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STUDIO AIR

Monica Santoso #550346


TABLE

OF CONTENT A. EOI . I: Case for Innovation A.1. Architecture as Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modeling A.4. Algorithmic Explorations A.5. Conclusion A.6. Learning Outcomes B. EOI . II: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototypes B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Algorithmic Sketches B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes C. Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model C.4. Algorithmic Sketches C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes C.6. References


witness the parameter of architecture, starting from the old renaissance to the futuristic kind of architecture. The trip then inspires me as an emerging architect to strive even more in pursuing this career. In regards with my digital skills, I usually uses adobe software for editing and presentation. Other than that, I have only started to use the Rhino software when I got in the first year for my Virtual Environment class. We were assigned to create a lantern by going through a long research process. To be honest it was quite a challenge that I had to overcome during the very beginning of this path. Yet in the end, I was quite satisfied with the outcome that I achieved. Despite of its trouble, I have enjoyed the process of making the model itself.

INTRODUCTION Hi my name is Monica Santoso and I am currently a third year student studying at The University of Melbourne. I am undertaking the Bachelor of Environment program, majoring in architecture. I am from Indonesia, and I first came to Melbourne right after High School, during the midyear of 2011.

Similarly with this studio air, just by being in this course, I am thrilled to see and eager to learn what this journey has to offer. Although I have never used grasshopper before, but I am looking forward in developing my critical thinking along with widening my software ability in communicating my design ideas.

The opportunity to study abroad has allowed me to explore the diverse culture around me. Growing back in Indonesia, I have been captivated with the various customs and traditions. Likewise with the field that I have chosen to embark. Ever since I was young, I have been fascinated with the world of Art. Their range that varies from visual, literary and performing arts has always intrigued my interest. I believe, architecture extends the combination of those elements. It creates a multiple sense of communication that bring groups together. Along this course, I have been even more grateful to get the chance of taking the summer exchange in Stuttgart, Germany. The trip itself showed me another new range of architecture. It enables me to-

DIGITAL DESIGN

EXPERIENCE


ARCHITECTURE

AS DISCOURSE The idea of architecture as discourse can be interpreted in many different approach. The term discourse itself is generally used to designate a way of communication. Throughout the past two decades, the world of architecture has been greatly intensified. Architecture is a form of art that is inevitable in our daily basis. They highlight the discipline and movement throughout the cities 1. Its alteration of function, scale and complexity seeks its viewers to dig even deeper into its detail, and more of its spatial experience. Without realizing, the world of architecture has merged into our identity. It brings a great influence to our way of living.

‘Nearly everything that encloses space on a scale sufficient for a human being to move in is a building; the term architecture applies only to buildings designed with a view to aesthetic appeal. The good architect requires the sculptor’s and the painter’s modes of vision in addition to his own spatial imagination. Thus architecture is the most comprehensive of all the visual arts and has a right to claim superiority over the others.’

I believe architecture exists as a social expression that bounds multiple groups together. It is not only the view of an architect that matters, but the overall design and critical ideas can travel from the artist to its viewers and from its designer to its users. As a result architecture as discourse is a responsive architecture. It is a movement that is open to more than just one interpretation; a language that not only reflects but constructs social reality3. I am interested to see how cultures and traditions that we hold as an individual could transform in communicating and conveying our design thinking3. As I began to criticize this way of thinking, I realized that architecture is not just about its aesthetic form or an enclosure that provides a mere shelter. The idea of architecture as discourse could be interpreted as a dynamic architecture. As architects do not have a monopoly over architecture. In reference to Jonathan Hill, the world of architecture evolves within various authors and agents such as the architect, user, site and weather. It is a form of art that celebrates the knowledge and practices of social and political values 2.


