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Marc-Olivier Schatz

Space and Time Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory

Supervisors Rossella Baldi, David Rooney, Jimmy Schmid – Master Thesis MA Design Entrepreneurship, Part-time January 2021

spacetime.moschatz.com


Location map of the Neuchâtel Observatory site on the Mail hill, east of the city of Neuchâtel, circa 1910 © Neuchâtel State Archives

1. Main building 2. Director's house 3. Concierge mechanic's house 4. Bamberg hut 5. Hirsch Pavilion

Front cover images Astronomer observing the sky with the Zeiss telescope in the Hirsch Pavilion, 1958 © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret Hirsch Pavilion - the location for the exhibition


Marc-Olivier Schatz

Space and Time Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory

Master Thesis MA Design Entrepreneurship, Part-time January 2021

spacetime.moschatz.com


Master Design project carried out during my training at the University of the Arts Bern from September 2018 to January 2021.

© Marc-Olivier Schatz, January 2021

Print: IDM 444, La Chaux-de-Fonds


In memory of Tita


TABLE OF CONTENTS TICK TICK TICK 7 CONTEXT 8 The Neuchâtel Observatory Origins of the project Parts of the project realized during my studies at the HKB/MAD

8 9 9

DESIGN PROBLEM

10

EXTENT OF ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM

12

Museums and curatorial studies

12

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

14

Museographic concept and exhibition scenario Target audiences Prototype testing

17 44 45

TEAM AND BUSINESS FORM

46

Project management Stakeholders

46 46

FINANCIAL PLANNING

47

Budget for the realization of the exhibition 47 Operating budget of the EspaceTemps association 48 Funding 50 TIMING 52 Timetable for carrying out the exhibition Operational planning of the exhibition

52 54

MARKETING 55

4

Communication plan

55

CORPORATE IDENTITY

56

Vision statement Mission statement Graphic identity

56 56 56


RISK ASSESSMENT AND ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS 60 EspaceTemps association Financing of the exhibition Exhibition renewal

60 60 60

SOCIAL RELEVANCE

61

NEXT STEPS

62

Symposium on time measurement 62 Mediation concept 62 Development of an activities program 62 Publications 62 Educational tours 62 CONCLUSION

64

BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

67

DECLARATION 68 APPENDIX 69 State of the Art

70

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Site of the Neuchatel Observatory - with on the left, the Hirsch Pavilion - the location for the exhibition

Moodboard of thoughts for the project

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TICK TICK TICK It’s 12:29:58 pm, it’s 12:29:59 pm, it’s 12:30:00 pm. What is time? Who creates time? How do we measure it? These questions have always fascinated humanity! Space and Time: stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory is an innovative exhibition project designed to help visitors discover a unique and forgotten Swiss scientific heritage. The Neuchâtel Observatory was a world reference for the determination and distribution of time for almost 150 years (1858-2007). Its history is deeply connected to that of the Jura watchmaking industry, which still today plays a fundamental role in the reputation of Swiss watches.

Chronometer rating, 1946 © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

Video archive: Giovanni Busca explaining how an atomic clock works, 1995 © SSR SRG

The exhibition project is designed for the Hirsch Pavilion, an Art Nouveau building, which is part of the Observatory site. It is led by the EspaceTemps association, which I am a member of. In contrast to exhibition designs and storytelling currently offered by watchmaking museums, especially in the Neuchâtel region, this immersive experience aims to inspire visitors by taking them on a journey from the infinitely large, the Universe, to the infinitely small, atoms. Sharing scientific questionings with the public, it will allow visitors to discover the place where astronomical research was carried out and the scientific instruments of the Observatory in their original context. Space and Time will offer an original way to learn about the meaning of time and add a new and significative product to the touristic offer of the Jura Arc.

“Designing an exhibition is like designing a walk through a special landscape or beautiful city. During the course of the stroll, the view changes: new panoramas and other vistas.” Kossmann.dejong, Amsterdam-based design agency

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CONTEXT The Neuchâtel Observatory What is time and how to measure it? This question has fascinated humanity, from both a scientific and philosophical point of view. Since the 17th century, observatories have guaranteed expertise in sky observation and time measurement; they have been fundamental actors in our quest for the meaning of time. The Neuchâtel Observatory was created in 1858 and played a crucial role both in time distribution and in the development of a national time culture. Financed by the government, it was specifically at the service of the region’s watchmaking industry; it had to contribute by scientific means to the improvement of its products, in order to make them more competitive on the market. It had two main tasks: to issue certificates proving the reliability of Neuchâtel watches, and to measure the exact time and communicate it to the industry by telegraph, so that factories could regulate their watches precisely. It also developed other scientific activities such as astronomy, geodesy, seismology and meteorology.

Chronometric service hall with the director Louis Arndt and his assistant, circa 1910 © Neuchâtel State Archives

Development of an atomic clock , circa 1990 © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds L’Express

If the Observatory became an international reference in the field of chronometry, it also became very famous in Switzerland with the diffusion of exact time. After 1860, it didn’t only distribute time to factories, but also to the region’s main towns; later, it started distributing time to the whole country, which culminated in the distribution of the time signal on the Swiss radio in the 1930s. Finally, in the 1950s the Observatory was responsible for the creation of the first atomic clocks; before its activities ended in 2007, it worked for the European Space Agency (ESA) and its Galileo satellite project.

“It’s a creation of man, time! Nature provides us with the oscillation and man counts these oscillations. The only condition is that we must not make mistakes when counting and we must always do it, so that we keep time!” Giovanni Busca, Director of the Neuchâtel Observatory from 1988 to 2001

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Origins of the project While the historical prominence of time measurement and the watch industry in the Jura region was acknowledged by the inscription of Le Locle and La Chaux-de-Fonds in the UNESCO World Heritage in 2009, the Neuchâtel Observatory hasn’t attracted the attention of authorities nor of the public yet, despite its evident national interest. As a result, the EspaceTemps association (Neuchâtel) has been active since 2009 to protect the Observatory site and to promote its history. In 2018, an agreement was signed with the Neuchâtel government, which charges the association with the maintenance of the scientific equipment still present in the Hirsch Pavilion and authorises it to create its exhibition project. I joined the association in 2012, as astronomy has been one of my great passions since childhood. I used to come to the Observatory with my mother to observe the sky and I was fascinated. Combining the EspaceTemps association ambitions with my professional experience as a graphic designer for various cultural institutions in Neuchâtel, the exhibition project in the Hirsch Pavilion originated. It aims at offering the Observatory the recognition it deserves and at including it in the major Swiss scientific and technical heritage.

Parts of the project realized during my studies at the HKB/MAD During my studies, I designed all the elements of the exhibition project. Although it was conceived as a personal project for the purposes of my Master Design, its final result will involve my colleagues at the EspaceTemps association, that will take an active part in the management of the exhibition. For this reason, I designed the association logo in collaboration with the society board. For my work, I was advised by the MAD/HKB professors and my three supervisors – Rossella Baldi, David Rooney and Jimmy Schmid. Scenographer Xavier Hool helped me with technical and budgetary aspects. Rossella Baldi (semesters 1–5), independent historian specialized in the history of science and technology, was former associate curator of the Musée international d'horlogerie of La Chaux-de-Fonds (MIH), where the instruments collection of the Neuchâtel Observatory is located. She advised me on the history of time measurement and on that of watchmaking. She assisted me with historical research and discussed research and writing methods with me. She also guided me through the Neuchâtel political and institutional context. She shared her personal and professional network with me, which enabled me to be supervised by David Rooney (semester 5). Author and lecturer specialized in the history of time, he worked as a curator in the Greenwich Royal Observatory and later in the London Science Museum. He helped me with his museography experience, offering me both practical and theoretical support for storytelling, exhibition designs, etc. Lastly, Jimmy Schmid (semester 2), communication designer and teacher at the HKB, suggested to change my Master Design orientation, from research to entrepreneurship. He also gave me useful advice on the exhibition structures and spaces.

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DESIGN PROBLEM How to bring the Observatory’s history to life? Stories and Time is an exhibition project designed for the Hirsch Pavilion, one of the buildings on the Observatory site. It was built in 1912 thanks to the money that the first director Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901) bequeathed to the Neuchâtel government when he died. The building celebrated Hirsch’s memory but also offered a location for new scientific instruments and activities. From the outside, the Pavilion looks like a coherent ensemble whereas each space inside has its own architectural particularity and scientific function. Therefore, in its interior, it is possible to see the Art Nouveau decorations made by the pupils of Charles L'Eplattenier (1874-1946), one of Le Corbusier's professors. It also preserves two exceptional scientific instruments: the big Zeiss telescope and, in the basement, the Quervain-Piccard seismograph. The Hirsch Pavilion, like the Observatory buildings, belongs to the Neuchâtel Canton. It is a heritage protected building.

Adolphe Hirsch Memorial with Art Nouveau decorations

Zeiss telescope in the astronomical dome

Quervain-Piccard seismograph in the basement

Displaying the history of time measurement is a complex process. On the one hand, it has to take into account many notions (scientific, technical, historical, economic notions, etc.) which must be organized in order to produce effective storytelling. On the other hand, scientific instruments themselves, as well as watches and clocks, are difficult objects to exhibit, because without any adequate explanations they look meaningless and almost “dead” to individuals who do not possess specific technical skills or training.

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The two main horological museums in the Neuchâtel region, the Musée d’horlogerie in Le Locle and the MIH, are a good illustration of these difficulties. They both exhibit some instruments that belonged to the Observatory. In Le Locle, the exhibition design is based on the concept of period rooms. In the MIH, it is divided into two sections: the first one is conceived like the Ali Baba’s cave and contains wonderful items to admire, whereas the second one proposes different themes within which visitors still struggle to find their way. Interestingly, statistics show that visitors to the MIH come from all over the world (25% from the Neuchâtel Canton, 25% from Switzerland, 25% from Europe and 25% from the rest of the world) and that only 15% of the visitors are children (mainly from the region schools).

The drawing room of the Musée d'horlogerie of Le Locle © Sterchi

Musée international d'horlogerie, La Chaux-de-Fonds

My exhibition project is therefore unique. It is designed in an exceptional location combining art and science and brings visitors to the heart of the past scientific research on time. For the first time, an exhibition is dedicated to the Neuchâtel Observatory. It offers a singular, immersive and emotional experience. The different rooms in the Hirsch Pavilion allow for the design of varied museography solutions, displaying several media types. On the basis of the above, these are the key questions to be addressed: – How to transform a science place into an exhibition? – How to transform the 150 years of the Observatory into narrative, keeping time measurement as the guiding thread? – How to develop a narrative that allows visitors to understand the research carried out by the Observatory’s scientists? – How to use that narrative to raise questions about science in general and our connection to it? How to add poetics into this narrative? – How to create an exhibition in a “fragmented” building, moreover protected as a historical building? – How to manage and promote an exhibition with an association of volunteers?

