ÂŠ 2013 Maribel Moreno Morales No part of this book may be reproduced in any written, electronic, recording, or photocopying without written permission of the publisher or author. The exception would be in the case of brief quotations embodied in the critical articles or reviews and pages where permission is specifically granted by the publisher or author. Printed in the United States of America First Edition, 2013 Lulu Press, Inc. 3101 Hillsborough Street Raleigh, NC 27607 www.lulu.com
a performing arts center for humboldt park
thanks to my family friends my music teachers band family and sandy stannard
table of contents
General Information out of school time programs juvenile arrests historic crime trends gang areas dropout rates demographics music of chicago dance of the people
Design Issues code analyses max height max floor area
Precedents program sonic form + acoustics kinetic
53 zoning schools bus routes after school activities climate flora & fauna
Design Process program vellum
Design Iterations early concept model formal review section show blind review va no va
I decided to join band in the fourth grade. I chose to play the flute without even knowing what it was and kept going with it even though on the first day I made terrible sounds. It became something I looked forward to every week. My younger sisters also joined a few years later. It allowed us to see each other more often than we would have, to spend more time with each other and create happy memories that we otherwise would not have. I remember piggyback rides before night band practices, meeting friends in the band room after school, that my favorite time was football season with halftime shows and weekend band competitions. When times got hard, we were there for each other. The band kids ate together, they practiced together during the summer, they were a family. I gained an amazing family with music. There were those of us whose parents worked and who might come home to an empty house. Music filled what would have otherwise have been and empty boring time. It kept people out of trouble. Instead of roaming the streets, they were in after school practices learning music shows. They were in a safe caring place. We were there because we enjoyed it and loved what we were doing. We met the minimum GPA required, and if we were struggling in school we sought help, sometimes from the band teacher, to make sure we could continue doing what we loved. I think those that had a hard time in and outside of school showed what having something to be passionate about does. It makes you work harder, it gives you the strength to continue. I believe that music and the arts can help those that need something to look forward to.
A study in 2010 found that nearly one in three people will be arrested by the time they are 23. Reasons for arrest ranged from truancy and underage drinking to assault and murder. Perhaps so many arrests are made because 55% of kids in high school are left to fend for themselves after school. A teen who is watched by a responsible adult or engaged in a productive activity is less likely to get into trouble.. Not having anyone who looks after them or a constructive activity to occupy their time might lead youth to turn to other activities that only bring trouble. Music, dance and theatre can be that engaging activity. It gives young people a place to belong, allows them to express themselves artistically, to greater develop social skills and build life lasting friendships. An education in the arts does more than help social development. Musically trained kids have stronger reading skills, increased math abilities, and better hearing that makes learning languages easier. Such benefits are seen regardless of socioeconomic status. A Community Center for Performing Arts that explores the positive effect the arts can have on people and its influence on architecture in a site where people can gain much from what the arts offer could benefit a troubled city like Chicago. Low high school graduation rates, poverty and high juvenile crime made Chicago the worst city for urban youth in 2009. The time during which juvenile crime occurs is what is most shocking. The highest percentage of crime took place on a Wednesday, a school day. Crime is also higher during school months than during the summer. During the day, crime peaks twice, once during the school hours of 10:00AM to 12:00PM and again from 6:00PM to 9:00PM. It is said that idleness is the mother of all vices, and Chicagoâ€™s youth needs something other than the violence that surrounds them to capture occupy their time and attention.
The project seeks to bring hope to the youth and community of Humboldt Park and the surrounding area, to provide them with a safe place to grow and explore their interests in the arts, to link them through a common passion and give them the option of participating in a constructive activity.
Out of School Time Program Slots per youth ages 13-17, by census 2006
Ratio of Slots per Youth <.06 0.06 to 0.12 0.12 to 0.24 0.24 to 0.43 0.43 to 0.91 >=.91 programs more than 1 mile away no individuals in target population Humboldt Park
A study made by the Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago found that during 20052006 there were 12 to 24 program slots for every 100 youth ages 13-17 in Humboldt Park. This was slightly below the Chicago average of three slots for every ten youths (.29 slots per youth) despite there being a higher availability of after school programs in high poverty areas. The study also found that nearly all programs were fully enrolled with a utilization rate of 96%, meaning that a high number of slots per teen did imply excess capacity. It seems as if people do take advantage of the opportunities they are offered and if more programs were added to areas where availability is low they would be utilized.
