{' '} {' '}
Limited time offer
SAVE % on your upgrade.

Page 1

DESIGN THINKING FOR MEANINGFUL TEACHING TOOLKIT

beta


Developers: Arch. Liat Brix Etgar, Moran Zarchi, Arch. Barak Pelman Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem 2016 Icon design: Studio danielvenir Special thanks to: Dr. Elana Milstein (BBC), Dr. Yona Weitz (Bezalel) and Nina Farkache (Bezalel) who contributed to the content of the Toolkit.


1.

2.

a diverse group of lecturers with different knowledge, skills and perspectives

working as a community of learners

3.

4.

sharing their personal and largely intuitive teaching practices - reflecting on it together -

turning the tacit knowledge into explicit, declarative knowledge

5. in order to develop innovative ideas for complex challenges


Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION - 05 PHASE 01 : START YOUR PROJECT - 08 1.1 kickoff meeting - 09 1.2 Appoint the project coordinator - 13 1.3 Prepare the coordinator - 14

PHASE 02 : PREPARE YOUR PROJECT - 15 2.1 Build a team - 16 2.2 Reframe and review the design challenge - 18 2.3 Create a project plan - 19 2.4 Recruit a research assistants - 20 2.5 Create field guides - 22 2.6 Train the researchers - 27 2.7 Recruit participants - 28 2.8 Purchase supplies - 29 2.9 Coordinate fieldwork - 30

PHASE 03 : COLLECT THE DATA - 31 3.1 Observe - 32 3.2 Interview - 35 3.3 Conduct self-documentation - 37 3.4 Capture your learnings - 38

PHASE 04 : ANALYZE & INTERPRET - 42 4.1 Share what you’ve learned - 43 4.2 Search for meaning - 44 4.3 Frame opportunities - 46

PHASE 05 : IDEATE - 53 5.1 Prepare for brainstorming - 48 5.2 Facilitate the brainstorming session - 49

WHATS NEXT? - 52 RESOURCES - 52

FURTHER READING - 53

04


Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

05

Introduction

The Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit’s main aim is to provide methods and tools for faculty to reflect in and on action – to map, conceptualize and share their tacit knowledge of teaching in order to develop new ways to deal with their learning and teaching challenges. Through the years, every academic institute develops a range of approaches, methods and tools for meaningful learning and teaching through its lecturers’ ongoing and largely intuitive teaching practice. These teaching and learning approaches are part of the institute’s unique characteristics and its potential core competences. Nevertheless, they often remain as little more than personal, non-declarative knowledge. We believe that collaborative reflective learning that acknowledges existing successful practices has the potential to provide the infrastructure for developing a community that is engaged- intentionally and creatively-in teaching and learning development. The process proposed in this toolkit will help participants interpret and understand their learning and teaching environment, identify its unique challenges, frame local opportunities and use them to develop ideas and innovations. The Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit is based on “design thinking” values and methods developed at the Institute of Design at Stanford (d.school). Design thinking is a method for developing creative solutions for complex challenges through a combination of human based research and personal intuition, imagination and talent. Design thinking is grounded in the concept that everyone can change their environment. Experiencing a design thinking process enables participants to acknowledge their own creative skills and equips them with tools to turn challenges into opportunities – together.

The process proposed in this toolkit is based on the first three stages of the design thinking methodology: Empathize, Define and Ideate. It is planned for one semester and culminate in a well-formulated idea. The methodology includes two additional stages – Prototype and Test – that enable users to develop and implement strategy, curricula, methodologies or tools based on that idea. This part of the process obviously requires additional time and other resources, and may be implemented subsequently to or concurrently with the process described herein. This “how to” toolkit enables self-learning and self-management of the process. It introduces the reader to the knowledge and skills required and provides a detailed description of the sequence of activities, as well as the requisite tools. The methods and tools in this toolkit are adapted specifically for a learning group of faculty working together for one semester to promote meaningful learning in their course. However, its structure offers the users the flexibility to adjust them to their specific needs and resources.


Introduction

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

06

This kit is informed by the following principles and concepts: _

_

Collaborative learning: Developing the art of teaching, like any other practice, depends on the quality of dialogue between practitioners and the way they share their knowledge and skills. Collaborative learning enables us to turn the tacit knowledge (or “knowledge-in-use”) lecturers rely on in their work into explicit, verbally declarative knowledge amenable for reflection and application in other contexts. The unique contextual framework created in this process allows lecturers to gain a sense of community and belonging. Collaborative learning and a joint process of deliberation and creation are inherent to “design thinking” processes. Having a diverse group of lecturers with different strengths and perspectives enables significant reflection and effective coping with complex challenges.

Ongoing learning: In order for academic lecturers to fulfill their teaching mission, they must constantly learn, be innovative and prepared for ongoing collaborative learning. The design thinking process is ideal for this task because it is open-ended and never searches for final solutions. “Interim solutions” become points of departure for new learning or development processes. Design thinking is explorative, allowing practitioners to try, err, and learn from mistakes. It allows them to take risks within the framework of a structured ongoing process.

_ Learning from success: In organizational change processes and in academic settings in particular, there is a tendency to focus on failures or difficulties rather than on events or processes of success. Learning from failures negatively biases the discussion, produces resistance and leads to more missed opportunities to learn from available knowledge and skills. Systematic review of past successes, on the other hand, facilitates the documentation, analysis and conceptualization of the knowledge already at our disposal and use it to create new possibilities.

_ Learning by doing: Experiential learning is one of the methods that promote meaningful learning. Among other things, it enables tying theoretical knowledge to a concrete problem, contextualize it and give it meaning, as well as develop research and practical skills. The design thinking process enables lecturers to personally experience learning by doing, while developing new methods and tools to promote meaningful learning. _ Learning out of curiosity: Curiosity motivates students and faculty to achieve dynamic learning and produce new meanings. Curiosity enables learners to recognize their creative skills and use them to cope with challenges in unexpected ways. The design thinking process encourages and promotes the curiosity of the participant lecturers and provides them with tools to do the same for their students.


Introduction

Learning outcomes: By successfully completing this process, the participating faculty will •

be able to explain the fundamental concepts of meaningful learning and different theoretical approaches.

be able to reflect in and on their learningteaching practice.

be able to implement a design thinking process to co-develop new ideas and concrete methods and tools.

be able to collaborate across disciplines and share their tacit teaching knowledge.

evaluate the practice of teaching as creative, active and meaningful.

gain a sense of community and belonging in their institution.

be able to collect data using qualitative research methods.

develop their capacity for engaging in common ongoing and continuous professional development, gaining a sense of community and belonging.