Louvre Abu Dhabi ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL Abu Dhabi, UAE

“Architecture is about harnessing the will, desire and skills of a handful of people in order to modify a place at a given point in time. architecture is never something you create alone. you always create it somewhere in particular, at the request of one person or several people, but always for everyone to enjoy.” - Jean Nouvel

FIG 1. Elevation of Louvre Abu Dhabi

The architect Ateliers Jean Nouvel planned the Louvre as the centerpiece of Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi. The dome is supported by four points around its perimeter truss. It is 180m wide in diameter and spanned over the cluster of the buildings. The design that commemorates the new tourist and cultural development of the island is so captivating. The idea of having a large shallow dome is to bring forward the perspective of a bridge for global cultures. The patterning within the surface of the dome is to commemorate ‘the lost city that recovered archeologically from the sands’4. This precedents can be applied in developing the gateaway idea of 3D printing. Creating layers of patterns within the computation and experimenting with its materiality by obtaining the stacks of 3D printing method. The building itself inherits the perception of entering a new world. The light and shadows that are associated within the pattern of the dome is intended to create a sense of welcome towards its viewers and users. Aside from its site culture and history, the Louvre Abu Dhabi Museum was also influenced by the exploration of its spatial geography, understanding the site and weather within the tropic area. The design utilizes water as to reflect every part of the buildings delivering the rain of light towards its interior. The Louvre Abu Dhabi is appreciated for understanding every bits of detail, bringing the comfortable microclimate from the wind. The unique and modern movement of design is aim for the user’s spatial experience. This dynamic and responsive architecture re-highlights the notion of architectural authors and agents. It furthermore challenges not only aesthetic form of architecture but also its critical thinking behind its social culture and political view. The building is to service the diverse social system within the society 5.

FIG 2 & 3. Interior of Louvre Abu Dhabi


FIG 4. Exterior of Mercedes Benz Museum

Mercedes Benz Museum UN Studio Stuttgart, Germany

The Mercedes Benz Museum is located in Stuttgart, Germany. It is designed by Dutch architects, UN Studio. Its original concept was depicted through the cloverleaf shape. By using three overlapping circles with the center removed to create a triangular space for atrium 1. The intertwining ramps are spiraling around the three main circles; while the height of the building was essentially used to support the main concept and maximized the space of the building. With the help of computation and generation of technology, the architects and engineers of the Mercedes Benz museum were enabled to execute twisting skeletons of steel and concrete. The design production may fall into a parametric design as it uses 3D modeling to elevate the planning of spaces. The overall structure speaks as a form of movement without any sort of limitation.

FIG 5. Design process of Mercedes Museum

I personally got the chance to visit the museum myself. Once I went inside I could feel an instant change of atmosphere. There’s a contrast between the outside appearance and the spacious interior. The museum doesn’t feel like any other kind of museum. It has a dramatic-surprised effect towards its viewers. As I was exploring the spaces, layers upon layers of its route is full of surprises. The viewers are first brought to the very top floor. From there we follow the long path, that opens up the historical journey of the Mercedes Benz. In a way the layout and design o the building suits perfectly the main proposal. The building is truly the centerpiece of Stuttgart. In response with the gateway project, I would like to create a centerpiece that elevates a contrast atmosphere between the exteriorsurface and its interior.

FIG 6 & 7 . Design process of obtaining cloverleaf concept


COMPUTATIONAL

ARCHITECTURE Computation enhances the performance in architectural world. It explores the ranges of designing, fabricating and constructing. The term computational design has somehow been referred to as ‘just a tool’ in our society6. Nonetheless its qualities ranges. Nowadays, architects have been evolving from manual work to the advance technology of computers and software. Computer and software are used as medium to simplify the norms of drawings precision. The term used in servicing that particular stage is called computerization. It is a stage where designers went on building up the idea of what the final outcome would look like. They elevate its design by conceptualizing the factors of typology, form and existing scenario for the design problem itself.

“Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs. The computational way of working augments the designer’s intellect and allows us to capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings formation.” – Peters, Brady (2013)

While in contrast with that, computation provides a way for designers to manage an even more complex system. It acts as a puzzle making stage, which remove the existing pre conception of typology, site, form and those existing scenarios. It allows designers to undergo a design problem and move towards an unexpected outcome. Computation are useful in understanding building performance. It enables the users to conduce material performance analysis. The benefits of using computation may help us as a designer in attaining a faster timescale of construction. It challenged us as an architect to think critically. It is a design tool that link virtual with physical environment.