Number of Juvenile Arrests, 2008 0-499 500-799 800-1,099 1,100-1,499 1,500 or more Humboldt Park
Major Ethnicities Hispanic, 52.5% African American, 41.1% White, 4.9% Asian, .4%
The time during which juvenile crime occurs is what is most shocking. The highest percentage of crime took place on a Wednesday, a school day. Crime is also higher during school months than during the summer. During the day, crime peaks twice, once during the school hours of 10:00AM to 12:00PM and again from 6:00PM to 9:00PM. It is said that idleness is the mother of all vices, and Chicago’s youth needs something other than the violence that surrounds them to capture occupy their time and attention. Despite Chicago’s rich history with music, many schools in troubled areas lack musical programs. Because of this, they are missing out on the benefits that a musical education can provide. It is a break from regular classes that might bore kids, allows them to meet and create relationships with youth they might not otherwise meet, can become their new passion and serve as an incentive to stay out of trouble. A Community Center for Music for teens, young adults and their families, would place instruments in the hands of troubled youth and give them the opportunity to create something beautiful rather than continue the cycle of destruction. Youth would carry drumsticks instead of guns, tap out a beat rather than let out a string of shots, find a sense of belonging with a band or choir rather than a gang. Their family members would enjoy a concert rather than mourn another loss. The center would include practice spaces, performance spaces, a recording studio for students and professional artists. The project would celebrate the city’s rich musical history and encourage youth to build on it.
Historic Crime Trendsby crime type
violent crimes property crimes quality of life crimes
While Humboldt Park is one of Chicagoâ€™s most violent neighborhoods, crime in the area has been decreasing. Crime is down across all crime types, Violent crimes (robbery, battery, assault, homicide, and criminal sexual assault), property crimes (theft, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson) and quality of life crimes (criminal damage, narcotics, and prostitution). Crime is still high though; there have been 14 homicides in 2013 and even more have been injured.
The map shows known gang turf in the area. Each color shows a different gang. There are so many different gangs that a key does not help, as all the different shades of colors look a like and it becomes impossible to tell which is which. Blue dots represent schools set to close, something that worried parents because it would mean that children would have to go to a school farther away, sometimes going into the territory of a rival gang.
Illinois public schools suspended 1 in 4 African American students.
Dropout rates by gender.
In the 2009-2010 school year, the Chicago Public Schools suspended more than 30% of African Americans and 6% of Whites.
Droupout Rates by Ethnicity White Males, 4%
African American Males, 27%
Hispanic Males, 30%
Median Age Ranges, based on 2000 census
0-79 8-27 28-34 35-50.9 51+
Median Income, based on 2000 census
0-20,000 20,001-40,000 40,001-60,000 60,001-80,000 80,000+
music of chicago
blues- first half of 20th century
jazz- early 20th century
Chicago blues developed as a result of the “Great Migration” of poor black workers from the South into the industrial cities bringing traditional jazz and blues. Chicago blues have a wider range of notes than the six note blue scale. It is one of the places where the faster Boogie Woogie emerged.
Chicago style jazz originated from southern musicians that brought with them the New Orleans Dixieland. Louis Armstrong’s recordings of 1925 through 1928 with his band marked the transition from New Orleans jazz to a more sophisticated American music with an emphasis on solo choruses. The emphasis on solos, faster tempos, string bass and guitar (replacing the traditional tuba and banjo) distinguish Chicago-style playing from Dixieland.
soul- mid 1960s to late 1970s
Gospel music was made popular by Thomas A. Dorsey, the “godfather of gospel music”. He started as a blues pianist and started to composing religious music to the rhythms of jazz and blues. The influence of jazz and blues has been replaced with hip hop, rap, and rhythm and blues. Traditional and contemporary Gospel choirs perform at the annual GospelFest in Chicago.
Chicago soul has a gospel sound that is lighter and more delicate in its approach. It is sometimes referred to as soft soul. The Impressions (pictured above), Jennifer Hudson, and Sam Cooke are some Chicago soul artists.
music of chicago
hip-hop/ rap- 1990’s
Chicago’s rock sound gained national exposure through early recordings of The Buckinghams in 1965. Their brass sound was expanded upon by the band Chicago(pictured above). Punk and post-punk bands also came around in the city in the 1980’s. These bands became precursors to pop-punk and posthardcore. The punk scene gave way to alternative in the 1990’s with bands such as The Squids and The Smashing Pumpkins. The independent music scene has been very active in Chicago since the 2000’s, in part because of many independent music labels in the area. Many contemporary bands have ties to Chicago, including Fall Out Boy, Rise Against, and Alkaline Trio. Chicago continues to be the nations premier music festival city, hosting major indie headliners and music festivals.
