6522



 
 



 


21



1. What
is
another
name
for
DNA?
 2. Which
church
approves
of
biotechnology?
 3. What
is
the
basis
of
biotechnology
and
life?
 4. Biotechnology
is
the
manipulation
of..
?
 5. What
is
something
that
surrounds
biotechnology?
 6. 
Does
the
Utilitarian
ethical
approach
approve
or
 disapprove
of
biotechnology?
 7. 
Does
the
virtue
ethical
approach
approve
or
 disapprove
of
biotechnology?
 
 
 
 


22



Is
Biotechnology
Unethical?
 Yes?

 No?

 If
No,
which
do
you
believe
is
the
most
important
reason?:
 *
Opposes
religious
virtues
 *
Is
a
corrupt
way
of
handling
Nature
 *
Risky
in
terms
of
health
 Do
you
believe
that
biotechnology
will
lead
us
to
a
good
future?
 *
No,
it
will
lead
us
to
corruption
as
Serag
El‐Deen
argued.
 *
Yes,
will
lead
us
to
huge
advancements
in
science,
which
is
always
 good.
 What
words
of
advice
would
you
leave
governments
about
handling
 biotechnology
companies?



 



 
 



 


23



BIBILIOGRAPHY
 
 En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology http://www.kollewin.com/blog/tbe-gel-electrophoresis/ 1
:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdEoHQPhihg
 2:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHQ7bUAQVuE
 http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6522
 (1)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://unisci.com/stories/20012/04 02011.htm
 (2)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2001/01/010118064934.htm
 (3)
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/25/science/japan‐scientists‐produce‐clone‐of‐a‐ cloned‐bull.html
 (4)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.newscientist.com/articl e/dn16%2Dmutant%2Dbunny.html
 (5)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2000/09/000901080141.htm
 (6)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.newscientist.com/daily news/news.jsp%3Fid=ns2255142
 (7)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2000/11/001120074912.htm
 (8)
 http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://unisci.com/stories/20011/02 01014.htm
 
 
 


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