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

07


phase 01 :

START YOUR PROJECT


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

09

Propose Your Project Meeting of the project’s initiator with the s leadership (e.g. rector, dean, department or program director) of the institute. The meeting has several purposes: (a) present the project in brief; (b) develop a basic definition of the project: the design challenge; and (c) define the project’s scope, target group and outcomes. The ultimate purpose of this meeting is to secure project approval.

steps

01

Present the project in brief - 15 minutes • Rationale • Generic goals • Opportunities and challenges • The expected process • Typical timetable • Required resources You may use Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching presentation available in the project’s drive folder, and which presents different scenarios/examples.

02

Develop a basic definition of the project: The design challenge - 30 minutes This stage of the meeting is designed to develop a preliminary definition – by the institute’s leadership – of the challenges and opportunities the project will address. Every design process begins with a specific and intentional problem to address; this is called a design challenge. A challenge should be approachable, understandable and actionable, and it should be clearly scoped—not too big or too small, not too vague or too simple. Based on this preliminary definition, the group of lecturers will next be used the same tools to define goals and detailed targets for its own process. During the meeting, you may use ‫״‬Define the Project Challenge” framework appears below and available in the project’s drive folder.

03

Define the project’s scope, target group and outcomes - 15 minutes • Scale: The project may be implemented on a varying scale within the institute according to the goals set by the leadership, schedule and resources. Nevertheless, it is important to maintain a learning group size of 6-15 participants. In other words, the smallest group size allowing the project to proceed is six participants, since this allows simultaneous learning by parallel subgroups synchronized by a joint group coordinator team. The plan presented here refers to the activity of a single learning group. • Target group: The project is designed for the academic faculty of the institute, who are involved in teaching, academic management and program

PARTICIPANTS Director of the Teaching Development Unit/ Project Initiator, The institute’s leadership TIME 60 minutes EQUIPMENT Laptop/tablet, projector and screen (optional), writing Tools


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

development. It is therefore able to address different target groups with reference to the specific goals set for it. Examples include academic leaders, lecturers teaching in the same program or lecturers teaching in different departments. It is important that the group be composed of colleagues without relations of authority. • Outcome: Project outcomes me be broadly defined in advance (e.g. creating a new curriculum) and or develop and become more accurate as a results of insights and opportunities identified in the process.

10


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Define the Project Challenge 1 - LIST POSSIBLE TOPICS: Make a list of the problems you’ve noticed or things you’ve wished for. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

2 - FRAME THE PROBLEM: Rewrite the problem statements into “how might we” questions in order to frame the problem as a possibility. Keep it simple. Describe your challenge simply and optimistically. Make it broad enough to allow you to discover areas of unexpected value, and narrow enough to make the topic manageable. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

3 - SKETCH OUT END GOALS: Define your goals for undertaking this design challenge. Be honest about determining a realistic scope of your project regarding both time and output. What will you work to produce? Where do you expect to get at the end of this process? Before you dig into the specifics of your challenge, consider what might be the “deliverables” for this project. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ - 1 based on: http://designthinkingforeducators.com/ © 2012 IDEO LLC

11


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

4 - DEFINE MEASURES OF SUCCESS: What else are you working toward? What will make this work successful? What are the measures of success? Most of the time, these measures of success emerge as you dig into your project, but it helps to start to think about this at the beginning Examples may include, better rates in student’s survey, winning more research funds or competitions, more students engagements, deeper conversations in class , etc. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

5 - ESTABLISH CONSTRAINTS AND IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES: It is crucial to define constraints and search for opportunities. Get specific on the problem or question you are trying to address. Does it need to fit into a certain timeframe? Can it be integrated with an existing structure, initiative or process? Make a list of the constraints and opportunities you need to manage . ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

6 - WRITE A BRIEF: A clearly defined challenge will guide your questions and help you stay on track throughout the process. Write a short brief that clarifies the challenge you plan to address. Write it as if you were handing it to someone else to design with. Capture thoughts on why this is a problem, and what the opportunity for development will be. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

- 2 based on: http://designthinkingforeducators.com/ Š 2012 IDEO LLC

12


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

13

Appointing the Project Coordinator A project coordinator should be appointed sometime after the kickoff meeting and the project’s approval.

guidelines PARTICIPANTS Director of the Teaching Development Unit/ Project Initiator, The institute’s leadership

The coordinator is a group member and active participant in the group’s mapping, conceptualization and creative processes. In other words, s/he is a colleague without direct authority over the other group members. His/her course or academic program must be an object for review by the group, similarly to those of all the other participants. The coordinator is responsible for planning the project, forming the team, managing the schedule, collecting the materials, scheduling meetings and coordinating the participants’ work. Group work is at the heart of this project. A diverse group of lecturers with different strengths and perspectives enables significant reflection and effective coping with complex challenges. However, the dynamics of group work may also cause difficulties and constraints. The coordinator’s personality and ability to overcome these challenges will have impact on the project’s success. We therefore recommend choosing a coordinator who is: • highly appreciated by his peers both professionally and personally; • experienced in matrix-based management (without direct, hierarchic authority) and/or group facilitation; • with excellent interpersonal communication skills; • with appropriate procedural knowledge.


Phase 01 : Start your project - 1.3

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

14

Prepare the Coordinator In order to start the preparation phase, the coordinator should be familiar with different aspects and tools of the project.

steps

01

Get familiarized with the process and toolkit - 45 minutes • Preliminary presentation of the generic process: goals, projected course and key points. • Familiarization with toolkit material.

02

Introduction with theoretical background - 45 minutes Familiarization with relevant theoretical background might be helpful through the different phases of the project, including the formulation of the challenge, writing the field guides and the interpretation of the findings that arise from the fieldwork. Since the project’s definition and scope are dynamic - so its theoretical framework. Therefore we recommend on reading continuously and reflectively through the different stages of the project. In “Theoretical Framework” folder available in the project’s drive folder, you may find a number of articles that offers key learning and teaching approaches/ concepts that may be useful for you.

03

Define the project’s aims and prepare an action plan - 90 minutes It may be decided whether to hold this stage with the coordinator alone or with the entire group at a later stage. See subsections 2.2 and 2.3 below.