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EXTENT OF ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM Museums and curatorial studies In order to find appropriate solutions for my exhibition design, I worked in three ways. First, I visited many exhibitions and gathered documentation related to them to experience museums and their narratives as a visitor, but also to treasure inspiring ideas. In this manner, I was able to notice that exhibition designs speaking about time measurement have often classical approaches: they almost “drown” visitors in quantities of objects and information when interaction with different sorts of media (photos, videos, etc.) is lacking. I realized that my personal preferences go to exhibitions that allow visitors to experience an inner journey and play with emotions. In Switzerland, interesting examples of this approach are the Swiss Alpine Museum in Bern or the Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel; both museums mix objects, images and videos with great finesse to offer as many points of view as possible.

Maison blanche Le Corbusier, La Chaux-de-Fonds © Aline Henchoz

Musée de l'Areuse, Boudry

Second, I gathered documents on curatorial research while in parallel I collected archival material on the Observatory, on time measurement and on the broad topic of time. My search was wide-ranging, including paper documents, pictures, movies and radio broadcasts. At last, I carefully studied museums or exhibition spaces in the Neuchatel region that are managed by associations and volunteers. The examples I took into consideration are the Musée d’histoire in Le Landeron, the Musée d’art et d’histoire in La Neuveville, the Maison blanche Le Corbusier in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the Musée de l'Areuse in Boudry, the Musée Rousseau and the Maison de l’Absinthe in Môtiers. These examples provided me with useful information about visitors, operating budget, costs for exhibitions, organization, etc.

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Exhibition Biwak#24 | Echo. The Mountain Answers Swiss Alpine Museum, Bern

Exhibition Travel Sickness Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel

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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT To design the concept for my exhibition, I worked with Xavier Hool, scenographer for the Centre Dürrenmatt Neuchâtel and Pro Natura, and my supervisor David Rooney. I was also particularly inspired by the twelve concepts to define an exhibition by Dutch designers Kossmann.dejong. Their work focuses non-linear narrative, which applies well to the “fragmented” exhibition I will develop in the Hirsch Pavilion.

“An exhibition is a four- or more-dimensional, non-linear narration where the visitor can follow many threads; there is no question of one single story, but rather of separate story fragments that are always varied and presented from a different perspective in the space.” Kossmann.dejong As a result, my design exhibition focuses on: – A non-linear narrative whose two main elements are the history of the Observatory and the measurement of time – The reorganization of a specific museography for each room – The development of tour whose intensity and contents vary to allow visitors to experience different or contrasting moods, atmospheres and emotions – Defining the objective, content and layout for each space – Determine the location of displays, information panels and audio/video systems on plans – The creation of several prototypes for displays and panels to see how visitors would interact with them. The different stages and prototypes can be seen in my blog. Methods: – Literature research: archival material from the Observatory (reports, letters, movies, etc.) and studies – Artifact analysis: objects (clocks, telescopes, seismograph), photographs, films and audio archives – Interviews: team EspaceTemps, historians, curators, scenographers, etc – Observation: study of the Pavillon Hirsch to understand its architectural organization, the instruments and develop possible tours – Prototyping: drawings, plans – Experience prototyping: tests with different groups by organizing guided tours.

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Mind map analysis of entrance hall to Hirsch Memorial

Detailed study of touch screens for Hirsch Memorial

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Design of the scenography for the ground floor of the Hirsch Pavilion

Exhibition display details

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Astronomer observing the sky with the Zeiss telescope in the Hirsch Pavilion, 1958 © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

Museographic concept and exhibition scenario How to bring the Neuchâtel Observatory’s history to life, where the measurement of time marked an entire region for more than a century? In contrast to exhibition designs and storytelling currently offered by watchmaking museums, visitors will be able to relive where the research was originally carried out, in an intact historical site. They will be able to feel with their five senses the different research areas and be connected in the dome with the infinitely large – the Universe – and in the basement with the infinitely small – the atoms. They will discover how the observatory has enabled the regional watchmaking industry to conquer new markets, how the observation of stars and atoms made it possible to determine time ever more precisely, they will see two historical instruments, the Zeiss telescope and the Quervaint-Piccard seismograph in operation, and relive the broadcasting of time on Swiss radio, which was broadcast every day at 12:30 pm. The museography will be developed in a labyrinthine route of 9 spaces spread over 2 floors, with a surface area of about 250 square metres. In several rooms along the route, an audioguide accessible with a smartphone via QR-Codes will allow visitors to listen to quotes and anecdotes from observatory employees.

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Entrance to the Observatory site with the Hirsch Pavilion on the left

View of the entrance and open dome of the pavilion

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Location plan of the 2 floors of the Hirsch Pavilion Ground floor

3 4

1

2

Entrance hall

8 5

9 6 7

1. Entrance hall Adolphe Hirsch Memorial 2. Committee room Time for discussion 3. Darkroom Making time real 4. Astronomical dome Time manufacture in the infinitely large

Basement

Ground floor

Basement 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Machine room Time manufacture in the infinitely small Space Jornod Time transmission and Time for the watchmakers Clocks room Time Keeping Technical room Time signal at 12:30 pm Seismograph room Messages from the earth

Sectional drawing, circa 1910 © HBN Editor

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Ground floor of the Hirsch Pavilion Table for the committee meetings. Underneath is the attachment of the oscillating mass of the seismograph

Windows Doors Route

WC

3

4 1 Entrance hall

2

Platform pillar

Zeiss telescope base

Bust of Adolphe Hirsch

Below are some historical and current images of the rooms on the ground floor before they were cleaned or repainted, for the installation of the exhibition.

1. Entrance hall, Hirsch Memorial with Art Nouveau decoration

2. Committee room in 1912 © Office du patrimoine et de l’archéologie du canton de Neuchâtel

3. Darkroom © SSR SRG

4. Astronomical dome with the Zeiss telescope

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1. Entrance hall Adolphe Hirsch Memorial In this space, visitors will experience a moment of recollection as they discover this memorial in honour of the first director, Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901). Visitors will discover his biography, his will and his bequest to the State of Neuchâtel, which made it possible to build this astronomical dome and to develop research in astronomy and spectroscopy. The room is decorated with 12 copper panels decorated with the symbols of the zodiac, in the “Pine Tree Style”, a regional specificity of the Art Nouveau movement, whose decorative and stylistic design is based on the Jura plant and the animal world. It was created by Charles L'Eplattenier and his students from the La Chaux-de-Fonds Art School. The ceiling is covered with a multicoloured stained-glass window which brings colourful plays of light to this austere space and opens onto the infinite. Contents 1. Biography of Hirsch with photographs and quotations 2. Presentation of the Hirsch Pavilion with its Art Nouveau decoration. Drawings, diagrams of the different options imagined and historical photographs 3. A QR-Code to allow to listen to a quotation from Hirsch's will with a smartphone Design This space is a work of art in itself that is why it is important to keep this room simple without to many informative elements. The choice is to have a single touch screen display that contains all the information. A. Display with a touch screen to present the content of the two themes

A

F

D

E

• Adolphe Hirsch • Art nouveau decoration

Touch screen display

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Visual content

Portrait of Adolphe Hirsch © Neuchâtel State Archives

Will of Hirsch © Neuchâtel State Archives

Caricature of Hirsch © Neuchâtel State Archives

Hirsch surrounded by the permanent members of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures in Paris © SNSN Bulletin

Hirsch with his dog © Neuchâtel Public Library

Drawing of the hall decoration by L’Eplattenier © AEN, fonds TP; photo: OPAN, P. Eisenmann, 2003

Entrance hall in the Hirsch Pavilion © Neuchâtel State Archives

The door frames are made of black marble

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The ceiling is decorated with celestial symbols

Caricatures against Hirsch's work © Château et musée de Valangin

The hall is decorated with the 12 symbols of the zodiac in embossed metal


2. Committee room Time for discussion In this meeting room of the Observatory Commission, visitors will be able to relive some of the most important scientific events, such as the Observatory’s participation in 1933 in the 2nd “World Operation for the Determination of Longitudes” or a video of the 1998 meeting of 40 specialists from all over the world to develop a project for a Russian space radio telescope, the RadioAstro, launched in 2011. Visitors will also be able to discover a photographic reproduction of the Observatory’s first clock, the Winnerl sidereal clock, used for more than 60 years. Finally, the biographies of the six other directors will enable visitors to understand the scientific and economic challenges that each had to take up in order to develop the observatory’s activities at different times. Contents 1. A reading and video area with two armchairs for reading books from the library and viewing archive films 2. A historical library with books on the observatory, time measurement, watchmaking and cartoons related to the subject for children, such as “The Shooting Star” from The Adventures of Tintin or “From the Earth to the Moon” by Jules Vernes, etc 3. A photographic reproduction of the Winnerl precision clock in a life size scale 4. A historical image of the room in 1912 with a spectroscopy experiment 5. The biographies of the six other directors of the Observatory: Louis Arndt (1901-1934), Edmond Guyot (1934-1955), Jean-Pierre Blaser (1955-1960), Jacques Bonanomi (1960-1988), Giovanni Busca (1988-2001), Alain Maurissen (2001-2007) Design The primary function of this room is to hold public meetings and conferences. It is therefore important not to overload it with displays and information. There are several walls for photographs and biographies of the directors and the space in front of the library will accommodate chairs with a touch screen for viewing videos. A. 2 armchairs and a 22-inch touch screen, placed in the library B. 2 panels of 40 x 100 cm to present the biographies of the 6 directors C. Panel with a photographic reproduction of the room in 1912 D. Panel of 35 x 120 cm with a reproduction of the Winnerl clock

D C

B

B A

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Visual content

Video archive: 40 scientists attend a radio telescope project meeting, 1998 © SSR SRG

Video archive: Gilbert Jornod. Second intercalaire, 1997 © SSR SRG

Video archive: Giovanni Busca. Survey on accelerating time, 1995 © SSR SRG

Video archive: Major contract with ESA, 1998 © SSR SRG

Winnerl clock

Committee room with spectrography system and Winnerl clock, 1912 © Office du patrimoine et de l’archéologie du canton de Neuchâtel

Art nouveau frieze that decorates the top of the walls

The 3rd director Edmond Guyot in the technical room © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

Party for the retirement of the 5th director, Jacques Bonanomi © Familly Juan

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3. Darkroom Making time real In this space, visitors will be plunged into darkness where the lighting will be red as if a photographer was developing images. The smell of chemicals used in the development of the photographs will enhance this atmosphere. About 15 light boxes will be placed on the work surfaces and will reveal glass plate photographs of the universe, star spectra, galaxies or stars for the measurement of time! In the centre, in the disused sink, a video screen will show an archive film on the process of developing these images and how time was measured. Finally, during guided tours, spectroscopy experiments will show visitors how the atmosphere of stars can be studied. Contents 1. Photographs of the sun, galaxies, etc, taken with the Zeiss telescope 2. Photographs of stars taken with the zenithal telescope PZT for the definition of the exact time as early as the 1950s 3. Photographs of star spectra taken with the spectrograph 4. 2 test benches for spectroscopy demonstrations 5. Video screen with an archive film on the development of photographs 6. Soundtrack about measuring time with the stars Design The space will be plunged into darkness and will be fully illuminated with red lamps. Visitors will enter through the entrance gate (labyrinth) with a soundtrack that talks about measuring time with the stars. The images will be fixed in light boxes with lighting from behind. They will be arranged on 2 work surfaces that run along the walls of the room. A spectroscope will be used to decompose the light coming from different materials or gases for physics demonstrations. In the sink a video screen will be installed for the broadcasting of an archive film. A. A loudspeaker will broadcast a soundtrack about measuring time with the stars B. A 10-inch video screen integrated in a sink with headphones C. 15 light boxes containing photographs D. 2 test benches with light sources and different lenses for spectroscopy demonstrations

D D

B

C

A C

Design luminous box Black wooden boxes 20 x 25 cm and 6 cm high with a plexiglas window to protect the images. A LED lighting system will illuminate the images from below.

