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Editorial

BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION S Jesús Urquídez By Karla Gómez

pace Dust is intended to all people with interest in space and other astronomical topics. Space Dust to make interested in a By:tries Jesús Urpeople uídez fundamental part of our daily lives. This magazine wants to bring your entertainment without making the topics boring or explaining it like a school topic. Knowing about space isn’t just for scientists, you can obtain that information on your local store. Besides, who hasn’t marveled around at night and just watch the sky night imagining all out there that has not been discovered yet? Our team is made by Montserrat Richarte who is a researcher and writer passionate about space and all the mysteries that are hidden with it. Being a young person in this field, she knows how to get the reader’s attention.

Jesús Urquídez has the interest of always learning more and with this seek for information, he always attracts the reader’s attention and motivates you to want to learn more. José Miguel is a journalist interested on researching scientists and famous people lives, he has an excellent charm with people that makes them see the difficulties that scientists had to outcome. Michelle Campbell has a lot of interest on space topics and is motivated to promote this topic to general public and present knowledge on it in an easy manner for everyone to understand. Karla Gómez has a creative interest on space and all its wonders and wants to express that interest on different ways to make people see the elements that make galaxy such a beautiful and mysterious place.


Editorial

BEYOND YOUR IMAGINATION S By Karla Gómez

pace Dust is intended to all people with interest in space and other astronomical topics. Space Dust tries to make people interested in a fundamental part of our daily lives. This magazine wants to bring your entertainment without making the topics boring or explaining it like a school topic. Knowing about space isn’t just for scientists, you can obtain that information on your local store. Besides, who hasn’t marveled around at night and just watch the sky night imagining all out there that has not been discovered yet? Our team is made by Montserrat Richarte who is a researcher and writer passionate about space and all the mysteries that are hidden with it. Being a young person in this field, she knows how to get the reader’s attention.

Jesús Urquídez has the interest of always learning more and with this seek for information, he always attracts the reader’s attention and motivates you to want to learn more. José Miguel is a journalist interested on researching scientists and famous people lives, he has an excellent charm with people that makes them see the difficulties that scientists had to outcome. Michelle Campbell has a lot of interest on space topics and is motivated to promote this topic to general public and present knowledge on it in an easy manner for everyone to understand. Karla Gómez has a creative interest on space and all its wonders and wants to express that interest on different ways to make people see the elements that make galaxy such a beautiful and mysterious place.


Editorial

Montserrat Richarte Jesús Urquídez

José Miguel Salazar

Michelle Campbell

Karla Gómez


NEXT STOP ALPHA CENTAURI

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By Karla Gómez

r John Farnswell

Dr Farnswell is a cosmologist that is currently involved in what is called Centauri Voyage, a project that intends to send a probe out of the Solar System, specifically, to Alpha Centauri, the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way. Dr Farnswell represents the theoretical group of scientist that approve the project.

How beneficial is this project for humankind? Well, where do I began? After all, a lot of possibilities will be open for humankind once the project is finished, beginning with the simplest one; newfound planets, the probe could be able to view a mayor part of Alpha Centauri, thus its planets, satellites, and more astronomical elements. Also, there’s always the possibility of finding new resources and answers to scientific questions that have been a mystery for so long. Why should humankind look forward to interplanetary or interstellar travels? I’ve always thought that humankind should not conform with living on Earth when there is a whole Universe. But getting to the point, it is known that resources on Earth will be running low if we continue using them like we’ve been. Also there’s always the possibility of astronomical events that could be a danger to our species. If we want to survive, we must look for more options. Have you encountered any difficulties while working on Centauri Voyage? Of course, like any project there are problems. This is not an exception, as we are currently having a difficult time trying to find ways to get the propulsors at an almost lighting speed. And while working on that, there’s also the fact that the structure of the probe must have some details to work properly at the speed needed.

Interview


How to

Materials

Construction paper Duct tape Plastic bottle Thin cardboard Play Doh or clay Cork Water

Tools Scissors Bicycle pump

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HOW TO BUILD A BOTTLE ROCKET By Karla Gรณmez

teps

1. Take a construction paper and roll it into a cone. 2. Wrap the cone with duct tape (Preferably put it on both sides of the cone to prevent it from taking off due to the initial impulse of the rocket). 3. Secure the cone to the bottom of the plastic bottle with duct tape. 4. Cut 3 right triangles with the measures of 6, 8 and 10 centimeters out of the thin cardboard. 5. Place and secure the triangles at the sides of the rocket at the top of the bottle with an equitable separation between each triangle (approximately 120 degrees of separation). They will be the fins of the rocket. 6. Mold Play Doh or clay around the neck finishes of the bottle and secure it with duct tape. 7. Fill up the bottle with water or another liquid with a similar density. 8. Make a hole in a cork, the size should be the same as the valve on the bicycle pump you are going to use to prevent air leaks between the bicycle pump and the bottle. 9. Put the cork into the bottle opening. 10. Insert the valve of the bicycle pump into the cork. 11. Place the rocket on the floor aiming away from you and with the cone facing the sky. 12. Pump air into the bottle for a few seconds until the bottle is well compressed and finally prepare to launch!


