The Gilded Times AMERICAN REPORTERS
Immigrants flow in and conquer.
The middle-class of America has diligently worked for decades without the fear of losing the opportunities that they at one time took for granted. However, now that immigration has become a prominent issue in this society, more and more jobs are being given to the immigrants causing the middleclass to slowly sink into the lower-class of America. The middle-class feels that if immigration contin-
Background Information: A Chinese immigrant moved to the U.S. during the gold rush to make money and start a life for his family so that they could come to live here too, but then the act was passed. Dear Editor: Last week you wrote an article about the Chinese Exclu-
ues, their lifestyle will be in danger of being overrun by immigrants from either Southern or Eastern Europe to Asia. The jobs that were once readily available to the people with only few aspirers to said occupations are now becoming a cut-throat competition resorting to the idea of Social Darwinism in the sense of survival of the fittest. This means that the immigrants will fight just as hard, if not harder, than the natives to gain these jobs in hopes of a better life thus resulting in more of a want to learn the trade which could ultimately eliminate the native work force. The immigrants could easily rebut this opinion by saying that they have every right to pursue what they want which is the primary
sion Act, and how it was a great thing and just what our country needs. Really?! You white American have no idea how hard life is! I bet you and your family live in a warm home together and have money to your name. I am a Chinese immigrant. I came here on a ship from my
reason to their moving to America. They believe that they have the ability to start life anew in a new country and quite frankly, they may also think that the middleclass should just stop complaining since this is their country as well and they deserve the same opportunities regardless of being a native or not. Although the immigrants could pose the points of having rights protected by the Constitution and the ability to start life anew, the middle -class should have the upper hand since they are natives and by being born in America, they are true Americans and they should be chosen above the new comers. They are accepting of the protected rights but true nationality should be the deciding
poor town in China. We had no running water, no electricity, and no money. Nothing. It is the definition of poor. I came here during the Gold Rush alone to try and make money for my family so that they could soon move here too in hopes of a brighter future. Then on that
factor between an American and an immigrant. Ultimately, although the immigrants have the protected rights, it should not allow them to begin taking every job they apply for. While this is a major problem for the future of American society, there have been several propositions to this dilemma. It is rumored that a prevention of Asians is underway. The name of the act is supposedly the Chinese Exclusion Act, although no details have been release. Hopefully the success of this act will lead to the passing of several more acts inhibiting the immigration of Europeans as well thus protecting the jobs and the lifestyles of the middle-class.
Inside this issue: LETTER TO THE EDITOR
DEATH IN THE WHITE HOUSE
SEGREGATION RULED LEAGAL
TWEED RULES THE NATION
WOMEN ON THE RISE
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Chinese Banned From American
dreaded day of May 8th this act was passed. This is supposed to be the land of opportunity. I worked so hard, once I didn’t find gold and worked on the railroad. I spent long hours working in the extreme weather conditions for next to nothing. I was alone. All I wanted was for my family to be here in this wonderful place with me, but now that’s not even a possibility. Does it still seem like a perfect thing for our country? America, the land of
On September 19, 1881, President James A. Garfield died as a result to a gunshot wound 11 weeks prior at a Washington railroad station. Charles J. Guiteau, who was rumored to be mentally deranged from his presidential aspirations, was found guilty of murder and thus had to suffer the consequences of his actions, meaning he was hung. As a result of the loss of the 19th president of the United States, his vicepresident, Chester A. Arthur, will assume the position as the Chief of State. The trouble all began 11 weeks prior when President Garfield arrived in a Washington railroad station. A while after the president was sighted at the railroad station, a gunshot was heard and spectators noticed that the president was shot. The
the free, is becoming so over run and corrupt. Does that make you happy? Are you proud of yourselves? I hope not. I hope that once you realize you are making these huge mistakes, you fix them. I hope that when you see how corrupt and wrong people are behaving, you try and patch up the mistakes because I love this country. I love what it stands for. I don’t want to believe that America can’t get out of this funk, because I can’t. So, about your article
culprit of this offense was assumed to be, and later identified as, Charles J. Guiteau. Mr. Guiteau was on the political scene several years prior to the assassination. He claims that this attributed to him being mentally deranged, which could possibly be verified by his office-seeking aspirations. When President Garfield was found dead via the gunshot wound, Guiteau was seized and was reported to say, “I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now President of the United States.” Sources say that soon-to-be-president Arthur was indeed a Stalwart and it is believed that the Stalwart party wanted to possibly gain power through Chester Arthur. When hearing about this turn of events, several prominent industrialists have been
talking about all the positive aspects of the Chinese Exclusion Act, before you write that article, consider the people who it has affected and hurt. Take both sides into consideration, and then really think about it. I am a Chinese immigrant, and this has ruined my life and my family.