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Fig. 8.

Figure de diffraction obtenue en photographiant Altaïr (pose 30 minutes). 19

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Fig. 9.

La nébuleuse d'Orion photographiée au grand réfracteur (pose heure).

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Historical image of a constellation of stars on a glass plate © MIH

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Fig. 10.

Photographie du soleil lors de l'éclipsé du 19 juin 1938 (instantané).

Video archive: Development of photographs in the darkroom, 1965 © SSR SRG

Une photographie de la lune lors de l'éclipsé du 8 janvier 1936 (pose de 10 secondes).

Star spectrum taken with a spectrograph © MIH

Halogen lamp

LED lamp

Energy-saving lamp Spectroscopy experiment with different types of bulbs © Lucien Falco

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1 ^B

Historical image of the sun eclipse of June 19, 1938 © Neuchâtel State Archives

Fig. 11.

Star spectrum taken with a spectrograph © MIH

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Historical image of the Orion Nebula © Neuchâtel State Archives

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Light bulb spectras © Lucien Falco


4. Astronomical dome Time manufacture in the infinitely large This circular room, 8 metres in diameter, is the magical part of the Neuchâtel Observatory! Visitors will be plunged into the infinitely large, the Universe and its mysteries. In the centre of the dome the 4.5 metres long Zeiss telescope stands majestically, the only one of its kind in the world! The lighting will be worked on as for a theatre play, to reinforce the emotional impact of the telescope and the dome on the audience and the feeling of infinity that emanates from them. As in a planetarium, a starry background will be animated. Looking at the stars we travel through time, light takes millions of years to reach us, it is relative time. The passage of the stars at the meridian each night allowed astronomers to set their clocks to define time, this is objective time. Visitors will be able to discover the different astronomical instruments used for observing the sky and measuring time with stars. Two diagrams will show the time scales from the Big Bang to the present day. Contents 1. A presentation and pictures of the different astronomical instruments used at the observatory: Zeiss telescope, meridian telescope, Bamberg telescope, zenithal telescope PZT, astrolab Danjon 2. A diagram of time determination 3. A video screen with an archive film on time measurement with the meridian telescope 4. A diagram of Carl Sagan’s cosmic calendar, which presents the history of the Universe, from the Big Bang to the present day, to a human scale 5. A timeline of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day 6. A QR-Code to allow to listen to some anecdotes with a smartphone taken from the memoirs of Edmond Guyot (3rd director) Design The centre of the room is occupied by the Zeiss telescope and its platform. Three large walls will allow the different instruments used for time measurement and astronomy for more than 100 years to be displayed. A diagram with the functional chain for determining astronomical time will give a technical explanation and an archive film will help to understand these stages. A timeline with images will present the key dates in the development of the Observatory over 150 years.

Astronomical dome with Zeiss Telescope

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A. A panel measuring 460 x 150 cm and 3 panels measuring 210 x 150 cm, to present the 150 years of activity of the observatory and the astronomical instruments used B. A video screen 24 inches C. 2 panels of 42 x 21 cm, to present the cosmic calendar and the timeline of the Big Bang

A’

B C

A’

A’’ A Examples of panels

A’

A’’

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Visual content

Meridian telescope © DAV-FP

Zeiss telescope in 1912 © Zeiss Archive

Zenithal telescope © DAV-FP

Astrolab Danjon © HBN Editor

Figure 21 : Chaîne fonctionnelle pour la détermination de l’heure astronomique* à l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel, en 1881.

Diagram of the functional chain for the determination of astronomical 29 time © HE-Arc, Degrigny

Video archive: Report on the centenary of the Neuchâtel Observatory, 1958 © Cinemathèque Suisse

Astronomer taking up the passage of the stars, 1946 © DAV-FP

Meridian building, 1905 © DAV-OPAN

Timeline from the Big Bang to now © NASA

Cosmic calendar by Carl Sagan © ??

DAV-FP = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret DAV-OPAN = © Office du patrimoine et de l’archéologie du canton de Neuchâtel, Section conservation du patrimoine

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Basement of the Hirsch Pavilion Exit Seismograph with its mass of 18 tons in the centre and its 4 concrete pillars

Windows Doors Route

Central heating

8 5

9 6 7

Platform pillar

Zeiss telescope base Wheels and platform motor Concrete pillars for the stability of reference clocks

Telescope counterweight

Below are some images of the current condition of the basement rooms before they are cleaned or repainted, for the installation of the exhibition.

5. Machine room

6. Space Jornod

7. Clocks room

8. Technical room

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9. Seismograph room


5. The machine room Time manufacture in the infinitely small In this circular space, 8 metres in diameter, is the machine room of the Zeiss telescope. The centre of the space is occupied by the mechanism and the gears. Visitors will have the impression of acting in Charlie Chaplin’s film «Modern Times», but they will be plunged into another infinitely more complex and smaller mechanism, the atoms! They will discover how in 1967, after millennia of observing the stars to define time, humanity revolutionised its measure thanks to the infinitely small, the atoms. A new definition of the second is enacted, based on 9’192’631’770 periods of oscillation of the frequency of a caesium atom. The precision of today’s atomic clocks is such that they lose 1 second every 13.8 billion years, the age of the Universe! The observation of the passage of the stars has therefore been abandoned! Visitors will be able to discover an archive video on the functioning of an atomic clock with its former director Giovanni Busca, diagrams on the evolution of time measurement from the Greeks to the present day and a presentation of the first quartz and atomic clocks. Finally, they will be able to see how the observatory, after improving the accuracy of the region’s watches, has equipped the European Space Agency’s Galileo satellites, the European GPS, with atomic clocks. Contents 1. A diagram of the evolution of the measurement of time over the centuries 2. A presentation of the first quartz and atomic clocks 3. A presentation of the atomic clocks developed for the Galileo satellite project 4. An audio extract from Jacques Bonanomi (5th director) explaining the evolution of time measurement with atomic clocks 5. An archive film on how an atomic clock works Design The centre of the room is occupied by the mechanism of the Zeiss telescope. Three large walls will present the various instruments used to measure time with quartz and atomic clocks, between 1950 and 2007. A diagram of the evolution of time measurement over the centuries will enable visitors to understand how the precision of these measurements has accelerated from the industrial era to the present day.

The driving mechanism for the Zeiss telescope

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A. 2 panels of 210 x 150 cm and a panel of 460 x 150 cm, to present the measuring instruments used and the diagram of the evolution of time measurement B. A video screen 24 inches C. An audio box with headphones

A’

A’ C

A’’ B Examples of panels

A’

A’’

B

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Visual content

Quartz clock © DAV-FP

Atomic clock © DAV-EXP

Setting of an atomic clock by a technician, circa 1980 © DAV-EXP

Development of an atomic clock , circa 1990 © DAV-EXP

Diagram of the evolution of the accuracy of time measurement © Gaetano Mileti

Atomic clock © DAV-EXP

VIP-Line system © DAV-EXP

Video archive: Giovanni Busca, Time measuring instruments, 1995 © SSR SRG

Galileo satellite equipped with atomic clocks from Neuchâtel © ESA

DAV-EXP = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds L’Express DAV-FP = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

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6. Space Jornod Time transmission and Time for the watchmakers In this area, visitors will discover the two main activities of the observatory: Time transmission and chronometric competitions. The transmission of time began with the telegraph in 1860 to communicate it to watchmaking companies. Then the transmission was made by TSF signals transmitted by radio, from 1926, and finally by telephone, from 1934. With the chronometry competitions, visitors will discover the techniques that were used to test the quality of chronometers and watches, as well as the various certificates issued by the observatory. When a watch brand won an award, it used this information in advertising its products. Visitors will be able to discover some examples of advertising (paper and films). Contents 1. A presentation of the methods used for time transmission by the observatory 2. A diagram of the time distribution 3. An audio extract from 1940 by Edmond Guyot (3rd director) which explains how time distribution worked 4. A presentation of the methods used to control chronometers and certify the quality of watches 5. Images of the products evaluated in competitions 6. Copies of quality certificates 7. An archive film on the control of the chronometers 8. An advertising film of the Zenith brand which presents the quality of its products certified by the observatory 9. Several advertisements of watch brands which mention the observatory Design Square room with 3 walls available. To make the visitors understand the 2 spaces, the floor will be painted in dark grey to separate these two areas. The time transmission area will have a display with the telegraph network of 1860, a panel explaining the measurement of time by radio wave and telephone, and an audio system with an archive interview by E. Guyot on the distribution of time. In the chronometric competitions area visitors will find a panel explaining the different stages of certification of chronometers and watches with the certificates that were distributed to the watch brands. A touch screen will present images of different certified watches and the list of the watch brands that won prizes with an archive film. An old TV set from the 60s will show an advertisement of the Zenith brand and several advertisements will be displayed on the wall.

Chronometric service hall with the director Louis Arndt and his assistant © Neuchâtel State Archives

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A

Time transmission A. A panel 210 x 150 cm to present the transmission of time by telephone and radio B. A display of 80 x 160 cm and 90 cm high, to show the telegraph transmission in the cities of the region C. An audio box with headphones

Time Transmission

C

B

Chronometry

D

D. A display with a 22-inch touch screen to present the chronometers in competitions, and the watch brands that took part in these competitions E. A panel of 210 x 150 cm, to present the methods used to control the chronometers and to certify the quality of the products F. A display of 140 x 30 cm and 90 cm high with a vintage TV for the broadcasting of a Zenith brand advertising film

Chronometry

F

E

Examples of displays

B Transmission par télégraphe Sitas mollento qui aut res dest quis as dolum et, suntio. Unt apicius, et vit dolorro ommodi beaquisque plignimenim essit omnihil laccus desectet moluptasit dit volorernati sitis everionse quodign aturemp oressum autecta quidunt, omnisquaecte sus vellatqui con evelluptis a plam volupta quatem as et rent aliquis sam, offici doluptint hillabo rerfero odit molore ma con pa et occabo. Ut dolorio il essector ad est aborepe mi, esenderione vidigenditio qui to conesto tatur, tem autem volorep taturitium, cusapis cimint exernatium nullatiis exerum qui idelenis sequo doluptus molectius escit officim.

F D

F

D

E

• Certified watches • Watch brands • Archive film Touch screen display

35


Examples of panels

A

F

36


Visual content

Diploma certifying the quality of watches © Neuchâtel State Archives

Chronometer rating, 1946 © DAV-FP

Measuring the beat of a chronometer © DAV-FP

Figure 23 : Chaîne fonctionnelle pour la transmission de l’heure à l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel, en 1881.