INTERGALACTIC TRAVEL, A REALITY?

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By Karla GĂłmez

he human being is curious by nature and without a doubt when humanity took the first great step towards space travel was an event of considerable importance that opened infinite possibilities. The interest sparked endless questions about the universe and, while looking for planetary travel options in a short time, the question has been raised, Can intergalactic travel be a reality? Although the closest galaxy has already been identified and investigated: "Alpha Centauri", it is still impossible to transport with current technology, as it would take 10 or 100 millennia to reach the galaxy. However, in recent years there has been a possibility to travel in just 20 years, this being a project called: Breakthrough Starshot that is based on the concept of nanocrafts at ultra light speed. The Breakthrough Starshot project consists of sending a space probe that will travel at 20% of the speed of light driven by a "candle" with a beam of light. Although the project seems to have a great support by the scientific community, without a doubt the problems do not hesitate to appear; because, although a beam of light can be pushed by rays from a laser, it is necessary that the "candle" is reflective, very thin and light. But until now the engineers have not been able to find a material capable of possessing such characteristics. And although many consider cosmic shortcuts as a viable option, the truth is that it is almost impossible. So, looking in an objective way, traveling between galaxies can only be a reality if light speed is reached or it goes at a speed close to it. That’s why the intergalactic project has nothing left but to hope for future advances.

Essay


Creative

DIAMOND PLANET By Karla Gómez

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t’s often said that everything is possible. But, of all things possible, could you imagine a planet made out of diamonds? Well, a planet like that actually exists and it is called “55 Cancri e”. We will now tell you all about it. \What are the characteristics of a planet like this? First, one hemisphere is completely dark, while in the other is always day and it overflows lava constantly. This extrasolar planet is located on the Cancer constellation, it doubles the size of Earth and because it is close to its sun, it only takes 18 hours for a year to pass! 55 Cancri e is a whole mystery, since it has a huge difference of heat between its two hemispheres, the atmosphere looks like it has vanished. Just to make a picture of the temperature situation; Venus as the hottest planet of the Solar System reaches up to 467 Celsius, while the temperatures of 55 Cancri e go from 1, 100 Celcius up to 2, 500. But why does the planet is called ‘Diamond planet’? Well, as a cause of the temperatures and pressure of the exoplanet, it is believed that a large amount of the carbon in the planet is present in diamond form, thus the origin of its common name.


Extra - Creative

INVENTIONS OF TOMORROW By Karla Gómez

EYEPHONE

Do you always lose your phone? or is it constantly falling and crashing? Then the new EyePhone is just what you need. Scientists are currently developing this new kind of phone, different to anything seen before. It’s an eye implant that projects an hologram before you and all you’ll have to do is navigate through the web, anyone could easily find information anywhere. And, with the current timeline of phones, this inventions could be nearer that what we think.

FORWARD MACHINE

If you think that an eye implant is maybe too much, then a classical invention thought out of science fiction movies like a time machine could be just what you need. Inventors have the basics to easily design a time machine; but the main problem is the paradoxes, a constant thing in all movies, novels and TV series. That’s why the difference with this machine is that it will only move forward on the timeline. You may ask, how will I return if I just move forward? Well, researchers think that by moving forward, eventually time will start all over again and you’ll return to your time. Still, it could be very dangerous, as nobody knows what the future holds.

THE NEURONAL HAT

Maybe you feel like your intelligence is not enough and then this hat could be what you need. Using intensive magnetism activity the neuronal hat insentivates the cognitive part of the brain making anyone, even a monkey, as smart as the most famous scientists ever existed. But for now, there are investigations going on about the capability of the brain to make this possible.


Q: Why don’t aliens eat clowns? A: Because they taste funny! Karla Gómez AD


Interview

A SHOOTINGSTAR

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stronaut Sofía Ruiz

By Montserrat Richarte

Sofía Ruiz is the first teenager in the whole world to be on space. At a short age of 17 Sofía has demonstrated that age is not an obstacle to reach your dreams and travel where no other human of her age have reach.

What the first impression that you have of your mission?

I think it was all a dream. The view was impressive, I feel that finally all my work and practicing, would be worth it.

How it does it feels to be first 17 year old teenager to be on space?

It's pretty amazing that I broke all kind of fronteers.It is a big step for teenagers all around the world. I just wanna be an example that age is not a limit for reaching your craziest dreams.

What was the biggest obstacle you needed to get through?

Principal for me was sleeping sometimes I only slept 4 hours per day and it was hard because my day started at 4 am and ended at 1 am.Most important being apart of my family too.Finally prejudices most people consider that I wasn't good enough or that I didn't have what I need to.

What you think is your biggest quality that lead you to be an astronaut? Persistence, I was rejected 8 times but I knew that I could be the greatest astronaut in the world so I continue preparing and studying more. Also even in training sometimes I fail the simulations but it couldn't stop me for what i want it to be.