PARTICIPANTS Director of the Teaching Development Unit/Project Initiator, Project Coordinator TIME 180 minutes (can be split into two meetings covering parts 1+2 and 3) EQUIPMENT Laptop/tablet, projector and screen (optional)


phase 02 :

PREPARE YOUR PROJECT


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

16

Build a Team Collaborative learning and a shared reflective and creative process are inherent to “design thinking”. A diverse group of participants with different strengths and perspectives facilitates significant reflection and effective coping with complex challenges.

steps

01

Define group size Group size can range between 6-15 participants, according to the project’s scope (the ideal size is 8-12).

02

Think of the group composition Judicious selection of participants will have a direct effect on the quality of the process and its outcomes. Think which participants might contribute the most to the process, and whether you want to include ones who are not lecturers - as students, administrators, managers or experts external to the academy. Concerning to lecturers, we recommend giving priority to lecturers who are: • Diverse: Pay attention to diversity in terms of gender, age, teaching experience, pedagogical approaches, professional expertise, etc. • Extreme Users: We recommend including innovative lecturers who are committed to constantly reviewing and improving their teaching practices, who have developed tools and methods that are unique in the context of the challenge dealt with and that would be the first to adopt new ones. alongside with the innovators, including lecturers who do not consider instruction central to their professional self-image and are not reflexive about their teaching practices is also recommended - these lecturers might reveal different and important approaches, barriers and needs. • Available: Lecturers able to devote time and thought to the process during the semester. • Change Leaders: Opinion leaders able to promote change in the academic unites.

03

Recruit the group participants Project coordinator will hold talks with the different participants. The conversation should be direct and interactive - preferably by talking on the phone or schedule an appointment if possible. a. Consult the academic unit director to identify and contact potential participants: • Self-presentation; • Concise presentation of the process (rationale, objectives, stages and

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

17

outcomes) ; • Describing the desirable participant profile ; • Identifying potential participants: Who are the relevant lecturers and why? What courses do they teach? For how long? What’s unique about those courses and their delivery? ; • Obtaining the lecturers’ contact details.

Emphases for the conversations: - One of the objectives of this talk is to arouse the academic unit director’s interest and secure the leadership’s support for the process. It is important to present the project’s objectives and potential outcomes clearly. - The talk may provide information that could be useful to the group coordinator and members. We therefore recommend that you prepare for and document it. - Importantly, the information provided by the academic unit director cannot be fully objective and comprehensive. To obtain a broader and more nuanced perspective, we recommend that you also hold brief interviews with students, other lecturers and unit administrators. b. Contact and recruit the lecturers: • Self-presentation; • Concise presentation of the process (rationale, objectives, stages and outcomes); • Why the lecturer is recommended and by whom; • Courses the lecturer teaches and how – instruction methods; • Explaining the required scope of participation and inquiring about the lecturer’s availability.

Emphases for the conversations: - In some of the projects, this talk may be held as part of an interview and could provide information useful for the group coordinator and members. We therefore recommend that you prepare for and document it.


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

18

Reframe and Review the Design Challenge A clearly defined challenge will guide your questions and help you stay on track throughout the process. Spend time with your team to create common understanding of what you are working toward.

steps

01

Collect your thoughts As a team, talk about the design challenge you chose to work on. Collect and write down thoughts about your challenge. Start with a broad view: ask yourself why people might need, want, or engage with the topic you are investigating. Discuss how you can refine the challenge if it feels too broad, or too specific.

02

Review constraints Review the list of criteria and constraints for the challenge. Discuss with your team, do you need to add to or change this list?

03

Reframe the challenge Based on the thoughts you have collected, reframe the challenge, if necessary, to incorporate the team’s thinking. Keep rewriting your challenge until it feels approachable, understandable and actionable to everyone on the team.

04

Create a visible reminder Post the challenge in a place that everyone on the team can see, to be reminded of your focus throughout the process.

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator, Group Members TIME 60 minutes EQUIPMENT Laptop/tablet, projector and screen (optional), writing tools

based on: http://designthinkingforeducators.com/ Š 2012 IDEO LLC


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.3

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

19

Create a Project Plan Creating a joint work plan for the project enables group members to think together about its logistical aspects and carefully coordinate its various scheduled activities. We recommend devoting some thought to the actual dates, times, locations and durations of the project sessions, to the required budget and supplies, as well as to the process’s expected outcomes.

steps

01

Quantify the field works The scope of fieldwork depends on your schedule and resources and the challenge you wish to address. As a rule of thumb, we recommend that you hold eight field works including observation and interviews as well as self-documentation of 12 students. Based on our experience, this will provide an amount of data you will be able to address in the process – enough to produce significant knowledge.

02

Quantify the participants Quantify the participants, including both courses and students. Note that there may be a gap between the number of students agreeing to document themselves and the number of students who will actually participate (based on our experience, it is a 1:2 ratio). Therefore, we recommend recruiting double the number of students.

03

Quantify the research assistants The observations and interviews may be performed by either group members or trained students (see the following subsection). If you choose to employ students, the required number depends on your schedule (will you require that several fieldworks be performed simultaneously?) and available human resources. As a rule of the thumb, we recommend recruiting four students: three for observations and interviews and another one for managing self-documentation. If you have enough time, you may also include a small number of research assistants to improve their understanding of the field and findings. In addition, the time required for preparing, coaching and supervising the research assistants by the project coordinator will thereby be reduced.

04

Prepare the project’s timeline Mark key dates on your calendar: holidays, vacations, deadlines, important meetings, etc.

05

Look at your budget Do you have everything you’ll need? If you foresee constraints, how can you go around them?

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator, Group Members TIME 30-90 minutes (If possible, include activities 2.2 and 2.3 in the same session) EQUIPMENT Stationery, calendar, budget management file


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.4

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

20

Recruit Research Assistants Gathering information by conducting fieldwork may be the responsibility of the group members themselves or of external research assistants. The choice between the two different formats and an accurate recruitment of assistants may have a significant effects on the process’s quality and outcomes.

steps PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator

01

Decide who will conduct the fieldwork There are different advantages and disadvantages of using research assistants versus group members Having group members gather information offers the following advantages: • The lecturers’ knowledge and experience makes them highly sensitive to details and enables them to ask the right questions. In addition, at the information processing stage, their skills will help them quickly identify significant pieces of information (Informed Intuition). • Fieldwork makes group members more familiar with the materials, making for a higher-quality mapping and analysis process. • Fieldwork gives lecturers the opportunity to observe a different class and talk with colleagues about various teaching and learning issues – this, in itself, is highly valuable. This approach also has its disadvantages: • The fact that the lecturers are part of the field could make it more difficult for them to assume the appropriate distance from it and observe it without projecting their perceptions, approaches and experiences on the situation. • Observation by a lecturer who teaches on the same academic unit may be experienced as threatening by those observed, both lecturers and students. The lecturer’s presence may affect the situation observed and the interviewees’ openness. • Low availability of lecturers and their difficulty to commit to observations and interviews.