TSF time signal transmitter station © Family Guyot

Diagram of the functional chain for the31transmission of time © HE-Arc, Degrigny

Hermann Stroele, assistant astronomer, 1910 © Pierre-René Beljean

Video archive: Control of chronometers for their certification, 1959 © DAV

Video archive: Zenith advertising, 1956 © DAV

Zenith advertising, 1955 © MIH

Nivarox advertising, 1961 © Neuchâtel State Archives

DAV-FP = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret DAV = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel

37


7. Clocks room Time Keeping After passing through two heavy doors, visitors will have the impression of arriving in a bank vault! It is a bit like the Holy Grail of this visit, this square room is the “guardian of time”, where determined time was kept in precision clocks. The pressure, the temperature of 16.4°C and the humidity were controlled for the stability of these instruments. Visitors will discover two clock models, marvels of precision, which kept time before it was broadcast. A soundtrack will broadcast the ticking of the clocks and a discussion between two technicians about setting time. The lighting will vary in intensity, like the beating of a heart, to give visitors the feeling that time is alive. Contents 1. A presentation of the technical conditions for time conservation 2. A diagram of time determination 3. Photographic reproductions of the Leroy and Zenith clocks installed at the time 4. Historical photographs 5. A sound atmosphere with the clocks ticking Design This room is cramped. On the concrete pillars where the precision clocks were fixed, reproductions of these clocks will be placed on a scale of 1:1. On 2 walls will be placed the information panel and the time conservation diagram. Visitors will be accompanied by the soundtrack of a clock. A. A panel of 150 x 100 cm, to present the technical conditions of conservation and the time conservation diagram B. 2 panels of 35 x 120 cm, with the reproduction of the Leroy and Zenith precision clocks C. A loudspeaker will diffuse a clock ticking sound atmosphere

C B

B A

A constant-pressure clock Leroy for the conservation of time

38


Visual content

A constant-pressure clock Leroy for the conservation of time

A constant-pressure clock Zenith

A constant-pressure clock Hipp © DAV-FP

30 Diagram of the functional chain for the conservation of time © HE-Arc, Degrigny

Isolated and hermetic door of the clocks room © DAV-FP

Technician checking a precision clock © DAV-FP

Figure 22 : Chaîne fonctionnelle pour la conservation de l’heure à l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel, en 1881.

DAV-FP = © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

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8. Technical room Time signal at 12:30 pm Visitors will be able to listen to the time signal which has been broadcast on Swiss radio every day at 12:30 pm. The emblematic object is a vintage radio and a photograph from the 1950s. Contents 1. An audio extract of the time signal broadcast on the radio at 12:30 pm 2. An information panel with historical information 3. A radio station from the 50s 4. A picture of a family meal in the 1950s in Switzerland Design This cramped room is a place of passage. On a display, a vintage radio will allow visitors to listen to the time signal broadcast on Swiss radio for 50 years. On the wall, a large picture will show a Swiss family eating their lunch while listening to the radio. A. A display with a vintage radio that broadcasts different versions of the time signal B. A panel 100 x 60 cm for displaying the image of the family meal C. A panel of 30 x 42 cm to present information

B C A

Visual and technical contents

Typical Swiss family meal in the 1950s © SSR SRG

40

Radio from the 1950s © Shutterstock


9. Seismograph room Messages from the earth In this space, visitors enter the depths of the earth, a world of vibrations, jolts and shocks! In this cavern with crumbling walls, a huge dark 18-tonne mass, the Quervain-Piccard seismograph, invented by the scientists Alfred de Quervain and Auguste Piccard and used from 1927 to 1980, stands enthroned. Visitors will see the traces of the big 1935 earthquake in Offenburg, Germany, or the shock of the waves on the Atlantic coast during great storms, on seismograms. They were drawn with three needles that marked large sheets of charcoal blackened paper revolving around a cylinder. The seismograph will be used for public demonstrations and will be connected to the internet, and visitors will also be able to discover its successor, a small electronic box installed at its feet directly connected to the Swiss Seismological Service in Zurich. Contents 1. A presentation of the seismograph with 3D diagrams and historical photographs 2. Several images of seismograms 3. An audio extract from 1940 by Edmond Guyot (3rd director) who explains how the seismograph works and talks about the 135 earthquakes recorded in 1939 4. A QR-Code to allow to listen to a poem with a smartphone written in 1927 by an assistant of the Observatory at the inauguration of the seismograph Design This room is cramped and is almost completely occupied by the seismograph. A panel will allow it to be presented with 3D diagrams and a sound archive from 1940 with director E. Guyot will explain how it works. On the cylinder that was used to print the earthquakes, a large paper printed with a seismogram will be placed on the system to show the result to visitors. Several seismograms will be displayed to show the earthquakes that have marked its history.

A technician observing the readout on the Quervain-Piccard seismograph, 1958 © Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel, Fonds Fernand Perret

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A. A panel of 210 x 150 cm present the technical aspects B. 5 images, show seismograms of different earthquakes C. An audio box with headphones

Examples of panels

A

B

42

A B

C


Visual content

Quelques notions de sismologie Le sismographe « de Quervain-Piccard » est dit universel. Il permet d’enregistrer autant les tremblements de terre proches que lointains. Bien qu’il puisse enregistrer des séismes de l’autre côté de la planète, il a surtout été utilisé scientifiquement pour mesurer des séismes dans un rayon de 700 km. Lors d’un tremblement de terre, deux types d’ondes sismiques sont émises : les ondes superficielles et celles se propageant dans les profondeurs. Les ondes superficielles (L et W) sont surtout mesurées pour les séismes lointains et les ondes se propageant dans la terre (P et S) pour les séismes locaux. Les ondes P sont dites primaires et longitudinales, les ondes S secondaires et transversales. Le sismographe « de Quervain-Piccard » permet de mesurer les ondes selon 3 axes : X et Y (horizontaux) et l’axe Z (vertical). Un tremblement de terre donnera donc trois tracés. Sur un relevé de mesure (sismogramme), le début de l’enregistrement de ces ondes se distingue par un changement d’amplitude et de période (fig.4a). Les ondes P et S ont une vitesse de déplacement différente, respectivement 6 kilomètres par seconde et 3,5 kilomètres par seconde, moyennant quelques variations en fonction de la nature du sol. Selon l’écart entre les moments d’arrivée où ces deux ondes, il est possible de calculer la distance séparant le point d’émission de l’onde (épicentre ou foyer du séisme) par rapport à la station de mesure (sismographe). L’épicentre se trouve sur le périmètre d’un cercle tracé autour de la station de mesure correspondant au rayon de la distance calculée. (Guyot, 1937)

The Quervain-Piccard seismograph © Family Juan

Technician with the seismograph © Bibliothèque de la Ville de

L’intersection des trois cercles issus des trois audiovisuel, centres de mesure indique la position de l’épicentre La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département Fonds Fernand Perret du séisme (fig.4b) :

Le mouvement amplifié est ensuite transmis à une tige de commande (B) grâce à la molette (3). Cette tige de commande transmet le mouvement au levier de réglage (C). La tige de commande est équipée d’un piston (4) qui permet d’absorber les mouvements dans le cas où le levier de réglage entre en contact avec les butées (8) servant à empêcher des dégâts au niveau de l’aiguille en cas de mouvement trop important. Des poids amovibles (7) et une molette (6) réglant la position du point de rotation du levier de réglage servent à modifier son facteur d’amplification. Un système de réglage (5) permet aussi de régler la longueur de la tige (B). Par ces réglages on pourra corriger l’impact des variations de température sur l’amplification et définir la position de référence de l’aiguille d’enregistrement. III. Le système de marquage: les aiguilles Une fois le mouvement arrivé au poussoir (D), celui-ci le transmet au pivot de l’aiguille (E). Le système de pivot de l’aiguille est basé sur un ressort et un fil. Le ressort et la liaison de guidage (10) permettent de faire une liaison souple par rapport au bâti tandis que le fil et son support (11) assurent un axe de rotation au pivot. L’aguille est ensuite posée sur le pivot (12). En parallèle un système d’aimant permanent est placé sur le système de pivot afin de stabiliser les aiguilles et de les replacer au centre entre chaque onde. L’enregistrement du sismogramme se fait de manière similaire pour 3D seismograph model les trois aiguilles (X. Y et Z) qui viennent gratter le noir de fumée sur le papier à mesure que celui© CIFOM, ci défileVermot sous leurs pointes. (fig.11)

Fig.4 : Illustration expliquant la détermination de l’épicentre d’un séisme (fictif) par triangulation des distances calculées en comparant le décalage des ondes P et S des trois sites équipés d’un sismographe « de Quervain-

Diagram Piccard ». of the triangulation to find the epicentre © HE-Arc, Degrigny

Le sismologue pourra exploiter davantage d’information que la seule définition de l’épicentre. Le tracé dépendra du foyer, du parcours de l’onde dans le sol et du système de mesure. Puisque l’on connait le troisième et que l’on calcule le premier, il est possible d’étudier le parcours effectué par l’onde dans le sol. L’étude des ondes sismiques permet d’émettre des hypothèses sur les types de sols qui séparent le foyer du sismographe. Ce type de recherche se fait aussi en générant volontairement des séismes à l’aide d’explosifs dont la puissance est connu puis d’observer le résultat de l’onde après avoir parcouru des kilomètres dans le sol. 4

Fig.11 : illustration du mouvement de l’aiguille Z pour l’enregistrement des séismes.

Diagram of the operation of the seismograph needles © HE-Arc, Degrigny

Seismogram showing the microseisms due to sea waves in the Atlantic, 1937 © Neuchâtel State Archives

8

Seismogram showing the December 30, 1935 earthquake in Offenburg, Germany © Neuchâtel State Archives

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Target audiences The target audience for my project is essentially defined according to cultural targeting strategies developed by the London Science Museum and by other museums and tourist attractions in the UK. These strategies identify two audience groups: the Primary audience and the Secondary audience. Then, referring to the MHM Cultural Segments, they group visitors according to their interests and motivations. As a result, the design exhibition is mainly intended for the primary audience: the exhibition must provide this audience with the best possible experience. As for the secondary audience, the exhibition offers these visitors additional elements such as fact sheets, interactive items, audio guides, hands-on activities, etc. Designed according to these concepts, an exhibition has the advantage of flexibility, as it does not exclude other possible audiences. I also determined the audience for my exhibition from Swiss statistics on museums visitors. Numbers show that the largest proportion of them work in the tertiary sector and are aged between 15 and 60 years old. Primary audience – Adults – Urban from the tertiary sector – Visitors with a good general education and an interest in science, technology and history – Avid cultural consumers (Essence in MHM Culture Segments) High quality and detailed information presented on text/photo panels and touch screens are the main elements of the scenography for this audience. The addition of sound and archival material is important to enable them to feel absorbed by the narrative, to improve their understanding and to enrich their experience. The visitors usually prefer to visit an exhibition on their own or in small groups. Secondary audience – Students from technical or engineering schools – Visitors with a scientific and technical training (astronomers, watchmakers, etc.) – Learning and discovering in community (Expression in MHM Culture Segments) For this audience, it is necessary to develop complementary tools, as they expect to be stimulated with practical activities and intellectually. They mainly prefer to visit an exhibition in a group. The MIH visitors’ statistics show that the audience for exhibitions on horology isn’t regional, but international: 25% of visitors are from the Canton of Neuchâtel, 25% from Switzerland, 25% from Europe and 25% from the rest of the world. My exhibition content will therefore be available in three languages, French, German and English.