What you think is your biggest quality that lead you to be an astronaut? Since my childhood my parents taught me to dream big. Many girls want it to be teachers, chefs, veterinarians, but I thought It wasn't enough so I decided to become an astronaut.

What is the message you would like to give to future generations? Follow your dreams no matter what, even if the path its difficult. No matter how many times you failed the most important it's how you get up. Most important


FIRST TELESCOPE I

By Montserrat Richarte t was a fresh afternoon on august, it was really surprising considering we were outside on Mexicali at 7pm.

Mom was not at home, she was with my grandmother and we didn't know when she was to return. My sisters, my father and I were watching the sky with a cooler full of juice and vitamin waters. “Let me show you something”, said my father meanwhile he was getting up his sit, and then he enter to the house. My sisters and I were confused, but we kept watching the sky. I did not know if it was a special night or was only my father's excitement for being outside after many days closed on the house with our A/C on. After a couple of minutes my father shout from the other side of the door “Open it, please!”. My oldest sister followed his order and there was my father standing with a red old huge box he place it on the ground and open it. In the inside it was a big telescope it look old but pretty professional. He pull it out of the box and extend the tripod. ”On one of our dates, I took your mother to a park and decided to show her the most precious object that I have; my telescope. The last gift that your grandparent gave to me. I was trying to impress your mom, that day it was especial, a pretty strange asteroid was passing through the earth and I want it to share it with a special person.” As soon as my dad finished talking, we quickly knew why he was trying to tell us, and as fast as we could we tried to see through the telescope. “I haven't seen such a precious view since that day” said my father. Mom suddenly came of the door and said: “Oh my god, you still have it “ and quickly approach to watch the asteroid. “I'm glad that I have once again the opportunity to share this moment with the people I love the most”.

Nostalgic


Extra - Creative Landscapes

NEW HORIZONS By Montserrat Richarte

Hubble Legacy Field image capture space history since 1990. This picture was put together by NASA just 200,00 galaxies on a mosaic. This is the largest and complete view on history and even though it continues being only a smart part of our gigantic universe. Hubble Telescope use more than a thousand of program to create this image.


Extra - Creative Landscapes

NEW HORIZONS By Montserrat Richarte

Supernova, with its pulsar (glowing trail). A supernova is a explosion of a star, and it is the biggest explosion on space and one of its characteristics is the majesty on the magnitude and beauty of them. Because the explosion of colors and light that makes it a singular and epic phenomenon.

“Pericolo� means danger in Italian and is the second closest galaxy to our galaxy. Pericolo was discovered by Italians astronomers on 2010. NASA astrophysicists believe that in 5.5 million of years, Pericolo will crash with the Milky Way and in a process of a billion year will form a new galaxy.


Extra - Creative Landscapes

NEW HORIZONS By Montserrat Richarte

IN - SOLAR 121, before rising to sun's atmosphere. IN - SOLAR is a spacecraft created by a collision of Americans, Mexicans and Russians engineers. IN-SOLAR mission is to measure and recollect all data of our star as gases, temperature, radio and other elements. In order to predict future activities and know its period of life.

“Pillars of Creation” are a humongous columns of cold gas located on east of Eagle Nebula. The first picture was took by “Hickaru” a Japanese satellite in 1987 and its picture cause a lot excitement on scientific community. Later on 1995 other countries as United States and Germany send their own satellites to appreciate this magnificent view.

Montserrat Richarte Ad


MARS ONE By Montserrat Richarte

A

t the beginning of this century it was fiction, at the beginning of this decade it was only a dream, . april 21 it was only a shot out of 100, 000. “ until

Mars one” is now established as the first permanent human settlement on Mars. Today 6 bold astronauts live in “Mars One”, this colony is the result of many attempts and failures, and getting through very complex situations. Finally, Dr. Hofstadler and his team with its advisers they evaluate, mitigate risks, identify and overcome difficulties step by step presented by the red planet.

Now, this colonizers have 6 weeks on Mars, ““Mars one” structure is divided by 5 divisions: bedrooms, farm, laboratory, garage and conditioning room. But you are not alone, the crew counts with “PM2434” a robot with artificial intelligence that with the help of our team of engineers we created. "PM", as we call him, helps us with our everyday tasks from controlling humidity and temperature of the crops to the maintenance of all the circuits and machinery “ comments Dr.Tsich, astrophysicist. This colony is a success for all humanity, “Mars one” is a global initiative whose goal is to make this everyone’s mission to Mars. After 15 years this initiative is a reality and many of the people involucrate on this mission are celebrating “The biggest step of man”. ““Mars one” opens a new world to us now we can really know of what we really made of and what are we capable of, now let's welcome a new home“, Dr. Hofstadler, astronomer.

News


WHICH STAR CONSTELLATION ARE YOU?

