Includes fun facts, crossword puzzles and much more
By: • Nadine Enan • Hana Nouh • Mostafa Morsy
CONTENTS PAGE * HISTORY & BACKGROUND The history of it all ……………………………..................3 Biotech; fact or myth?..................................................5 General knowledge about biotechnology………..6 CROSSWORD PUZZLE! .................................................7 Did you know?................................................................8 * THE BRANCHES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY The main two branches of biotechnology…………9 Funny caricature & images ……………………………13 Fun facts!.......................................................................14 QUIZ –test what you’ve learnt! ………………………15 CROSSWORD PUZZLE!...............................................16 * THE ETHICAL STANDARDS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Evaluating the ethics of biotechnology…………..17 A famous interview about this hot topic.………..21 QUIZ –test what you’ve learnt! ………………………22 CROSSWORD PUZZLE!...............................................23 Weekly survey………………….…………….………………24 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………...………………………..25
• Many people mistakenly believe that biotechnology is a new science when in fact the history of it dates back to over 10,000 years ago, approximately 6000 B.C. Historians believe that biotechnology was born when strategies were made in order to use microorganisms to produce foods and products. It was at that time that time in 6000 B.C. that Sumerian and Babylonian cultures used the respiration of yeast to make beer. In addition, civilizations located in Asia and South American were also using the process of fermentation to make beer. • Many years later, the invention of the microscope in the late 1600’s accelerated the growth of biotechnology in Europe. This, obviously, led Europe to outpace all other nations in the world in terms of growth in scientific thought. • By the 1800’s, biotechnology developments were being advanced by a combination of physics, chemistry, and biology. Darwin’s unveiling of evolutionary theory also contributed to the development of biotechnology; it drove the interest in using the characteristics of living organisms to fulfill human needs. It was also at that point in time when the French scientist named Louis Pasteur learned how
to control the metabolic processes of organisms for preserving foods, which led to the development of vaccines and medications. Not surprisingly, this led to the growth in the fields of medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology. • During World War II in the 1940’s, penicillin was used as an antibiotic, which was discovered by Alexander Fleming. This marked the second rediscovery of biotechnology, and not only paved the path to the discovery of biotechnology in general, but it was also the beginning of an era of antibiotic research.
• Finally, the third rediscovery of biotechnology is in its recent reincarnation in the form of DNA technology. During the mid 1950’s, they classified it in a “doublehelix”. DNA technology thus far has allowed us to do many thins including develop a variety of gene technologies including therapies, as well as DNA fingerprinting, making this discovery the greatest scientific evolution to date. Thanks to DNA technology, biotechnology has earned special significance since its discovery.
There are no biotech food products currently sold in any market.> Myth Today, at least 70 percent of all processed foods that exist on shelves in stores contain at least one ingredient from biotech crops ranging from oils to seeds. The most popular biotech crops today are corn, soybean, and cotton. Biotech foods are unsafe to eat > Myth The FDA, (The Food and Drug Administration in the U.S.), the American Medical Association, and the American Dietetic Association have all confirmed that biotech foods and crops are safe for human as well as animal consumption. Biotechnology can be considered as the "automobile" of the 21st century > Fact Biotechnology is in fact considered the automobile of the 21st century, as it is currently affecting almost every aspect of socierty in the same way as a first mass production automobile changed in the world in the late 1800's. Biotechnology can be defined as technologies that use living cells and/or biological molecules to solve problems and make useful products > Fact There were 180,000 people employed by U.S. biotechnology companies in 2006. > Fact
Interesting Facts About Biotechnology 1. The U.S. biotech industry spent $19.8 billion on research and development in 2005. 2. As of December 31, 2005, there were 1,415 biotechnology companies in the U.S. 3. Today, consumers are enjoying biotechnology foods such as papaya, soybeans, and corn. 4. Currently there are more than 400 biotech drug products and vaccines undergoing clinical trials targeting a range of diseases ranging from cancers to Alzheimer’s disease. 5. Biotechnology is currently used to treat viruses, insects, and engineered products. 6. Subfields of biotechnology include red, white and green biotechnology. 7. Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer, first used the word “Biotechnology”.
COMPLETE THE CROSSWORD PUZZLE!
Did You Know
Scientists, government agencies, companies, farmers and consumer and environmental groups are all somehow involved in the biotechnology arena.
Farmers use results from biotechnology research in order to raise crops and process food which is consumed in the marketplace later on.
Government agencies’ role in biotechnology is ensuring that the products produced by biotechnology are available and most importantly safe for the public and environmental use.
The 1st medical product of modern biotechnology was human insulin, invented in 1978.