Chicago hip-hop takes inspiration from the East Coast production with jazz, soul based sampling and conscious lyricism and the West Coast production with synth-driven instrumentation. Chicago artists have added double-time hat pattens, rapping in double and triple time over the synth driven beats. The first cohesive Chicago hip hop style was developed by choppers, or rappers with very fast flow, in the 1990’s. Other styles include chipmunk soul (influenced by Kanye West’s success) and drill scene (brought to mainstream prominence by Chief Keef).
Left: Pilgrim Baptist Church, the church that Thomas A. Dorsey was a part of and where gospel was first born. It was designed by Lous Sullivan and Dankmar Adler as a synagogue. Sadly, it was destroyed by a fire in 2006. Right: The Green Mill, a historical jazz club once owned by Al Capone.
puerto rican music
Bomba is a type of dance and music developed by Africans that worked in colonial planations along the coast of Puerto Rico. Sugar cane workers released their feelings of frustration and sadness through the music. It is known for its â€œdialogueâ€? between the dancers and drums, with each taking turns challenging each other. Dancers create a dialogue with their movements and the drums answer. Other instruments include the maracas and banging sticks.
Plena is sometimes called “el periodico cantado”, or the sung nespaper, because it was used to spread news and satirize politicians. Its origins in Ponce, Puerto Rico can be traced to changes in Spanish to U.S. rule and the abolition of slavery as cane workers moved to the growing cities of the island. The influence of the native Taino and Jibaro and European musicul traditions changed the music from something of African roots into a uniquely Puerto Rican expression.
Salsa was developed by the Puerto Rican community of New York. It’s rhythms are hot, urban, rhythmically sophisticated, and compelling. Salsa bands require an array of percussion instruments, a bass and horn section, a chorus, and a lead vocalist.
60’ height 4 stories at 15’ each
75’ height 5 stories at 15’ each
16,000 X .85=13,600 square feet max floor area with 4 stories area is not limited if Type 1-A or 1-B
EpiCenterBoston, MA l Arrowstreet
The new urban headquarters for Artists for Humanity, the EpiCenter was seen as an extension of the organization, which aims to educate and empower teens. The 23,500 sq ft facility includes photography, painting, sculpture, screen printing, and digital media studios as well as a 5,000 sq ft gallery space. The facility is owned by the organization. They support themselves by selling their art and design services such as bike racks for the city of Boston. The gallery space also serves as venue space that is rented out to the public. A roof photo voltaic array that provides 32% of the buildings total energy needs, a highly efficient building envelope that greatly reduces the cooling load and a natural ventilation system that uses exhaust fans to cool the building at night, and energy efficient lighting coupled with daylight dimming and automated controls are some of the sustainable features of the building.
Granoff Center for the Creative ArtsProvidence, RI l Diller Scofidio + Renfro
The Granoff center embodies the goal of advancing new directions in teaching, research, and production across the arts, sciences, and the humanities. The 38,000 sq-ft facility includes an outdoor amphitheater, a 218 seat recital hall and film screening venue, four multipurpose production studios, recording studio, media lab, physical media lab, individual project studios, and a gallery. The three floor plates are split along a shear line and offset in section to create half levels. The shift allows each floor to interface two others joined by a shear glass wall. The landings of the main circulation are extended to allow for further interaction. The visual connection between various disciplines provides a unique connection across disciplines. Each space is acoustically isolated, can be enclosed by blackout shades, and automated exterior venetian blinds that can be tilted to control glare, sunlight, and heat gain further allows people to change their environment.
Coca-Cola Beatbox PavilionLondon, England l Asif Khan and Pernilla Ohrstedt
Coca Cola- Built for the London 2012 Olympic Games, the pavilion aims to connect young people to the Games by bringing together their passions for music and sport. It was designed by Asif Khan and Permilla Ohstedt as part of Coca-Cola’s Future Flames campaign, which aims to recognize and award the best of the nation’s youth and to shine a spotlight on emerging talent to inspire others to pursue their passions. The giant crystalline structure is a fusion of architecture, sport, music, and technology. It is made of more than 200 interlocked translucent cushions than can be played by visitors using ground breaking audio, lighting, and sensor technology. Recorded sounds such as athlete’s heartbeats can be triggered and remixed by gestures and movements of visitors. A ramp to the top leads to views then goes down into the heart of the pavilion to an interactive light installation.