Survey

WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN YOUR LIFE?

a) Learning b) Romance c) Adventure d) Health

WHAT YOU THINK IS YOUR BIGGEST WEAKNESS?

a) I'm impatient b) Too lazy c) I'm very sensitive d) Too impulsive


WHICH STAR CONSTELLATION ARE YOU?

Survey

WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN YOUR LIFE?

a) Learning b) Romance c) Adventure d) Health

WHAT YOU THINK IS YOUR BIGGEST WEAKNESS?

a) I'm impatient b) Too lazy c) I'm very sensitive d) Too impulsive


WHICH STAR CONSTELLATION ARE YOU?

Survey

WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN YOUR LIFE?

a) Learning b) Romance c) Adventure d) Health

WHAT YOU THINK IS YOUR BIGGEST WEAKNESS?

a) I'm impatient b) Too lazy c) I'm very sensitive d) Too impulsive


How to

Materials 2 Plastic bottles of 2 Lt 1 magnifier of 65 mm (diameter) 1 lens of 22 mm (diameter)

Tools Scissors Ruler Tape Hot glue (Optional)

HOW TO CONSTRUCT A TELESCOPE S

By Montserrat Richarte

teps

1. With the scissors cut the upper part of one of the bottles (do not forget to remove the wrap) as shown in the next image. 2. Take the lens and place it in the ring of the bottle, you must place it the most centered possible. Next paste the lens with the tape, make sure to give it a couple of turns to secure it and it does not move. If you are not secure, you can paste it with hot glue. 3. Now take the other plastic bottle and cut the upper and low part of the bottle (do not forget to remove the wrap) only leaving the body and then cut the half of the new battle, procuring that still is one piece . 4. Introduce the second plastic bottle inside the first one and insure it with a lot of tape. 5. Place the magnifier in the biggest side of the new bottle and paste it with tape, make sure to give it a couple of turns if you want to you can remove the handle of the magnifier. 6. At first you will not be able to see it clearly. That means you need to graduate it, increasing or decreasing its length. 7. Now you are ready to go outside and observe the sky with all its wonders.


Movie Review

INTERESTELLAR By Jesús Urquídez

“Christopher Nolan's best film” Robbie Collin, The Telegram.

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ou never know what to expect of Nolan’s cinematography and Interstellar is not the exception. I highly recommend it for all the public, from people who loves space and puzzles to people that likes a good entertainment.

In the movie your brain keeps working trying to link all events and understand how does our world can be safe.This film is a space odyssey that takes place in a near future, where humankind extinction is around the corner. In which a team of astronauts, led by Captain Coop (Matthew McConaughey) with Anne Hathaway as partner, search for a new home for humanity. But betrays and mysteries are the principal plate, and nothing is sure. Coop has faith that his daughter Murph (Jessica Chastain) would solve the mystery, solve the enigma beyond her bookshelf; humanity in hands of a little red hair girl. All the elements of this movie work on harmony and travels you to the depth of space. Music is amazing and deep, beautiful melodies that cause excitement in every moment, I think if there is music on space this is how it would sound, composed by maestre Hans Zwimmer. It features characters that during the film show us their most human part, demonstrating us the weakness of humankind and the never ending fight between moral and science. Starring Matthew McConaughey, with other great artists as Anne Hathaway, Jessica Chastain, Matt Damon, the first actor Michael Caine and more. Every shoot and landscape shown is like a NBC documentary, you can lose yourself in such magnificent views.


News

GRAVITON, A NEW PARTNER OF STANDARD MODEL

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By JesĂşs UrquĂ­dez

hey achieved it, after more than 300 years since Isaac Newton postulated what he believed was gravity with the law of universal gravitation, until it reached the hands of another genius, Albert Einstein who explained that it was a distortion of space and time. But we could never conclude the most basics questions, What is the gravity, where it arises from and what causes it? Now, we have a reliable answer of what it is, thanks to the project Icarus that is an international collaboration between all the nations that are part of the United Nations, with what to date is recorded as the most expensive and largest experiment in the history of the humanity with more than 3 billions of dollars spent in the first year and other 5 billions dollars the next years until the end in 2019. They made it thanks to the deployment of several specialized gravitational waves satellites with a total of 140 positioned in orbit and about 20 in low orbit, they managed to capture for the first time in history the subatomic particles that make up the gravity, the hypothetical particle of the "Graviton" it had been confirmed, concluding that it was what caused the gravity. This is an achievement of more than 30 years of investigation in differents laboratories around the world with a single purpose, find and catch the subatomic particle that makes and control the force of the gravity to give answer to many unknowns questions related with the topic.


Literary Criticism

THE MARTIAN By Jesús Urquídez

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he Martian strives to come across as more than fantasy and answer its big question in earnest, so it necessarily operates within the tight framework of the laws of physics. As a result Watney has his work cut out for him. Generating enough water and food to survive is only the beginning. If he wants to get back to Earth, he’s going to have to do more than tend to his potato garden and wait for his friends at NASA to come and get him. One of the many issues he must confront is that everyone thinks he’s dead.