MAIN BRANCHES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOINFORMATICS & WHITE BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology’s possible applications to benefit society are enormous. Since its foundation, biotechnology has branched into the following branches A
Red Biotechnology Green Biotechnology
brief definition of each:
Bioinformatics:“Bioinformatics is the field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge to form a single discipline in order to analyze (1) data.”
Blue Biotechnology: This is a very rare branch of biotechnology for marine and aquatic application Green Biotechnology: This is the most common branch of biotechnology where it is applied for agricultural purposes. Red Biotechnology: This is biotechnology applied to medical processes.
White Biotechnology: This type is biotechnology applied to industrial processes.
BIOINFORMATICS The main reason for the development of bioinformatics was for the storage of biological data such as DNA and amino acid sequences at the beginning of the genomic revolution. This image shows a sequence for a certain protein synthesized in the human body. This was produced to help reproduce this same protein again, e.g. when using bacteria to produce a certain protein, this database can help ensure that the correct DNA codes have been selected. The use of bioinformatics, as we can all predict, speeds up the process of biotechnology and increases its efficiency. Through the use of bioinformatics it can be estimated that in the future, costs for biotechnological products or for research will be much less and so can advance a lot more quickly. The combination of computer engineering with molecular biology will help with biological studies greatly as we can study things in more detail and more depth than we could have before.
An area bioinformatics greatly helps in is forensic science. The following image shows us the DNA fragments of two different human beings. This is called electrophoreses. This is put in an electric field, with a gel matrix in the middle. The DNA fragments are inserted and negatively charged. Since they are inserted at the cathode, naturally they will repel and move towards the anode on the other end of the device. The smaller and lighter DNA fragments will move through a lot more â€Š
easily and a lot quicker. Therefore, if we put two different sets of DNA, the distribution of the DNA fragments can help us differentiate as well as notice the similarities between the two sets. Therefore this can help with paternity tests, in criminal investigations for DNA matches and much more…
In this image we can obviously tell that the second, third and last set of DNA are similar and so these may be related organisms. Bioinformatics can help indicate which exact genes these indicate and so what features are similar and what will be different and so as well as match DNA, we can more or less predict the features of organisms using bioinformatics. In the world we live in today, full of crime or children with unknown fathers or people gone missing, with the help of this branch of biotechnology, we can help track down organisms from the smallest piece of DNA they leave behind.
WHITE BIOTECHNOLOGY This branch of biotechnology mainly focuses on industrial genetically produced products. The main and easiest way to do this is through bacteria, as it is known to be one of the fastest reproducing organisms we know of today. Therefore, when genetically modified to produce a certain chemical, with its rapid reproduction, it will naturally produce masses of this chemical without companies having to pay for genetic engineering again and again. An example of this is insulin. * First, a bacterium is obtained. * Secondly, restriction enzymes are used to cut a certain part of the plasmid of the bacteria in order to fit the human DNA with the coding of the desired protein. In this case it is insulin. * Then, the bacteria is left to produce insulin, replicate and produce even more insulin. * Lastly, the insulin is extracted into a separate bottle where it could be taken by an injection and placed in diabetic patients.
FUNNY IMAGES + ANIMATIONS
FUN FACTS ABOUT THE BRANCHES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 1* Biotechnologists have created artificial skin that heals faster; for severe burns or injuries.(1) 2* Scientists at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have successfully created LIQUID DNA! (2) 3* Japanese scientists have created a clone of a cloned bull. (3) 4* Did you know that scientists created a glow‐in‐the‐dark rabbit?(4) 5* Researchers found a way to increase the lifespan of a nematode worm by 50% with an anti‐aging drug. (5) 6* We can now induce brain cells to convert back into neural stem cells, hence the reverse of the aging process in brain cells.(6) 7* We have developed human skin cells that are immortal. It is hoped that this can be used to treat severe burns or injuries. (7) 8* Scientists have discovered a way to let leukemia cells self‐ destruct by using the Bcr‐Abl molecules.