CargoGuitarKobe, Japan l Marcelo Ertorteguy, Takahiro Fukuda, Sara Valente
A temporary art installation, CargoGuitar is a cargo container converted into a large electric guitar that allows you to feel and see what it is like inside a guitar. Eight giant steel strings are stretched across the interior in a half-twist design. The vertical end is outfitted with tuning pegs, allowing for scale changes. The glowing strings allow for a kinetic experience, visitors can see the strings vibrate as they are played or closed their eyes and feel the resonating vibrations. The installation offers a unique immersing experience that allows the user to choose the kind of interaction they have with music.
form + acoustics
Chamber Music HallManchester, UK l Zaha Hadid Architects
A gallery space designed for visual art was converted into a performance space for solo performances of J.S. Bach works A continuous ribbon of fabric swirls around itself, creating an intimate space for the performers and audience. Numerous tests were run with different materials to ensure the desired acoustic properties. The beautiful form reminds me of music with the way it suggests movement with its fluid winding ribbon, it has a rhythm and reminds me of sound waves. Its beauty is functional, as the from creates a great acoustic environment that helps scatter the sound to eliminate flutter echoes.
Sydney Opera HouseSydney, Australia l JĂ¸rn Utzon
The famous Sydney Opera House is an elegant landmark that came from Ultzonâ€™s desire for the shells to be portrayed like large whit sails that contrasted against the blue ocean it stood on. Ultzon and the engineering firm Ove Arup and Partners were able to create a shell system that made the original spherical scheme structurally possible. They used a ribbed system of precast concrete shells created from sections of a sphere that were covered ceramic tiles. Ultzon resigned before the project was finished due to rising costs. His design was significantly changed, the original multipurpose opera/concert hall became a space for concerts only, the minor hall originally for stage productions was changed to house operas and ballets. Three smaller theatres, a library, cinema, three restaurants, six bars, and sixty dressing rooms were also added to the original design. A concourse that encircles the entire building links the five performance spaces.
One OceanYeosu, South Korea l soma
Built for the EXPO 2012, Ocean One embodies the â€œLiving Ocean and Coastâ€? theme. The buildingâ€™s spatial and organizational concept is driven by the way the ocean is experienced, as an endless surface and in an immersed perspective as depth. Continuous surfaces twisting from vertical and horizontal orientation define major interior spaces. The facade has 108 glass fibre reinforced polymers with a high tensile strength and low bending stiffness that allow for large reversible deformations. During daytime the lamellas control solar input, using energy from solar roof panels. The building itself is capable of producing choreography and imagery, rather than just suggesting it.
[3364 W NORTH AVE] 54
0-499 500-799 800-1,099 1,100-1,499 1,500 or more
*each block is a quarter of a mile long
bus 72 stop/ route
bus 52 stop/ route
bus 70 stop/ route
bus 73 stop/ route
bus 82 stop/ route
*each block is a quarter of a mile long
after school activities
McCormick Tribune YMCA Youth Service Project Chicago Youth Center- Mt Moriah Casa Central Chicago Youth Center- Centro Nuestro Although there are after school programs available to the youth, none offer music or dance activities. *each block is a quarter of a mile long
Mean Snowfall by Month
design strategies l from the 2030 palette
Solar glazing admits direct sunlight into a space for passive heating in winter. Solar glazing (facing the equator) is sized to admit enough sunlight on an average sunny winter day to heat a space over the full 24-hour period. Size solar glazing as a percentage of the floor area to be heated: Cold Climates 16% at 28º - 40º latitude 20% at 44º - 56º latitude Temperate Climates 10% at 28º - 40º latitude 13% at 44º - 56º latitude
design strategies l from the 2030 palette
A sunspace located or integrated along the solar façade of a building heats itself and adjacent spaces in winter. A sunspace is heated by direct sunlight with heat transferred to adjacent spaces through a common mass wall. Size the sunspace glazing area (facing the equator) as a percentage of the floor area of adjacent space to be heated: Cold Climates* 30% at 28º - 40º latitude 40% at 44º - 56º latitude Temperate Climates** 20% at 28º - 40º latitude 30% at 44º - 56º latitude Make the thickness of the common mass wall 20 - 30 cm (8 - 12 in) for adobe 25 - 36 cm (10 - 14 in) for brick 30 - 46 cm (12 - 18 in) for concrete Use wall openings, windows, or doors to transfer additional heat between spaces.