If watching a brilliant and charismatic scientist invent his way out of a dire situation seems like fun, then The Martian is for you. The majority of the book occurs on the Martian surface and takes the form of Watney’s journal entries. Of course, a feel-good novel about a human stranded on Mars can only end one way, so for all of Watney’s challenges there’s hardly any real suspense. Weir is too obviously invested in answering his question in the affirmative to let his protagonist be “the only human being to have died on Mars.” And that’s OK. Instead of worrying about whether Mark will find a way to survive after the umpteenth disaster nearly kills him, you can relax and enjoy seeing how he does it. I can understand why the constant back-and-forth of “phew, that was close” may seem annoying to some readers, but for me the ride was pure joy. I happily went along with the sorcery and catastrophe, and I couldn’t get enough of Weir’s science experiments.


Interview

D

MASTER1984

r Robert Masters

By Jesús Urquídez

Dr. Robert Masters, is an aerospace engineer, that built MASTER1984, an aircraft that forms part of the new generation that uses the leading technology on aeronautic. He was one of the main leaders that work on the project Mars One, designing the spaceship that took the crew to Mars.

How many people work in the project MASTER1984 It may sound a little absurd but the name of master stands for the 1984 people that worked in the whole project including engineers, astronomers, physics and administrators.

How long it took the designing?

Design was the most important challenge we have to pass through to execute the project. We worked around three years, when we realized we had been working for more than a year and a half, we thought that maybe this dream was too big for us; but as I said to my team, this project is not only for us, is for our family, country and all humanity. Another year half passed quickly and when we finished the design we almost cried as we saw our magnificent creation.

Which was one of the biggest difficulties for the designing of this model? When we started this project we knew that one of our obstacles were how we would make an aircraft that supports all conditions of space and the planet. We thought we would never calculate all possible phenomenons, as creating an almost indestructible structure, sounds scary and impossible. Finally the work and inventive of 1984 persons solve the incognita.

Jesús Urquídez Ad


TRUTHS OR LIES?

Trends

By JesĂşs UrquĂ­dez

QUBIT

Quantum computing is the technology that will evolve and substitute our current devices. Qubit is a system based on the properties of quantum physics. The main difference between technology nowadays and quantum is, the traditional bit can only give two answers, while the Qubit, can have both answers at the same time. So now it's only a matter of time. Let's wait until we see this new revolution of technology and its wonders.

WE NEVER WENT TO THE MOON

Its sounds unbelievable but nowadays there's still people that believe that we didn't landed in moon. Denying more of hundreds of years of investigation. 70% of people interviewed said that they just think that government manipulated this information long time ago. It was only a try of United states government to win the cold war. Even though, they consider that humankind went to the moon, but barely in this century. A few years before it was considered that this theory was possible but scientifics and astronomers deny this theory with evidences. BUYING A HOUSE IN THE MOON

Just a few months ago Mirlan Vratchdeb a billionaire israeli open a new business claiming that he soon will open a human residence in moon. That is why he offers the opportunity to move your family to a new life. The cheapest house in this new residence is about a billion of dollars but it doesn't include the trip to the moon. Another benefit that the billionaire rent is that you will able to choose if you want your new house in a crater.


Historical

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GERMAN V2 By JesĂşs UrquĂ­dez t was october 3rd, 1942 at PeenemĂźnde, Germany. It was a big day for germans, science, and humankind. V2 what the first rocket built by humans that could reach 118 miles in another words the first rocket to reach space. For people around the world this rocket represent death because more than a thousand of them were deliver to attack allied enemies on 1944. Designed by Wernher von Braun, one of the best scientist and rocket engineer on Germany. V2 designed at that time was considered the greatest and most advanced technology. It consisted of a complex rotatory system and supersonic aerodynamics, this characteristics make it reach 5000 mph and convert it in a target very difficult to detect for enemies, that is why it was so deadly. In agreement with different historical sources, Hitler thought it was a waste of money and it was impossible to not see a missile with that speed or sound. Still he supported Von Braun's designs and research, after all V2 became part of the strongest arsenal and the key for many victories for nazis. Ending World War II and the defeat of the nazis, American, British and soviets government look desperate for this technology. Through different missions these countries had the access to know every design and scientist that worked in the creation and construction of V2. After knowing every piece of this rocket and Von Braun on hands of the United States government the construction of rockets began now forming part of its history and the antecedent for the construction of the rocket used on space race and cold war.


By Jose M. Ad


JOKES TO SPACE OUT

Humor

By José Miguel Salazar

SUBMITTED BY: SARAH

SUBMITTED BY: ANNIE

SUBMITTED BY: KASSANDRA

SUBMITTED BY: ERIN

SUBMITTED BY: DEVON

SUBMITTED BY: LULU

SUBMITTED BY: DELANEY

SUBMITTED BY: LEEANN

Q: What kind of music do planets sing? A: Neptune’s!

Q: Why did Venus have to get an air conditioner? A: Because Mercury moved in.