Michael Hansmeyer Building Unimaginable Shapes.

What kind of design will we obtain if we free ourselves from experience and education? What does the unseen design looks like? Will it be delightful? Will it intrigue its viewers? Those are questions that challenged Michael Hansmeyer in thinking critically. His talkshow in TED has somehow arouse my thoughts of this computation world. It is interesting to know how simple questions could lead from nothing to everything. The idea of mimicking biology and nature has always been used in developing our thoughts. Nature has always been a greatest architect of form and design. This idea is true. Michael Hansmeyer started his design by generating upon a simple process of folding a paper. Through computation, he then grasps the same concept and turn it into a 3D perspectives. Encoding it through algorithm. ‘Algorithm allows designers to fold million faster with thousands of variations’7

‘Architect can predict the outcome. But through algorithm, there would be unpredictable number of outcomes.’. Computation allows designers to explore various design that could not be obtain by our own hands. Surfaces could intersect themselves and generate numerous forms. One of his greatest work of columns encompass the notion of computation. Columns are depicted as the ideal of beauty and technology. The work of computation does not design the actual form but it commemorates its design process of generating the form. Through trial and error, the information that once was not seen has been uncovered. Layers within layers, it established the property of the surface and produced even more outcomes. The results that have been conducted are very detailed and undrawable as it could only be obtained through algorithm.

Michael Hansmeyer made computation As a designer, computation helps to specify look even simpler. He originally started with the position of the folds while allowing the cube as his base form, and just by allowing designer to control its pattern and folding computation algorithm to fold and refold its ratio. It commemorates the idea of architec- form multiple times, it finally resulted in an ture as an art in multi dimension. By utilizexquisite design of columns. ing the current technology it allows designer to sculpt over the form while at the same The columns are then made through 3D time hinder ourselves from any physical printing. It is made up of layers of thinly slices of ABS plastic that are stack on top of constraints. each other. Steel load are also used inside for its structure. Computation and algorithmic design makes any design possible along with the promising technological development. FIG 8 - 10. Columns Fabrication using layers of ABS Plastic and steel


The technology used in expanding the parameter of the roof design is by integrating the programming language of Rhinoceros. Analyzing the panels in regards with its pattern and fabrication constraints 6. The approach taken is by initiating its maximum mould size, geometric efficiencies and location of its anchor6. The program acts as a language that look after the boundaries of the panels, examining the efficient placement of geometries, extracting its ratio and data. Instead of initiating manual way of cross checking its data, the computation allows a faster route in informing its properties; creating a faster way of fabrication process from its 3D model8.

FIG 11 - Exterior of Arnhem Central

Arnhem Central UN STUDIO Arnhem, Netherlands 1996-2014

FIG.12. Concept of continuity

The design process of Arnhem Central station and master plan project has spanned for over than a decade. The design has undergone ranges of working methods starting from the deep planning principle up to innovating practices. The main proposal started from an observation of transport interchange per day that reached up to 108,800 journeys. The architects were challenged to create a continuous route around the city that accommodating the multiple directions. Nonetheless, now the architects are developing the paneling system of its roof, while at the same time balancing its material, structural and economic factors. The design of the roof could be seen as a continuous roof-wall that encompasses the molding of the panel boundaries. FIG 15. Interior of Arnhem Central

FIG 13-14. Patterning within roof surface and Glass Fiber reinforced concrete panels.