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Prototype testing I tested the exhibition design and the target audiences with the Experience prototyping method, which promotes active participation in design through the subjective involvement of future exhibition visitors. I organized five guided tours with adults aged between 40 and 80 years old (four women, five men). They all had a common interest in culture. They came from different professional and social backgrounds (decorator, scenographer, doctor, curator, artist, engineer, watchmaker, technician, entrepreneur). My scope was to analyze their reactions, in order to understand their opinions on the content, on the scenography and their interest in the project. In each room, testers were explained about topics and presented with the material that I plan to use. For this purpose, in the room of the Hirsch Memorial I created a screen prototype with cardboard and I also constructed a display with a vintage radio in the Technical room. Video archives were shown on a laptop. Reports and pictures from the visits are available on my blog.

Mock-up display panel: Entrance hall Simulation of a display (made of cardboard) with touch screen. The screen is represented by a few A4 pages with text and images

Mock-up display panel: Darkroom Test of the video screen integrated in a sink with an archive film showing the development of the photos

Thanks to these visits, I was able to notice that: – The response from testers were very positive. The Hirsch Pavilion fascinated them, as well as the scientific instruments. They all seemed very interested in the Observatory instruments. – The elements of the building (the Hirsch Memorial, the Zeiss telescope and the seismograph) along with historical pictures and movies proved to be very valuable aids. Archive films in particular helped to reinforce the narrative, as they contextualized the topics. – Visitors would have liked to watch the sky with the telescope. I therefore understood that it will be necessary to schedule sky observations in the evening several times a year. In this way, my project would definitely offer a richer experience than traditional museums. – It would be interesting to work on special lighting effects for the dome, like in a theater play, to reinforce the emotional impact of the telescope on the audience. Visitors pointed out that a feeling of infinity emanated from it. I plan to create a kind of animated planetarium. – The amount of content in the basement rooms has to be reduced. As part of the developments plan for my exhibition project after my Master Design, I will test the exhibition project with the secondary audience, and students from the regions technical schools more in particularly. Tools for this audience will be conceived in collaboration with our cultural mediation partner “La Lucarne”.

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TEAM AND BUSINESS FORM Project management The exhibition will be managed by the non-profit EspaceTemps association, listed in the commercial register. At the beginning of 2020, it had 45 support members and eight board members. Pierre-René Beljean – President, in charge of the contact with the Neuchâtel government; he organizes the board meetings, the annual activities program, the guided tours; active in the exhibition project Margrit Guyomarch – Cashier Daniel Vermot – Secretary Olivier Lange – In charge of equipment maintenance; guided tours Pierre-Alain Perrinjaquet – In charge of archives, agenda; active in exhibition project Marc-Olivier Schatz – Curator, scenographer and graphic designer of the exhibition Jean-Luc Simon – In charge of the Quervain-Piccard seismograph Pierre Sydler – In charge of the safeguard of the mires building

Stakeholders Scientific consultants

Scientific partners

Rossella Baldi, historian Claire Piguet, historian Gaetano Mileti, scientist Christian Degrigny, professor conservation-restoration Lucien Falco, physician

Time and Frequency Laboratory Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM) Swiss academies of arts and sciences Federal Institute of Metrology METAS Institutional partners

Technical consultants Xavier Hool, scenographer David Pochon, lighting designer Jacques Matthey, audio-visual editor Harnold Weber, sound technician Communication consultant

EspaceTemps association

Céline Jacopin, Le Coin’Com Mediation consultant Sara Terrier, La Lucarne

Exhibition

Archive sources Neuchâtel State Archives Neuchâtel Public Library La Chaux-de-Fonds Library RTS Archives Memoriav

Media partners Le Temps, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Foundation High Horology Newspaper Swiss cultural guides,...

Sponsors Foundation, Commercial, State, Crowdfunding

More information in my blog.

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Neuchâtel Tourism Office Office du patrimoine et de l’archéologie du canton de Neuchâtel Service de la culture du canton de Neuchâtel Ville et Canton de Neuchâtel Université de Neuchâtel HE-Arc conservation-restauration Musée international d’horlogerie de La Chaux-de-Fonds Musée d’horlogerie du Locle Association Automates et Merveilles Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Neuchâtel Swiss National Heritage League Federal Office of Culture Pro Helvetia

Suppliers

Visitors, public

Translator, carpenter, electrician, painter, printer, decorator,...

Adults, family, young people, students


FINANCIAL PLANNING Budget for the realization of the exhibition The planning, design and implementation elements will be developed on a voluntary basis by the members of the EspaceTemps association. The realization, production and assembly will be carried out by suppliers. An invitation to tender will be issued after finalizing the design of each room; fundraising will be launched subsequently. Supplier work and material costs Planning Project Manager Research Identification artefacts, iconography, filmography Design, scriptwriting Designer Research artefacts, iconography, filmography Design scenography Graphic design Mediation programme for children and students Realization Writing Revision, proofreading Translations: German, English Images with licences and copyrights - 50 photographs (DAV La Chaux-de-Fonds) - 10 films (SSR SRG + Cinémathèque Suisse) - 3 radio archives (SSR SRG) Recording of an actor to read out anecdotes for the audioguide via QR-Code (approx. 60 minutes (20 minutes per language, FR, DE, EN)) Photographic reproduction of 4 clocks Production, manufacture and assembly Building site management - Painting - Electricity - Carpentry - Lighting installation - Montage Graphic production (panels, cartels, titles, etc.) Audio/video editing, touch screens Lighting TV screen, 10’’/24’’ (6) : CHF 1’500.– Touch screen Samsung, 22’’ (3) : CHF 2’600.– Audio system (3) : CHF 600.– Audio headphones (15): CHF 500.– Audio system Clocks room: CHF 500.– Spectroscopy experiments (telescope, prism, slide reader, spectroscope,...) Testing Modifications, additions Opening Inauguration Promotion (printed matter (flyers, A3 posters), mailings,...) Total costs Reserve Total

Voluntary work of the members of the EspaceTemps association 20’000.– 15’000.– 10’000.– 12’000.– 12’000.– 12’000.– 8’000.–

10’000.– 12’000.– 4’000.– 10’000.-

15’000.– 4’000.–

1’000.– 3’500.– 500.– 1’000.– 3’000.–

70’000.–

20’000.–

13’000.– 20’000.– 20’000.–

6’000.–

1’000.– 5’000.– 5’000.– 4’000.– 189’000.– 21’000.– 210’000.–

130’000.–

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Operating budget of the EspaceTemps association Income of the association Membership fees are the regular income of the association. It depends on the number of members. In 2020, it achieved CHF 2’800.– (45 members). Individual Couple Student Collective Support member Life member of the Top Club 1’858

CHF 50.– CHF 80.– CHF 20.– CHF 100.– from CHF 200.–

Income from the exhibition Admission tickets CHF 8.– Adults, CHF 5.– AHV, free for children and students Guided tours CHF 100.– guide + entrance fee Merchandising Books, postcards, objects,… Special events Sky observations, workshops, lectures, concerts,…

from CHF 1’858.–

The exhibition will be open about 80 days a year, from the beginning of March to the end of November, from Saturday to Sunday from 2 to 5 pm and one Friday a month from 8 to 11 pm. The following budgets are calculated according to different variants: – – – – – –

Variants with 1’000, 1’500 and 2’000 visitors per year Variants with 15, 20 and 25 guided tours per year (with an average of 15 persons per guided tour) Entrance fee: CHF 5.– (average between the highest and the lowest price) Estimates of the money spent by visitors in the shop; calculations are for CHF 10.– per a visitor on two Guardians will be remunerated CHF 30.– per hour, like in the Musée d’histoire in Le Landeron Guides for guided tours will be paid CHF 50.– per hour.

Budget without the salaries of guides nor guardians. These tasks are voluntary. Revenues Admissions Guided tours (CHF 100.– guide + entrance fee) Shop (books, postcards, objects,…) Membership fees (50 members) Donations Bank interest Total

1’000 visitors + 15 guided tours

1’500 visitors + 20 guided tours

2’000 visitors + 25 guided tours

5’000.– 2’625.– 6’125.– 3’000.– 500.– 20.– 17’270.–

7’500.– 3’500.– 9’000.– 3’000.– 750.– 20.– 23’770.–

10’000.– 4’375.– 11’875.– 3’000.– 750.– 20.– 30’020.–

2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 4’590.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 11’120.–

2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 6’750.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 13’280.–

2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 8’900.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 15’430.–

Expenses Events and mediation (lectures, workshop...) Facilities maintenance Insurances Website Shop (books, postcards, objects,…) Office supplies (print, postal shipping,...) Exhibition update and maintenance Advertising (flyer, poster, social media,...) Committee fees Bank charges Total

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Budget with the fees of guides and guardians. From 1’500 visitors per year, we will not need sponsors to support us. Revenues Admissions Guided tours (CHF 100.– guide + entrance fee) Shop (books, postcards, objects,…) Membership fees (50 members) Donations Sponsors Bank interest Total

1’000 visitors + 15 guided tours

1’500 visitors + 20 guided tours

2’000 visitors + 25 guided tours

5’000.– 2’625.– 6’125.– 3’000.– 500.– 5’000.– 20.– 22’270.–

7’500.– 3’500.– 9’000.– 3’000.– 750.– 5’000.– 20.– 28’770.–

10’000.– 4’375.– 11’875.– 3’000.– 750.– 5’000.– 20.– 35’020.–

7’200.– 750.– 2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 4’590.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 19’070.–

7’200.– 1’000.– 2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 6’750.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 21’480.–

7’200.– 1’250.– 2’000.– 1’000.– 800.– 50.– 8’900.– 500.– 1’000.– 1’000.– 150.– 30.– 23’880.–

Expenses 240 hours of guarding (token salary of 30.–/hour) Guided tours (token salary of 50.–/hour) Events and mediation (lectures, workshop...) Facilities maintenance Insurances Website Shop (books, postcards, objects,…) Office supplies (print, postal shipping,...) Exhibition update and maintenance Advertising (flyer, poster, social media,...) Committee fees Bank charges Total

The maintenance costs of the building (heating, electricity and cleaning service) is at the charge, of the owner, the Neuchâtel Canton.