Q: What is a spaceman’s favorite chocolate? A: A mars bar!

Q: Why did the sun go to school? A: To get brighter!

Q: What is an astronaut favorite key on the keyboard? A: The space bar!

Q: Why did the cow go to outer space? A: To visit the milky way.

Q: How do you know when the moon has enough to eat? Q: Where would an astronaut park his space ship? A: When it’s full. A: A parking meteor! Q: what do you call a tick on the moon? A: A Luna-tick

Q: What’s a light-year? A: The same as a regular year, but with less calories. Q: Why did the cow go in the spaceship? A: It wanted to see the mooooooon! SUBMITTED BY: BETHANY

Q: What do planets like to read? A: Comet books!

SUBMITTED BY: PIXEY

Q: Why don’t aliens eat clowns? A: Because they taste funny!

Q: What was the first animal in space? A: The cow that jumped over the moon!


Interview

ASTRONOMER'S LIFE A

By José Miguel Salazar

stronomer Melany Pérez

Melany Perez is a bioengineer with a bachelor's degree in astronomy, who studied at the University of San Diego. She helped developing a system of satellites to capture the first photo of a black hole in history along with her team back at nasa campsite in Cabo Cañaveral. She works at the observatory of San Pedro Mártir from Monday to Friday and has a family waiting for her all weekend outside the city of Ensenada.

How do you feel by living a week far from your family?

It feels really bad waiting to see them until Saturday, but that’s part of the job.

Do you like the environment you work on?

Yes, it’s really cool camping all day and watching the whole Milky Way in the sky.

When was the last time you got astonished by something from work? When we first discover the black hole.

What was your last discovery?

An algorithm to determine trillions of pixels.

Why do you get up every day in the morning and go to work?

Because I love my job.

Can you see yourself 10 years in the future? No, i’m too busy living at the moment. What was your expression when you first looked at the picture of the first black hole taken? I cried.

Can you imagine yourself finding another black hole?

That’s my new goal, we are working on it.


Investigative

WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE SATELLITES THAT STOP WORKING? By José Miguel Salazar

S

ince the beginning of the 20th century the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in other words NASA, and some other space programs like Space X, has been sending satellites to space without stopping and fulfilling space with giant pieces of metal that will then become space trash. This is a problem almost nobody really cares a lot, since people tend to only think of what is happening inside this little tiny beautiful blue planet, but we have another problem than just trash in earth. We are forgetting about the trash on space! It may seem illogic at first since space is endless and throwing trash through it can’t possibly affect us, well, it does affects us. When we send a satellite to space it doesn’t travel really far from earth, the satellite has to be close enough from this orbit so the satellite can be as near from earth as we need. But what happens when the satellite stops working? Does it get back to earth? The answer is no. Satellites that are no longer in use, stay put in earth's orbit, traveling at really high speeds they tend to give several lapses to earth and the bad thing is that it will not stop. There is approximately 17,852 artificial objects in orbit above the Earth, including 1,419 operational satellites. This are tons and tons of trash orbiting in earth’s in the exosphere. But we are not only showing the problem, we are here with an answer: A satellite made for the simple task of collecting trash then throw it out of space atmosphere.


Service

SPACE OUT By José Miguel Salazar

It is known that nowadays kids like to do extreme activities like going to a roller coaster or going to the beach, but what happened to the good old days when the whole family took a day off to visit a really good and educational museum? This is something parents should do with their kids if they are too anxious. This is why we present you a list of the best 8 museums in California.

USS MIDWAY MUSEUM

“An incredible piece of machinery and history, the Midway offers what few other museums can - real insight into life at sea and at war.” This is a nice museum since is at the sea.

THE GETTY CENTER

Is an art museum in California housed on two campuses: the Getty Center and Getty Villa. GRIFFITH OBSERVATORY

The Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los Angeles, California, sitting on the southfacing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles Griffith Park.

DIORAMA-MUSEUM OF BHAGAVAD-GITA

Known as the First American Transcendental Exhibition, is a multimedia art museum located in West Los Angeles, California.

THE NETHERCUTT COLLECTION

Is a multi-storied museum located in Sylmar, California, USA. Its centerpiece is its automobile collection.

CALIFORNIA STATE RAILROAD MUSEUM

Is a museum in the state park system of California, USA. THE WENDE MUSEUM OF THE COLD WAR

Is a collections-based research and education institute that preserves Cold War artifacts and history

NORTON SIMON MUSEUM

Is an art museum located in Pasadena, California, United States.


Essay

KNOW ABOUT SPACE

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By José Miguel Salazar

f life is spread throughout the universe and can survive in the cold and endless space, we can ask ourselves this question. What if life came from outer space? This is what panspermia theory is about. We used to think that life was created here on earth, but now we are not so sure about it. One way to define panspermia is, “the first form of life created in earth, that thing was an alien, we come from aliens”. There are different thoughts about how life begin in Earth but in my opinion, this is the most certain.