design strategies l from the 2030 palette
A building form with ample surface area exposed to direct sunlight in winter can easily incorporate passive heating systems. Most heating needs occur in buildings at mid to high latitudes (30ยบ - 60ยบ). At these latitudes, the winter sun is low in the sky, striking the side of the building that faces the equator, i.e., the solar side (south in the Northern Hemisphere, and north in the Southern Hemisphere). To maximize the solar exposure of a building: -Elongate a building along the east-west axis to maximize the surface area exposed to direct winter sunlight. -Locate occupied spaces along the solar side of the building. -Alternatively, stagger, step, stack, and/or align indoor spaces and building forms to ensure they have adequate wall surface areas facing the equator. Other building shapes and spaces needing sunlight that do not have solar facing wall surfaces can be heated by solar-oriented skylights, clerestories, and integrated sunspaces.
Left to Right: flower l new england aster shrub l big bluestem shrub l winterberry shrub l meadowsweet tree l redbud tree l miyabi maple
Left to Right: scarlet tanager karner blue butterfly american goldfing black-capped chickadee
compose choreograph bond sight-read plie bo tune create leap b relateenjoy record turn laugh talk listen learn relax
jam stretch view gather read watch share playcelebrate study entertain
compose choreograph bond sight-read plie bond tune create leap balance relateenjoy record turn laugh talk listen learn relax
jam stretch view gather read share playcelebratewatch study entertain
welcome area event center eating area kitchen loading area
computer lab tutoring center quiet study
performance hall classrooms set design storage office
dance studios office
individual practice rooms medium practice rooms ensemble space recording studios offices
program social welcome area 15’ x 30’
computer lab 1,600 40’ x 40’
event center 50’ x 100’
tutoring center 2,400 40’ x 60’
eating area 20’ x 30’
kitchen 15’ x 30’
loading area 12’ x 24’
classrooms 30’ x 30’ (x2)
storage 15’ x 20’
set design 40’ x 60’
rest rooms 15’ x 12’ (x2)
storage 40’ x 30’
quiet study 40’ x 30’
performance hall 100’ x 140’ support dressing rooms 15’ x 30’ (x2) restrooms 10’ x 12’ (x2) commom 20’ x 30’ storage 20’ x 30’
office 10’ x 10’ (x2)
dance studios 30’ x 40’ (x3)
individual practice rooms 10’ x 7’ (x7)
medium practice rooms 10’ x 12’ (x3)
ensemble space 20’ x 20’ (x2)
recording studios 14’ x 20’ (x2)
offices 10’ x 10’ (x3)
storage 20’ x 50’
dressing rooms 1,200 20’ x 30’ (x2) offices 10’ x 10’ (x2)
5,000 [42, 190 x (.20) ] + 42,190=
16,000 X .85=13,600 square feet max floor area with 4 stories. total of 54,400 square feet, proposed program fits site restrictions
early [pre-formal & formal review]
Early concept models explored the idea of a fluid form and a gridded structure. This was one of the most fluid models. Its form was intriguing from various angles, with spaces floating above others, and a form that folding into itself to create separate spaces. Later models and designs tried to retain some of its flowing organic nature while also allowing for a flexible interior space.
Early iterations tried to create a flexible space that the artists could change according to their needs. It sought to allow for the intermingling of arts, allowing impromptu dance and music shows that would be shared with whoever happened to be present. It sought to create an open, inviting space on the ground floor and active arts spaces visible to those passing on the main streets below. The form tried to be poetic while keeping its flexibility. Ribbons of color wrapped around program clusters, creating flowing forms around a flexible grid.
+ the flexibility of a grided structure
fluid forms formed by the fabric of the costumes in the Puerto Rican plena dance
Main entrance makes sense at the corner, as most people will be heading there.
A core is formed near the entry. 90
programsection & arrangement
ST AT IC
IB X E L F
ST AT IC
More flexible program areas such as dance studios are placed near the major street.
The more set program areas, such as recording studios, are near the core. 92
middle [section show]
The idea of a space within a space, which was first looked at in the first concept models, was looked at again. A fluid form was developed, and the idea that it could be modified for different program uses explored, as well as the in between spaces that could be created between them. The idea of a space within a space and flowing forms within a building was explored in the section.