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Funding Financing the exhibition The fundraising campaign must collect CHF 210’000.–. It will start after all the offers from subcontractors have been submitted to the association board and approved. The campaign should thus be launched in August 2021 and will last till December 2021. Public and private foundations, as well as Cantons and cities, are the primary sources for funding cultural projects in Switzerland and in the Neuchâtel region. The selection of possible sponsors is divided into three groups. Sponsors are chosen on the basis of their reliability and their regular support to cultural projects, especially museums. Sponsors from the Canton of Neuchâtel will be approached in priority, as the exhibition project concerns the history of the region. The amount next to each foundation indicates the amount that the EspaceTemps will apply for. Foundations without any will be approached in case the first foundations won’t sponsor our project. Foundations in the Neuchâtel Canton – Loterie Romande 100’000.– – Fondation du Casino de Neuchâtel 10’000.– – Fondation culturelle BCN - Banque Cantonale Neuchâteloise 10’000.– – Banque Bonhôte 10’000.– – Service de la culture de l’Etat de Neuchâtel 5’000.– – Ville de Neuchâtel 5’000.– – Fondation Neuchâteloise Assurances du 125e anniversaire National foundations – Sandoz - Fondation de Famille – Ernst Göhner Foundation – Fondation Ernest Dubois – Foundation de la Haute Horlogerie – Pro Helvetia

20’000.– 10’000.– 10’000.– 10’000.– 5’000.–

Companies We will contact watchmaking brands in the Jura Arc whose history has a meaningful connection with the Observatory. In particular, we will contact: – Zenith (Le Locle) 5’000.– – Ulysse Nardin (La Chaux-de-Fonds) 5’000.– – Longines (St-Imier) 5’000.– – Omega (Biel). Financing annual activities Each year, the fundraising campaign will also have to collect CHF 5’000.–. This money will be asked from the two main Neuchâtel sponsors but also to one of the watchmaking companies that would like to establish a partnership with the exhibition. – Loterie Romande – Fondation culturelle BCN - Banque Cantonale Neuchâteloise – Zenith (Le Locle)

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3’000.– 1’000.– 1’000.–


Advantages for partners – To contribute to a unique project on the Swiss scientific heritage – To benefit from visibility at regional and national level – To reach a new audience – To benefit from the advantages of a communication in three languages – To benefit from a sumptuous setting where to organize events or company outings. Services offered to sponsors – Company/Foundation logo mentioned on the promotional material of the exhibition: posters, leaflets, etc. – Company/Foundation name displayed at the entrance to the exhibition on “Impressum” board – Invitations to the opening of the exhibition – Guided tours purposely organized for the sponsors – Other more special services are possible for main sponsors. They will be discussed and organized on a case-by-case basis. My blog offers the complete list of sponsors that I selected.

Painter and astronomer to fix the eternity, circa 1950 © Family Guyot

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TIMING

Planification Research artefacts, readings Conception, scenario Design scenography Prototype Tests prototype Call for bids Fundraising Writing texts Proofreading, corrections Translations DE + EN Graphic design scenography Graphic design communication Sound editing Film editing Realization, mounting Mediation programme Final tests Promotion, advertising

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Team EspaceTemps Association

Technical Consultants

Communication Consultant

Sponsors

Scientific Consultants

Mediation Consultant

Suppliers

Public

12.2019

06.2019

12.2018

06.2018

Timetable for carrying out the exhibition


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17.06.–18.06.2023 – Exhibition opening

26.01.–28.01.2021 – MAD Examination

06.2023

12.2022

06.2022

12.2021

06.2021

12.2020

06.2020


Operational planning of the exhibition 42% of Swiss people do volunteer work on a regular basis, which represents 660 million hours of work and around CHF 34 billion (source: Federal Statistical Office). In the Neuchâtel region, several museums operate thanks to the voluntary work of their members: among them, the Maison blanche Le Corbusier in La Chaux-de-Fonds (4’000 visitors a year), the Musée d’histoire in Le Landeron (1’500 visitors) and the Musée d’art et d’histoire in La Neuveville (800 visitors). For other similar museums, see my blog. These museums have limited opening hours due to their voluntary organization. As a consequence, they only open eight months a year (from April to November) and at weekends. Admission is sometimes free, with a kitty at the exit for donations. Choice of organisation for our project For the exhibition project at the Hirsch Pavilion, the EspaceTemps association has decided to follow the examples of the Musée d’histoire in Le Landeron and the Musée d’art et d’histoire in La Neuveville. The exhibition will therefore be open nine months a year (approximately 80 days) from the beginning of March to the end of November. On Saturdays and Sundays, the Hirsch Pavilion will be open from 2 to 5 pm. One Friday a month, it will open in the evening too, from 8 to 11 pm in order to offer visitors the chance to observe the sky with the Zeiss telescope (this activity won’t be possible during Summer season, when it gets dark around midnight). Guided tours will take place all around the year, subject to booking and the availability of guides. Four public lectures will also be held during the year. Monthly workshops on time measurement, spectroscopy and seismology will be held several times a year. The EspaceTemps association expects between 1’500 and 2’000 visitors per year for the first three years. Even though the exhibition will be a voluntary organization, I think it is important to pay the guides and guardians. The Musée d’histoire in Le Landeron and the Musée d’art et d’histoire in La Neuveville operate in this way. Moreover, as the number of members of the EspaceTemps is not elevated at the moment, we will have the possibility to hire students, unemployed persons, pensioners, etc. Open exhibition

Workshop

Sky observation

Lecture

WEEK 1 M

MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER

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MARKETING To promote the exhibition, information will be shared through the following channels: – Tourist Office of Neuchâtel – Neuchâtel Tourism, and other tourist offices in the Jura Arc – Espace de l’urbanisme horloger, La Chaux-de-Fonds – Museums; more in particular, watchmaking, science and history museums (distribution of flyers and posters) – Scientific and technical heritage sites in Switzerland (distribution of flyers and posters) – Chronométrophilia (Association suisse des amateurs d’horlogerie): articles in the association journal – Fédération Horlogère: articles in the federation journal – Swiss National Heritage League: listing on their website – Printed and online newspapers on watchmaking: press articles – Printed and online Swiss cultural guides – Social networks: posts on Instagram and Facebook in order to reach young people – University of Neuchâtel – Swiss astronomical society.

Communication plan The exhibition opening is scheduled for June 2023. To ensure optimal visibility to the event, we plan: – To invite personalities from the cultural, scientific, financial and political world at the opening – A press conference and a press kit – To collaborate with regional tourist operators – To organize special events for the occasion: lectures, workshops, guided tours, etc. – To create specific flyers and posters – To set a communication strategy on Instagram and Facebook – To create a website for the exhibition.

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CORPORATE IDENTITY Vision statement The EspaceTemps association wishes to safeguard the Neuchâtel Observatory, to create a dialogue between science in the past and science in the future in order to increase awareness of the value of scientific heritage for future generation.

Mission statement The missions of the EspaceTemps association are: – To create and manage an exhibition in the Hirsch Pavilion – To maintain the installations on the Observatory site - in particular the Hirsch Pavilion and elsewhere in the Neuchâtel region (Portalban and Chaumont sights, etc.) – To collect and preserve historical documents and information for future generations.

Graphic identity The graphic identity of the EspaceTemps association was created by exploring different features related to time, astronomy, clocks, stars and the Observatory building itself. The final logo has an ellipse, referring both to a clock or watch dial, but also to the shape of a galaxy. The dots remind as of the stars observed by astronomers to define time; they also remind numerals as of on dials. The colour blue is related to sky observation, the space and therefore science and technology.

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The communication elements to be developed are: Prints A 6-page leaflet in three languages and a A3 poster will be produced for distribution in the Canton of Neuchâtel and in the following locations: Tourist offices of the Jura Arc, hotels, museums, scientific and technical heritage sites, technical and engineering schools, universities, etc. The three axes to communicate this exhibition are: 1. The Neuchâtel Observatory, a unique scientific heritage to be rediscovered. 2. The measurement of time, from stars to atoms. 3. Broadcasting the time throughout Switzerland for more than a century. Website I developed a prototype of a few pages to show the contents I offer. It will be put online three months before the opening of the exhibition. The content will have a rich historical documentation of texts, photographs and videos that present the activities of the observatory and its research. The programme of activities will include the proposed lectures and workshops. Social networks Realization of campaigns on the social networks Instagram and Facebook, creating teasers around time measurement. This work will be entrusted to the marketing specialist and community manager, “Le Coin’Com”.

Exploring different options to find the graphic identity of the EspaceTemps association

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Poster / Flyer

Space and Time Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory Espace et temps: Histoires de l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel – Weltraum und Zeit: Geschichten aus der Neuenburger Sternwarte

EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH – 2000 Neuchâtel www.espacetemps.info — Mars – Novembre Samedi – Dimanche, 14:00 – 17:00 Et le dernier vendredi soir de chaque mois, 20:00 – 23:00

März – November Samstag – Sonntag, 14:00 – 17:00 Und am letzten Freitagabend eines jeden Monats, 20:00 – 23:00

Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory Espace et temps: Histoires de l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel – Weltraum und Zeit: Geschichten aus der Neuenburger Sternwarte

March – November Saturday – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00

EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH – 2000 Neuchâtel www.espacetemps.info — Mars – Novembre Samedi – Dimanche, 14:00 – 17:00 Et le dernier vendredi soir de chaque mois, 20:00 – 23:00

März – November Samstag – Sonntag, 14:00 – 17:00 Und am letzten Freitagabend eines jeden Monats, 20:00 – 23:00

March – November Saturday – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00

Space and Time

Space and Time

Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory

Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory

Espace et temps: Histoires de l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel – Weltraum und Zeit: Geschichten aus der Neuenburger Sternwarte

Espace et temps: Histoires de l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel – Weltraum und Zeit: Geschichten aus der Neuenburger Sternwarte

EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH – 2000 Neuchâtel www.espacetemps.info — Mars – Novembre Samedi – Dimanche, 14:00 – 17:00 Et le dernier vendredi soir de chaque mois, 20:00 – 23:00

EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH – 2000 Neuchâtel www.espacetemps.info — Mars – Novembre Samedi – Dimanche, 14:00 – 17:00 Et le dernier vendredi soir de chaque mois, 20:00 – 23:00

März – November Samstag – Sonntag, 14:00 – 17:00 Und am letzten Freitagabend eines jeden Monats, 20:00 – 23:00

March – November Saturday – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00

Different options of layout and design (PDF in my blog)

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Space and Time

März – November Samstag – Sonntag, 14:00 – 17:00 Und am letzten Freitagabend eines jeden Monats, 20:00 – 23:00

March – November Saturday – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00


Website

FR | DE | EN

FR | DE | EN

EXHIBITION

OBSERVATORY

ADOLPHE HIRSCH

EXHIBITION

ASSOCIATION

OBSERVATORY

ADOLPHE HIRSCH

ASSOCIATION

SPACE AND TIME: STORIES FROM THE NEUCHATEL OBSERVATORY NOW OPEN

HISTORY OF THE NEUCHATEL OBSERVATORY

FIND OUT

RUE DE L’OBSERVATOIRE 52 2000 NEUCHATEL

DISCOVER EMBLEMATIC OBJECTS AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CARRIED OUT OVER 150 YEARS

VIEW ON GOOGLE MAPS

FIND OUT MORE

MARCH – NOVEMBER SATURDAY – SUNDAY, 14:00 – 17:00 AND ON THE LAST FRIDAY EVENING OF EACH MONTH, 20:00 – 23:00

TO SUPPORT THE MUSEUM DONATIONS WELCOME

In 1857 the brand new Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel decided to equip the region with an observatory in order to provide the many watchmakers in the canton with the correct time. It also began to host observatory chronometer trials to allow watchmakers to prove the value of their products to their international clients. The first part of the Observatory was built between 1859-1860.