Life in other planets.- Science specifically biologists, have constantly proven that humans are destroying Earth every year and life expectancy of humanity hosting Earth it’s in around 200 years. Elon Musk is a business magnate and investor, he is the founder of tesla and SpaceX (Space program in Europe). His dream is to colonize Mars at every cost and has proven that he is much closer than NASA. They have found rocks that were influenced by a natural phenomenon call erosion, consists in rocks that had been polished by rivers, usually these rocks are very softs. There are other variables like satellite pictures of river roads. Many scientists confirm that life came from Mars, a giant meteorite collapse with the surface of Mars sending all the water to outer space since the density of air in mars is pretty low, that causing particles of water going all directions in space along with parasites, some of them landing in earth. There can be life in other planets, and we have the technology to prove it. Every day new investigations and new ideas rise from the ground, and as time goes by every day humanity gets closer to the idea of abandoning this planet. Every time NASA sends rovers to space and the real purpose is to see if we humans can survive there. The Kepler telescope has Identify more than 5 different planets that have similarities with Earth and can be inhabited by humans. They are called Exoplanets (could host alien life). Yet, we are too far from getting there.


Extra - Fun Facts

DID YOU KNOW? By José Miguel Salazar

Almost every human in earth has the ability to learn stuff without even noticing it, but not all of them has the ability to sit on a chair, get a magazine and start learning on their own by reading this exact article. Enjoy. The planet with the most natural satellites it’s Jupiter. There is a natural satellite very similar to Earth’s structure and is a potential future home for us. There is more trash in Earth’s exosphere than here on Earth. Mars has the biggest mountain in the whole solar system and its slope is of 5 degrees. Black holes aren’t stationary and we could come across one without even noticing it. A black hole with the size of a coin, could destroy the entire world and even modify how planets orbit the sun. With the right equipment you could transfer electricity in the air. Putting solar panels in the whole surface of the moon could solve our problem for an endless power source in Earth. One of the biggest problems with green energy source is that we haven’t solved the problem to storage electricity. If you could dive into space, you wouldn’t be able to hear a single fly, because there is no sound in space.

You couldn’t possibly think of owning a space suit just to hang it into your wall because this will cost you no less than 12,000,000.00 dollars. You could probably spin like crazy in a spin wheel but not as crazy like a neutron star, a neutron star can spin 600 times per second.


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Personal Experience

ALIEN ENCOUNTER

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By Patricia Campbell

was in my house, laying on my bed and watching TV, suddenly I heard my dog barking outside. My dog rarely barked, but that night she was barking different from other nights, it sounded like she was scared of something or someone. My family wasn’t home, they were in my uncle’s house so I just went outside to see what was going on. But surely, I wasn’t prepared for what I saw, it was a weird creature. The creature was beige, too skinny and it didn’t look human like to me. After watching it for a few seconds, I finally understood, it was an alien just like in the movies. When I realize that, I ran to my room and hide behind the curtains just to keep watching the creature and see what exactly was it doing to my dog. My dog was scared, and I wanted to help her but I couldn’t. I was a coward hiding behind the curtain and just watching the alien examine her. After a while of watching them in my backyard I finally got the courage to go and get my dog. But when I did, it was too late to act. The alien was abducted by his ship, or how we call those ships: UFO, and took my dog with him. I never saw my dog again and when my family returned I couldn’t even tell them what have happened. Turns out my voice disappeared with the dog and the abominable creature.


Movie Review

STAR WARS, A MOVIE THAT BRINGS THE WORLD TOGETHER

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By Patricia Campbell

ho hasn’t heard about Star Wars? It’s a popular movie now and it has been for at least 30 years, even having theme parks, merchandise and billions of dollars every time they premiere a new movie. Star wars isn’t your normal science fiction movie, it has an amazing story but besides that, everyone can relate to a character from the film and sense what they are sensing at the moment or even feel what they are feeling if that’s the case. You can’t just say which character is the best since everyone is different from one another, even the bad guys are likable characters with an amazing backstory that some people can relate, obviously not under the same conditions that this characters are going through but by some coincidences with stuff that goes on in their lives. One of the many reasons Star Wars is so popular in the whole world is the way it portrays their character not only as sids, rebels or jedis, but because they have feelings too aside from everything they are. This makes impossible to distinguish either they are from different ethnics, countries or just different from everyone else because Star Wars is a movie that integrates the whole universe by their beliefs and not by the way they might look. So now, what are you waiting for? Try to get lost in the amazing world of star wars and don’t be afraid from the dark side, because the force is with you. If you like astronomy and looking for something to watch you should definitely see these movies and even become a fan after a while.


Service

PLACES TO VISIT WHERE TO VISIT IF YOU LIKE ASTRONOMY By Patricia Campbell

Having some trouble searching where to hang out? Even if it’s with friends or with family take a look at these places for astronomy lovers. BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK

This place located in Texas has the less polluted light among the United States. This place is great for a night with your family or friends watching the sky night with approximately 2,000 stars and while you look at it you can enjoy a delicious dinner from places surrounding the park. If you live anywhere near Texas don’t lose this great opportunity.