In regards with SANAA’s EPFL Rolex Learning Center, the main structure used in its roofing panel comprises of continuous concrete structure that accommodates 600 people. To carry out the bold-curved concrete surface the architects are encouraged to work with the engineers by utilizing computer simulation in order to find suitable shapes that could balance out its bending stress9. In developing the proposal, SANNA architect tried to forget the exisiting typology and work directly using the computation. Computation program allows the architect to pursue an unexpected outcome. While brief sketching allows the architect to understand and refer back to their main goal-concept11. The other concept that drives SANNA architect to the final design was by understanding the circulation of its users. They created a form based on dynamic interaction. With just the idea of: curvy path creates diverse interaction while straight pathway creates just a crossroad and predicted pattern, the SANNA architect has finalised a natural continuity between theinside and outside. The main structural material that support its structure comprises of steel and wood, while the poured concrete are responsible to bind in the continuous surface. The properties of poured concrete give flexibility in designing a bold surface. It lessens the joineries and the structure would not fail in connection. Design wise, SANAA’S continuous roof structure looks more stable as it fasten the pre structural elements of the wood and steel. Yet Arnhem Central’s roof panels demand more various techniques in securing the glass-fiber reinforced concrete panels.

FIG 16 - 17. EPFL Rolex Learning Center exterior and axonometric view of the exterior

EPFL Rolex Learning Center

SANAA Switzerland 1996-2014


PARAMETRIC

ARCHITECTURE In digital architecture parametric is a type of geometric model whose geometry is a function of a finite set of parameters10. It enables direct editing and transformation of design based on a specific rule. It is a style after modernism that has been introduced for the last decade. Instead of using classical geometrical figures such as rectangles, cylinder, cubes, parameticism enables its architects to widen its boundaries by utilizing splines, nurbs, and subdivs. Parametric design facilitate its users to go beyond the typical way of thinking. Exploring the geometries and shapes that have never been used before; as well as allowing an easy and direct ways of editing a design that may not seem to be possible before10.

““Set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables, known as ‘parameters’” – Weisstein (2003)


Developed through the idea of loose and flowing grid, Toyo Ito then decided to design the Metropolitan Opera House that is situated in Taichung, Taiwan. The fluidity of the forms is suitable in accommodating the various spaces. The architect’s interest for the continuousity design could be seen through his other work of art, such as Tama Art University Library in Hachioji City, as well as the Crematorium in Kakamigahara 1. Some might see continuousity and smoothness as just a mere aesthetic appeal. Yet throughout the precedents that have been analyzed, it is proven that continuousity and fluidity is one of the main characters in enhancing the structural efficiency. The stacks of the animated form depict the idea of infinite gridded spaces. The precedents is chosen for its materiality, that features and celebtrates the succession of its continous form. The surface is generated by rotating the curve through its axis of symmetry. The term ‘sound cave’ is then used to describe the open structure of the shell. The crossroad between the vertical and horizontal elements is to uphold the different arts and artists. The spatial area has contributed in enhancing the unity of the shell. Situated within a park near a high rise area, the architect thus extends the cohesiveness of the interior towards its exterior. The shell is covered with double surface of cement with equal in thickness. Yet the space within the two surfaces is used to withhold the out-of-plane forces 11 . It is interesting to know how this form of monolithic maerial could enahance the continous design without having any disruption within its joinaries of wireframe. FIG 18. 3D Model of Metropolitan Opera House

Metropolitan Opera House TOYO ITO Taichung, Taiwan

FIG 19. Construction of upper levels using concrete and steelframe work

The digital model of the surface is therefore experimented using the Rhino 3D software that has been assisted by Arup’s Advanced Geometry Unit. The advance software helps to visualize the interface. Similarly with the studies done with the continuous roof and wall of the Arnhem Central; the wireframe study model was used to assist the structural software in obtaining the Coons patch, which could furthermore, extends the findings of structural analysis.

FIG 20-22. 3D wireframe model and Exploration of computation.


Archim Menges Porous Cast

IThe research regarding the formation process of diatoms and radiolarian done by Archim Menges, arouse an interest within me. This particular poject was done by utilizing concrete as its main material. Yet the final outcome has again highlight the ability of concrete that are able to work under any kind of forms. The materiality of monolithic comprises of mainly the uniformity and uninterrupted surface of the design. The experiment done by Archim Menges has somehow taught me to be open with any kind of possibilities. With the optimization of computation along with conceptualizing the ideas beyond the standard, the system was developed by focusing on a skeletal framework that explored the ways of casting plaster between the air-filled cushions12.

