Clinical nutrition second section By pharmacist: Eman El-Khateeb Administrator in clinical pharmacy department
Vitamins Fat soluble
Absorbed to lymphatics before blood stream
Eliminated slowly and mainly stored in liver & adipose
Water soluble Absorbed to blood directly
Rapid elimination & minimal storage
Calories/gm food constituents 1gm carbohydrates→ 4 Kcalories. 1gm proteins→ 4 Kcalories. 1gm fat→ 9 Kcalories. A balanced macronutrient intake (e.g. 15–20% of daily
energy intake from protein, 40–55% from carbohydrates and 20-35% from fat.
Functional food and well balanced meals will prevent:
Heart diseases Hypertension Diabetes GI disorders Age related macular degeneration
Fat soluble vitamines Water soluble vitamines
• • • • •
Thiamine * Vit. C Riboflavin * Folic acid Niacin *Pantothenic acid Pyridoxine (Vit.B6 ) *Biotin Vit. B12
3- Protein Nitrogen balance refers to the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen output. Most healthy adults are in zero balance (nitrogen equilibrium). Positive nitrogen balance occurs during periods of growth, pregnancy, and recovery from illness. Negative nitrogen balance occurs during starvation, illness and injury.
5- Fat Hard Fat
Saturated fat Soft Fat
Unsaturated Essential fatty acids
Ex. Linoleic & alpha-linolenic
cholesterol Although it is often classified as a lipid, it has a vital
role as a precursor for the synthesis of bile acids, vitamin D and the steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones. It also has a central role in cell membrane synthesis.
Oxidized cholesterol is involved in the lesions that are
responsible for atherosclerosis→ heart disease.
The main dietary sources of cholesterol are foods of
animal origin like eggs, meat and dairy products, as well as certain sea foods, such as shrimps, etc.
LDL Vs HDL The higher the protein content the higher the density of lipoprotein and the lower the fat content.