SUPPORT THE MUSEUM

PLAN A VISIT

Neuchâtel’s observatory’s reputation for measuring time grew and became a reference for the entire world. For a century it was responsible for determining the time for the whole of Switzerland. Just like Greenwich is in the UK! The institution was dissolved in 2007 for various reasons and became part of the University of Neuchâtel and also the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM), which now occupies a large part of the facility.

THE KEY DATES OF THE OBSERVATORY 1857 / 1858 The State of Neuchâtel confirms the construction and the plans of an observatory. The german Adolphe Hirsch is the founder and the first director at the age of 28 1859 / 1860 Construction of the first buildings 1860 Hourly signal sent every day by telegraphic line 1880 The time is precise to two hundredth of a second 1901 Death of Dr Hirsch. He gives his fortune to the State of Neuchâtel to build the Hirsch Pavilion. Dr Arndt is the second director. 1912 Opening of the Hirsch Pavilion 1938 The Observatory is on the list of the 10 best observatories in the world 1957 The beginning of the speaking clock and distribution of time by radio wave 1961 The time of the Observatory becomes the standard time in Switzerland

ASTRONOMY HIGHLIGHT

SISMOLOGY HIGHLIGHT

TRY THE ZEISS TELESCOPE

HOW THE EARTH QUAKES

There are still three models in the world of this telescope. Come and observe the night sky on Friday evenings with the Zeiss telescope built in 1912.

Come and see a demonstration of the Quervain-Piccard seismograph, built and installed in 1926 and still functional. Demonstrations take place on the first Saturday of each month.

BOOK NOW >

Interview of the Director Jacques Bonanomi by Mr. Beyner, 30.10.1991. DAV La Chaux-de-Fonds

1977 It is the end of the definition of the international time by the Observatory. The United States, Canada and Germany are the references 2007 End of the activities of the Observatory

BOOK NOW >

“What then is time? If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain to him who asks, I do not know.” Saint Augustine, The confessions, Book XI, chapter XIV

INTERACTIV TIMELINE LECTURE

FIRST DIRECTOR 1858-1901

PICTURE OF THE MONTH

PIERRE THOMANN, TIME EXPLORER

ADOLPHE HIRSH ASTRONOMER

FIRST IMAGE OF A BLACK HOLE

In our daily lives, we all have a notion of time, sometimes quite vague. Pierre Thomann, on the other hand, dominates atomic precision.

Adolphe Hirsch, a young astronomer trained in Germany, arrived in Neuchâtel in 1858. He was hired by the local authorities to create an observatory to control local precision watchmaking and issue certificates of progress to chronometers intended for export.

For the first time an international team of astrophysicists managed to get a picture of a supermassive black hole M87, in the heart of the galaxy M87! A first made possible by a new kind of telescope, the Event Horizon Telescope.

BOOK NOW >

Magnis ducia alis quia voluptatem aut ute pre occus simi, sam, volum quundantur, sedi cuscimus iur renisciundi bea deliquo ditatia tiossimus por anis ape volor sum arunt plaborem si ducius modi sitisci tiander spicaec eseceprae lam apidis at.

<– –>

EXPLORE OUR COLLECTION

ATOMIC CLOCK FOR GALILEO SATELLITES In the 1980s, the Observatory developed the first atomic clocks to equip the European Space Agency’s Galileo satellites.

1858

1884

1912

Construction of the first building of the observatory with the installation of the meridian telescope for measuring the passage of stars.

Adolphe Hirsch, the first director of the observatory, is participating in Paris in the choice of a worldclass meridian. Greenwich will be chosen at the Washington Congress.

Inauguration of the Hirsch Pavilion following the legacy of Dr. Hirsch

PENDULUM TO KEEP CORRECT TIME In the basement of the observatory, a constant temperature and pressure chamber housed high-precision clocks to keep the exact time between each observation. LOCATION Association EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH-2000 Neuchâtel

LOCATION Association EspaceTemps Rue de l’Observatoire 52 CH-2000 Neuchâtel

OPENING OPENING TIMES TIMES March Open – November Saturday-Sunday Saturday 11.00-17.00 – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00

STAY STAY UPUP RORO DATE DATE Newsletter Newsletter sign sign upup KEEP KEEP ININ TOUCH TOUCH Facebook Facebook Instagram Instagram

OPENING TIMES March – November Saturday – Sunday, 14:00 – 17:00 And on the last Friday evening of each month, 20:00 – 23:00

STAY UP RO DATE Newsletter sign up KEEP IN TOUCH Facebook Instagram

QUICK LINKS Contact us Support the association Volunteering

QUICK LINKS Contact us Support the association Volunteering

Website layout (PDF in my blog)

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RISK ASSESSMENT AND ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS EspaceTemps association The project relies on the association members’ voluntary work. Daily management of the exhibition (opening to the public, guided tours) and the renewal of members will therefore represent major challenges, in order to keep the association and the exhibition alive. However, I plan to establish partnerships with regional institutions. First, I would like to discuss the possibility of sharing mediation activities with the MIH (trained guides, promotion etc.). Second, I would like to discuss with the Musée d’histoire naturelle in Neuchâtel, because in the past the museum has shown great interest in the history of science. Thus, common activities could be organized and financed. Moreover, according to Christophe Dufour, former director of the museum, the Observatory Park is a fascinating botanical and zoological area that the museum would be interested in studying. In this perspective, the Hirsch Pavilion might become a “branch” of the Museum.

Financing of the exhibition Fundraising also constitutes a risk. Here are a few alternative options, if the necessary amount of money won’t be gathered: – To renounce historical films and recordings and some of the touch screens. These would allow us to save ca. CHF 50’000.–. These elements would be paid by future fundraising campaigns. – To show an audiovisual montage of historical films only in the Committee room. Savings: CHF 30’000.–. – To define priorities for rooms setting. Rooms without items would be set up first, to enliven spaces which are currently empty. – To stagger the realization of the rooms over several years. Each room opening would be an event raising curiosity and renovating interest in the exhibition.

Exhibition renewal It will be necessary to update and renovate the exhibition content and design, so that it remains attractive to audiences. The operating budget has a specific entry for this. The space available in the Hirsch Pavilion isn’t enough for temporary exhibitions. In the future, it will be interesting to obtain the permission to use the Director’s House, on the Observatory site, to carry out this new project.

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SOCIAL RELEVANCE The usefulness of museums for society has been stressed by the International council of museums (ICOM). In a society constantly turned towards the future and technical progress, looking back at the past and our heritage represents a powerful means to better understand how scientific discoveries have led us to knowledge and to evolve with this knowledge. This exhibition project wishes: – To share scientific questions and knowledge – To safeguard an important heritage for future generations and make it accessible – To contribute to a better understanding of the history of time measurement in the Neuchâtel region, because this history shaped our culture of time – To understand the past to help us to develop the future – To offer a poetic way to deal with science contents.

“Museums are democratising, inclusive and polyphonic spaces for critical dialogue about the pasts and the futures. Acknowledging and addressing the conflicts and challenges of the present, they hold artefacts and specimens in trust for society, safeguard diverse memories for future generations and guarantee equal rights and equal access to heritage for all people. Museums are not for profit. They are participatory and transparent, and work in active partnership with and for diverse communities to collect, preserve, research, interpret, exhibit, and enhance understandings of the world, aiming to contribute to human dignity and social justice, global equality and planetary wellbeing.” International council of museums (ICOM)

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NEXT STEPS Symposium on time measurement I plan a series of interdisciplinary lectures (or a symposium) on time measurement, by inviting scientists, philosophers, writers, visual artists, musicians, etc... For this purpose, I will contact the Centre d’Art de Neuchâtel, horological museums, the Neuchâtel University, watchmaking companies, etc. The event would enlarge the association’s network and give high visibility to the EspaceTemps.

Mediation concept To work with professionals (La Lucarne) to develop didactic tools, workshops and set up visits targeting children and schools.

Development of an activities program To animate the Hirsch Pavilion, various events will be organized: lectures, sky observations with the telescope, practical workshops on time measurement, seismology, spectroscopy, art performances, etc.

Publications There is no such thing as a reference book or quality publications. I would like to publish an illustrated book or a series of smaller books to promote the knowledge of the Observatory past. Collaborations with scientists, historians, philosophers and artists will be fundamental to broaden perspectives.

Educational tours As a second step to my project, I would like to design an educational tour in the Observatory Park that would introduce visitors to the different buildings and their functions. Contents would be presented with the QR-Code system. The tour would later be extended to the region, to make visitors discover other significative locations for the Observatory history, like the calibration sights in Chaumont and Portalban, the astronomy station in the mountains, the buildings of the Neuchâtel companies that supplied the Observatory with regulators, to the places where time was distributed, like town halls, etc.

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Photo: E. Bettinelli, 2011

Site of the Neuchâtel Observatory 2. Director's house* 3. Main building* 4. Cleanroom*

A. Entrance 1. Hirsch Pavilion, heart of the exhibition, and the Observatory Park

* Offices of the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology

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The exhibition will be displayed in different locations in the region 1. Calibration sight in Chaumont 2. Calibration sight in Portalban 3. Astronomical station in La Vue-des-Alpes 4. Hipp Factory, supplier of precision clocks

Google Maps

5. Perret Factory, supplier of precision clocks 6. Places where time was distributed in the cities 7. House of C.E. Guillaume in Fleurier, Nobel Prize in Physics

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CONCLUSION My studies at the HKB were an inspiring experience. They taught me a lot about how to develop ideas and to elaborate concepts. I also learned about the process of reconsidering and modifying a project from different perspectives thanks to the discussions I had with the teachers, my supervisors and the audience who tested my exhibition prototype. This project allowed me to explore the world of museography, of exhibition design and scenography. As a matter of fact, I learned that beautiful, interesting and effective exhibitions are complex structures, where every detail is carefully designed without letting their complexity appear. These exhibitions generate a sort of “feel good” sensation and leave a strong mark on visitors’ memories. I still have a lot to learn in this field, so I am keen on continuing studying in this domain, since many possibilities are currently offered. The museology courses at the University of Neuchâtel, the CAS in Curating in the Zürich University of the Arts or the online courses and workshops by the Zentrum für Künste und Medien in Karlsruhe are all very valuable options. I aim at redirecting my professional activities by working more often on the development of exhibition designs, by popularizing science and advising associations about how to bring exhibition projects to life.