*QUIZ * 1) Bacterial genetic engineering is: A‐ White biotechnology B‐ Blue Biotechnology C‐ None of the above D‐ All of the above
2) The branches of biotechnology mentioned in the article are: A‐ Blue biotechnology, White Biotechnology, Red Biotechnology, Green Biotechnology, Purple Biotechnology B‐ White Biotechnology, Red Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering, Bacteria C‐ Red Biotechnology, White Biotechnology, Blue Biotechnology, Green Biotechnology, Black Biotechnology D‐ White Biotechnology, Red Biotechnology, Green Biotechnology, Blue Biotechnology, Bioinformatics 3) Biotechnology is: A‐ Genetic Engineering B‐ The manipulation of biology laws in order to improve/modify another organism’s genes C‐ The changing of the genetic nature of an organism to produce a desired protein D‐ All of the above 4) The use of computers in order to analyze genes, proteins etc… is: A‐ White Biotechnology B‐ Bioinformatics C‐ Purple Biotechnology D‐ None of the above 5) Purple Biotechnology is: A‐ The use of computers in order to analyze genes, proteins etc… B‐ Biotechnology on aquatic organisms C‐ Both A & B D‐ Purple Biotechnology does not exist
BIOTECHNOLOGY CROSSWORD PUZZLE! COMPLETE THE CROSSWORD PUZZLE
1 5 3
Across (6) After this piece of technology, biotechnology was able to advance to a new level that will lead us to great inventions. (7) The application of biotechnology on aquatic organisms. Down (1) The genetic engineering of certain organisms to produce a desired chemical (2) The use of computers to analyze, record or obtain biological data (3) Helps compare between different sets of DNA (4) Contains information that make up the characteristics of organisms (5) The manipulation of biological laws to change/modify organisms’ genes for industrial purposes
Evaluating the ethics of biotechnology
Biotechnology is science, and science comes with ethical issues, non‐more so than
Biotechnology. Needless to say it is regarded as controversial in some parts of the world where people think that things should be left as god created them and that god created them that way for a reason. On the other hand, other people see it as a great way to improve human health and the human environment. Although there are limitless possibilities when you give biotechnology a good thought, it has been called and described as “Janus‐faced”. Because even though it has the potential to be quite a helping hand in the many areas in which it is used. And then there are other possibilities in which we don’t know the consequences of and it might be wrong. Where do we draw the thin line between science and religion and science and ethics. Some religious groups have given their blessing to Genetically Modified Foods, (GM) such as the Vatican, The Catholic Church and Indonesia’s leading authority in Islamic affairs. The Biotechnology Industry Organization recently released a statement on ethical use of Biotechnology; to promote public health and natural security and to fight against bioterrorism. So basically the organizations which would like to continue with research have this point that they
are trying to help human life and not create synthetic life as Christian Jorgensen, Genostem coordinator and inserm research put it “ we are not here to create synthetic life, I think we are here to be much more practical and to help actual patients using stemcells and improve the quality of life and be ethical in our choice of the cells we work on”1. Many people don’t look at it that way only , they look at it in the way that if a child is born deaf, why not treat him and provide him with a better life. Is it immoral to live longer and have a better life? Speaking at a lecture in the University of Pennsylvania, Arthur Caplan, Director of Bioethics there put it in a different view for all to see: “ some years ago, I got a call from a doctor. There were two people in his office a man and a woman, both congenially deaf. A genetic form of deafness, they wanted to get genetic testing and the doctor said great you wont have to have a child with a miserable burden of deafness! They said no, no , no! We want a child who is deaf, we want you to sort out the embryos to make sure that you pick the one with the deafness gene cause we want a kid like us, and we don’t feel burdened or troubled by our deafness”2 so people tend to look at it in one way only. So is it morally wrong to genetically engineer an organism, a plant, or a human being? As you have seen in this magazine, Biotechnology is a magnificent technological advancement that has and will open many doors in the future, but it is also a large topic if debate over whether it is completely ethical and a humanitarian science application. In the name of many
relegions, cultures and groups, genetic engineering, or messing with the “natural form” of god’s creations can be considered a forbidden door… Each of the five sources of ethical standards will be used to evaluate the ethical standards of biotechnology as a whole in order to conclude whether it should continue or not
The Utilitarian Approach : This approach basically favors the action which produces more good
over harm. With
biotechnology we can only assess the present and the past, the future is unknown and could produce either good or bad. So based on the past, Biotechnology has done more good then harm, and on the present also the same. Genetically modified food has helped people all around the world, specially people with no food or an amount par healthy standards. You can consider the animals which undergo testing and animal rights etc.. but in the end this is all for a greater good. The good outbalances the bad.
The Rights Approach: This approach is all about respecting rights, whether it be human rights or animal rights, rights should be respected. So human rights are not broken here but there is an issue with animal testing, so any experiment involving animal testing is thought to be wrong. Other than that, everything is fine.
The Fairness or Justice Approach: The Fairness or Justice Approach deems biotechnology wrong as it disregards several cultures and religions and more groups. This approach demands equality and biotechnology shows no signs of this. Which results in biotechnology being unethical according to the approach.