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.4

02

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

21

Recruit the research assistants If you choose to rely on external research assistants, at this point you must see to their recruitment and training. Recruiting and training skillful research assistants will have positive effects on the process’s quality, as they will - Produce rich and detailed information that will serve as a high-quality raw material for the group’s mapping work; - Provide preliminary intuitive information that will contribute to the group’s analysis process, particularly the ability to identify key issues quickly and accurately; and - Encourage openness, reduce fears and resistances and create an overall positive and professional experience for the lecturers and students in the field.

Job descriptions: a Fieldwork assistant. One fieldwork includes participating in a preparatory meeting/talk, performing the fieldwork, downloading the information (see subsection 3.4) and taking part in the information processing session (subsections 4.1-4.2). The time required for one fieldwork is 8-12 hours, based on the structure of work in the project. b Self-documentation manager. Ten students will self-document themselves for a week. Management work will include recruiting participants, coaching the students, pooling the materials, reviewing them and holding brief clarification talks with students if necessary, based on the review. Estimated duration: 15 hours. Job requirements: Students with training in qualitative research who are curious and highly sensitive to and respective of the field, with particular interest in teaching and learning. Candidates must also be responsible, committed and professionally ethical. They must be external to the specific field, without being employed in it, bearing any responsibility over it or otherwise involved in it. Additional considerations include availability and flexibility allowing them to take part in fieldwork during learning hours. Priority will be given to students seen as potential future lecturers. Recruitment: You may either approach students with the appropriate training record directly or issue a call for candidates that will include: • A description of the project and its aims; • Detailed information about information gathering/research in the field; • Detailed job description including physical location, dates, methodologies, hours and wages; • Job requirements; • Contact information and deadline for submission.


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.5

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

22

Create Field Guides In order to make the most of fieldwork, the project coordinator must prepare field guides that will help the “researchers” – the lecturers and/or their assistants – in their work. In addition to the questions and guidelines included in the guide, it is important to be open to new issues as they arise from the field. Often, the most interesting insights are those that surprise us.

steps

01

Create field guide for observation and interviews This field guide will include both guidelines for the observation and interviews with the lecturer and a group of students, since they are related to one another and conducted continuously. The first part of the guide will include instructions for the observation - guiding the researcher how to behave in the observation site and what to look for (specific issues, behaviors etc.). Alongside with these structured guidelines, the field guide will also encourage the researcher to observe openly on the field - looking for unexpected and significant issues that might arise (partly structured observation). The second part of the guide will include instructions for the two different interviews - composed of introductory paragraph followed by questions. The questions will be organized by topics at increasing levels of depth and complexity. In that, it is highly reminiscent of the structure of a real conversation and contributes to a sense of comfort, trust and openness. You can find a generic “Field Guide” in the project’s drive folder. The field guide may be edited to suit the specific objectives of your project and/or the specific characteristics of your academic unit. We recommend tailoring them specifically to each fieldwork. See “Guidelines for Writing Interview” guide in the project’s drive folder.

02

Create self-documentation tool Finally, you will need to prepare a self-documentation tool, such as physical diary, camera, recording device, digital form or a blog. Choose the tool according to the documentation contents, the characteristics of the participants and the academic unit, the place and time in which it will take place, the way the data will be collected and analyzed and your budget While creating the content - we highly recommend on writing a limited number of clear and simple questions/ instructions, since this method might feel as a demanding task for the students. See a generic “Self-Documentation Tool” (Hebrew) (Google Forms) or “SelfDocumentation Questionnaire”. If necessary, edit it so it will suit you specific project.

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator TIME 30-180 minutes EQUIPMENT Laptop/tablet


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.5

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Field Guide for Observation and Interviews FIELDWORK DETAILS LECTURER: Name, disciplines and areas of practical and/or research expertise, teaching experience… ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ COURSE: Name, type, credit points, when and where, duration, history, major contents, major teaching methods, student school year, number of students. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ACADEMIC UNIT: Name, history, politics, organizational culture. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ KEY ISSUES: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ WHERE AND WHEN: Day, times, location. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ LECTURER CONTACT DETAILS: Phone, email. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ACADEMIC UNIT CONTACT DETAILS: Name, phone, emai ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Mapping teaching and learning approaches, methods and tools that promote meaningful learning.

OBSERVATION GUIDE Tips & Emphases: •

Choose your location. Make sure you are able to observe both the students and the lecturer without sticking out and creating a distraction. Change your observation point during the lesson according to what’s going on in class (work in groups, etc.)

Document your observation by providing a thick description of everything you see and hear, using a variety of means: narration, quotes, sketches, recordings, photos…

Be visual. To the extent possible, draw and photograph whatever has a visual aspect. Be sensitive to the response to the camera’s presence and to its effect on the actual event observed.

Write questions. During the observation, make notes of things you see and hear and which you would like to refer to subsequently in your interviews with the lecturer and students.

- 1 -

23


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.5

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Field Guide for Observation and Interviews Self-Presentation: •

My name is [full name], I’m a research assistant in a project called [name of project] designed to [purpose of project].

Thank you for the opportunity of sitting with you today to observe your lesson and learn from it about the way you teach and learn.

If possible, I would be happy to talk to any of you students who can and wants to at the end of class, to hear from you personally about your experience as learners.

Agreement for documentation (audio & visual).

Maintaining confidentiality.

Observation Guidelines: •

Please describe the course of the lesson and its various stages in detail, with emphases on teaching and learning approaches, methods and tools: - What are the lesson’s different stages? - What are the knowledge, tools and skills (technical/cognitive) the lesson seeks to provide/ develop at every stage? - Please describe in detail the teaching and learning methods used throughout the various stages of the lesson and the different tools and means used for this purpose (verbal, visual, technological, spatial, etc.).

