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Clinical nutrition second section By pharmacist: Eman El-Khateeb Administrator in clinical pharmacy department


Vitamins Fat soluble

Absorbed to lymphatics before blood stream

Eliminated slowly and mainly stored in liver & adipose

Water soluble Absorbed to blood directly

Rapid elimination & minimal storage


Calories/gm food constituents  1gm carbohydrates→ 4 Kcalories.  1gm proteins→ 4 Kcalories.  1gm fat→ 9 Kcalories.  A balanced macronutrient intake (e.g. 15–20% of daily

energy intake from protein, 40–55% from carbohydrates and 20-35% from fat.


Functional food and well balanced meals will prevent:

 Heart diseases  Hypertension  Diabetes  GI disorders  Age related macular degeneration


• E,D,A,K

Fat soluble vitamines Water soluble vitamines

• • • • •

Thiamine * Vit. C Riboflavin * Folic acid Niacin *Pantothenic acid Pyridoxine (Vit.B6 ) *Biotin Vit. B12


3- Protein Nitrogen balance refers to the relationship between nitrogen intake and nitrogen output. Most healthy adults are in zero balance (nitrogen equilibrium). Positive nitrogen balance occurs during periods of growth, pregnancy, and recovery from illness. Negative nitrogen balance occurs during starvation, illness and injury.


5- Fat  Hard Fat

Saturated fat  Soft Fat

Unsaturated  Essential fatty acids

Ex. Linoleic & alpha-linolenic


cholesterol  Although it is often classified as a lipid, it has a vital

role as a precursor for the synthesis of bile acids, vitamin D and the steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones. It also has a central role in cell membrane synthesis.

 Oxidized cholesterol is involved in the lesions that are

responsible for atherosclerosis→ heart disease.

 The main dietary sources of cholesterol are foods of

animal origin like eggs, meat and dairy products, as well as certain sea foods, such as shrimps, etc.


LDL Vs HDL The higher the protein content the higher the density of lipoprotein and the lower the fat content.


Nutrition 2nd section