FIG 23 & 24. Computational Exploration of diatoms project and Final result of materiality


Algorithmic Exploration

LOFTING AND STATE CAPTURE & TRIANGULATION ALGORITHM Week 1

During the first week, the grasshopper tutorial seemed to be quite straightforward. I am still fascinated how this computation enables us as an architect to bring forward an unpredictable outcome. This may look like just a simple lofting and patterning, yet it is the beginning of my computation work.

To be honest, I thought grasshopper software would be unenjoyable, as it demands its users to design based on vectors and plugins, nontheless, through the first few tutorials, I realized that the lofting done in grasshopper has simplified and enhance the editing of my design. Just by starting with a mere cylinder, within seconds, grasshopper enables my design to progressed into another form.

CURVE MENU AND TRANSFORM MENU EXPLORATIWeek 2

The second week’s practice in grasshopper widens my perspective upon how my design could evolve. I could design the supporting form if I choose to embark on the idea of a continuous surface. The layering of the supporting forms has been challenging at first as the curvier the shapes, the more supporting piece there will be, and it often overstack on top of each other. Yet, after playing around with the sliders I then noticed the purpose of this tutorial.


Week 2 Class Tutorial DESIGNING A SOFA

SOFA 1

PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURE WITH GRASSHOPPER Week 2 The tutorial that uses mesh still seem to be kind of challenging, as I can’t figure out how to obtain the 2D meshing in rhino. But through the those tutorials, I could see how simple it is to develop our design by changing its parameter along with its geometric shapes. I tried to create an abstract mesh for the surface, yet I think I still need to work on my computation skills.

In this tutorial, I can finally design something that is functional and noticeable. Utilizing pipes as the based of the form’s components seem to be fascinating. The pattern that came forward from the layering of the pipes set another inspiration upon me. Monolithic may seem to be a continous surface, but I could also apply multiple layers of pattern that could intensify its design and structural aspect.

SOFA 2


CREATING A GRIDSHELL & CLASS TUTORIAL Week 3 The third week’s tutorial is very interesting, as I’d really like to know how the design of the precedent works. The fountain -like precedent that were made out of bendable woods, expands the flexibility of desgining idea. No matter what its design, the computation turns out to be a support that enables its users to achieve the unachievable. Even with this kind of design, I could incorporate monolithic material too.

CLASS TUTORIAL The practice done for the class tutorial seemed to be a failure, as its sphere doesn’t turn out as expected. The one shown in class has somehow broadens the features of design. The computation celeberates any kind of form and geomtries. It allows any kind of size and scale. The practices has again reminded me that htere are no limitation in designing. Especially when incorporating this kind of software as not just a mere tool, but also as a puzzle that needs to be solve.


Conclusion and Learning Outcome

Throughout the first phase of Cas of Innovation, I began to understand what this course has to offer. Last semester when looking at the previous students who were working on their models experiments, I wonder when will I be able to play along those modes and materials. Yet throughout my precedents and research work, I began to understand the meaning of architecture. The idea that it is not just about making something beautiful. Through the Architecture as discourse phase I began to shape my way of thinking regarding Architecture as a dynamic and responsive field that enables its designers to explore the concept beyod the visible boundaries. It challenged the designers to be critical in making their decision, understanding which outcomes are important and need to be refine according to its main purpose and goal.

During the previous studios as well as construction classes, I have always been challenged when it comes to design ideas and critical thinking. I have limited experience with computation and programming. Yet, so far, just by going through this stage of design process, I have come to realization that there’s no such thing as easy and fast route. Everything takes process, and by developing this notion and method, my view regarding architecture has also widen. Reading those recommended articles has open my thoughts towards the architecture world that I have never seen nor heard. By developing my alogrithmic explortion and knowledge, my design approach would be to implement the idea of creating a gateway that depends not only by its instantaneous shock but also enduring ambiguity, the ability to appear every changing and remain as a discourse that are open to interpretation.