Describe the experience of the lecturers and students during the lesson. Are they motivated, frustrated bored or anxious? Is it an experience of failure or success?

Describe instances/moments when you feel meaningful learning has occurred? What enabled it? How did the various teaching and learning approaches/methods contribute or not contribute to it?

Look at the design and the arrangement of the learning space. How will you describe the space where the learning and teaching takes place (auditorium, classroom, workshop, lawn…)? How is it constructed (fixed/moving wall; windows, doors and passages; infrastructures…)? What objects does it contain? How are they organized and by whom? How does the space change in the course of the lesson, if at all?

Look at the engagement of students in that space: Where are the lecturers and students located? Are they sitting still, standing, moving, converging, diverging? In what instances?

Look at the way technology is being used: Is technology integrated in teaching and learning processes, whether formally or informally? How exactly?

Pay heed to the way language is used: What words are emphasized or used repeatedly? In what ways (diction, intonation…)? What words are absent?

Look at body representations and performances: How do the lecturers and students design their visibility/appearance (clothes, hairstyles, piercing, tattoos…)? What gestures and movements do they make?

Specific Issues: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

- 2 -

24


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.5

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Field Guide for Observation and Interviews STUDENTS GROUP INTERVIEW GUIDE Introduction: •

Self-presentation and explanation about the research (if necessary).

Emphases: The idea is to capture your experience as learners. This is a conversation rather than a formal interview, there are no right or wrong answers – everything that comes to your mind is valuable.

Agreement to be recorded/filmed.

Commitment to confidentiality.

About the students: •

Tell me a little about yourself: What are your names? What do you study? What year are you?

About the course: •

Tell me a little about this course: What knowledge, tools and skills do you acquire/develop in this course?

During the course so far, and particularly in the lesson you had to day, have you experienced meaningful/significant learning? What was it in the teaching and learning approaches, methods, or tools that facilitated your meaningful learning, do you think? What worked against it? Please tell me about specific examples from the last lesson or semester.

Add specific questions arising from the observation. THANK YOU!

- 3 -

25


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.5

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Field Guide for Observation and Interviews LECTURER INTERVIEW GUIDE Introduction: •

Self-presentation and explanation about the research (if necessary).

Emphases: The idea is to capture your experience as learners. This is a conversation rather than a formal interview, there are no right or wrong answers – everything that comes to your mind is valuable.

Agreement to be recorded/filmed.

Commitment to confidentiality.

About the lecturer: •

Tell me a little about yourself: How long have you been teaching here? Elsewhere? Which courses do you teach? How long have you been teaching this course?

How did you end up teaching? Why have you chosen to teach?

About the course: •

Tell me a little about this course: How long is it being taught? Why and how was it conceived?

What are the course’s learning outcomes? What knowledge, tools and skills do you expect the students to have upon successfully completing it?

Tell me about the way the course is designed/planned: What is the course’s structure, what are its different stages? What is the content and duration of the tutorials? Do the students work alone or in teams?

What are the main teaching and learning tools and methods used during the course? How? What values do they promote? What are their weaknesses/limitations? How are they manifested in the lesson today? Have you ever tried using different methods and tools? Why have you chosen the current ones? Please focus on specific examples.

Do you feel these tools and methods make for meaningful learning by the students? How? Please tell me about a case or two from the lesson today/during the last semester. When and with which students do they fail to achieve meaningful learning? Please focus on a specific example.

Add specific questions arising from the observation.

Teaching and learning approaches: •

Please tell me about your approach to teaching and learning: What do you feel are the guiding principles for valuable teaching and learning? THANK YOU!

- 4 -

26


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.6

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

27

Train the Researchers The structure of the training process is determined by the researcher’s’ previous knowledge and familiarity with the project contents. The workshop detailed here assumes previous knowledge and experience with qualitative research methods. Content items may be added or removed as required.

guidelines PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator, Research Assistants/Group Members TIME 1-3 hours EQUIPMENT Printed interview and observation guides, colorful Sticky Notes packages – 250 notes per participant (Post-it notes are recommended), two thick black markers per participant (Staedtler 0.7 markers are recommended), laptop and projector (if you’re using a presentation)

Workshop structure: • Introduction: presenting the process, its aims and stages. • Providing a theoretical background: key meaningful learning concepts and major relevant approaches to teaching and learning. • How to conduct fieldwork: - Main and secondary issues you wish to examine; - Project duration and timetable; - Familiarity with the field; - Fieldwork methodologies and techniques (interview, observation, selfdocumentation); - Sample interview and observation guides; - Fieldwork emphases: approach, language, appearance, etc. ; - Technical documentation instructions: recording, writing, taking notes, drawing, and still and video photography; - Instructions on how to download information and obtain the required supplies. In addition to the preparatory workshop, the project coordinator will hold a personal conversation with each research assistant prior to each fieldwork to discuss its specific context: • The academic unit: corporate culture, unique characteristics, power relations, etc.; • The course where the specific fieldwork will be held; • The lecturer; • Issues to be focused on, based on the preparatory talk.


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.7

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

28

Recruit Participants

steps

01

Recruiting students for self-documentation Ten students will be asked to document meaningful learning experiences they had over the past week (this duration may be extended in accordance with your needs and resources). We recommend recruiting • Students who are committed, who have a critical approach and good analytic and writing skills; • A wide variety of students: students of both genders from different academic units, in different stages of their studies, of varying achievement levels and different approaches to learning. You may consult officials in the academic unit for specific recommendations. The participating students’ details will be collected by the project coordinator and remain confidential. The recruitment talks will be held by a research assistant or the project coordinator (in the case of peer observation). Use our recruitment email and talk guidelines. Students who agree to take part in self-documentation should receive the selfdocumentation tool.

02

Recruiting other participants who are not group members Should the process include gathering information from other participants who are not group members (students, lecturers, managers, administration personnel etc.), they must be contacted to present the project, explain the information gathering process and obtain informed consent.

03

Recruiting a group of students for a joint interview Two to five students will be recruited for this purpose by a research assistant at the start/end of the observation.

PARTICIPANTS Research Assistant/Project Coordinator


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.8

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

29

Purchase/Order Necessary Supplies Make sure that you have prepared all the supplies required for your fieldwork ahead of time. Pay attention to the requirements listed for each step of the project and adjust them to your own needs if necessary.