Ming Lee Ming Lee
heard praising this new president. They say that because of the limited coverage of federal jobs, they feel that the politicians will have to find a new access to money, and they hope that they will be the answer to this problem. Not only are the industrialists favoring this change, but so are the immigrants. Although the exploitation of these new and naïve workers is evident, they are happy just to have a job and start a new life in this country.
“IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE STALWART PARTY WANTED TO POSSIBLY GAIN POWER THROUGH CHESTER ARTHUR.”
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This year, 1896 the Plessy v. Ferguson case was concluded, and segregation was legally decided to be declared as ‘separate but equal’. Four years ago on June 7th, 1892 Homer Plessey was arrested. He was a small part of a group that had set out to challenge the Louisiana Separate Car Law. They were working to test the constitutionality of this Separate Car Law which stated that blacks and whites had to ride in separate train cars. Soon after this group was formed in 1891, they appointed Albion Tourgée as their legal representative. After testing forced segregation in trains between states, it was found to be unconstitutional by the Louisiana district court. From there the committee went on to test the constitutionality of segregation on railroad cars operating solely with one single state. The committee completed this test using the test subject (the one who would violate the law) as someone who could technically pass as white but had mixed blood. Using this kind of subject would allow Tourgée to be able to question the arbitrariness of the law. A native of south Louisiana who could ‘pass’ as white, Homer Plessy, agreed to be the test subject. The plan involved the railroad conductor and a private detective who were instructed to restrain Plessy until he got himself arrested. When Plessy appeared in court before the Louisiana district court, it was ruled
that a state has the constitutional power to regulate companies operating only within its borders. The Louisiana Separate Car Act was deemed constitutional. The decision of the court was appealed first to the state supreme court in 1893 and then appealed again to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896. By the time the case reached court Tourgée and his fellow committee members had finalized their strategy. They chose to argue the fact that Plessy was denied his equal protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment and that it actually violated the Thirteenth Amendment by bringing about the essential features of slavery by actually holding him there. Unfortunately for Tourgée, eight out of the nine justices were not convinced by his arguments involving the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. They said they were not applicable to the case because the amendments were concerning political equality, not social equality. The law gives blacks political equal rights yes, but socially they were not considered equal at all. However, if one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them on the same plane, so these justices really have no means to what they declared. They cannot deem one race inferior to another. This decision of the court to allow ‘separate but
equal’ has technically legalized segregation within American borders. Under this decision, services, facilities, and public announcements will now be allowed to be separated by race as long as the quality of both groups’ facilities (supposedly) remains equal. By confirming ‘separate but equal’, a lot of responsibility and pressure is placed in to the hands of the states. States will have to guarantee that separate educational programs are truly equal among many terms, including resources, reputation, and other measures. Whether these facilities and programs will truly remain ‘equal’ is doubtful. It’s quite possible that this will simply give the states and whites an excuse to continue discrimination against the blacks. There is certainly a tough war to be fought ahead.
“SEGREGATION WAS LEGALLY DECIDED TO BE DECLARED AS ‘SEPARATE BUT EQUAL’.”
Picture Above: Segregation was suppose to be equal but there was still much discrimination and unfairness towards blacks.
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As many of you know, politics can sometimes become saturated with crooks and thieves, and such is the case today. Burly “Boss” Tweed has corrupted our local government to its core. By bribing politicians and many others he has been able to infiltrate almost every layer of higher authority and has even been able to rig several elections. Doing so has allowed “Boss” Tweed to allegedly make as much as $200 million dollars from our fair city. Boss Tweed has been able to scam the system and maintain power over anyone who tries to oppose him
though money and stature. A newspaper has recently published several stories with evidence revealing all of the corruption caused by Burly “Boss” Tweed. Not to be outdone Boss Tweed bribed the newspaper with $5 million dollars to not publish the story People who have protested publicly against “Boss tweed has found their tax assessments mysteriously raised. A local cartoonist even started to publish very unflattering cartoons railing on the local criminal. The cartoonist, Thomas Nast, has been publishing several political cartoons that depict the criminal
as above the law. Thomas Nast successfully brought the Tweed Ring to the attention of everyday middle class person with his clever cartoons. Tweed was exceptionally angry about this because not only did people who read the news paper learn of his dirty deeds but even illiterate people could look at the cartoons and understand that Boss Tweed was a bad man. The publicity given to the issue by media of all types has successfully brought the Tweed Ring out of the shadows of its operation and into the light of the public.
Picture Above: ‘Boss’ Tweed took advantage of his power and influence and manipulated many people including the government.