The form of the building changes, but continues to take inspiration from the flow of fabric. Program organization within the building changes, as the idea of allowing the various arts to intermingle manifests itself in â€œhangingâ€? rooms above large music and dance rooms. These rooms allow for smaller groups to practice within these large spaces, as well as interaction between the spaces they intersect. In the left, the room may be closed off to allow a group of musicians to practice or opened up for a live music and dance collaboration with the dance room to the right. The idea of an indoor active hallway where the public can come in and experience some of the action that happens within the building also starts to be explored.
late [blind review]
This is iteration continued to explore the same ideas as the section. The form changed to allow for lighting, as well as for aesthetic reasons. It was a second attempt at creating a more cohesive building that addressed the flaws of the first iteration, with its incohesive form and problems in program layout.
16 13 8
14 11 8
0 â€œActiveâ€? circulation space 1 Welcome/ relaxing/ 2 Eating area 3 Restrooms 4 Kitchen 5 Individual practice rooms 6 Recording studios 7 Theatre classrooms 8 Storage 9 Set shop 10 Tutoring 11 Computer Lab 12 Large music practice 13 Dance studio 14 Performance space 15 Ensemble practice 16 Changing rooms/ restrooms
academic theatre interactive music circulation dance social
latest [va no va]
va no va
Very similar to the last iteration, it was an attempt to fix what was wrong with it. In an attempt to make it more fluid, the interior spaces were thought as being on a curving ribbon. These ribbons are expressed through the glass pattern on the facade. The interior space layout changed little, with things such as the addition of a freight elevator.
N 8 2
1 â€œActiveâ€? circulation space 2 Welcome/ relaxing/ 3 Eating area 4 Kitchen 5 Individual practice rooms 6 Recording studios 7 Theatre classrooms 8 Storage 9 Set shop 10 Tutoring 11 Computer Lab 12 Large music practice 13 Dance studio 14 Performance space 15 Ensemble practice 16 Changing rooms/ restrooms
academic theatre interactive music circulation dance social
The section cuts through the other â€œinteractiveâ€? circulation. The public practice rooms and recording studios are accessed through here. Passersby that come in to warm up or cool down can take a peek at the production of music or see kids making sets and come by for a performance next week.
View of the second floor looking down onto the â€œinteractiveâ€? circulation space on the first floor. The space is meant to be semi public, visible from the public extended foyer . It will hold exhibitions that promote interaction and a blending of the arts. Shown here is one where participants jump on a colored light to produce a sound. Alone, you are not capable of producing much, but the more people participating the more complex the piece produced. Also visible is the large dance room with the smaller rooms above.
2030 Palatte. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://2030palette.org/swatches/view/direct-gain-glazing/phipps_conservatory_center_for_ sustainable_landscapes_1.jpg>.
“Afterschool Alliance :: America After 3PM.” Afterschool Alliance :: America After 3PM. 24 Sept. 2013 <http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/ AA3PM.cfm>.
“CPS Closings: Interactive Map with Affected Schools, Gang Lines.” DNAinfo.com Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://www. dnainfo.com/chicago/20130521/old-town/cps-school-closings-interactive-map-with-closing-schools-gang-lines>. “The Chicago Reporter.” Young Hip-hop Artists Speak the Truth about Violence in Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. “Crime in Chicago.” Chicago Tribune. N.p., 11 Dec. 2013. Web. <http://crime.chicagotribune.com/chicago/community/humboldt-park>. DiFiore, Vince. “The importance of music education in schools.” CNN. 31 May 2011. Cable News Network. 23 Sept. 2013 <http://www. cnn.com/2011/SHOWBIZ/Music/05/31/music.education.cake.difiore/index.html>. DONOVAN, R.L. “The 5 Worst Cities for Urban Youth.” ABC News. ABC News Network. 23 Sept. 2013 <http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/ Politics/worst-cities-urban-youth/story?id=9083935>. George, Robert, John Dilts, Duck-Hye Yang, Mirriam Wasserman, and Anne Clary. Chicago Children and Youth 1990-2010. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.chapinhall.org/sites/default/files/old_reports/332.pdf>. “In Progress: Pharrell Williams Resource Center / Oppenheim Architecture + Design.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2013. “Juvenile Reports.” Juvenile Reports. 25 Sept. 2013 <https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/News/Statistical Reports Juvenile Reports> “Pages - SchoolLocator.” Pages - SchoolLocator. 26 Sept. 2013 <http://www.cps.edu/schools/find_a_school/pages/schoollocator.aspx>. “USA TODAY.” USATODAY.COM. 25 Sept. 2013 <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2011-12-19/youth-arrests- increase/52055700/1>