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator


Phase 02 : Prepare your project - 2.9

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

30

Coordinate the Fieldwork If group members are conducting the fieldwork on their own, scheduling the observation and interview will be the “researcher” team member’s responsibility. If the fieldwork is conducted by external research assistance, this will be the project coordinator’s responsibility.

steps PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator

01

The coordination includes: • Scheduling observations and interviews with the lecturer. • Appointing a research assistant available for fieldwork and providing him with the relevant details: date, time, location, name of lecturer and contact details. • Providing the lecturer with the research assistant’s name and contact details. • Contacting the research assistant the day before to make sure everything is ready. • Having the research assistant contact the lecturer (interviewee) ahead of time to make sure there are no changes and establish some familiarity prior to the fieldwork itself. • Inform the lecturers in the academic unit where self-documentation is performed.


phase 03 :

COLLECT THE DATA

Information will be collected through a short-term field research that includes lesson observation accompanied by in-depth interview with the lecture and a brief group interview with students taking part in the lesson. At the same time, students will be asked to self-document their meaningful learning experiences during a one-week period.


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

32

Observe Observation is an intentional, systematic and organized way of gathering information about lecturers’ teaching and students’ learning. It allows the observer to develop empathy for them, identify their tacit and explicit needs and understand how the learning environment affects their behavior.

guidelines PARTICIPANTS Researcher TIME An entire lesson/ learning activity EQUIPMENT Observation guide, field diary, phone or other recording device, charger and camera (phone or other)

In the course of the observation, the researcher will follow evens closely with an attempt to reduce her own influence on the field as much as possible. Often, such an observation is followed by an interview designed to gain a better understanding of what we have observed. Subject to the participants’ advance approval, we also recommend recording and filming the lecture/learning. For high quality recording you can use dedicated applications such as Voice Recorder. In the course of the observation, we recommend paying particular note to the following: the course of the activity, the experience of the lecturer and students, occasions/moments where you think meaningful learning has taken place, the design and organization of space, people’s movements and interactions, use of technology, use of language, bodily representations and performance. Use the “Field Guide” in the project’s drive folder and in subsection 2.5. .


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

What to look for in Observations Examples Fieldwork at Bezalel Academy, March-June 2016

BODY REPRESENTATIONS: The lecturer and most of the students have similar appearance - they wear eyeglasses with a thick dark frame, put on black shirts and have short beards (boys).

BODY PERFORMANCE: One of the lecturers seats informally on the floor, while listening to a student’s presentations.

LEARNING SPACES: The lecturer and students pass between 3 different learning spaces during the lesson, where they actively engaged with the equipment necessary for the different stages of the design process.

PEOPLE’S MOVEMENTS AND INTERACTIONS: Students stands up and gathers around a computer, in which the lecturer presents firms that manufacture and import innovative lighting fixtures (practical knowledge).

33


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Fieldwork at Bezalel Academy, March-June 2016

INFORMAL INTERVENTION IN THE SPACE: Students illustration on a writing tablet of a chair in a studio classroom, criticizing the creative process and the crit given by the lecturer.

LEARNING SPACES: ... (TBD)

“You have the complete freedom to do whatever you want”; “Here enters your perspective … I won’t tell you what to present and what not to.” Teacher

“Forget it, do whatever you want!”; “It’s waiting for you to do it!”; “You’ll find it, I really don’t worry”; “You are the talent in this brand”. Teacher

THE WAY LANGUAGE IS BEING USED: ...

REPETITIONS: ...

(TBD)

(TBD)

34


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

35

Interview Holding a post-observation interview is designed to help understand the observed events more deeply and reveal the approaches, beliefs and perceptions behind the behaviors observed. The art of conducting an interview strikes a balance between the need to obtain relevant information from the interviewee and focus on the issue at hand and the need to maintain friendly, empathetic and curious interaction. After the observations, you will need to conduct a group interview with students and in-depth interview with the lecturer. The tips and emphases following below apply to both.

steps

01

Group interview with students Although a group interview does not offer the depth of an individual interview, it may provide important information about several participants at a time. Think of a place that can conveniently host the entire group and where you can talk without disturbance and distraction. Hold the interview as soon as possible after the observation – preferably immediately after it. Conduct the interview in a way that will allow all students to take part and express their thoughts and views. Remember that the students may be in-between lessons, so that your time is limited and the participants may be tired. Focus on one or two issues that seem most important to you.

02

In-depth interview with the lecturer Hold this interview as soon as possible after the observed lesson – preferably immediately after – where you can have a quiet conversation without being distracted by students or other lecturers and preferably with no time limit. Make sure you refer to questions and issues arising from the observations, as well as to points prepared in advance using the interview guide, and be open to additional information is has not occurred to you to ask about.

PARTICIPANTS Researcher, Lecturer/ Group of students taking part in the learning activity. TIME 20-45 minutes for a brief interview with a group of students 45-90 minutes for an in-depth interview with the lecturer EQUIPMENT Interview guide, field diary, phone or other recording device, charger and camera (phone or other)

Use the “Field Guide” in the project’s drive folder and in subsection 2.5.

03

Interview techniques •

Five whys. Ask “why” five times successively to obtain in-depth information that exposes the interviewees’ hidden needs and the reasons/motivations for their behavior. Utilizing the “problem” statement, ask “why” or “why is that” once. After the question has been answered, ask “why” again with reference to the answer. Repeat for “whys” #3, #4 and #5, as well as any more that are needed. Repeat the entire process as many times as necessary to determine potential root causes. Document the answers given and transcribe them.

Show me. Ask the interviewee to show you the objects and spaces referred to during the interview (such as teaching aids or emails sent to students) and talk about them


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

36

while interacting with them.

04

Draw it. Ask the interviewee to draw or sketch an experience/activity/item she is telling you about. This technique helps the interviewer understand complex processes described verbally, and reveals how the interviewee perceives and organizes his activities.

Think aloud. Ask the interviewee to do something, while describing everything she thinks and does out loud.

Content emphases/tips •

Be specific. Ask about particular situations, rather than talking about what “usually” happens. For example, “Tell me about the last time you…”

Be clear: Phrase your questions clearly, accurately and without bias. If necessary, explain any professional terms you use.

Ask open-ended questions. Avoid formulating your position through the question, or providing the answer instead of the interviewee. Choose questions that invite a complex and detailed answer.