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You think a factory worker’s life is hard? You think being a freed slave with new freedoms is hard? Try being a woman. Try being discriminated against everyday as the weaker sex. Because you were born a woman, men want you to fit the role of house cleaner and child bearer. You are good for watching the kids during the day and cleaning the house then cooking the meals, and taking care of your husband’s every whim. You are only smart when it comes to recipes and home-making, and that is the only thing you will do in life. You cannot vote. You have no say. Your dreams of having a career are outrageous. During this day and age, when you think of someone
being suppressed, your thoughts go to an African American freed from slavery or an immigrant who is trying to find opportunity. You don’t automatically think of a woman. This is the largest group of people who are being discriminated against. Not only do you have white women with no rights, but when you move to immigrant women and then to African American women the rights of these people just decrease and diminish. Not all women want to become a homemaker, and they are taking a stand. Women like Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Ida B. Wells were stepping up for the fight of all women. Even organizations such as the National American Woman Suffrage Associa-
tion were formed to try and take a stand. The nation realized how treating the African Americans the way that we had was morally wrong. Now they need to realize how we are treating our women is wrong as well. They are people. The women do everything with little in return. They live monotonous lives, and its time for a change. Women are just as, if not smarter, and its time we use their abilities to better our country. So do you still think being a factory worker or miner is hard? Maybe physically it can be demanding, but in reality its nothing compared to the trials that women face on a day to day basis.
Picture Above: Women march and fight for their rights as human beings equal to men.
“NOT ALL WOMEN WANT TO BECOME A HOMEMAKER, AND THEY ARE TAKING A STAND.”
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A recent rise in immigration is changing the face of America as we know it. Since the early 1850’s more than 5 million European immigrants have set foot in our country and called it their home. They have been able to easily adjust to our ways of life and become successful. The predominantly German, British, and Scandinavian immigrants have been able to adapt easily as farmers and many other occupations that they were familiar with. However, recently in the 1880’s, the areas from which the immigrants pouring into our country come from have shifted more to the southern regions of Europe. We are seeing more and more immigrants from countries like Croatia, Slovakia, Italy, and Poland. A larger majority of than these immigrants than ever before are illiterate and impoverished. The percentage of these poor illiterate immigrants coming into our country is raising yearly and because of this we are seeing the growing existence of cities like “little Italy” and “little Poland”. These cities are large populations of immigrants from other countries that retain much of the culture and language from the motherland countries. These impoverished immigrants, who are now coming in by the thousands daily, prefer to take up already scarce space in factory and other industrial jobs. The large growth in immigrant
population has cause outcry from groups such as the American Protective Association which are against many of the changes that com e with such a demographic fluctuation. Such drastic increase in an immigrant population has resulted in the passing of several laws such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. The percentage of illiterate impoverished immigrants from south Europe is increasing yearly and will exceed 66% within the next decade.
Picture Above: Hundreds and hundreds of immigrants flow through American gates in order to gain wealth and a ‘better life’.
Across 2. The twenty-third president who was only five feet six inches tall. 4. A southern democrat who had to take over and become the seventeen president, when his predecessor was assassinated in a theater. 8. The twenty-fifth president who was elected during the debate over silver vs. gold. 10. The sixteenth president who was in office during the civil war. Down 1. Both the twentysecond and twenty-four president. 3. The ninteenth president who retired after one term and died in 1893. 5. The first president, and a noble leader in revolutionary war. 6. President in 1881 and only served one year because he was assassinated as a result of the corrupt spoils system. 7. The president from 1869-1877, and was a symbol of Union victory.
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Thomas Edward Watson died yesterday, September 26, 1922 of a cerebral hemorrhage in his native state, Georgia. Watson was born in Thomson, Georgia in 1865. Watson from the beginning was a man behind the farmers. He began to support the Farmers' Alliance platform during his years as Congressman, and was elected to the United States House of Representatives as an Alliance Democrat in 1890. The Farmers' Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that began ten years before he was in office in the 1880s. One of the aspirations of the group was to end the unfavorable effects of the croplien system that were affecting the farmers after the Civil War. The Alliance was designed to promote higher product prices through action taken groups of individual farmers. Watson was fully behind this alliance throughout his governmental influential years. While Watson was in Con-
gress, he was the only Southern Alliance Democrat to abandon the Democratic caucus; instead he chose to attend the f i r s t P o p u l i s t Party congressional caucus. At that meeting, he was nominated for Speaker of the House by the eight Western Populist Congressmen. Watson was a crucial part in the founding of the Georgia Populist Party in early 1892. The Populist Party advocated the public ownership of the railroads, steamship lines and telephone and telegraph systems. It also supported the free and unlimited coinage of silver, the abolition of national banks, a system of graduated income tax and the direct election of United States Senators. As a Populist, Watson tried to unite the agrarians across class lines, overcoming racial divides. He also supported the right of African American men to vote. Watson served in the House of Representatives from 1891 until March 1893. After being defeated he re-
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turned to work as a lawyer in Thomson, Georgia. He also served as editor of the People's Party Paper. He was involved with the people as a Governmental official from the Farmers to the African Americans and fully represented all the people. The funeral memorial service will be held in on September 30 in his hometown of Thomson, Georgia at 3pm at a local church. A statue will be built in a local park as a memorial of his service to the farmers and to all the people his hard work benefitted.
Thomas Edward Watson (1865-1922)