Reference

FIG 1. Elevation of Louvre Abu Dhabi, 2013, (http://www.designboom.com/architecture/jean-nouvellouvre-abu-dhabi-under-construction/) FIG 2. Interior of Louvre Abu Dhabi, 2013, (http://www.designboom.com/architecture/jean-nouvel-louvre-abu-dhabi-under-construction/) FIG 3. Interior of Louvre Abu Dhabi, 2013, (http://www.designboom.com/architecture/jean-nouvel-louvre-abu-dhabi-under-construction/) FIG 4. Exterior of Mercedes Benz Museum, 2013, (http://www.unstudio.com/projects/mercedes-benzmuseum) FIG 5. Design process of Mercedes Benz Museum, 2013, (http://www.unstudio.com/projects/mercedesbenz-museum) FIG 6. Design Process of obtaining cloverleaf concept, 2013, (http://www.phaidon.com/agenda/architecture/picture-galleries/2010/october/28/history-in-the-making-highlights-from-the-moma-architectureand-design-departments-collection/?idx=12). FIG 7. Design Process of obtaining cloverleaf concept , 2012, (http://www.schwartz.arch.ethz.ch/Vorlesungen/ParamTE/Dokumente/lecture0.pdf) FIG 8. Columns Fabrication using layers of ABS Plastic and steel, 2013, (http://www.michael-hansmeyer. com/projects/columns.html) FIG 9. Columns Fabrication using layers of ABS Plastic and steel, 2013, (http://www.michael-hansmeyer. com/projects/columns.html) FIG 10. Columns Fabrication using layers of ABS Plastic and steel, 2013, (http://www.michael-hansmeyer. com/projects/columns.html) FIG 11.Exterior of Arnhem Central, 2013, (http://www.unstudio.com/projects/arnhem-central-masterplan). FIG 12. Concept of continuity, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture, Thames & Hudson. FIG 13. Patterning within roof surface, 2013, (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ doi/10.1002/ad.1559/pdf) FIG 14. Glass Fiber reinforced concrete panels, 2013, (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu. au/doi/10.1002/ad.1559/pdf) FIG 15. Interior of Arnhem Central, 2013, (http://www.unstudio.com/projects/arnhem-central-masterplan) FIG 16. EPFL Rolex Learning Center exterior, 2013, (http://www.wallpaper.com/designawards/2011/rolex). FIG 17. Axonometric of the EPFL Rolex Learning Center exterior, 2013, (http://www.wallpaper.com/ designawards/2011/rolex) FIG 18. 3D Model of Metropolitan Opera House, 2013, (http://welldesignedandbuilt.com/page/2/). FIG 19. Construction of upper levels using concrete and steel frame work, 2013, (http://welldesignedandbuilt.com/page/2/). FIG 20. 3D wireframe, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture, Thames & Hudson. FIG 21. Exploration of computation, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture, Thames & Hudson. FIG 22. Exploration of computation, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture, Thames & Hudson. FIG 23. Computational Exploration of diatoms project, 2013, (http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4389). FIG 24. Final result of materiality, 2013, (http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4389).

(1) Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 (2) Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 11 (3) Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 11 (4) Thames & Hudson, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture. (5) Thames & Hudson, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture. (6) Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 - 15 (7) Michael Hansmeyer: Building unimaginable shapes (http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_hansmeyer_ building_unimaginable_shapes.html) (8)Architectural Design, Volume 83, (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/doi/10.1002/ ad.1559/pdf). (9) Lecture by Ryue Nishizawa, SANAA,(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjvDGMMcJqc&list=PL124 6F4AAE28F4604&index=1). (10) Thames & Hudson, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture. (11) Thames & Hudson, 2012, The New Mathematics of Architecture. (12) Porous Cast Material (http://www.achimmenges.net/?cat=292).


CFI 550346 monicasantoso  

Studio A - Part A. Case for Innovation

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