Ask naïve questions. Allow the interviewees to explain things in their own language and from their own point of view, without assuming you know the answer.

Ask one question at a time.

Be active listeners: show an interest in what is said to you using supportive questions, facial expressions and bodily gestures, even when you’re listening and writing.

When listening to the interviewee, pay particular attention to: - Inconsistency: gaps between the interviewee’s statements and what you have actually observed. - Nonverbal hints: body language, facial expressions, tone of voice, etc. - Improvisations: how people deal with and overcome problems. - Recurring behaviors and phrases.


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.3

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

37

Conduct Self-Documentation

steps

01

PARTICIPANTS Researcher/Project Coordinator

Start the documentation Ask ten students to document meaningful learning experiences they had over the course of a week: What did they learn? Where and how did they learn it? How did the learning space look like? What learning and teaching methods and tools were used? What was their experience? What made learning meaningful for them? This documentation will be both in writing and with visual means (photography and drawing) using Google Forms. Using this tool will enable the students to document the experience when it is still fresh in their minds using the smart devices available to them, and will also make it easier for them to pool the materials in preparation for the information processing stage. Use the “SelfDocumentation Tool” available in the project’s drive folder and in subsection 2.5.

EQUIPMENT Self-Documentation Tool, laptop/tablet.

02

Review the documentation materials After the self-documentation is over, review the materials and if necessary, contact the students for clarification and elaboration.


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.4

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

38

Capture Your Learnings When you step out of a fieldwork, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by the amount of information you have taken in. Use the half hour immediately after the session to start capturing what you have learned. Writing while everything is still fresh will make it a lot easier to connect and process your learnings later on.

Emphases PARTICIPANTS Researcher (self-work) TIME

Writing your observations on Sticky Notes will make it easier to reorganize them later.

Use a different note color for every observation/interview.

Use a marker rather than a pen to enable you to read the text from a distance.

Write the details of the observation or interview on one note: location, time, duration, participants, etc.

Download all pieces of information you have collected without editing or screening them at this point! Remember, it is the details that can help you identify the most interesting opportunities. Use a large amount of Sticky Notes.

Write full and clear sentences that will describe the information in full and allow other group members to use it.

Include selected quotes from your fieldwork.

If you have a personal assumption or interpretation related to what you have seen or heard, write it down and identify it as such.

Add drawings and sketches of the observed environment and of further information that has visual aspects.

Print any photos you’ve taken and include them together with an explanatory comment.

Print and cut all the data received from the self-documentation to the size of a post-it. Mark every piece so you’ll know it’s source.

If during this phase you intuitively come up with an idea - write it on a different color of post-it and identify it as such, or stick it on a dedicated Ideas Board (see following page).

If the process is conducted in a completely digital environment, you can use digital tools instead of Sticky Notes, such as:

30-60 minutes EQUIPMENT Field diary, colorful sticky-notes and writing implements (Post-it notes and Staedtler 0.7 black markers are recommended), laptop/ tablet, printer, scissors, scotch tape/stapler.

- Post-it Plus App - NoteApp - Mural - Visual Collaboration for Creative People


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.4

Ideas

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

39


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.4

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

How to download the information Examples Students work at Design Research course, Masters Degree in Industrial Design, Bezalel Academy

STATIONARY: Use sticky notes and a marker for downloading the information - Post-it notes and Staedtler 0.7 black markers are recommended.

COLOR CODING: Use a different note color for every observation/interview.

FIELDWORK DETAILS: Write the details of the observation or interview on one note: location, time, duration, participants, etc.

INCLUDE QUOTES: Include selected quotes from your fieldwork.

40


Phase 03 : Collect the data - 3.4

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

41

Students work at Design Research course, Masters Degree in Industrial Design, Bezalel Academy

DRAW/SKETCH: Add drawings and sketches of the observed environment and of further information that has visual aspects.

INCLUDE SELF-DOCUMENTATION: Print all the data received from the self-documentation and cut it to the size of post-its. Mark every piece so you’ll know it’s source.

INCLUDE PHOTOS: Print any photos you’ve taken and include them together with an explanatory comment.

WRITE DOWN IDEAS: If during this phase you intuitively come up with an idea - write it down on a post-it with different color and identify it as such.


phase 04 :

ANALYZE AND INTERPRET

The information processing stage involves analysis and interpretation of the field materials. It is a collaborative process that requires the presence and involvement of all group members. We recommend completing it in the course of a single session divided into three parts, as follows.


Phase 04 : Analyze and interpret - 4.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

43

Share What You’ve Learned Share what you’ve learned from your research in the form of a story: rich and full of details, not just general statements. This will create common knowledge that your group can use.

Emphases

Set up a space. Plan your storytelling session in a room with plenty of wall space. Make sure that all the participants can see all the boards. Distribute Sticky Notes and markers.

PARTICIPANTS

Group members, Project Coordinator, Research Assistants (if any)

Arrange your board. Arrange your Sticky Notes and visual materials on the Kappa boards in order to use them to share your information. Use one Kappa board per story.

Surround yourself with stories. Place all the boards around you in the room so that you have an overview of all your experiences and the people you have met.

TIME

Approx. three hours, depending on the amount of fieldwork

Take turns describing your fieldwork. Be specific and talk about what actually happened. Present the Kappa board you prepared and use your notes, your quotations and your visuals to tell stories.

Actively listen. While you are listening to each other, compare and contrast the things you have learned. Explore areas where you find different opinions and contradictions. Be curious, ask questions. Add Sticky Notes with more information.

Start looking for recurring themes. Write comments on Sticky Notes while listening to a story. Capture quotes—they are a powerful way of representing the voice of a participant. Try to identify patterns and themes. Write them down on differently colored notes.

EQUIPMENT 5mm Kappa boards, sticky-notes in different colors, thick black markers


Phase 04 : Analyze and interpret - 4.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

44

Search for Meaning After having collected and shared stories from your fieldwork, begin to make sense of all that information and inspiration. This part of the process is the most significant: the value of research for design lies in the quality of the synthesis of the information collected and the insights extracted from the materials.

steps

01

PARTICIPANTS Group members, Project Coordinator, Research Assistants (if any)

Find themes This process is designed to group the information collected into categories based on common themes identified. These themes emerge from the materials in the form of recurring patterns of needs, perceptions, concepts, methodologies, tools, etc. Organizing the information allows us to create the body of knowledge and frame the issues arising from the fieldwork. How to do it? • Cluster related information. Group findings from your field works into categories. Start by having every team member choose 3-5 Sticky Notes and visuals they find most interesting. Place each of them on an empty Kappa board and begin to look for more evidence of the same theme. Reorganize the materials using an affinity diagram.