HAYDEN PLANETARIUM

New York might not be the best place to watch stars, after all there’s a reason for it to be the city of lights. But that doesn’t prevent the city from having a place where astronomy lovers can enjoy a trip around space. Here in Hayden planetarium you can enjoy an IMAX or space show depending on the day. And that’s not all you can check the four universe’s exhibits.

MAUNA KEA OBSERVATORY

Hawaii is a place well known because of the great vacation destination it is, but there are plenty other places to visit while you are there. And one great instance is Mauna Kea Observatory which is located 13,796 feet above sea-level in the Pacific Ocean and thanks to that this place can offer one of the best experiences for astronomy lovers, we suggest you to visit the summit, which is the most popular attraction in Mauna Kea.

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

Europe is known historically by all the inventions they developed during the scientific revolution and here in Greenwich the home of the prime meridian you can enjoy exhibits that this museum features and which place better that here? Where some of the first modern astronomers started developing and presenting theories, laws, formulas we use nowadays. So now astronomy lover, where are you going on vacation?


Interview

ADREAM COME TRUE

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By Patricia Campbell

Stronomer Hugo Hurtado

We had the opportunity to interview one of the youngest astronomers working for NASA, Hugo Hurtado. He was offered an opportunity to work for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration when he was 16, two years ago, he was going through some trouble at the time, after leaving school, but he couldn’t let go that great opportunity, so he took it. And now after all he has lived he is here with us to tell us how is his experience in NASA.

Where your first days working for NASA easy going?

Everything seemed like a dream come true, in every laboratory I could see things I’ve only imagined in my craziest dreams, everything seemed so surreal.

Which was the hardest part?

It wasn’t easy being away from Mexico, from my family and friends wasn’t easy at all. It took me a lot of time to get use to it and I must admit I cried and wanted desperately to go back but then I realized they will support me wherever I go as long as I am happy with it, which I was.

Is your job fulfilling your dreams?

It sure is, since I was little I loves video games so I learned programming to learn a little bit more about them but as I got into it I felt passionate about something useful for the first time and then I combine it with another topic I was interested about, space and the results were more than I expected and now I am here in my dream company living my dream come true.

What are you currently working on?

I am currently working in la rover that will explore Mars substituting the previous one to learn more about our neighbor planet.


Extra - Theories

WHY EARTH ISN’T FLAT? S By Patricia Campbell

ince we are little we are thought that we live on a planet name Earth, that there are other planets beside the one we live in and that our planet has an oblate spheroid shape, we continue learning about what’s outside of our planet and while some people have mind blowing ideas about what could be awaiting for us in space there are others that spent too much time in the internet and don’t question the information that’s being handed to them. For years now, there’s been the idea that Earth is flat, and it’s not wrong to question the information you are given at school, after all we aren’t always right. But people in the internet have made several posts about the Earth being flat and while there are some members that have structured and convincing arguments there are others that are just posting about the Earth being flat to follow a trend, usually with poorly sustained arguments. But even if you have a great argument about the Earth being flat let me tell you that is 100% proven that earth isn’t flat and we are going to show you two irrefutable proofs that you can try easily. 1. A ship sail off the sea When a ship sails, after some time when the ship is far away, it seems like it’s sinking a little and not disappearing in the distance like it would if the Earth was flat. 2. Watch a lunar eclipse In a lunar eclipse when the Sun projects Earth’s shadow you can see that it’s shape is indeed round. Those are just a few easy to proof arguments that Earth isn’t flat, what do you thought after reading them? Do you still think Earth is flat?


Profile

CARL SAGAN

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By Patricia Campbell

arl Sagan was an American astronomer and writer. He wrote several books, being the more famous the Pale Blue dot, the demon-haunted world, contact and the critic’s favorite, “Cosmos”.

All of this books tried to explain theories or laws in the universe, but what makes this author different from the others is that he didn’t make his explanations boring or difficult to read, he did the opposite, drag your attention and makes you want to learn more. Sagan identified the shady regions on mars and the brightest areas in the desert, he was also part of the team that worked in Voyager, space probe launched by NASA in 1977. This and several other experiments he did while working in NASA are what gives this astronomer and writer prestige. At first, he was only well known by astronomers, astronomy students and other people who dedicated their whole life to the study of this field. But as the time went by his books became famous between normal people who had other interest besides astronomy or just wanted to learn something new. Even today, after his dead, he still has a big impact in our society, not only with his books also with the TV series Cosmos, based on his famous book with the same name. His work still inspires young generations thanks to his ability to explain these complex topics. I would like to end this article with a phrase he once said in his book Cosmos and it is still true “Writing is perhaps the greatest of human inventions, binding together people who never knew each other, citizens of distant epochs. Books break the shackles of time. A book is proof that humans are capable of working magic."


Profile for montserrat richarte espinoza

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