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WATER


NO WATER HAS EVER LEFT THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE 1, 2

1

WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SPACE TRAVEL

2

MAUSER, WOLFRAM, AND KAREN SCHNEIDER. WATER RESOURCES: EFFICIENT, SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE USE. LONDON: HAUS, 2008. PRINT.


EARTH IS THE ONLY PLACE WHERE WATER EXISTS IN THREE STATES SOLID LIQUID GAS

2

MAUSER, WOLFRAM, AND KAREN SCHNEIDER. WATER RESOURCES: EFFICIENT, SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE USE. LONDON: HAUS, 2008. PRINT.


WATER IS

2

PIMENTAL, DAVID. “WATER RESOURCES, AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMEN.” ECOMMONS @ CORNELL. JULY 2004. WEB. SEPT. 2011. <HTTP://ECOMMONS.CORNELL.EDU/BITSTREAM/1813/352/1/PIMENTEL_REPORT_04-1.PDF>.


RENEWABLE, SUSTAINABLE, AND ENDLESS


FINITE

BUT IN TERMS OF THE AMOUNT AVAILABLE PER UNIT TIME IN ANY ONE REGION


97.5% OF WATER ON EARTH IS SALT WATER 2.5% IS FRESHWATER


THIS MUCH WATER


R IS UNDRINKABLE


IF THE SALT IN THE BE REMOVED AND OVER THE EARTH’S IT WOULD FORM A THAN 500 FEET TH HEIGHT OF A 40-ST BUILDING.


E OCEAN COULD SPREAD EVENLY S LAND SURFACE LAYER MORE HICK, ABOUT THE TORY OFFICE


GLACIERS MAKE UP 68.7% OF FRESHWATER


96% OF THE WATER IN ICE IS LOCKED IN 2 MILE THICK GLACIERS


30% OF FRESHWATER IS GROUNDWATE WHICH ACCUMULATES OVER MILLIONS OF YEARS IN UNDERGROUND AQUIFER


GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION VS


S RATE OF RECHARGE


GROUNDWATER CAN TAKE A HUMAN LIFETIME JUST TO TRAVERSE A MILE


SURFACE WATER (LAKES, RIVERS, WETLANDS)

MAKES UP ONLY .4% OF FRESHWATER


67.4% OF FRESH SURFACE WATER IS CONTAINED IN LAKES


LAKES AND RESEVOIRS COMPOSE 2% OF THE EARTH’S LAND AREA


RIVERS MAKE UP ONLY 1.6% OF SURFACE FRESHWATER


RIVER DISCHARGE


E


60% OF THE WORLD’S 227 BIGGEST RIVERS HAVE INTERRUPTED STREAM FLOWS


DUE TO DAMS AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE


AREAS OF HIGH PO


OPULATION


FOLLOW AREAS OF HIGH ANNUAL PRECIPITATION


WHAT'S MISSING?


AREAS WITH LESS THAN 50% POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO

SAFE WATER


>50% SAFE WATER ACCESS + POPULATION


1 IN 8 PEOPLE

LACK ACCESS TO SAFE WATER


THAT’S ABOUT 884 MILLION PEOPLE


OR 2.8X THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES


AN AVERAGE FAUCET RUNS AT ABOUT


4 GALLONS PER MINUTE


THE AVERAGE U.S. CITIZEN USES 151 GALLONS OF WATER PER DAY


CITY OF LOS ANGELES POPULATION 4,094,764


IF 4,094,764 PEOPLE NEED 151 GALLONS A DAY


LOS ANGELES NEEDS TO SUPPLY 600,000,000 GALLONS A DAY


ONE MILLION GALLONS = 50 RESIDENTIAL SWIMMING POOLS


OR THE SAME AS LEAVING THE FAUCET ON AT 4 GALLONS PER MINUTE


FOR 5.5 MONTHS STRAIGHT


600,000,000 GALLONS WOULD BE EQUIVALENT TO SUPPLYING

30,000

RESIDENTIAL SWIMMING POOLS

A DAY


LOS ANGELES IS 48% DEPENDENT ON WATER FROM OUTSIDE SOURCES


MONO LAKE

OWENS LAKE


UP TO 338 MILES AWAY


ONLY 13% OF LOS ANGELES WATER SUPPLY COMES FROM LOCAL GROUNDWATER


GROUNDWATER COLLECTS IN UNDERGROUND AQUIFERS


FROM THE PERCOLATION OF PRECIPITAITON THROUGH SOIL


SO WHAT HAPPENS WHEN


70% OF LOS ANGELES IS DEDICATED TO PAVED SURFACES


PAVED SURFACES ARE NON-PERMEABLE


ONLY 5% OF WATER IN DEVELOPED AREAS IS ABLE TO PERCOLATE


INTO THE AQUIFER TO REPLENISH IT


ONLY 5% OF LOS ANGELES IS OPEN SPACE


THE CITY IS COMPOSED OF 6,500 MILES OF STREETS AND 900 MILES OF ALLEYS


THAT’S ENOUGH ROAD TO DRIVE THE WIDTH OF THE UNITED STATES 2.2X


OR 23,636 ACRES OF PAVEMENT


33

GALLONS MAKE 1 CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE


AN AVERAGE CONCRETE PARKING LOT (1 ACRE) TAKES 53,229 GALLONS TO MAKE


THE SAME PARKING LOT (1 ACRE) CAN COLLECT 27,154 GALLONS FROM


1 INCH OF RAINFALL


OR 1.25

RESIDENTIAL SWIMMING POOLS PER INCH OF RAINFALL COLLECTED


ALL OF LOS ANGELES’ 23,636 ACRES OF PAVEMENT


RECIEVE 638,172,000 GALLONS FROM 1 INCH OF RAINFALL


1 INCH

OF RAINFALL ON THE STREETS OF LOS ANGELES

COULD SUPPLY A DAY’S WORTH OF WATER TO

4,094,764 PEOPLE


1950

INCHES OF RAIN


ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IN L.A. COUNTY

1980

2008


RAINFALL IN LOS ANGELES AVERAGES

15 INCHES PER YEAR


1 ACRE IN 1 YEAR OF AVERAGE RAINFALL IN LOS ANGELES


COLLECTS 407,310 GALLONS OF RAINWATER


1 PARKING LOT FOR 1 YEAR


COLLECTS 20 RESIDENTIAL SWIMMMING POOLS


OR

1 PARKING LOT FOR 1 YEAR


COLLECTS 20 RESIDENTIAL SWIMMMING POOLS

FULL OF URBAN RUNOFF


ALL URBAN RUNOFF TRASH OILS GREASE PESTICIDES (TO NAME A FEW)


FROM NON-PERMEABLE (PAVED) SURFACES IN LOS ANGELES DRAIN STRAIGHT TO THE

OCEAN


LOS ANGELES URBAN RUNOFF TRAVELS THROUGH 1,500 MILES OF UNDERGROUND TUNNELS


THEN DUMPS INTO 1,000 MILES OF OPEN FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS LIKE THE LA RIVER & BALLONA CREEK


AND ON TO

65 OCEAN OUTLETS


ON A DRY DAY 100,000,000 GALLONS FLOW INTO THE BAY


100,000,000 GALLONS PER DAY IS EQUIVALENT TO


3.5 SWIMMING POOLS PER MINUTE


ON A DRY DAY THE AMOUNT OF RUNOFF INTO THE BAY IS

1/6 OF THE AMOUNT NEEDED TO SUPPLY LOS ANGELES’ POPULATION


WHEN IT RAINS THIS FLOW CAN INCREASE 100X OR


10 BILLION GALLONS


THAT’S 16X THE AMOUNT NEEDED TO SUPPLY LOS ANGELES’ POPULATION


WHETHER 100,000,00 GALLONS OR 10 BILLION GALLONS


URBAN RUNOFF IS CONSTANT


DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS THE MOST URBANIZED AREA OF THE CITY


MEANING IT IS A HUGE SOURCE OF URBAN RUNOFF BECAUSE OF IT’S ABUNDANCE OF


PAVED SURFACES


THIS IS THE FINANCIAL DISTRICT


PARKING SURFACES


14 ACRES


5,670,000 GALLONS PER YEAR


OR 283


RESIDENTIAL SWIMMING POOLS


THAT COULD EITHER PERMIATE TO THE AQUIFER OR BE HARVESTED


BUT FOR NOW IT ALL DRAINS UNFILTERED TO THE OCEAN


THESE ARE THE BUILDINGS THAT REACH OVER 500 FEET HIGH


THAT’S 506,515 SQUARE FEET OF 500 FOOT HIGH


SURFACE


OR 11.5 ACRES OF POSSIBILITY


1/3 OF ALL URBAN WATER USE IN CALIFORNIA IS FROM THE COMMERCIAL SECTOR


OFFICES IN CALIFORNIA ACCOUNT FOR 110,463,489,000 GALLONS USE ANNUALLY


THESE ARE THE 10 TALLEST BUILDINGS IN LOS ANGELES


THE TEN TALLEST BUILDINGS MAKE A FOOTPRINT OF 232,394 SQF


OR 5.3 ACRES


5.3 ACRES CAN COLLECT IN A YEAR OF 15” AVERAGE RAINFALL


THE EQUIVALENT OF 6,000 GALLONS A DAY


OR 6,000 GALLONS A DAY


PREVENTED FROM BECOMING URBAN RUNOFF


LOS ANGELES HAS BEEN EXPECTING A 55% INCREASE IN POPULATION FROM 1994-2015


HOW CAN THE EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE ACT TO SUPPORT NEW DEMANDS?


BUILDING TOPS


PARKING LOTS


JUST AS THESE HORIZONTAL SURFACES COLLECT WATER


COULD VERTICAL SURFACES PERFORM SIMILAR?


THROUGH VAPOR COLLECTION


OR RAINWATER CATCHMENT


THE FACADE AREA OF THE TOP TEN TALLEST BUILDINGS IN LA IS ABOUT


20X IT’S INITIAL FOOTPRINT


THE AON CENTER IS 109’X177’ AND 858’ TALL


IT’S TOTAL VERTICAL ACRAGE IS 11.2


IF THE VERTICAL SURFACE COULD STILL CATCH 50% THAT OF THE HORIZONTAL


THAT’S 202,500 GALLONS A YEAR


WITH LOS ANGELES’ CURRENT SKYLINE


THERE’S PLENTY OF ACREAGE IN THE SKY


BUILDINGS WOULD BEGIN TO ACT LIKE THE


SOIL OF THE CITY - WHERE RAINWATER PERCOLATES


AND REPLENISHES THE CITY



Water & Los Angeles_Monica Heiman_Fall 2011