TIME 90 minutes EQUIPMENT 5mm Kappa boards, stickynotes in different colors, thick black markers

Note: The categorization process is dynamic. Among other things, it raises issues or questions that require further fieldwork. For example, to find out the reason for a certain behavior by the lecturer. Make a note of these issues before proceeding with your information processing. •

Give headlines. Name the clusters you have defined, and attach a Sticky

Note of a different color above each group and write the cluster name on it.

02

Make sense of the findings Once you have created themes as an overview of your research findings, begin to take a closer look at what they mean. Sort and analyze them until they help you build a clear point of view. How to do it? •

Look for links between themes. Take a closer look at your themes and find overlaps, patterns and tensions as they relate to each other. Group the themes in three larger categories: Concepts, Methods, Tools. Find links between them. What contradictions do you find? What feels surprising and why?

Dig deeper. With your team, take a step back and discuss what you have discovered. Are there themes that you have different opinions about? What are you most excited about? Can you begin to see the relevance of your challenge?


Phase 04 : Analyze and interpret - 4.2

03

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

45

Define insights Insights are a concise expression of what you have learned from your research and inspiration activities. They are the unexpected information that makes you sit up and pay attention. Insights allow you to see the world in a new way and are a catalyst for new ideas. How to do it? •

Reconnect the learnings to your challenge. Revisit the questions that you started out with: How do your findings relate to your challenge? Narrow down the information to those insights that are relevant and find new clusters. Be prepared to let go of details that are less important. Try to limit your insights to the three to five most important.

Identify causal relations. Insights will often connect the behavior you have observed (how) with its cause (why). If the cause is your own speculation, refer to it as such.

Phrase your insight clearly, as a complete, short, accurate and memorable sentence. Make sure the sentence offers a new perspective and can open up a new possibility.


Phase 04 : Analyze and interpret - 4.3

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

46

Frame Opportunities Insights only become valuable when you can act on them as inspiring opportunities. Turn them into generative brainstorm questions around your insights.

Emphases PARTICIPANTS Group members, Project Coordinator TIME 90 minutes EQUIPMENT Stationery

• • • • •

Start each statement with “How might we...?” or “What if…?” as an invitation for input, suggestions and exploration. Generate multiple questions for every insight. Tray to create opportunities from a number of insights. Write them in plain language, simple and concise. Leave the questions open without offering solutions.


phase 05 :

IDEATE

Ideation is the process of creating, developing and demonstrating new ideas. The process involves coming up with multiple ideas, and selecting and consolidating the best and most interesting ones. We recommend using brainstorming techniques. Brainstorming is a process of group thinking that mobilizes the group’s creative resources to solve problems and develop ideas. The process involves implementing various techniques to promote participant creativity.


Phase 05 : Ideate - 5.1

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

48

Prepare for Brainstorming

steps

01

Inviting 6-8 participants (more or less than that would be ineffective). We recommend including also participants that are not part of the original group. Brainstorming sessions based on the same opportunities may be conducted with different groups.

02

Creating an appropriate surrounding. The surrounding is significant for brainstorming. Leaving the daily routine environment can help create a more creative atmosphere. The participants’ seating (or standing) must be planned. Music may also be used and texts, photos or props hanged on the walls for inspiration.

03

Print out materials and hang them in the room so that they are available during the meeting.

04

Setting a limited timeframe conducive for effective brainstorming. We recommend breaking the meeting into brief brainstorming sessions (time boxes).

PARTICIPANTS Project Coordinator


Phase 05 : Ideate - 5.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

49

Facilitate the Brainstorming Session Devote between one and two hours to the brainstorming meeting. ...

steps

01

Start by presenting the issue, challenges and opportunities to enable the participants to start their brainstorming with a clear understanding of the matter at hand. Use data, photos and examples. Present challenges and opportunities identified by the group members.

02

Acquaintance: Have each participant present herself by telling a story or sharing a personal experience related to the issue. Connecting to the issue at hand through a personal experience provides a good foundation for continued brainstorming.

03

Present the timeframe and brainstorm rules:

PARTICIPANTS Group members, Project Coordinator, additional participants (Optional) TIME

Defer judgement. You never know where a good idea is going to come from. The key is to make everyone feel like they can say the idea on their mind and allow others to build on it.

Encourage wild ideas. Wild ideas can often give rise to creative leaps. When devising ideas that are wacky or out there, we tend to imagine what we want without the constraints of technology or materials.

Build on the ideas of others. Being positive and building on the ideas of others take some skill. In conversation, we try to use “yes and...” instead of “but”.

Stay focused. Try to keep the discussion on target; otherwise, you may diverge beyond the scope of what you’re trying to design for.

One conversation at a time. Your team is far more likely to build on an idea and make a creative leap if everyone is paying full attention.

Be visual. In brainstorms, we put our ideas on Sticky Notes and then put them on a wall. Nothing gets an idea across faster than a sketch.

Go for quantity. Aim for as many new ideas as possible. In a good session, up to 100 ideas are generated in 60 minutes. Crank the ideas out quickly and build on the best ones.

60-120 minutes EQUIPMENT Accordance with the preliminary planning and the brainstorming methods selected

based on: http://designthinkingforeducators.com/ © 2012 IDEO LLC

04

Conduct a brainstorming using suitable methods. You may use ”Brainstorming Methodologies” presentation available in the project’s drive folder.


Phase 05 : Ideate - 5.2

Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

50

05

Select promising ideas. After collecting the various ideas, group similar ones together. Ask each participant to select the 1-3 ideas they like best – ones they would like to develop or find the most promising. Allow them to make their choice quietly, without letting others influence them. Only then vote on the best ideas and decide which you want to develop.

06

Sketch to think. Sketching even a simple representation of an idea makes you think through a lot of details. Make Brainstorm ways to bring your concept to life early to figure out how you might take an idea further.


Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

What next?

51


Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Resources

52


Design Thinking for Meaningful Teaching Toolkit

Further Reading

53


Profile for Moran Zarchi

Design thinking for meaningful teaching toolkit  

Design thinking for meaningful teaching toolkit  

Advertisement