Three modes of oscillation: rotation of the earth, pendulum movement and movement of an electron in an atom

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Andersen M., Rey E. 2019. Thinking. Visions for Architectural Design. Towards 2050. Zürich, Park Books. Arndt L. 1932. « La station séismologique de l’Observatoire astronomique et chronométrique de Neuchâtel », Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, vol. 52, pp. 187-198. Aubin D. 2013. « L’observatoire : régimes de spatialité et délocalisation du savoir », in K. Raj, O. Sibum (ed. by), Histoire des sciences et des savoirs, vol. 2, Modernité et globalisation, Paris, Le Seuil, 2015, pp. 55-72. Babey V. 2003. Observatoire de Neuchâtel. Espace muséal du Pavillon Hirsch. Neuchâtel, Institut d’histoire de l’art et de muséologie de l’Université de Neuchâtel. Bella M., Hanington B. 2013. 100 méthodes de design. Paris, Eyrolles. Bernasconi G., Huguenin R. 2019. L’heure pour tous, une montre pour chacun. Un siècle de publicité horlogère. Neuchâtel, Alphil. Betts J. et al. 2012. Royal Observatory Greenwich. Souvenir Guide. Greenwich, National Maritime Museum. Biémont E. 2016. Le règne du temps. Des cadrans solaires aux horloges atomiques. Bruxelles, Académie royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Blanc J.-F. et al. 2008. Design et muséographie. Projet de recherche ECAL, https://www.ecal.ch/fr/1262/projetsra-d/descriptif/demo/projets-de-recherche-ra-d- (18.02.2020). Bujard J., Tissot L. 2008. Le pays de Neuchâtel et son patrimoine horloger. Chézard-Saint-Martin, Éditions de la Chatière. Burgat-dit-Grellet M., Schaer J.-P. 2001. « Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901) : directeur de l’Observatoire de Neuchâtel de 1858 à 1901 », Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, vol. 124, pp. 23-39. Degrigny C. et al. 2016. Approche pluridisciplinaire intégrée pour l’étude et la conservation de la collection d’objets de l’Observatoire chronométrique de Neuchâtel, Suisse, Neuchâtel, HE-Arc Neuchâtel, Filière Conservationrestauration. État de Neuchâtel, Département de l’Instruction publique 1912. L’Observatoire cantonal neuchâtelois 1858-1912. Neuchâtel, Attinger Frères. Gonseth M.-O. et al. 2018. L’impermanence des choses. Neuchâtel, Musée d’ethnographie. Fischer G. 2001. « Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901) : l’astronomie et les sciences de la Terre », Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, vol. 124, pp. 41-47. Fléchon D. 2011. La conquête du temps : l’histoire de l’horlogerie des origines à nos jours : découvertes, inventions, progrès. Paris, Flammarion. Grolimund R. 2015. « ‹ Après nous les employés ! › » Alfred de Quervain et les débuts du Service sismologique suisse », in P. Kupper, B. Schär (ed. by), Les naturalistes : à la découverte de la Suisse et du monde (1800-2015). Baden, Hier & Jetzt. Guyot E. 1937. « L’étude des séismogrammes », Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, vol. 62, pp. 157-184. Guyot E. 1938. « L’Observatoire cantonal de Neuchâtel :1858-1938 », Bulletin de la Société neuchâteloise des sciences naturelles, vol. 63, pp. 5-36. Hainard J., Kaehr R. 1985. Temps perdu, temps retrouvé : voir les choses du passé au présent. Neuchâtel, Musée d’ethnographie. Hawking S. 1989. Une brève histoire du temps. Paris, Flammarion. Knodel B. et al. 2018. Le musée réinventé : une exposition du TP d’ethnomuséographie. Neuchâtel, Musée d’ethnographie. Kossmann.dejong 2010. Engaging spaces. Exhibition Design Explored by Kossmann.dejong. Amsterdam, Frame. Locker P. 2011. Conception d’exposition. Paris, Pyramid. Masson L. 2002. « L’exposition des instruments anciens d’Astronomie : histoire et défis actuels », La Lettre de l’ICOM, no 84, pp. 39-44. Mambrini Y. 2019. Histoires de temps. De la nature du temps et de sa mesure. Paris, Ellipses. Messerli J. 2015. « Mesure du temps », in Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, https://hls-dhs-dss.ch/fr/articles/012813/2015-01-25/ (24.11.2019). Murdin P. 2017. Univers. London, Phaidon. Federal Statistical Office 2018. Musées, https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/fr/home/statistiques/culture-mediassociete-information-sport/culture/musees.html (23.04.2019). Pour la Science 2018. Les paradoxes du temps. Special issue. Probst J.-R. 2016. Les Maîtres du Temps. L’aventure horlogère de Genève à Bâle. Divonne-les-Bains, Cabédita.

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Prod’Hom C. et al. 2015. Telling time = L’éloge de l’heure. Milan, 5 Continents. Quartier C. 2016. Du cadran solaire à l’horloge : guide pratique pour voyager dans le temps (Suisse et Europe). Lausanne, Favre. Sagan C. 1981. Cosmos. Paris, Mazarine. Schaer R. 2007. L’invention des musées. Paris, Gallimard. Schechner S. J., et al. 2014. Time & Time Again. How Science & Culture Shape the Past, Present & Future. Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, Harvard Museums of Science & Culture Cambridge. https://goo.gl/ uN3BkX (25.03.2019). Sobel D. 1995. Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time. London, Walker. Sompairac A. 2016. Scénographie d’exposition. Six perspectives critiques. Paris, MétisPress. Trueb L. F. 2007. L’Observatoire de Neuchâtel : son histoire de 1858 à 2007. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Institut l’Homme et le Temps. Tyradellis D. 2014. Müde Museen. Oder: wie Ausstellungen unser Denken verändern könnten. Hamburg, KörberStiftung.

Adolphe Hirsch with his dog, 1861 © Neuchâtel Public Library

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks Rossella Baldi, Stéphanie Bürki, Martine Schatz-Pochon, Richard Stenning My supervisors Rossella Baldi, David Rooney, Jimmy Schmid HKB/MAD team Minou Afzali, Rahel Inauen, Miriam Koban, Robert Lzicar, Arne Scheuermann and all the teachers I met at the HKB My English teacher Averkios Koutsudes EspaceTemps board Margrit Guyomarch, Pierre-René Beljean, Pierre-André Berger, Olivier Langer, Pierre-Alain Perrinjaquet, Jean-Luc Simon, Pierre Sydler, Daniel Vermot Observatory archives Archives de l'État de Neuchâtel: Christophe d'Épagnier, Salomon Rizzo Bibliothèque publique et universitaire de Neuchâtel: Martine Noirjean de Ceuninck Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, Département audiovisuel: Laurent Ferrari, Gilles Taillard Guyot and Juan families Memoriav: Valérie Sierro Musée international d'horlogerie de La Chaux-de-Fonds: Aurélie Branchini, Régis Huguenin-Dumittan Office du patrimoine et de l’archéologie du canton de Neuchâtel: Claire Piguet Phonothèque nationale suisse: Barbara Hunziker SSR SRG: Jessica Lesplingart Familly, friends, colleagues Lisa Ammann Birthistle, Corinne Augsburger, Sandrine Girardier, Maria Iorio, Isabelle Mussard, Frédérique Nardin, Aude Olesen, Isabelle Planas, Alessandra Respini, Pénélope Schatz, Janine Perret Sgualdo, Hin Van Tran, Olivier Attinger, Raphaël Cuomo, Christophe Dufour, Xavier Hool, Jean Pochon, Luc-Olivier Pochon, Guillaume Schatz, Harnold Weber Proofreading Rossella Baldi Averkios Koutsudes Richard Stenning I warmly thank all these people for their teaching, references, feedback, advice, information, generosity, support, kindness, good vibes,...

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DECLARATION With my signature, I confirm that I have personally written the present Master’s thesis and only used the sources mentioned in the notes and that I have marked literal quotations and paraphrases as such. This also applies to sketches as well as graphic and figurative representations. The thesis has not yet been submitted to any other examination board and has not yet been published. Colombier, 11th January 2021

Marc-Olivier Schatz

Neuchâtel Observatory with the Hirsch Pavilion in the left, 1912 © Neuchâtel State Archives

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APPENDIX

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STATE OF THE ART The Neuchâtel Observatory has never been the object of a historical exhibition. However, several clocks, instruments and documents are presented in the horological museums of the Neuchâtel region. In 1974, when the Musée international d'horlogerie of La Chaux-de-Fonds (MIH) was opened, the director of the Observatory, Jacques Bonanomi, donated the meridian telescope and several clocks to the institution, which exhibits them in the permanent exhibition. After the Observatory closure in 2007, its collections were transferred to the museum’s deposits for conservation, at the request of the State of Neuchâtel, owner of the Observatory. The history and the instruments of the Observatory have interested several institutions in the Neuchâtel region and here are some examples: – In September 2018, a four-year research project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation started in the University of Neuchâtel with three students (Amandine Cabrio, Julien Gressot, Romain Jeanneret). – In 2015, HE-ARC Conservation-Restoration students defined an instrument conservation protocol and analyzed the operation of the meridian telescope (Degrigny et al., 2016). – In 2003, Virginie Babey, student in the University of Neuchâtel, made an inventory of the Observatory scientific objects and developed an exhibition concept. The Observatory closed in 2007 and her project was therefore abandoned (Babey, 2003). The Neuchâtel State Archives and the Neuchâtel Public Library preserve the paper archives of the Observatory, like the directors’ reports, their correspondence, etc. Films and interviews can be found in the archives of SRG SSR, Memoriav and the Public Library in La Chaux-de-Fonds (see Archive sources). There are several books on the history of the observatory and watchmaking in my bibliography. I have produced a documentation on various exhibitions that I have visited and resources on curatorial research, scenographers,… Visit the “Exhibitions design” section in my blog for more details. I also studied how some of the museums in the region, run by associations, functioned in order to find out about entrance fees, the opening schedule, the number of visitors, how they were financed, etc. My research also focused on the broad topic of time (history, astronomy, art, exhibitions, etc.). See the references in my bibliography and the general page "What is time?" in my blog.

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Meridian telescope of the Neuchâtel Observatory, displayed in the permanent exhibition of the MIH

High-precision electric clock Leroy & Cie of the Neuchâtel Observatory, displayed in the permanent exhibition of the MIH

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“The Neuchâtel government will allocate the fortune I leave to it [...] entirely to the enlargement and development of the Observatory and mainly to the acquisition of a large equatorial telescope with an objective of about twelve inches of aperture, equipped with a precision micrometer, as well as a spectroscope and other auxiliary equipment. This large telescope will be installed in a tower with a dome that will be built on the observatory grounds.” Extract from the will of Adolphe Hirsch, first director of the Neuchâtel Observatory

First page of the will of Adolphe Hirsch © Neuchâtel State Archives

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Adolphe Hirsch, director of the Neuchâtel Observatory from 1858 to 1901 © Neuchâtel State Archives


“What then is time? If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain to him who asks, I do not know.” Saint Augustine, The confessions, Book XI, chapter XIV

Hermann Stroele, assistant astronomer to the 2nd director, Louis Arndt, 1910 © Pierre-René Beljean

Profile for Marc-Olivier Schatz

Space and Time: Stories from the Neuchâtel Observatory  

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