The Common Good Approach: Biotechnology unethical? This approach agrees. As it calls for the welfare of society but not at an expense of something or someone. Where we go back to the animals and animal testing.
The Virtue Approach: This is the biggest NO of all the approaches as biotechnology goes against everything this approach stands for. It is all about following virtues like honesty, integrity and fairness. None of the good virtues are followed in biotechnology. 1 : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdEoHQPhihg 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHQ7bUAQVuE
Debating the Ethics of Biotechnology: An Interview with Philip Bereano Philip Bereano, professor emeritus at the University of Washington in Seattle, has been an active and outspoken proponent of democratic social ethics in biotechnology. He is a participant in the United Nations' Codex Alimentarius processes and co-founder of the Council for Responsible Genetics.
Why does a technology like genetic engineering (GE) need an active and outspoken proponent of ethics like yourself? I deal with social ethics: issues of equity, justice, fairness, and democracy. Frankly, GE fails when measured against most of these values. GE, like all high-techs, is inherently anti-democratic. Computers, for example, can be democratic in their usage because anybody can buy into it in a consumer society. But they're not democratic in terms of development, which is under the control of a very small number of people. Similarly, GE is under the control of small numbers of highly educated people and incredibly wealthy organizations. While most people believe that GE is too complicated for them to understand, the ethical and social issues that come up in a democratic society have little to do with the technical stuff; the basis of these issues can be easily understood. However, the technological elite hasn't felt any obligation to present materials in a way that invites public participation, and regulatory agencies have often been opposed to transparency or are captives of the industries they are supposedly overseeing-this is certainly true of the FDA, USDA/APHIS, and, perhaps to a lesser extent, EPA.
What ethical issues are associated with GE in agriculture? GE has been presented in a way that attempts to gain public acceptance for it, but none of the GE technologies have, in any sustained fashion, increased food production or decreased world hunger. However, they've certainly increased funding for the biotechnology scientists and the profits for the Monsantos of the world. "Golden Rice"-with enhanced levels of vitamin A-while touted by GE proponents as an example of GE benefits, has not reduced blindness at all in the Third World and, in fact, is highly unlikely to do so because of the huge quantities of Golden Rice a kid would have to eat. And he or she still may not be getting a balanced diet with the other nutrients needed to make use of the vitamin A. There's a major ethical issue in the very simplistic reductionist model this technology is based on. The central dogma of GE is this image of the genome as a Lego set, where you can take out the green one and put in a red one. In reality, however, the genome is highly fluid and the parts interact. The Lego model is quite wrong, yet it's used constantly in public discourse, regulatory submissions, and legislative testimony. Biologists know how the genome actually works, but advancement in the profession rules out of play such subjects of discourse because they would challenge the positions taken by industry funders. Scientists who wish to break that boundary, either by scientific experimentation or by public writings, have largely been isolated and marginalized by the wealthy and the powerful within the academicindustrial complex-for example the experiences of Dr. Arpad Pusztai, Dr. Ignacio Chapela, and Dr. Terje Traavik.* I think these examples indicate a profound set of ethical issues surrounding the professional functioning of geneticists and academic and industry biologists.
1. What is another name for DNA? 2. Which church approves of biotechnology? 3. What is the basis of biotechnology and life? 4. Biotechnology is the manipulation of.. ? 5. What is something that surrounds biotechnology? 6. Does the Utilitarian ethical approach approve or disapprove of biotechnology? 7. Does the virtue ethical approach approve or disapprove of biotechnology?
Is Biotechnology Unethical? Yes? No? If No, which do you believe is the most important reason?: * Opposes religious virtues * Is a corrupt way of handling Nature * Risky in terms of health Do you believe that biotechnology will lead us to a good future? * No, it will lead us to corruption as Serag El‐Deen argued. * Yes, will lead us to huge advancements in science, which is always good. What words of advice would you leave governments about handling biotechnology companies?
BIBILIOGRAPHY En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology http://www.kollewin.com/blog/tbe-gel-electrophoresis/ 1 : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdEoHQPhihg 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHQ7bUAQVuE http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6522 (1) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://unisci.com/stories/20012/04 02011.htm (2) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2001/01/010118064934.htm (3) http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/25/science/japan‐scientists‐produce‐clone‐of‐a‐ cloned‐bull.html (4) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.newscientist.com/articl e/dn16%2Dmutant%2Dbunny.html (5) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2000/09/000901080141.htm (6) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.newscientist.com/daily news/news.jsp%3Fid=ns2255142 (7) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releas es/2000/11/001120074912.htm (8) http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://unisci.com/stories/20011/02 01014.htm